WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon fuel compositions

  1. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  2. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  3. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  5. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  6. Influence of fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of in-service passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan

    The composition of exhaust emissions from eight in-service passenger cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and unleaded petrol (ULP) were measured on a chassis dynamometer at two driving speeds (60 and 80 km h -1) with the aims of evaluating their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and investigating the effects of the type of fuel on vehicle performance, ambient air quality and associated health risks. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most prominent PAHs emitted by both ULP and LPG powered cars. The total emission factors of PAHs from LPG cars were generally lower than (but statistically comparable with) those of ULP cars. Similarly, the total BAP eq of the PAHs emitted by LPG cars were lower than those from ULP cars. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods showed that cars powered by LPG fuel performed better than those powered by ULP fuel in term of PAH levels. The implications of these observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using ULP and LPG fuels are discussed.

  7. Combustion characteristics of thermally stressed hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Colin William

    Liquid propelled propulsion systems, which range from rocket systems to hypersonic scramjet and ramjet engines, require active cooling in order to prevent additional payload requirements. In these systems, the liquid fuel is used as a coolant and is delivered through micro-channels that surround the combustion chambers, nozzles, as well as the exterior surfaces in order to extract heat from these affected areas. During this process, heat exchange occurs through phase change, sensible heat extraction, and endothermic reactions experienced by the liquid fuel. Previous research has demonstrated the significant modifications in fuel composition and changes to the fuel's physical properties that can result from these endothermic reactions. As a next step, we are experimentally investigating the effect that endothermic reactions have on fundamental flame behavior for real hydrocarbon fuels that are used as rocket and jet propellants. To achieve this goal, we have developed a counter-flow flame burner to measure extinction limits of the thermally stressed fuels. The counter-flow flame system is to be coupled with a high pressure reactor, capable of subjecting the fuel to 170 atm and 873 K, effectively simulating the extreme environment that cause the liquid fuel to experience endothermic reactions. The fundamental flame properties of the reacted fuels will be compared to those of unreacted fuels, allowing us to determine the role of endothermic reactions on the combustion behavior of current hydrocarbon jet and rocket propellants. To quantify the change in transport properties and chemical kinetics of the reacting mixture, simultaneous numerical simulations of the reactor portion of the experiment coupled with a counterflow flame simulation are performed using n-heptane and n-dodecane.

  8. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  9. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  12. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  13. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of

  15. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811 K. Results indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700 K. No improvements were obtained when deoxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. Results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, lating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  16. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  17. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  18. HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves for the catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels: nano-ZSM-5 zeolites as the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yu; Jiao, Qingze; Li, Hansheng; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Sun, Kening

    2014-12-01

    A series of HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves (HZM-Ns ( x)) were prepared by employing nano-ZSM-5 zeolites with the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios ( x) of 50, 100 and 150 as the source. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels over the HZM-Ns with n-decane as model was evaluated at atmospheric pressure and 500 °C. The effect of the parent zeolite, mesopore and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure, acidity, and catalytic performance of HZM-Ns was investigated. The HZM-Ns exhibited a skeletal matrix with nano-sized HZSM-5 particles (200-300 nm) with a controllable acidity well dispersed in and microporous-mesoporous hierarchical pores. The mesoporous structure improved the diffusion of the reactants and products in the pores, and the HZSM-5 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the MCM-41 matrix supplied a proper acidity, shorter channels, and a higher specific surface area for reaction. These resulted in a high catalytic activity, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime for n-decane catalytic cracking. The HZM-N (150) exhibited the excellent conversion, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime due to low diffusion resistance, high specific surface area, and appropriate acid distribution and strength, with the increasing SiO2/Al2O3 ratio.

  19. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  20. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthetic terpene production[ED1] represents an energy and carbon-efficient route for hydrocarbon fuel production. Diverse terpene structures also provide the potential to produce next-generation 'drop-in' hydrocarbon fuel molecules. However, it is highly challenging to achieve efficient redire...

  1. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  2. Ceramic Microchannel Development for Compact Fuel Processors of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.-M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doss, E.

    Fuel processing is a bridging technology for faster commercialization of fuel cell system under lack of hydrogen infrastructures. Argonne national laboratory has been developing fuel processing technologies for fuel cell based electric power. We have reported the development of novel catalysts that are active and selective for hydrocarbon reforming reactions. It has been realized, however, that with pellet or conventional honeycomb catalysts, the reforming process is mass transport limited. This paper reports the development of catalyst structures with microchannels that are able to reduce the diffusion resistance and thereby achieve the same production rate within a smaller reactor bed. These microchannel reforming catalysts were prepared and tested with natural gas and gasoline-type fuels in a microreactor (1-cm dia.) at space velocities of up to 250,000 per hour. These catalysts have also been used in engineering-scale reactors (10 kWe, 7-cm dia.) with similar product qualities. Compared to pellet catalysts, the microchannel catalysts enable a nearly 5-fold reduction in catalyst weight and volume.

  3. A device for reforming a hydrocarbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendzi, T.; Ikuo, M.

    1984-03-15

    In order to utilize the heat from the reaction of reforming of a hydrocarbon fuel and the heat scattered from a heater, a design is proposed for a fuel reforming reactor in which the gases entering the reactor first pass inside the reactor along the external wall and are heated by the heat dispersed inside the reactor. Then they go in the opposite direction along a clearance between the interior shell of the reactor and the internal body of the reactor itself with a catalyst (Kt) and a heated electrical cylindrical heater. Then the gases, already heated, go directly into the cavity of the reactor filled with the catalyst where the reforming reaction occurs and then the gases and the vapors of the reformed fuel are discharged, passing through a system of heat exchangers. The layout of such a reactor, which contains a cylindrical shell inside, a cylindrical sleeve coaxial with it and the body of the reactor itself with the heater, is given. A system for attaching the internal sleeve and the body of the reactor to the catalyst is cited. The course of the gases inside the reactor is also given.

  4. Investigation of heat sink of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yong-sheng; LIN Rui-sen

    2005-01-01

    Endothermic hydrocarbon fuels are advanced coolants for high-temperature structures of spacecraft. No data of tested-cooling-ability of endothermic fuels have been broadly discussed in literature. In this work a high-temperature flow calorimeter was designed, and the cooling capacity of six different hydrocarbon fuels were measured. Experimental results showed that these hydrocarbon fuels have capacity for cooling high-temperature structures, and that the cooling capacity of fuel N-1 can reach 3.15 M J/kg, which can nearly satisfy the requirement of thermal management for a Mach 3 cruise aircraft, whose heat sink requirement is about 3.5 M J/kg. The endothermic velocity of hydrocarbon fuels was also measured by the calorimeter.

  5. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV; Haynes, Daniel [Morgantown, WV; Smith, Mark [Morgantown, WV; Spivey, James J [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  7. Response of meiofauna to petroleum hydrocarbon of three fuel oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Badesab, S.

    Oil spills are recurrent problem in marine system. Effects of oil pollution are many. The present paper evaluates the effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbon of three fuel oils on metazoan meiofauna. The results suggest significant variations in the toxic...

  8. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  10. Metabolic engineering for the production of hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hye Mi; Cheon, Seungwoo

    2015-06-01

    Biofuels have been attracting increasing attention to provide a solution to the problems of climate change and our dependence on limited fossil oil. During the last decade, metabolic engineering has been performed to develop superior microorganisms for the production of so called advanced biofuels. Among the advanced biofuels, hydrocarbons possess high-energy content and superior fuel properties to other biofuels, and thus have recently been attracting much research interest. Here we review the recent advances in the microbial production of hydrocarbon fuels together with the metabolic engineering strategies employed to develop their production strains. Strategies employed for the production of long-chain and short-chain hydrocarbons derived from fatty acid metabolism along with the isoprenoid-derived hydrocarbons are reviewed. Also, the current limitations and future prospects in hydrocarbon-based biofuel production are discussed.

  11. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents.

  12. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  13. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  14. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  15. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  16. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro......The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future...... is electrolysis followed by conversion into synthetic hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers. Several types of electrolysers exist. The various types are listed together with a short description of principle and status. It is argued that electrolysis will at least become part of large sustainable energy systems...

  17. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  18. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  19. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  20. Chemical – thermodynamics description of oxidization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Л. Матвєєва

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  In theory it is grounded, that in the process of exploitation because of intensification of oxidizing processes worsening takes place of power properties of fuels, in particular warmth of combustion, due to reduction of thermal effects of reactions of combustion of the oxidized hydrocarbons.

  1. Experimental Study on Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Chin; A.H.Lefebvre

    1992-01-01

    The-thermal stability characteristics of kerosine-type fuels are examined using a heated-tube apparatus which allows independent control of fuel pressure,fuel temperature,tube-wall temperature and fuel flow rate.This method is identified simply as a "constant wall temperature method”,It is different from a previous widely used method ,which is identified as a “Constant heat flux method”,It is a single-pass system.Rate of deposition on the tube walls are measured by weighing the test tube before and after each test.For a fuel temperature of 250℃,it is found that deposition rates increease continuously with increase in tubewall temperature.This finding contradicts the results of previous studies which had led to the conclusion that deposition rates increase with increase in wall temperature up to a certain value(around 650K) beyond which any further increase in wall temperature causes the rate of deposition to decline.The present results show clearly that the constant wall temperature method is more suitable for assessing the thermal stability of gas turbine fuels.

  2. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811K. In addition, the effect of the inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in selected tests which were conducted using nickel-plated tubes. The results of the tests indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700K. No improvements were obtained when de-oxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. The results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, plating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  3. Investigation of bubble-point vapor pressures for mixtures of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiyun Sun; Wenjun Fang; Yongsheng Guo; Ruisen Lin [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Chemistry, Molecular Thermodynamics

    2005-05-01

    Bubble-point vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures for several mixtures with different mass fractions of a kerosene based endothermic hydrocarbon fuel (EHF) and ethanol were measured by comparative ebulliometry with inclined ebulliometers. Correlation between vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures by the Antoine equation was given with satisfactory precision. The bubble-point lines of pressure versus composition at different temperatures and temperature versus composition at different pressures were obtained. The pseudo binary systems of EHF+ethanol appear with very large positive deviations from Raoult's law. It follows that the addition of ethanol had a critical effect on the vapor pressure of fuels. Ethanol may be an effective oxygenated hydrocarbon additive to adjust the volatility of EHF. 17 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  5. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  6. Deposit formation and heat transfer in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to investigate the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of several hydrocarbon fuels under conditions that simulate high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. The rates of carbon deposition in heated copper and nickel-plated copper tubes were determined for RP-1, propane, and natural gas using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect on deposit formation of wall temperature, fuel pressure, and fuel velocity. In addition, the effects of fuel additives and contaminants, cryogenic fuel temperatures, and extended duration testing with intermittent operation were examined. Parametric tests to map the thermal stability characteristics of RP-1, commercial-grade propane, and natural gas were conducted at pressures of 6.9 to 13.8 MPa, bulk fuel velocities of 30 to 90 m/s, and tube wall temperatures in the range of 230 to 810 K. Also, tests were run in which propane and natural gas fuels were chilled to 230 and 160 K, respectively. Corrosion of the copper tube surface was detected for all fuels tested. Plating the inside of the copper tubes with nickel reduced deposit formation and eliminated tube corrosion in most cases. The lowest rates of carbon deposition were obtained for natural gas, and the highest rates were obtained for propane. For all fuels tested, the forced-convection heat transfer film coefficients were satisfactorily correlated using a Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number equation.

  7. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region.

  8. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylarde Christine C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.

  9. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  10. Evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds, including gasoline and diesel fuel, on heated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardad, D.; Ladommatos, N. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was carried out on the evaporation of various hydrocarbon liquids on heated surfaces. Single and multicomponent hydrocarbon compounds were used, including hexane, heptane, octane, a hexane-octane mixture, gasoline and diesel fuel. The heated surface included aluminium, mild steel, cast iron and copper. Tests were also carried out with different surface textures and surface coatings. The motivation for this work was a desire to improve understanding of the evaporation processes taking place in the inlet port and, to a lesser extent, within the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. The hydrocarbon compounds were released on the heated surfaces as individual small droplets, and the subsequent evaporation was recorded using a CCD (charge coupled device) camera. These observations were then used to ascertain the effects of material, surface temperature, surface textures, surface coating and liquid composition on the heat flux and other aspects of droplet behaviour. (Author)

  11. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  12. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating on Hydrocarbon Fuel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One objective is to make structural and compositional changes to the largest electrical resistance element of the cell, the electrolyte. And the second objective is...

  14. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  15. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  16. FUEL COMPOSITION FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J.C.

    1963-08-01

    A process for making refractory nuclear fuel elements involves heating uranium and silicon powders in an inert atmosphere to 1600 to 1800 deg C to form USi/sub 3/; adding silicon carbide, carbon, 15% by weight of nickel and aluminum, and possibly also molybdenum and silicon powders; shaping the mixture; and heating to 1700 to 2050 deg C again in an inert atmosphere. Information on obtaining specific compositions is included. (AEC)

  17. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  18. A sensitivity study on DUPIC fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong

    1997-01-01

    In DUPIC fuel cycle, the spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel is refabricated as a DUPIC fuel by a dry process. Because the spent PWR fuel composition depends on the initial enrichment and burnup condition of PWR fuel, the composition of a DUPIC fuel is not uniquely defined. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing the effects of such a composition heterogeneity on core performance, a composition adjustment of DUPIC fuel was studies. The composition adjustment was made in two steps: mixing two spent PWR fuel assemblies of higher and lower {sup 239}Pu contents and blending in fresh uranium with the mixed spent PWR fuels. Because the fuel and core performances depend on both the absolute amount of fissile isotopes and the ratio of major fissile isotope contents, a parametric study was performed to determine the reference compositions of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. The reference enrichments of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu were determined such that the DUPIC core performance is comparable to that of a natural uranium core with high spent PWR fuel utilization and low fuel cycle cost. Under this condition, it is possible to utilize 90% of spent PWR fuels as the DUPIC fuel formula. On average, the amounts of slightly enriched and depleted uranium used for blending correspond to 8.6% and 10.6%, respectively, of the mass of candidate spent PWR fuels. (author). 16 refs., 30 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Microchennel development for autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.-M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doss, E.

    Fuel-processing is a bridging technology to assist the commercialization of fuel cell systems in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure. The Argonne National Laboratory has been developing fuel-processing technologies for fuel cells, and has reported the development of novel catalysts that are active and selective for hydrocarbon-reforming reactions. It has been realized, however, that with pellets or conventional honeycomb catalysts, the reforming process is mass-transport limited. This study addresses the development of catalysts structures with microchannels that are able to reduce the diffusion resistance and, thereby, achieve the same production rate within a smaller reactor bed. The microchannel reforming catalysts are prepared and tested with natural gas and gasoline-type fuels in a microreactor (diameter: 1 cm) at space velocities of up to 250 000 h -1. The catalysts have also been used in engineering-scale reactors (10 kWe; diameter: 7 cm) with similar product qualities. Compared with pellet catalysts, the microchannel catalysts offer a nearly five-fold reduction in catalyst weight and volume.

  20. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  1. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  2. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2014-01-28

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  3. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2013-08-13

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  4. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  5. Endothermic Heat-Sink of Hydrocarbon Fuels for Scramjet Cooling AIAA 2002-3871

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, H

    2002-01-01

    Storable liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as JP-7, JP-8+ 100, and JP-10, that can undergo endothermic reactions may provide sufficient heat sink to enable hypersonic flight without having to resort to cryogenic fuels...

  6. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  7. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  8. Development of direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Steven

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) that can operate with hydrocarbon fuels without the need for pre-reforming. The design of an active SOFC anode requires the consideration of a number of factors including the catalytic activity of the electrode towards fuel oxidation and electronic conductivity. This work focuses on a novel system for anode fabrication that allows the catalytically active and electronically conducting components of the anode to be easily varied. The catalytic properties of the SOFC anode were examined and a strong link between SOFC performance and oxidation activity demonstrated. Of the rare-earth catalysts investigated ceria was found to have the highest activity leading to the highest fuel cell power density. This activity was further improved, especially for methane fuel, by doping with a precious metal. Furthermore, it was shown that the catalyst not only increased the rate of reaction but increased the cell Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV) suggesting a change in mechanism that increased the cell efficiency. The necessity for high electronic conductivity and connectivity in the electrode was elucidated by studying the impact of anode copper content on cell performance. Low copper loading led to reduced cell performance due to a lack of conductive pathways from the active electrode region to the external circuit. It was observed that additional conductivity was provided by a thermally deposited carbonaceous phase formed upon exposure to hydrocarbon fuels. The electrochemical characterization of SOFC electrodes is a non-trivial problem. Literature reports on the properties of similar electrodes are inconsistent and often contradictory. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, significant problems were found with common experimental procedures used to separate the losses associated the cell cathode from those of the anode. By calculating the effect of test geometry on this separation, it

  9. How copper catalyzes the electroreduction of carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels.......Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels....

  10. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  11. A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria Chimica; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-03

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

  12. Research of some marks contemporary hydrocarbon fuel surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Бойченко

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The  surface  tension  of  some  marks  domestic  and  foreign  gasoline’s  and  jet  fuels  is  investigated  depending  on  distillation. Dependences  of  surface  tension,  composition,  boiling  points  liquid  fuel  experimentally  are  received.

  13. Recycling Carbon Dioxide into Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels: Electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher Ronald

    -electrolysis of CO2 and H2O to produce syngas (CO/H2 mixture) is identified as a promising method. High temperature electrolysis makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high reaction rates, and the syngas produced can be catalytically converted to hydrocarbons in well-known fuel synthesis reactors (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch). The experimental studies of high temperature electrolysis are made at different scales -- at the cell level, electrode level, and in materials and microstructure development. The results include cell performance and durability, insight into electrode reaction mechanisms, and new high-performance electrode materials. The experimental studies make extensive use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and systematic variation of test conditions to examine the electrochemical phenomena. Variation of the material composition itself within families of related materials was an additional parameter used in the electrode level and materials studies that revealed more information than studying a single material would have. Using full cells, the performance and durability of a solid oxide cell applied for co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O was investigated. High initial performance was observed but the long-term durability needs to be improved. Based on these results, an analysis of the energy balance and economics of an electrolysis-based synthetic fuel production process, including CO2 air capture and Fischer-Tropsch fuel synthesis, determined that the system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis) and that the price of electricity needed to produce competitive synthetic gasoline (at USD2/gal, or 0.53/L, wholesale) is 2-3 U.S. cents per kWh. For 3/gal (0.78/L) gasoline, 4-5 cents per kWh is needed. Fuel production may already be economical in some regions that have inexpensive renewable electricity, such as Iceland. The dominant costs of the process are the

  14. Radical recombination in a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the radical recombination process in the scramjet nozzle flow and study the effects of various factors of the recombination, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO schemes are applied to solve the decoupled two-dimensional Euler equations with chemical reactions to simulate the hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow. The accuracy of the numerical method is verified with the measurements obtained by a shock tunnel experiment. The overall model length is nearly 0.5 m, with inlet static temperatures ranging from 2000 K to 3000 K, inlet static pressures ranging from 75 kPa to 175 kPa, and inlet Mach numbers of 2.0 ± 0.4 are involved. The fraction Damkohler number is defined as functions of static temperature and pressure to analyze the radical recombination progresses. Preliminary results indicate that the energy releasing process depends on different chemical reaction processes and species group contributions. In hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow, reactions with H have the greatest contribution during the chemical equilibrium shift. The contrast and analysis of the simulation results show that the radical recombination processes influenced by inflow conditions and nozzle scales are consistent with Damkohler numbers and potential dissociation energy release. The increase of inlet static temperature improves both of them, thus making the chemical non-equilibrium effects on the nozzle performance more significant. While the increase of inlet static pressure improves the former one and reduces the latter, it exerts little influence on the chemical non-equilibrium effects.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-01

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  16. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  17. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  18. A highly combustible composite solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.

    1983-07-12

    To increase the combustibility, the briqueted solid fuel is coated with an auxiliary fuel which is characterized by high flamability. The composition ofthe basic fuel includes a solid fuel with a high combustion temperature and seeming density (mineral coal, activated charcoal, coke, graphite and a carbonized product), a desulfurizing agent (CaCO3 or MgO), a combustion promotor (Ca(CO3)2, KNO3, sodium acetate, iron oxalate) and forming additives (bentonite, clay or talc) or a binder (pitch, tar, methylcellulose or cement). The auxiliary fuel has the very same composition, but is characterized by a low ignition temperature and density (for instance, due to the addition of sawdust). The obtained two layer composite fuel is characterized by improved ignitibility and combustibility.

  19. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  20. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  1. Volatile Fuel Hydrocarbons and MTBE in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I. M.; Baehr, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons that result from petroleum products such as oil, gasoline, or diesel fuel) are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. Volatile hydrocarbons are the lighter fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons and, together with fuel oxygenates, are most often released from crude oil and liquid petroleum products produced from crude oil. The demand for crude oil stems from the world's ever-growing energy need. From 1970 to 1999, primary energy production of the world grew by 76% (Energy Information Administration, 2001), with fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) accounting for ˜85% of all energy produced worldwide (Figure 1). World crude oil production reached a record 68 million barrels (bbl) per day (1.08×1010 L d-1) in 2000. The world's dependence on oil as an energy source clearly is identified as contributing to global warming and worsening air and water quality. (7K)Figure 1. World primary energy production by source from 1970 to 1999 (Energy Information Administration, 2001). Petroleum products are present in Earth's subsurface as solids, liquids, or gases. This chapter presents a summary of the environmental problems and issues related to the use of liquid petroleum, or oil. The focus is on the sources of volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates and the geochemical behavior of these compounds when they are released into the environment. Although oxygenates currently in commercial use include compounds other than methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), such as ethanol (ETOH), most of the information presented here focuses on MTBE because of its widespread occurrence. The environmental impact of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons that also originate from petroleum products is described in (Chapter 9.13, Abrajano et al.).Crude oil occurs within the Earth and is a complex mixture of natural compounds composed largely of hydrocarbons containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms. The minor

  2. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements. PMID:27330248

  3. Characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈平

    1995-01-01

    Light hydrocarbons named in the present paper refer to the natural gas-associated light oil and condensate 46 light oil and condensate samples from 11 oil-bearing basins of China were collected and their carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions were analysed in terms of their total hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons and a part of aromatic fractions, and gas-source materials and their sedimentary environments were discussed based on the above-mentioned data and the geological background of each area. From the view of carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of total hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbons, it is revealed that the condensate related to coal-bearing strata is enriched in 13C and D while that related to the source material of type I-II is enriched in 12C. In general, the isotopic composition of carbon is mainly attributed to the inheriting effect of their source materials, whereas that of hydrogen principally reflects the correlationship between hydrogen isotopes and the sedimentary envi

  4. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  5. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 January 2016 - 31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  6. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H [Morgantown, WV; Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  7. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  8. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

    2004-01-01

    The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis

  10. Analysis of hydrocarbon fuel properties by means of Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Martin W.

    The project is focused on the determination of Raman spectra of hydrocarbon fuel samples using a spectrometer employing a silicon linear array detector which has a spectral range of 400 nm to 1.1 mum. The spectra are processed using chemometric techniques in order to determine the concentrations of the tracked blend components and analytical values that are used to ensure that desired specifications are achieved. The verification is based on the American Standard Testing Methods procedures for the determination of the motor, research, and road octane numbers, simulated distillation and Reid vapour pressure. Blending is one of the most important steps in the final production of hydrocarbon fuels; as many as ten complex components are mixed to achieve the desired properties of the final product. Traditionally, blending relies on well-established analytical methods such as gas chromatography for component and simulated distillation analysis, knock engines and near infrared spectroscopy for octane analysis. All of these methods are reliable and accurate, but their results are not available in real time but rather with a substantial delay, since it is in the nature of the methods that the sample must be transported from a test site to the site where the instrument is located. Additional time is required for performing the analytical procedure; e.g. the results of a gas chromatography analysis are only available from minutes to hours after the sample has been introduced into the instrument. Consequently, the results, although accurate, become only available after the process of blending has been completed. The thesis describes an implementation of a Raman spectroscopic method, which is novel in the given context, since it allows monitoring and control of the blending process online, in real time. A Raman spectrometer was designed, using a solid state laser for excitation (785 nm, 800 mW), a blazed grating for the diffraction (600 lines-per-millimeter, 750 nm blaze, 635

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  12. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10 June 2016 - 27 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...The Johns Hopkins University Energetics Research Group (JHU/ERG), Columbia, MD and University of Washington, Seattle, WA 14. ABSTRACT Ensuring fuel ...is a common requirement for aircraft, rockets, and hypersonic vehicles. The Aerospace Fuels Quality Test and Model Development (AFQTMoDev) project

  13. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  14. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, D.M.; Cappiello, M.W.; Marr, D.R.; Omberg, R.P.

    1980-11-25

    A core and composite fuel assembly are described for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  15. Characterization of cyanobacterial hydrocarbon composition and distribution of biosynthetic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cameron Coates

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to naturally produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. Hydrocarbon compositions of thirty-two strains of cyanobacteria were characterized to reveal novel structural features and insights into hydrocarbon biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. This investigation revealed new double bond (2- and 3-heptadecene and methyl group positions (3-, 4- and 5-methylheptadecane for a variety of strains. Additionally, results from this study and literature reports indicate that hydrocarbon production is a universal phenomenon in cyanobacteria. All cyanobacteria possess the capacity to produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids yet not all accomplish this through the same metabolic pathway. One pathway comprises a two-step conversion of fatty acids first to fatty aldehydes and then alkanes that involves a fatty acyl ACP reductase (FAAR and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO. The second involves a polyketide synthase (PKS pathway that first elongates the acyl chain followed by decarboxylation to produce a terminal alkene (olefin synthase, OLS. Sixty-one strains possessing the FAAR/ADO pathway and twelve strains possessing the OLS pathway were newly identified through bioinformatic analyses. Strains possessing the OLS pathway formed a cohesive phylogenetic clade with the exception of three Moorea strains and Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 6406 which may have acquired the OLS pathway via horizontal gene transfer. Hydrocarbon pathways were identified in one-hundred-forty-two strains of cyanobacteria over a broad phylogenetic range and there were no instances where both the FAAR/ADO and the OLS pathways were found together in the same genome, suggesting an unknown selective pressure maintains one or the other pathway, but not both.

  16. The new additive to improve the stability of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.О. Чугуй

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The antimicrobial PGMG is offered as biocyde additive for defence of aviation fuels from microbial contamination. The bactericidal concentrations of PGMG are set up for some bacteria separate from a contamination fuel. Influencing of bringing of different concentrations of PGMG in different solvents on the high-quality indexes of fuel is studied.

  17. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  18. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  19. Composite nozzle design for reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, G.R.; Allison, D.K.

    1984-01-24

    A composite nozzle is described for a fuel assembly adapted for installation on the upper or lower end thereof and which is constructed from two components. The first component includes a casting weldment or forging designed to carry handling loads, support fuel assembly weight and flow loads, and interface with structural members of both the fuel assembly and reactor internal structures. The second component of the nozzle consists of a thin stamped bore machine flow plate adapted for attachment to the casting body. The plate is designed to prevent fuel rods from being ejected from the core and provide orifices for coolant flow to a predetermined value and pressure drop which is consistent with the flow at other locations in the core.

  20. Multifractal analysis of slacken surface in hydrocarbon molecules through fuel additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arockia Prabakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of organic fuel additives (Bio-Glycerol on fuel savings, emission reduction and extend engine life. Using this enzyme, a motor cycle is tested five times. The test report shows the reduction in the release of carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon upto 60%. The use of organic fuel additives in diesel vehicles for different periods of time reveals the reduction in air pollution by 55%. Finally, we have experimented scanning electron microscope (SEM test for organic fuel additives with biodiesel. The SEM image shows the existence of molecules of hydrocarbons. The analysis elucidated the complex morphology of molecules of hydrocarbons in fuel additives with biodiesel. The hydrocarbon molecules are slackened and irregular as it refers to the fractal form. SEM Photograph images are analyzed by multifractal analysis. MFA (multifractal analysis is carried out according to the method of moments, i.e., the probability distribution is estimated for moments which differ from -150

  1. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon o

  2. The relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle hydrocarbon emissions: a review of current studies and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetzle, D; Siegl, W O; Jensen, T E; Dearth, M A; Kaiser, E W; Gorse, R; Kreucher, W; Kulik, E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current studies concerning the relationship of fuel composition to vehicle engine-out and tail-pipe emissions and to outline future research needed in this area. A number of recent combustion experiments and vehicle studies demonstrated that reformulated gasoline can reduce vehicle engine-out, tail-pipe, running-loss, and evaporative emissions. Some of these studies were extended to understand the fundamental relationships between fuel composition and emissions. To further establish these relationships, it was necessary to develop advanced analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons in fuels and vehicle emissions. The development of real-time techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser diode spectroscopy, and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry were useful in studying the transient behavior of exhaust emissions under various engine operating conditions. Laboratory studies using specific fuels and fuel blends were carried out using pulse flame combustors, single- and multicylinder engines, and vehicle fleets. Chemometric statistical methods were used to analyze the large volumes of emissions data generated from these studies. Models were developed that were able to accurately predict tail-pipe emissions from fuel chemical and physical compositional data. Some of the primary fuel precursors for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and C2-C4 alkene emissions are described. These studies demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between gasoline composition and tail-pipe emissions. PMID:7529705

  3. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  4. Fuel supply of direct carbon fuel cells via thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons inside a porous Ni anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Hak Gyu; Li, Cheng Guo; Jalalabadi, Tahereh; Lee, Dong Geun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study offers a novel method for improving the physical contact between the anode and fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC): a direct generation of carbon in a porous Ni anode through the thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons. Three kinds of alkane hydrocarbons with different carbon numbers (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8) are tested. From electron microscope observations of the carbon particles generated from each hydrocarbon, we confirm that more carbon spheres (CS), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were identified with increasing carbon number. Raman scattering results revealed that the carbon samples became less crystalline and more flexible with increasing carbon number. DCFC performance was measured at 700 degree Celsius with the anode fueled by the same mass of each carbon sample. One-dimensional carbon fuels of CNT and CNF more actively produced and had power densities 148 and 210 times higher than that of the CS, respectively. This difference is partly attributed to the findings that the less-crystalline CNT and CNF have much lower charge transfer resistances than the CS.

  5. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  6. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  7. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  8. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  9. Microplasma reforming of hydrocarbons for fuel cell power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, R. S.; Lindner, P. J.

    The implementation of a microplasma approach for small scale reforming processes is explored as an alternative to more standard catalyst-based processes. Plasmas are a known approach to activating a chemical reaction in place of catalysts, and microplasmas are particularly attractive owing to their extremely high electron and power densities. Their inherent compactness gives them appeal for portable applications, but their modularity leads to scalability for higher capacity. We describe the realization of experimental microplasma reactors based on the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) structure by silicon micromachining for device fabrication. Experiments were carried out with model hydrocarbons methane and butane in the reactors within a microfluidic flow and analytical setup. We observe several key phenomena, including the ability to liberate hydrogen from the hydrocarbons at temperatures near ambient and sub-Watt input power levels, the tendency toward hydrocarbon decomposition rather than oxidation even in the presence of oxygen, and the need for a neutral carrier to obtain conversion. Mass and energy balances on these experiments revealed conversions up to nearly 50%, but the conversion of electrical power input to chemical reaction enthalpy was only on the order of 1%. These initial, exploratory results were recorded with devices and at process settings without optimization, and are hence promising for an emerging, catalyst-free reforming approach.

  10. Composition of the saturated hydrocarbons from males, females, and eggs of the millipede, Graphidostreptus tumuliporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    The total hydrocarbons of the millipede Graphidostreptus tumuliporus contain 10 per cent saturated components. The composition of the saturated hydrocarbons from males, females, and eggs is reported. Straight-chain alkanes (n-C15–n-C36) constitute 59 to 75 per cent of the saturated hydrocarbons

  11. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with thermal efficiency is

  12. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    . The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what......) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high...

  13. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is reported herein. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. The work was done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in.) to 55.9 cm (22 in.). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by 'reaming' each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  14. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is examined. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. Experiments were done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in) to 55.9 cm (22 in). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by reaming each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  15. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  16. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  17. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  18. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Pavitran

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-speed diesel, a slow process, is attributed to an overall combinedeffect of physico-chemical and biological processes which take months for complete dispersion.History of marine oil spill bioremediation indicates limited laboratory studies. But experiencesfrom various oil spill management and field trials indicate important role of bioremediation, where,biodegradation of hydrocarbons through microbial mediators plays a major role in pollutant oildispersion. These microbial mediators such as bioemulsifiers and fimbrae, help in emulsification,dispersion, allowing attachment of bacteria to oil layers, followed by substrate-specific enzymaticbiodegradation in water.

  19. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ort, Donald R; Yuan, Joshua S

    2015-02-01

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced 'drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to 'disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  20. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  1. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  2. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2014-01-01

    The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identif...

  3. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  4. [Humus composition of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Dou, Sen

    2008-05-01

    An abandoned petroleum well which had been exploited for about twenty years in Songyuan city of Jilin Province, China, was selected to study the compositions and characteristics of soil humus using revised humus composition method and Simon-Kumada method. Soil samples were collected at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 10.5 m apart from the well head. Results show that the petroleum contents increase from 0.08 g/kg (10.5 m to the well head) to 153.3 g/kg (0.5 m to the well head). With the increase in petroleum content, the contents of soil organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon increase; for total soil humus, the contents of extractable humus (HE) and humic acid (HA) decrease whereas that of humin (HM) increase; the percentage of HA/HE (PQ 72.0%-8.05%) decrease and HM/HE ratio (31.4-76.7) increase; for different combined humus, the contents of loosely combined humus (HI) and stably combined humus (HII) have a decrease tendency while that of tightly combined humus (HIII) increase; the HI/HII ratio (0.19-0.39) shows an increase tendency, whereas HI/HIII ratio (0.032-0.003) and HII/HIII ratio (0.096-0.009) decrease; the PQs of HI (3.21%-1.42%) and HIII (58.1%-35.5%) also decrease, and the range of PQ change is less in HI than in HII; the color coefficient (deltalogk) of water soluble organic matter (WSOM) decreases, whereas no obvious change for HA. The above results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbon promotes the formation of HM but not HA. The decrease in HA is mainly due to the restraining effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the formation of stably combined HA. Petroleum hydrocarbon leads molecular structure of WSOM more complex but no effect on molecular structure of HA.

  5. Iron-carbon composites for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Bhanu Kiran

    This research is focused on engineering submicron spherical carbon particles as effective carriers/supports for nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to address the in situ remediation of soil and groundwater chlorinated contaminants. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) form a class of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) toxic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The in situ injection of NZVI particles to reduce DNAPLs is a potentially simple, cost-effective, and environmentally benign technology that has become a preferred method in the remediation of these compounds. However, unsupported NZVI particles exhibit ferromagnetism leading to particle aggregation and loss in mobility through the subsurface. This work demonstrates two approaches to prepare carbon supported NZVI (iron-carbon composites) particles. The objective is to establish these iron-carbon composites as extremely useful materials for the environmental remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and suitable materials for the in situ injection technology. This research also demonstrates that it is possible to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles either on the external surface or within the interior of carbon microspheres using a one-step aerosol-based process. The simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis as both the iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports. Furthermore, the aerosol-based process is applied to prepare new class of supported catalytic materials such as carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles for ex situ remediation of contaminated water. The iron-carbon composites developed in this research have multiple functionalities (a) they are reactive and function effectively in reductive dehalogenation (b) they are highly adsorptive thereby bringing the chlorinated compound to the proximity of the reactive sites and also serving as adsorption

  6. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  7. n-Hexadecane Fuel for a Phosphoric Acid Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine fuel cells as a possible alternative to the diesel fuel engines currently used in railway locomotives, thereby decreasing air emissions from the railway transportation sector. We have investigated the performance of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC reactor, with n-hexadecane, C16H34 (a model compound for diesel fuel, cetane number = 100. This is the first extensive study reported in the literature in which n-hexadecane is used directly as the fuel. Measurements were made to obtain both polarization curves and time-on-stream results. Because deactivation was observed hydrogen polarization curves were measured before and after n-hexadecane experiments, to determine the extent of deactivation of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA. By feeding water-only (no fuel to the fuel cell anode the deactivated MEAs could be regenerated. One set of fuel cell operating conditions that produced a steady-state was identified. Identification of steady-state conditions is significant because it demonstrates that stable fuel cell operation is technically feasible when operating a PAFC with n-hexadecane fuel.

  8. Study of NOx Emissions of S.I. Engine Fueled with Different Kinds of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qahtan A. Abass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, Natural gas (NG and hydrogen were used to operate spark ignition internal combustion engine Ricardo E6, to compare NOx emissions emitted from the engine, with that emitted from engine fueled with gasoline as a fuel.The study was done when engine operated at HUCR for gasoline, compared with its operation at HUCR for each fuel. Compression ratio, equivalence ratio and spark timing were studied at constant speed 25rps.The results appeared that NOx concentrations will be at maximum value in the lean side near the stoichiometric ratio, and reduced with moving away from this ratio for mixture at both sides, these concentrations were at its highest value when hydrogen used at CR=8:1, and got near to each other for the three hydrocarbon fuels used in the study, when the engine operated at HUCR for each fuel, but still hydrogen had maximum value, the main variable affect these concentrations was spark timing

  9. Composition heterogeneity analysis for DUPIC fuel(I) - Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    The fuel composition heterogeneity effect on reactor performance parameters was assessed by refueling simulations for three DUPIC fuel options of fuel composition heterogeneity control: the fissile content adjustment, the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, and the reactivity control by natural uranium. For each DUPIC fuel option, the simulations were performed using 30 heterogeneous fuel types which were determined by the agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. The heterogeneity effect was considered during the refueling simulation by randomly selecting fuel types for the refueling operation. The refueling simulations of the heterogeneous core have shown that the key performance parameters such as the maximum channel power (MCP), maximum bundle power (MBP), and channel power peaking factor (CPPF) are close to those of the core that has single fuel type. For the three DUPIC fuel options, the uncertainties of MCP, MBP, and CPPF due to the fuel composition heterogeneity are less than 0.6, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively, including the uncertainty of the group-average fuel property. This study has shown that the three DUPIC fuel options reduces the composition heterogeneity effectively and the zone power control system has a sufficient margin to adjust the perturbations cased by the fuel composition heterogeneity. 15 refs., 28 figs.,10 tabs. (Author)

  10. Techno-Economic Basis for Coproduct Manufacturing To Enable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Humbird, David; Tao, Ling; Dowe, Nancy; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Karp, Eric M.; Salvachua, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-06

    Biorefinery process development relies on techno-economic analysis (TEA) to identify primary cost drivers, prioritize research directions, and mitigate technical risk for scale-up through development of detailed process designs. Here, we conduct TEA of a model 2000 dry metric ton-per-day lignocellulosic biorefinery that employs a two-step pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce biomass-derived sugars, followed by biological lipid production, lipid recovery, and catalytic hydrotreating to produce renewable diesel blendstock (RDB). On the basis of projected near-term technical feasibility of these steps, we predict that RDB could be produced at a minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of USD $9.55/gasoline-gallon-equivalent (GGE), predicated on the need for improvements in the lipid productivity and yield beyond current benchmark performance. This cost is significant given the limitations in scale and high costs for aerobic cultivation of oleaginous microbes and subsequent lipid extraction/recovery. In light of this predicted cost, we developed an alternative pathway which demonstrates that RDB costs could be substantially reduced in the near term if upgradeable fractions of biomass, in this case hemicellulose-derived sugars, are diverted to coproducts of sufficient value and market size; here, we use succinic acid as an example coproduct. The coproduction model predicts an MFSP of USD $5.28/GGE when leaving conversion and yield parameters unchanged for the fuel production pathway, leading to a change in biorefinery RDB capacity from 24 to 15 MM GGE/year and 0.13 MM tons of succinic acid per year. Additional analysis demonstrates that beyond the near-term projections assumed in the models here, further reductions in the MFSP toward $2-3/GGE (which would be competitive with fossil-based hydrocarbon fuels) are possible with additional transformational improvements in the fuel and coproduct trains, especially in terms of carbon efficiency to both fuels and

  11. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  12. A novel layered perovskite as symmetric electrode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Chen, Kongfa; Liu, Yuanxu; He, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Layered perovskite oxides are well known to possess significant electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Herein, we highlight a novel layered perovskite PrBaMn1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (PBMFO) as electrodes of symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFCs). The layered PBMFO shows high electrical conductivity of 112.5 and 7.4 S cm-1 at 800 °C in air and 5% H2/Ar, respectively. The single cell with PBMFO symmetric electrodes achieves peak power density of 0.54 W cm-2 at 800 °C using humidified hydrogen as fuel. Moreover, PBMFO electrodes demonstrate good redox stability and high coking tolerance against hydrocarbon fuel.

  13. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  14. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Decarboxylation of Sodium Oleate and Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunpu; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Rongsheng; Wen Pingwei; Wan Yiqin; Zhang Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    The carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate has a stronger polarity than that of oleic acid;this terminal is more likely to be dipole polarized and ionically conductive in a microwave ifeld. Sodium oleate was used as the model compound to study the decarboxylation of oleic acid leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology. The pyrolysis gas, liquid, and solid products were precisely analyzed to deduce the mechanism for decarboxylation of sodium oleate. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate. During decarboxylation, the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a p-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting p-πconjugated system was more stable and beneifcial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation, terminal allylation, isomeriza-tion, and aromatization). The physical properties of pyrolysis liquid were generally similar to those of diesel fuel, thereby demonstrating the possible use of microwaves for controlling the decarboxylation of sodium oleate in order to manufacture renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. Chemical composition of hydrocarbons from semicoking tars of lignites from the near-Moscow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Antonio, T.Z.; Platonova, M.V. [Lev Tolstoi Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The chemical composition of hydrocarbons from the semicoking tar of lignites was studied by elemental, functional, emission spectrum, and structural-group analyses, cryoscopy, IR, UV and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, capillary gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A scheme was developed for adsorption liquid chromatography of the hydrocarbons.

  17. Catalytic ring opening of cyclic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calemma, V.; Ferrari, M. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Rabl, S.; Haas, A.; Santi, D.; Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    An approach for high-aromatic streams upgrading, allowing to meet future diesel quality standards, is saturation of the aromatic structures followed by the selective breaking of endocyclic C-C bonds of naphthenic structures so formed to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the starting molecule ('selective ring opening, SRO'). Although theoretically, SRO is a promising route for upgrading low-value feeds to high-quality products, in practice, it continues to be a challenge owing to its complex chemistry. Product characteristics, do not only depend on the composition of the feed, but also on the operating conditions and the nature of the catalyst. Very recently, novel catalysts ('HIgh-PErformance Ring Opening Catalysts, HIPEROCs') were developed which allow a very selective ring opening of the model compound decalin to paraffins without degradation of the carbon number. The hydroconversion of dearomatized Light Cycle Oil (DeAr-LCO) over the abovementioned catalysts resulted in a remarkable change of the chemical structure of the feed with a strong decrease of naphthenic structures with two or more condensed rings and a concomitant increase of alkyl-substituted cyclohexanes and open-chain alkanes. The changes occurring in the chemical structures of feedstock during hydroconversion resulted in a remarkable increase of the Cetane Index of the products up to 11 units. In the present contribution, we examine the main factors affecting activity and selectivity of SRO catalysts in the light of the recent literature dealing with the subject and we report on the recent advances in hydroconversion of refinery cuts such as DeAr- LCO over HIPEROCs. (orig.)

  18. Natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in a cold climate fuel plume in groundwater, northern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickerton, G.; Van Stempvoort, D.; Millar, K. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There is currently little published information on the role that anaerobic microorganisms can play in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in groundwater at cold temperatures. This paper discusses a detailed field investigation conducted to determine the significance of intrinsic bioremediation at a diesel fuel plume in an aquifer located on a tank farm in Moose Factory, Ontario. Several lines of evidence were used: historic and spatial trends of contaminant concentrations; patterns of geochemical indicators in the groundwater consistent with the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and relevant microbial analyses. A network of 19 existing monitoring wells was used, with an additional 19 wells installed to fill in information gaps. Samples were placed on ice and stored prior to analyses. Probes with data loggers were installed to monitor water levels and temperatures. Total hydrocarbons were extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed. Results of the hydrocarbon plume, BTEX distribution, geochemical indicators as well as microbial analyses were discussed. Analysis indicated that the plume was stable, contrary to previous findings. Results indicated that natural attenuation has been effective for treating the existing plume. This finding expands the possible treatment technologies and management strategies available for remediation of dissolved phase contamination at this cold climate site, which is not considered a hindrance to intrinsic bioremediation. It was suggested that technologies based on enhancing biodegradation may be considered for application at this and similar cold climate sites. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. The carbon isotopic compositions of Non-methane Hydrocarbons in atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lin; ZHANG HuiMin; REN ZhaoFang; MU Ling; SHI RuiLiang; CHANG LiPing; LI Fan

    2009-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of atmospheric Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in the urban areas of Taiyuan and Lanzhou in summer were reported and the sources of NMHCs are discussed.Carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) of vehicle exhaust,coal-combustion exhaust,fuel volatiles and cooking exhaust were also measured with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-IR-MS).δ13C values of NMHCs in the urban areas of Lanzhou and Taiyuan range from -32.3‰ to -22.3‰ and from -32.8‰ to -18.1‰.δ13C values of vehicle exhaust,coal-combustion exhaust,fuel volatiles and cooking exhaust are -32.5‰--21.7‰,-24.5‰--22.3‰,-32.5%--27.4‰ and -31.6‰--24.5‰,respectively.The data indicate that vehicle exhaust and cooking exhaust make a significant contribution to the atmospheric NMHCs.Therefore,to reduce emissions of vehicle exhaust and cook-ing exhaust is critical for controlling atmospheric NMHCs pollution in summer.

  20. A new technology proposed to recycle waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis and environmental degradation by polymer wastes have been imperative to find and propose technologies for recovery of raw materials and energy from non-conventional sources like plastic wastes. A variety of methods and processes connected with global or national policies have been proposed worldwide. A new type of steel reactor is proposed for conversion of waste plastics to fuel like mixture of hydrocarbons. The results of the thermal degradation of waste plastics in the laboratory scale set-up based on this process in the paper. The melting and thermal cracking processes were carried out in a single batch process at the temperature range is 200–420 ºC. The final product consisted of light gas 6.3 % and liquid product 90%. 3.7% solid black products were produced. The light, ‘‘gas” fraction of the hydrocarbons mixture (C1–C4 and rest of liquid fuel made over 90% of the liquid product. It may be used for fuel production refinery or electricity generation.

  1. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  2. Laser Spectrometric Measurement System for Local Express Diagnostics of Flame at Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtsev, V. D.; Kozlov, D. N.; Kostritsa, S. A.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stel'makh, O. M.; Tumanov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A laboratory laser spectrometric measurement system for investigation of spatial distributions of local temperatures in a flame at combustion of vapors of various liquid hydrocarbon fuels in oxygen or air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The system incorporates a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer with high spatial resolution for local thermometry of nitrogen-containing gas mixtures in a single laser shot and a continuous operation burner with a laminar diffusion flame. The system test results are presented for measurements of spatial distributions of local temperatures in various flame zones at combustion of vapor—gas n-decane/nitrogen mixtures in air. Its applicability for accomplishing practical tasks in comparative laboratory investigation of characteristics of various fuels and for research on combustion in turbulent flames is discussed.

  3. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  4. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  5. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhi; Cheng Zeyuan; Zhu Jianqin; Li Haiwang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux rang-ing from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophys-ical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction per-formance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST) and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  6. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  7. Raman Gas Species Measurements in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Injector Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Trinh, Huu P.; Dobson, Chris C.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Rocket engine propellent injector development at NASA-Marshall includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellent mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The Raman technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented, as well as a high pressure demonstration in the NASA-Marshall Modular Combustion Test Artice, using the liquid methane-liquid oxygen propellant system

  8. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  9. Gaseous Surrogate Hydrocarbons for a Hifire Scramjet that Mimic Opposed Jet Extinction Limits for Cracked JP Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes, first, the top-down methodology used to define simple gaseous surrogate hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures for a hypersonic scramjet combustion subtask of the HiFIRE program. It then presents new and updated Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) extinction-limit Flame Strength (FS) data obtained from laminar non-premixed HC vs. air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm, which follow from earlier investigations. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. FS uniquely characterizes a kinetically limited fuel combustion rate. More generally, Applied Stress Rates (ASRs) at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or t) can directly be compared with extinction limits determined numerically using either a 1-D or (preferably) a 2-D Navier Stokes simulation with detailed transport and finite rate chemistry. The FS results help to characterize and define three candidate surrogate HC fuel mixtures that exhibit a common FS 70% greater than for vaporized JP-7 fuel. These include a binary fuel mixture of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, which is our primary recommendation. It is intended to mimic the critical flameholding limit of a thermally- or catalytically-cracked JP-7 like fuel in HiFIRE scramjet combustion tests. Our supporting experimental results include: (1) An idealized kinetically-limited ASR reactivity scale, which represents maximum strength non-premixed flames for several gaseous and vaporized liquid HCs; (2) FS characterizations of Colket and Spadaccini s suggested ternary surrogate, of 60% ethylene + 30% methane + 10% n-heptane, which matches the ignition delay of a typical cracked JP fuel; (3) Data showing how our recommended binary surrogate, of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, has an identical FS; (4) Data that characterize an alternate surrogate of 44% ethylene + 56% ethane with identical

  10. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  12. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  13. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  14. Changing the composition of the group hydrocarbons of diesel fractions in the process of hydrotreating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtcova, N.; Baklashkina, К; Sabiev, Sh; Krivtsov, E.; Syskina, A.

    2016-09-01

    Change in group composition of sulfur compounds and structural group composition of the diesel fractions in the course of hydrotreating is presented in the paper. The removal degree of sulfur compounds is shown to comprise 95.8% rel. The homologs of benzothiophenes are removed for 93.9% rel., ones of the dibenzothiophenes are for 90.7% rel. A considerable change in group composition of diesel fraction is established in the course of hydrotreating. Hydrogenation degree of aromatic hydrocarbons is 24.4% wt., the amount of saturated hydrocarbons has increased by 20.4% wt.

  15. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  16. Seminar for hydrocarbon detection with composite geophysical/geo-chemical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “Seminar for hydrocarbon detection with composite geophy sical/geo-chemical techniques”,jointly organized by China petroleum Exploration & Production Company and Exploration Geophysical Committee of CGS and supported by the Composite Geophysical/geo-chemical Departement of Oriental Geophysical Company and China Exploration&Development Research Instiute,

  17. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  18. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  19. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; García Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  1. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  2. Influence of nonylphenol on the fatty acids and hydrocarbon composition of aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Osinna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Composition of surface lipids of aquatic plants Acorus calamus L., Typha latifolia L. and Carex acuta L. was investigated under the influence of nonylphenol strong solution. Experimental plants showed some significant changes in the surface lipids composition in comparison with a control. Change in the fatty acids composition, decrease of hydrocarbons content and biosynthetical disorder in the elongation processes of some certain components were revealed.

  3. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  4. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  5. Association of Microbial Community Composition and Activity with Lead, Chromium, and Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, W.; Becker, J; Bischoff, M.; Turco, R. F.; Konopka, A. E

    2002-01-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil−1, 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil−1, and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil−1. Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil sam...

  6. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from aviation fuel spill site at Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R C; Essien, J P; Akpan, S B; Okpokwasili, G C

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from aviation fuel contaminated soil at Inua Eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria. PAH-degrading bacteria in the contaminated soil were isolated by enrichment culture technique. Isolates with high PAH degrading potential characterized by their extensive growth on PAH-supplemented minimal salt medium were screened for their naphthalene, phenanthrene and chrysene degradability. The screening medium which contained selected PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy showed that Micrococcus varians AFS-2, Pseudomonas putida AFS-3 and Alcaligenes faecalis AFS-5 exhibited a concentration-dependent growth in all the PAH-compounds tested. There were visible changes in the color of growth medium suggesting the production of different metabolites. Their acclimation to different PAH substrates was also evident as A. faecalis AFS-5 isolated from chrysene grew well on other less complex aromatic compounds. The isolate exhibited best growth (0.44 OD(600)) when exposed to 10 ppm of chrysene for 5 days and could utilize up to 90 ppm of chrysene. This isolate and others with strong PAH-degrading potentials are recommended for bioremediation of PAHs in aviation fuel-contaminated sites in the tropics.

  8. Nonmethane hydrocarbon composition of urban and rural atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Westberg, Hal

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are not measured routinely at most ambient monitoring stations. Yet this type of information is required to evaluate existing control strategies aimed at achieving the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O 3. This paper summarizes data from ambient air monitoring programs in seven urban centers (Houston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Newark, Boston, Milwaukee,) and six rural areas in California, Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Maine and Florida. Gas Chromatographie analysis was used to identify individual C 2-C 10 HCs in more than 990 ambient air samples. Measurements in urban and rural areas are compared based on total and individual HC concentrations.

  9. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  11. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  12. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2012-02-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels with the largest chemical species being pyrene (C 16H 10), this new mechanism is generated by adding PAH sub-mechanisms to account for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C 24H 12). The density functional theory (DFT) and the transition state theory (TST) have been adopted to evaluate the rate constants for several PAH reactions. The mechanism is validated in the premixed laminar flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, benzene and ethylene. The characteristics of PAH formation in the counterflow diffusion flames of iso-octane/toluene and n-heptane/toluene mixtures have also been tested for both the soot formation and soot formation/oxidation flame conditions. The predictions of the concentrations of large PAHs in the premixed flames having available experimental data are significantly improved with the new mechanism as compared to the base mechanism. The major pathways for the formation of large PAHs are identified. The test of the counterflow diffusion flames successfully predicts the PAH behavior exhibiting a synergistic effect observed experimentally for the mixture fuels, irrespective of the type of flame (soot formation flame or soot formation/oxidation flame). The reactions that lead to this synergistic effect in PAH formation are identified through the rate-of-production analysis. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Burn-up characteristics of ADS system utilizing the fuel composition from MOX PWRs spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsodi E-mail: marsodi@batan.go.id; Lasman, K.A.S.; Nishihara, K. E-mail: nishi@omega.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Osugi, T.; Tsujimoto, K.; Marsongkohadi; Su' ud, Z. E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id

    2002-12-01

    Burn-up characteristics of accelerator-driven system, ADS has been evaluated utilizing the fuel composition from MOX PWRs spent fuel. The system consists of a high intensity proton beam accelerator, spallation target, and sub-critical reactor core. The liquid lead-bismuth, Pb-Bi, as spallation target, was put in the center of the core region. The general approach was conducted throughout the nitride fuel that allows the utilities to choose the strategy for destroying or minimizing the most dangerous high level wastes in a fast neutron spectrum. The fuel introduced surrounding the target region was the same with the composition of MOX from 33 GWd/t PWRs spent-fuel with 5 year cooling and has been compared with the fuel composition from 45 and 60 GWd/t PWRs spent-fuel with the same cooling time. The basic characteristics of the system such as burn-up reactivity swing, power density, neutron fluxes distribution, and nuclides densities were obtained from the results of the neutronics and burn-up analyses using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy research Institute, JAERI.

  14. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  15. Composition and method for cleaning hydrocarbon oil from hard surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blezard, M.; Mcallister, W.H.

    1983-09-28

    Hydrocarbon oils are cleaned from hard, inorganic surfaces by the application of an aqueous solution, such as seawater, containing a mixture of alkoxylated alcohol, carboxylic acid, alkyl phenol, or nonionic phosphate ester, with an alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide or an ethoxylated or polyethoxylated alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide. The method is of particular value for cleaning drilling oil from rock cuttings in offshore drilling operations, such as cold North Sea installations. Specific examples are a C10 primary alcohol, which is ethoxylated with 5 moles of ethylene oxide, mixed with a coconut diethanolamide. Typically, the mixture is supplied as a concentrate which is dissolved in, or diluted with, water to provide the cleansing solution at the site of the rig. 21 claims.

  16. Association of microbial community composition and activity with lead, chromium, and hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Becker, J; Bischoff, M; Turco, R F; Konopka, A E

    2002-08-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil(-1), 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil(-1), and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil(-1). Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil samples. Statistical analyses suggested that the variation in PLFA was more correlated with soil hydrocarbons than with the levels of Cr and Pb. The metal sensitivity of the microbial community was determined by extracting bacteria from soil and measuring [(3)H]leucine incorporation as a function of metal concentration. Six soil samples collected in the spring of 1999 had IC(50) values (the heavy metal concentrations giving 50% reduction of microbial activity) of approximately 2.5 mM for CrO(4)2- and 0.01 mM for Pb2+. Much higher levels of Pb were required to inhibit [14C]glucose mineralization directly in soils. In microcosm experiments with these samples, microbial biomass and the ratio of microbial biomass to soil organic C were not correlated with the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. However, microbial C respiration in samples with a higher level of hydrocarbons differed from the other soils no matter whether complex organic C (alfalfa) was added or not. The ratios of microbial C respiration to microbial biomass differed significantly among the soil samples (P < 0.05) and were relatively high in soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Our results suggest that the soil microbial community was predominantly affected by hydrocarbons.

  17. FBR core design with the composite fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappiello, M.W.

    Although calculations are preliminary, overall feasibility of an FBR core design with the composite fuel assembly has been demonstrated. The advantaged over the heterogeneous design is that large variances in assembly mixed mean outlet temperatures are eliminated. Also, the effective enrichment of an assembly may easily be adjusted by varying the number of fertile pins per assembly, thus making it possible to flatten the core radial power profile. The use of the composite fuel assembly may in the future offer a significant alternative to heterogeneous FBR core design.

  18. Fuel options from microalgae with representative chemical compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.

    1984-07-01

    Representative species of microalgae are examined with respect to their reported chemical compositions. Each species is analyzed under a variety of culture conditions, with the objective being to characterize an optimum mixture of fuel products (e.g., methane, ethanol, methylester) which should be produced by the particular species. Historically the emphasis has been on the entire algal cell mass. Using the reported chemical composition for the representative species under specific sets of growth conditions, some conclusions can be drawn about the preferred fuel product conversion routes that could be employed. 10 references, 7 figures, 12 tables.

  19. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  20. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“ that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“. A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes were identified in virgin beeswax and beeswax collected from brood combs. However, the studies showed differences in the content of n-alkanes in the beeswax obtained from light and dark coloured combs. In comparison to the virgin beeswax, the beeswax obtained from dark combs had higher content of the total n-alkanes, higher total contents of even-numbered alkanes and odd-numbered alkanes, and higher contents of certain alkanes. Furthermore, it has been found that the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax did not depend on the collection period.

  1. The specific carbon isotopic compositions of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons from Fushun oil shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi; WU Baoxiang; ZHENG Guodong; ZHANG Hui; ZHENG Chaoyang

    2004-01-01

    Various branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are isolated from the Fushun oil shale and their carbon isotopes are determined. The analytical results show that the branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are fully separated from n-alkanes by 5 A Molecular-sieve adduction using long time and cold solvent. The branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction obtained by this method is able to satisfy the analytic requests of GC-IRMS. The carbon isotopic compositions of these branched and cyclic hydrocarbons obtained from the sample indicate that they are derived from photoautotrophic algae, chemoautotrophic bacteria (-3.4‰ --39.0‰) and methanotrophic bacteria (-38.4‰--46.3‰). However the long-chain 2-methyl-branched alkanes indicate that their carbon isotopic compositions reflect biological origin from higher plants. The carbon isotopic composition of C30 4-methyl sterane (-22.1‰) is the heaviest in all studied ste- ranes, showing that the carbon source or growth condition for its precursor, dinoflagellate, may be different from that of regular steranes. The variation trend of δ13C values between isomers of hopanes shows that 13C-enriched precursors take precedence in process of their epimerization. Methanotrophic hopanes presented reveal the processes of strong transformation of organic matter and cycling of organic carbon in the water column and early diagenesis of oil shale.

  2. Silicon carbide composite for light water reactor fuel assembly applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Ken; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of using SiCf-SiCm composites in light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs was evaluated. The evaluation was motivated by the desire to improve fuel performance under normal and accident conditions. The Fukushima accident once again highlighted the need for improved fuel materials that can maintain fuel integrity to higher temperatures for longer periods of time. The review identified many benefits as well as issues in using the material. Issues perceived as presenting the biggest challenges to the concept were identified to be flux gradient induced differential volumetric swelling, fragmentation and thermal shock resistance. The oxidation of silicon and its release into the coolant as silica has been identified as an issue because existing plant systems have limited ability for its removal. Detailed evaluation using available literature data and testing as part of this evaluation effort have eliminated most of the major concerns. The evaluation identified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) channel, BWR fuel water tube, and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) guide tube as feasible applications for SiC composite. A program has been initiated to resolve some of the remaining issues and to generate physical property data to support the design of commercial fuel components.

  3. Silicon carbide composite for light water reactor fuel assembly applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueh, Ken, E-mail: kyueh@epri.com [Fuel Reliability Program, EPRI, 1300 West WT Harris Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Terrani, Kurt A., E-mail: terranika@ornl.gov [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd. MS 6093, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of using SiC{sub f}–SiC{sub m} composites in light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs was evaluated. The evaluation was motivated by the desire to improve fuel performance under normal and accident conditions. The Fukushima accident once again highlighted the need for improved fuel materials that can maintain fuel integrity to higher temperatures for longer periods of time. The review identified many benefits as well as issues in using the material. Issues perceived as presenting the biggest challenges to the concept were identified to be flux gradient induced differential volumetric swelling, fragmentation and thermal shock resistance. The oxidation of silicon and its release into the coolant as silica has been identified as an issue because existing plant systems have limited ability for its removal. Detailed evaluation using available literature data and testing as part of this evaluation effort have eliminated most of the major concerns. The evaluation identified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) channel, BWR fuel water tube, and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) guide tube as feasible applications for SiC composite. A program has been initiated to resolve some of the remaining issues and to generate physical property data to support the design of commercial fuel components.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......, and outlet gas composition. For methane production, low temperature and high pressure operation could improve the system efficiency, but might lead to a higher capital cost. For DME production, high pressure SOEC operation necessitates higher operating temperature in order to avoid carbon formation at higher...

  5. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Progress report, January-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The following materials were processed thru gasification: sugarcane bagasse, smooth sumac, coralberry, wild bergamot, pokeweed, cornstarch, Portugese oak cork and hog fuel. A data summary is given. The high H/sub 2//CO ratio at low temperature for pokeweed is of significance (>T, >H/sub 2/). Also the high olefin content of Portugese oak cork (commercial cork) is of major interest. The most promising feedstock to date with regard to synthesis gas composition has been guayule cork. A comparison of data for the two cork materials is given. A detailed breakdown for corn starch is given revealing an exceptionally high methane content (35.50 mole %). (MHR)

  6. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  7. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  8. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  9. Progress Toward Quality Assurance Standards for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels Based on Thermal Performance Testing and Chemometric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    analyses; (2) Identify class distinguishing features, i.e., chemical compounds in the chromatographic data, that contribute to a fuel’s group ...implemented primarily to identify distinguishing chemical compounds that contribute to a fuel’s group assignment. F-ratio analysis was performed using...hydrocarbon-fueled liquid rocket engines, combustion enthalpy is transferred at high rates to thrust chamber surfaces, which are maintained at acceptably

  10. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  11. Using sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatmand, Mohammad; Ng, How Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was explored to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water originated from soil. The results showed consistent power generations of 6.02±0.34 and 3.63±0.37 mW/m(2) under an external resistance of 1500 Ω by the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively. Although the power generations were low, they had relatively low internal resistances (i.e., 436.6±69.4 and 522.1±1.8 Ω for the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively) in comparison with the literature. Nevertheless, the significant benefit of this system was its bioremediation capabilities, achieving 41.7%, 31.4% and 36.2% removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively, in the aerobic environment and 76.9%, 52.5% and 36.8%, respectively, in the anaerobic environment. These results demonstrated the ability of SMFCs in stimulating microorganisms for bioremediation of complex and recalcitrant PAHs.

  12. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  13. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  14. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  15. About the Results of the Destruction of the Molecules of Liquid Hydrocarbons in the Field of Acoustic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Analysis was conducted of fractional composition of hydrocarbon fuel. It is found that the excitation of cavitation in the fuel leads to a change of its fractional composition. This result can be explained by the destruction of liquid hydrocarbon molecules under high intensity of the unsteady pressure field

  16. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, G. [and others

    2013-04-15

    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  17. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  18. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  19. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  20. Composite materials for polymer electrolyte membrane microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2015-07-15

    Recently, the feasibility of using composite metal-carbon, metal-polymer, polymer-carbon, polymer-polymer and carbon-carbon materials in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been investigated. These materials have been tested as MFC anode catalyst (microorganism) supports, cathode catalysts and membranes. These hybrid materials, possessing the properties of each component, or even with a synergistic effect, would present improved characteristics with respect to the bare components. In this paper we present an overview of the use of these composite materials in microbial fuel cells. The characteristics of the composite materials as well as their effect on MFC performance were compared with those of the individual component and/or the conventionally used materials.

  1. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  2. 碳氢燃料低压裂解特性%Pyrolysis Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Fuel Under Low Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其翼; 魏微; 周灏; 文旭; 李象远

    2015-01-01

    针对主动冷却中利用碳氢燃料裂解吸热释放热沉的特性,研究分析了碳氢燃料在低压条件下的裂解反应特征,从产气率、气相组分与结焦等方面进行了对比研究.结果表明,在相同停留时间,压力降低,裂解的产气率更高,裂解气组分中烯烃含量大幅提升,表明低压裂解具有一定的反应定向性.通过吸光光度法半定量分析高温裂解残液,发现裂解压力降低,吸光度值降低,表明低压裂解可以明显抑制结焦反应发生.%This study focuses on the cracking reaction of hydrocarbon fuel under low pressure.The rate of pyrolysis gas yielding,pyrolysis gas composition and coke formation are studied and compared.The results demonstrate that during the same residence time,the rate of gas yielding increases while the pressure is reduced.A substantial rise of the olefin content in the pyrolysis gas indicates that the cracking reaction is directed.The semi-quantitative analysis of pyrolysis residue absorbance shows that absorbance values are reduced with the decrease of cracking pressure,and low pressure pyrolysis can significantly inhibit coking reaction.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  4. Rocket-Plume Spectroscopy Simulation for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.

    2010-01-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic system for plume diagnostics monitors rocket engine health by using several analytical tools developed at Stennis Space Center (SSC), including the rocket plume spectroscopy simulation code (RPSSC), to identify and quantify the alloys from the metallic elements observed in engine plumes. Because the hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine is likely to contain C2, CO, CH, CN, and NO in addition to OH and H2O, the relevant electronic bands of these molecules in the spectral range of 300 to 850 nm in the RPSSC have been included. SSC incorporated several enhancements and modifications to the original line-by-line spectral simulation computer program implemented for plume spectral data analysis and quantification in 1994. These changes made the program applicable to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Diagnostic Testbed Facility Thruster (DTFT) exhaust plume spectral data. Modifications included updating the molecular and spectral parameters for OH, adding spectral parameter input files optimized for the 10 elements of interest in the spectral range from 320 to 430 nm and linking the output to graphing and analysis packages. Additionally, the ability to handle the non-uniform wavelength interval at which the spectral computations are made was added. This allowed a precise superposition of wavelengths at which the spectral measurements have been made with the wavelengths at which the spectral computations are done by using the line-by-line (LBL) code. To account for hydrocarbon combustion products in the plume, which might interfere with detection and quantification of metallic elements in the spectral region of 300 to 850 nm, the spectroscopic code has been enhanced to include the carbon-based combustion species of C2, CO, and CH. In addition, CN and NO have spectral bands in 300 to 850 nm and, while these molecules are not direct products of hydrocarbon-oxygen combustion systems, they can show up if nitrogen or a nitrogen compound is present

  5. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground.

  6. The bulk isotopic composition of hydrocarbons in subaerial volcanic-hydrothermal emissions from different tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, J.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Viveiros, M. F.; Silva, C.; Lopez, T. M.; D'Alessandro, W.; Stefansson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assuming that methane and its higher chain homologues derive from a common source, carbon isotope patterns have been applied as a criterion to identify occurrences of abiogenic hydrocarbons. Based on these, it has been postulated that abiogenic hydrocarbon production occurs within several (ultra)mafic environments. More evolved volcanic-hydrothermal systems may also provide all the prerequisites necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon production, such as availability of inorganic CO2, hydrogen and heat. We have investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of n-alkanes contained within subaerial hydrothermal discharges emitted from a range of hot spot, subduction and rift-related volcanoes to determine the origin of hydrocarbons in these systems. Amongst these are Nisyros (Greece), Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Pantelleria and Vulcano (all Italy), Mt. Mageik and Trident (USA), Copahue (Argentina), Teide (Spain), Furnas and Fogo (Portugal). The carbon isotopic composition of methane emitted from these sites varies from -65 to -8‰ , whereas δ13C of ethane and propane exhibit a much narrower variation from -17‰ to -31‰. Methane that occurs most enriched in 13C is also characterized by relatively positive δD values ranging up to -80‰. Carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane are only observed for locations exhibiting δ13C-CH4 values > -20‰, such as Teide, Pantelleria, Trident and Furnas. At Furnas, δ13C-CH4 varies by 50‰ within a relatively short distance of <50m between two vents, whereas δ13C-C2H6 varies by less than 2‰ only. For some of the investigated locations apparent carbon isotopic temperatures between methane and CO2 are in agreement with those derived from gas concentration geothermometers. At these locations methane, however seems to be in disequilibrium with ethane and propane. These findings imply that methane on the one hand and the C2+ hydrocarbons on the other hand often might derive from distinct sources.

  7. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  8. Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon:Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Subtask: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon: Kerosenes and Blends Clifford...AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub...Acronym Description AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory APFEERD Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development

  9. Assessment of molecular marker compounds as an index of the biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voos, G.; Mills, G.; O`Neill, J.; Jones, W. [Savannah River Ecology Labortory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The weathering of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil environment is the sum of biological, physical and chemical processes. It is often difficult to clearly discern microbial from abiotic contributions to the overall process. This is especially important in assessing the effectiveness of various in-situ bioremediation technologies. We examined molecular marker compounds, including pristane, phytane, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, farnesane and norpristane, and the ratios n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane to evaluate their use as an index of biodegradation of diesel fuel in contaminated soil. The study was conducted using microcosms containing 200 g of contaminated soil. Microcosms were destructively sampled on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 33 and 64 of the experiment. The soil was analyzed for straight-chained, branched-chained, and alicyclic petroleum hydrocarbons using high-resolution gas chromatography. Results indicate that by day 33 of the experiment, pristane and phytane were present at significantly greater concentrations than their corresponding n-alkanes and the other marker compounds analyzed. There is a strong correlation between the amount of pristane and phytane present in the soil and the amount of total extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (TEPH) measured during the course of the experiment.

  10. Direct borohydride fuel cell using Ni-based composite anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, nickel-based composite anode catalysts consisting of Ni with either Pd on carbon or Pt on carbon (the ratio of Ni:Pd or Ni:Pt being 25:1) were prepared for use in direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). Cathode catalysts used were 1 mg cm{sup -2} Pt/C or Pd electrodeposited on activated carbon cloth. The oxidants were oxygen, oxygen in air, or acidified hydrogen peroxide. Alkaline solution of sodium borohydride was used as fuel in the cell. High power performance has been achieved by DBFC using non-precious metal, Ni-based composite anodes with relatively low anodic loading (e.g., 270 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C, 665 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C). Effects of temperature, oxidant, and anode catalyst loading on the DBFC performance were investigated. The cell was operated for about 100 h and its performance stability was recorded. (author)

  11. Vehicular fuel composition and atmospheric emissions in South China: Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Blake, D. R.; Chu, K. W.

    2006-08-01

    Vehicular emission is an important source of air pollutants in urban cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China. In order to study the impact of evaporative loss of vehicular fuel on air quality, several commonly used fuel samples were collected in four main cities in the PRD region - Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Macau and Zhuhai, and analyzed for their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) composition. Source profiles of vapors of the vehicular fuels used in these cities were constructed and are believed to be the first reported for the PRD region. The C8-C10 hydrocarbons were the main constituents of diesel. Different from diesel, gasoline used in the PRD region was mainly comprised of lighter C4-C7 hydrocarbons, with toluene and i-pentane being the two most abundant species. The toluene content in the Hong Kong and Macau gasoline samples were higher than that in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, while the reverse was true for the benzene content. The benzene levels in Guangzhou and Zhuhai exceeded the maximum allowable benzene levels for Mainland China unleaded gasoline. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) samples were collected only in Hong Kong and were comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss and vehicular combustion were the primary contributors to elevated VOC levels in roadside atmospheres. Significant i-pentane and toluene concentrations were observed in roadside atmospheres in all four cities. Ratio of i-pentane in gasoline vapors to that in roadside samples were calculated and this showed that the degree of evaporative loss were higher in Guangzhou and Zhuhai than that in Hong Kong and Macau. We suggest the difference is due to the better maintenance and more new cars in Hong Kong and Macau. From tunnel samples collected in Hong Kong in two different years, we found that the relative amount of propane, i-butane, and n-butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the 40% increase in LPG fueled

  12. Vehicular fuel composition and atmospheric emissions in South China: Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Tsai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emission is an important source of air pollutants in urban cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of South China. In order to study the impact of vehicular fuel on air quality, several commonly used fuel samples were collected in four main cities in the PRD region – Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Macau and Zhuhai, and analyzed for their volatile organic compounds (VOCs composition. Source profiles of the vehicular fuels used in these cities were constructed and are believed to be the first reported for the PRD region. The C8–C10 hydrocarbons were the main constituents of diesel. Different from diesel, gasoline used in the PRD region was mainly comprised of lighter C4–C7 hydrocarbons, with toluene and i-pentane being the two most abundant species. The benzene content in the Guangzhou and Zhuhai gasoline samples were higher than that in Hong Kong and Macau and exceeded the maximum benzene levels for Mainland China unleaded gasoline. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG samples were collected only in Hong Kong and were comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss and vehicular combustion were the primary contributors to elevated VOC levels in roadside atmospheres. Significant i-pentane and toluene concentrations were observed in roadside atmospheres in all four cities. Ratio of i-pentane in gasoline samples to that in roadside samples were calculated and this showed that the degree of evaporative loss was higher in Guangzhou and Zhuhai than that in Hong Kong and Macau. We suggest the difference is due to the better maintenance and more new cars in Hong Kong and Macau. From tunnel samples collected in Hong Kong in two different years, we found that the relative amount of propane, i-butane, and n-butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the 40% increase in LPG fueled vehicles. Propane to butanes ratios were calculated for LPG and

  13. Vehicular fuel composition and atmospheric emissions in South China: Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emission is an important source of air pollutants in urban cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of South China. In order to study the impact of evaporative loss of vehicular fuel on air quality, several commonly used fuel samples were collected in four main cities in the PRD region – Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Macau and Zhuhai, and analyzed for their volatile organic compounds (VOCs composition. Source profiles of vapors of the vehicular fuels used in these cities were constructed and are believed to be the first reported for the PRD region. The C8-C10 hydrocarbons were the main constituents of diesel. Different from diesel, gasoline used in the PRD region was mainly comprised of lighter C4-C7 hydrocarbons, with toluene and i-pentane being the two most abundant species. The toluene content in the Hong Kong and Macau gasoline samples were higher than that in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, while the reverse was true for the benzene content. The benzene levels in Guangzhou and Zhuhai exceeded the maximum allowable benzene levels for Mainland China unleaded gasoline. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG samples were collected only in Hong Kong and were comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss and vehicular combustion were the primary contributors to elevated VOC levels in roadside atmospheres. Significant i-pentane and toluene concentrations were observed in roadside atmospheres in all four cities. Ratio of i-pentane in gasoline vapors to that in roadside samples were calculated and this showed that the degree of evaporative loss were higher in Guangzhou and Zhuhai than that in Hong Kong and Macau. We suggest the difference is due to the better maintenance and more new cars in Hong Kong and Macau. From tunnel samples collected in Hong Kong in two different years, we found that the relative amount of propane, i-butane, and n-butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the 40% increase

  14. Composite nuclear fuel fabrication methodology for gas fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    An advanced fuel form for use in Gas Fast Reactors (GFR) was investigated. Criteria for the fuel includes operation at high temperature (˜1400°C) and high burnup (˜150 MWD/MTHM) with effective retention of fission products even during transient temperatures exceeding 1600°C. The GFR fuel is expected to contain up to 20% transuranics for a closed fuel cycle. Earlier evaluations of reference fuels for the GFR have included ceramic-ceramic (cercer) dispersion type composite fuels of mixed carbide or nitride microspheres coated with SiC in a SiC matrix. Studies have indicated that ZrC is a potential replacement for SiC on account of its higher melting point, increased fission product corrosion resistance and better chemical stability. The present work investigated natural uranium carbide microspheres in a ZrC matrix instead of SiC. Known issues of minor actinide volatility during traditional fabrication procedures necessitated the investigation of still high temperature but more rapid fabrication techniques to minimize these anticipated losses. In this regard, fabrication of ZrC matrix by combustion synthesis from zirconium and graphite powders was studied. Criteria were established to obtain sufficient matrix density with UC microsphere volume fractions up to 30%. Tests involving production of microspheres by spark erosion method (similar to electrodischarge machining) showed the inability of the method to produce UC microspheres in the desired range of 300 to 1200 mum. A rotating electrode device was developed using a minimum current of 80A and rotating at speeds up to 1500 rpm to fabricate microspheres between 355 and 1200 mum. Using the ZrC process knowledge, UC electrodes were fabricated and studied for use in the rotating electrode device to produce UC microspheres. Fabrication of the cercer composite form was studied using microsphere volume fractions of 10%, 20%, and 30%. The macrostructure of the composite and individual components at various stages were

  15. Effect of Water Washing on Hydrocarbon Compositions of Petropleum Sandstone Reservoir Rocks in Tarim Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张俊

    2000-01-01

    Gross compositions and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in Carboniferous sandstone reservoire rocks in oil and water zones for Tzhong-10 well of the Zhongyang Uplift in the Tarim Basin were studied in dteail by means of Rock-Eval Pyrolysis,thin-chromatograph-flame ionization detection(TLC-FID),gas chromatography,gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results suggest that the gross composition of reservoir hydrocarbons between the oil zone and the water zone show significant differences,Water wahing has a dramatic effect on saturated hydrocarbon blomarkers,especially drimane series compounds,Drimane series compounds in the water zone have been depleted completely.However,the contents of tricyclic iterpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes tend to decrease slightly,but the water-zone reservoir hydrocarbons contian a large amount of gammacerane.This suggests that gammacerane be more resistant to water washing than diterpanes and homohopanes.The contents of pregnane,homopregrane,diasteranes relastively decrease as a result of water washing.Water washing has a noticeable effect on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds,especially aromatic sulfur compounds,and the contents of dibenzothiophene series compounds and benzonaplyiothipophene decrease significantly as a result of water washing.However,the conterts of bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrase slightly and those of tetracyclic and pentacyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,especially benzofluoranthene and benzopyrenes,increase markedly owing to adecrease in light aromatie hydrocarbons as a result of water washing.

  16. Processes controlling water and hydrocarbon composition in seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Karlsen, Dag A.; Sturz, Anne; Backer-Owe, Kristian; Banks, David A.; Planke, Sverre

    2007-01-01

    Water-, mud-, gas-, and petroleum-bearing seeps are part of the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) in Southern California. Seeps in the Davis-Schrimpf seep field (˜14,000 m2) show considerable variations in water temperature, pH, density, and solute content. Water-rich springs have low densities (98 vol%). Halogen geochemistry of the waters indicates that mixing of deep and shallow waters occurs and that near-surface dissolution of halite may overprint the original fluid compositions. Carbon isotopic analyses suggest that hydrocarbon seep gases have a thermogenic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of petroleum in a water-dominated spring, composed of 53% saturated compounds, 35% aromatics, and 12% polar compounds. The abundance of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and immature biomarkers suggests a hydrothermal formation of the petroleum, making the SSGS a relevant analogue to less accessible hydrothermal seep systems, e.g., the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California.

  17. Removal of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources using polypropylene and titanium dioxide nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karyab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum hydrocarbons are the most important pollutants which threat human health and aquatics. Adsorbents are one of the common equipment in water pollution management; however, their applications have been associated with limitations. Objective: To evaluate the potential of polypropylene/titanium dioxide Nano-composite in adsorption of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at school of health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014-15. Activation of polypropylene fibers, with 1 cm length and 300 microns diameters, was achieved with wet heating. To synthesize of nano-composite the fibers were coated with nano-titanium dioxide with 20 nm diameter. The sonication was performed at 26 kHz and 100 W of power in 40ºc. The morphology of the fractured surfaces of impact specimens was examined by FESEM. The adsorption rate of petrol and gasoline, as surrogate of TPH, was evaluated in different retention time within polyamide mesh aperture diameter of 250 nm. Average of TPH adsorbing, per unit weight of adsorbent, were analyzed with analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc tests. Findings: The FESEM micrographs showed that the dispersion of the nano-Tio2 particles was relatively good and only few aggregations exist. The maximum adsorption capacity of petrol and gasoline was obtained in 30 minute. The adsorption rate of gasoline was 6.49±0.10 g/g and oil was 7.01±0.13 g/g. Conclusion: According to the results and in comparison with commercial imported adsorbents, the synthesized Nano-composite had favorable performance. The results show that the polypropylene/Tio2 Nano-composite can be used effectively in light petroleum hydrocarbons removal from polluted water sources.

  18. Thermodynamic study of characteristics of the converter with separated supply of hydrocarbon fuel for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassina, I. A.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Molchanov, O. N.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2014-04-01

    Thermodynamic studies of the converter characteristics were performed to produce hydrogen-containing syngas from hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene) with its separated supply for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming. It is demonstrated that the optimal conditions of the converter performance correlate with the oxidant ratio of α > 0.5 at the heattransfer wall temperature of 1200 K. Hydrogen content in the final syngas reaches 60 % by volume, free carbon (soot) deposition in reforming products is excluded, and there is no need to apply walls water cooling in the converter.

  19. Compositional effects on PAH and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2017-02-05

    Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a model fuel representative of entities in tobacco, coal, and lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wornat, M.J.; Ledesma, E.B.; Marsh, N.D. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2001-10-09

    In order to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from complex fuels, we have performed pyrolysis experiments in a laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (Ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in tobacco, coal and wood. Employing high pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible (UV) detection, we have unequivocally identified 59 individual species among the condensed-phase products of catechol pyrolysis at a temperature of 1000{degree}C and a residence time of 0.4 s. Also identified are two oxygen-containing compounds that are produced only at pyrolysis temperatures lower than 900{degree}C. Of the total 61 species, fifty have never before been identified as pyrolysis products of any pure phenol type compound. Two of the catechol pyrolysis products, 5-ethynylacenaphthylene and 3-ethynylphenanthrene, have never before been identified as products of any fuel. Ranging in size from one to eight fused aromatic rings, the catechol pyrolysis products comprise several compound classes: bi-aryls, indene benzologues, benzenoid PAH, alkylated aromatics, fluoranthene benzologues, cyclopenta-fused PAH, ethynyl-substituted aromatics, polyacetylenes, and oxygen-containing aromatics. The catechol pyrolysis products bear remarkable compositional similarity to the products of bituminous coal volatiles pyrolyzed at the same temperature - demonstrating the relevance of these catechol model compound experiments to the study of complex fuels such as coal, wood and tobacco. The UV spectra, establishing compound identity, are presented for several of the identified catechol product components. 70 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Genetic architecture of natural variation in cuticular hydrocarbon composition in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Böröczky, Katalin; Huang, Wen; Schal, Coby; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-11-14

    Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) prevent desiccation and serve as chemical signals that mediate social interactions. Drosophila melanogaster CHCs have been studied extensively, but the genetic basis for individual variation in CHC composition is largely unknown. We quantified variation in CHC profiles in the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and identified novel CHCs. We used principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs that explain the majority of CHC variation and identified polymorphisms in or near 305 and 173 genes in females and males, respectively, associated with variation in these PCs. In addition, 17 DGRP lines contain the functional Desat2 allele characteristic of African and Caribbean D. melanogaster females (more 5,9-C27:2 and less 7,11-C27:2, female sex pheromone isomers). Disruption of expression of 24 candidate genes affected CHC composition in at least one sex. These genes are associated with fatty acid metabolism and represent mechanistic targets for individual variation in CHC composition.

  2. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  3. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  4. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-07

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics.

  5. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  6. Structure and chemical composition of hydrocarbons from semicoking tar of lignites from the near-Moscow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Antonio, T.Z.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Platonova, M.V.; Shvykin, A.Y. [Lev Tolstoi State Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    Hydrocarbons from semicoking tar of lignites from the near-Moscow fields were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the molecular and hypothetical structural formulae of the components were determined. A genetic relationship between the components and the initial biological material was revealed. A contribution of `primary` hydrocarbons to formation of the qualitative composition of tars obtained by high-temperature processing of lignites was demonstrated.

  7. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  8. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  9. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Hydrocarbon raw emission characterization of a direct-injection spark ignition engine operated with alcohol and furan-based bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewes, Matthias [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Mauermann, Peter; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Research, Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis

    2013-06-01

    Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass'' the impact of various potential bio fuels on engine combustion is studied. Besides alcohols, furan-based bio fuels have come into the focus with novel production routes to transform biomass into 2-Methylfuran or 2,5-Dimethylfuran. In the present study, the influence of these and other bio fuels on the hydrocarbon raw emission spectrum of a direct-injection spark-ignition single cylinder engine is studied experimentally by means of gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic analysis of exhaust gas samples. The results obtained are compared to operation with conventional EN 228 gasoline fuel. This fuel showed slip of partially carcinogenic aromatic fuel molecule(s) in warm and in cold engine conditions. For the bio fuels, slip was found to be significant for the alcohol fuels. The carcinogenic molecule 1,3-Butadiene was present in the exhaust gas of all fuels. Furan as another possibly carcinogenic molecule was found at significantly higher concentrations in the exhaust gas of the furan-based bio fuels compared to conventional gasoline fuel but not in the exhaust gas of the alcohol fuels. (orig.)

  11. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  12. Synthesis and sintering of UN-UO2 fuel composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Brian J.; Watkins, Jennifer; Croteau, Joseph R.; Alanko, Gordon A.; Tyburska-Püschel, Beata; Meyer, Mitch; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward J.; Butt, Darryl P.

    2015-11-01

    The design and development of an economical, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for use in the current light water reactor (LWR) fleet is highly desirable for the future of nuclear power. Uranium mononitride has been identified as an alternative fuel with higher uranium density and thermal conductivity when compared to the benchmark, UO2, which could also provide significant economic benefits. However, UN by itself reacts with water at reactor operating temperatures. In order to reduce its reactivity, the addition of UO2 to UN has been suggested. In order to avoid carbon impurities, UN was synthesized from elemental uranium using a hydride-dehydride-nitride thermal synthesis route prior to mixing with up to 10 wt% UO2 in a planetary ball mill. UN and UN - UO2 composite pellets were sintered in Ar - (0-1 at%) N2 to study the effects of nitrogen concentration on the evolved phases and microstructure. UN and UN-UO2 composite pellets were also sintered in Ar - 100 ppm N2 to assess the effects of temperature (1700-2000 °C) on the final grain morphology and phase concentration.

  13. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  14. Neutronic and thermal analysis of composite fuel for potential deployment in fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Jaoude, Abdalla; Thomas, Colin; Erickson, Anna, E-mail: erickson@gatech.edu

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic and heat transfer performance of composite fuels on the macro-scale. • Methodology to guide flexible fuel design using high fidelity simulation tools. • Viability of composite fuels for ultra-high burnup fast reactor deployment. - Abstract: Composite fuels are promising candidates for high-burnup fast reactors because of their accommodation of swelling, limited fuel-cladding interactions and flexibility in design. While a proof-of-concept fuel consisting of granules of U-alloys and PuO{sub 2} dispersed within a porous zirconium matrix was successfully manufactured and irradiated, its neutronic and thermal performance remains to be optimized as compared to currently utilized fuels. MCNP6, COMSOL and a sphere packing algorithm were employed to perform the analysis. We found that both the theoretical maximum burnup reached and the temperature profiles are comparable to that of the currently considered alternative fuel. The results are promising and do not indicate any substantial limitation to the deployment of composite fuel. The fuel type merits further research, including full-core simulations. The methodology followed herein also provides a basis for screening different material compositions and guiding materials selection in composite fuels.

  15. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  16. Atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures. Pt. 3. Fuels for combustion engines; Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische. T. 3. Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, H.G. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The justification paper atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures, part 3 - ``fuels for combustion engines`` (gasolines, diesel fuel and kerosene) is currently in preparation. This third part gives information on industrial hygiene regarding the different fuels and describes the application of atmospheric limiting values for fuels. The article offers information on industrial hygiene regarding Otto engine fuel and aviation fuel, which needs to be taken into account in discussions concerning the laying down of atmospheric limiting values. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Das Begruendungspapier Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische Teil 3 `Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren` (Gasoline, Dieselkraftstoff und Kerosin) ist z.Z. in Vorbereitung. In diesem dritten Teil werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu den verschiedenen Kraftstoffen gegeben und die Anwendung der Luftgrenzwerte fuer Kraftstoffe beschrieben. Im folgenden werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu Ottokraftstoff und Avgas gegeben, die es bei den Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich der Festlegung eines Luftgrenzwertes zu beruecksichtigen gilt. (orig./ABI)

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source an

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269224742; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source

  19. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  20. Understanding of Electrochemical Mechanisms for CO2 Capture and Conversion into Hydrocarbon Fuels in Transition-Metal Carbides (MXenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Neng; Chen, Xingzhu; Ong, Wee-Jun; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Zhao, Xiujian; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sun, Chenghua

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal (groups IV, V, VI) carbides (MXenes) with formulas M3C2 have been investigated as CO2 conversion catalysts with well-resolved density functional theory calculations. While MXenes from the group IV to VI series have demonstrated an active behavior for the capture of CO2, the Cr3C2 and Mo3C2 MXenes exhibit the most promising CO2 to CH4 selective conversion capabilities. Our results predicted the formation of OCHO(•) and HOCO(•) radical species in the early hydrogenation steps through spontaneous reactions. This provides atomic level insights into the computer-aided screening for high-performance catalysts and the understanding of electrochemical mechanisms for CO2 reduction to energy-rich hydrocarbon fuels, which is of fundamental significance to elucidate the elementary steps for CO2 fixation.

  1. Numerical heat transfer analysis of transcritical hydrocarbon fuel flow in a tube partially filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon fuel has been widely used in air-breathing scramjets and liquid rocket engines as coolant and propellant. However, possible heat transfer deterioration and threats from local high heat flux area in scramjet make heat transfer enhancement essential. In this work, 2-D steady numerical simulation was carried out to study different schemes of heat transfer enhancement based on a partially filled porous media in a tube. Both boundary and central layouts were analyzed and effects of gradient porous media were also compared. The results show that heat transfer in the transcritical area is enhanced at least 3 times with the current configuration compared to the clear tube. Besides, the proper use of gradient porous media also enhances the heat transfer compared to homogenous porous media, which could help to avoid possible over-temperature in the thermal protection.

  2. Optimization of fuels from waste composition with application of genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Wzorek

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to elaborate a method to optimize the composition of the fuels from sewage sludge (PBS fuel - fuel based on sewage sludge and coal slime, PBM fuel - fuel based on sewage sludge and meat and bone meal, PBT fuel - fuel based on sewage sludge and sawdust). As a tool for an optimization procedure, the use of a genetic algorithm is proposed. The optimization task involves the maximization of mass fraction of sewage sludge in a fuel developed on the basis of quality-based criteria for the use as an alternative fuel used by the cement industry. The selection criteria of fuels composition concerned such parameters as: calorific value, content of chlorine, sulphur and heavy metals. Mathematical descriptions of fuel compositions and general forms of the genetic algorithm, as well as the obtained optimization results are presented. The results of this study indicate that the proposed genetic algorithm offers an optimization tool, which could be useful in the determination of the composition of fuels that are produced from waste.

  3. Dilution effects on the controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion of hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, A.; Zhao, H.; Ma, T.; Ladommatos, N

    2001-01-01

    Copyright © 2001 SAE International. This paper is posted on this site with permission from SAE International. Further use of this paper is not permitted without permission from SAE This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This wor...

  4. Study of the Effect of Hydrocarbon Type Biodegradation on Fuel Specification Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    storage tanks, pipelines, and aircraft wing tanks. JP-8, Jet A-1, Jet A, and F-76, are kerosene or diesel distillate products that can serve as a...conditions since additives are replaced when a tank is refilled with fuel. 5) trace contamination of jet fuel with fatty acid methyl esters or FAMEs...in pumps and at other high friction surfaces (Stamper et al., 2012). Because kerosene and diesel distillate products may serve as food and energy

  5. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    reaction pathways for hydrotreating [3]. Adsorptive desulfurizing units can provide low sulfur fuel for sulfur intolerant systems such as fuel...considered to be an alternative to process intensification of hydrotreating processes to cope with tightening sulfur regulations which calls for higher...remove the sulfur species that represent the hardest species to hydrotreat may be operated in tandem to traditional hydrotreating units. Large scale

  6. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun, E-mail: o.adelaja@my.westminster.ac.uk; Keshavarz, Tajalli, E-mail: t.keshavarz@westminster.ac.uk; Kyazze, Godfrey, E-mail: g.kyazze@westminster.ac.uk

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m{sup 2} maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m{sup 2}, 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  7. Predictions of the product compositions for combustion or gasification of biomass and others hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Hendrick Maxil Zarate; Itai, Yuu; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Moraes, Sinfronio Brito; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: hendrick@ufpa.br; yuuitai@ufpa.br; mfmn@ufpa.br; sbrito@ufpa.br; brigida@ufpa.br

    2008-07-01

    Processes involving combustion and gasification are object of study of many researchers. To simulate these processes in a detailed way, it is necessary to solve equations for chemical kinetics whose resolution many times is difficult due lack of information in the literature a simples way to bypass tis problem is due the chemical equilibrium. Prediction of the flu gases composition through chemical equilibrium is an important step in the mathematical modelling for gasification and combustion processes. Some free programs exists to solve problems that involve the chemical equilibrium, such as STANJAN, CEA, GASEQ, CANTERA and others.These programs have difficulty for cases involving fuel such as: biomass, vegetable oils, biodiesel, natural gas, etc., because they do not have database with the fuel composition and is hard to supply their HHV and their elementary analysis. In this work, using numeric methods, a program was developed to predict the gases composition on equilibrium after combustion and gasification processes with the for constant pressure or volume. In the program the chemical formula of the fuel is defined as C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z}N{sub w}S{sub v}A{sub u} that reacts with an gaseous oxidizer composed by O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar, He, CO{sub 2} e H{sub 2}O to have as final result the composition of the products CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, H, OH, O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Ar, He, and ash. To verify the accuracy of the calculated values, it was compared with the program CEA (developed by NASA) and with experimental data obtained from literature. (author)

  8. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  9. Compositional evolution of the emplaced fuel source in the vadose zone field experiment at airbase Vaerlose, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Christophersen, Mette; Maier, U.;

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was performed in a sandy vadose zone, studying the fate of an emplaced fuel-NAPL source, composed of 13 hydrocarbons and a tracer. The UNIFAC model was used to test the nonideal behavior of the source, and the numerical model MIN3P was used for assessing the effect of biodegrad......A field experiment was performed in a sandy vadose zone, studying the fate of an emplaced fuel-NAPL source, composed of 13 hydrocarbons and a tracer. The UNIFAC model was used to test the nonideal behavior of the source, and the numerical model MIN3P was used for assessing the effect...... of biodegradation on source evolution. The diffusive loss to the surrounding vadose zone and the atmosphere created temporary gradients in mole fractions of the individual compounds within the source NAPL. The evolution of the source composition corresponded in general with expectations based on Raoult's Law....... Positive deviations were calculated for the aromatic compounds. The effect of biodegradation on source depletion, evaluated by numerical modeling, was greater for the aromatic as compared to the aliphatic compounds. Hence, the faster depletion of the aromatic relative to aliphatic compounds of similar...

  10. Catalytic conversion of palm oil over mesoporous aluminosilicate MCM-41 for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twaiq, Farouq A.; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, SPS, Pinang (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Sri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2003-11-15

    The catalytic cracking of palm oil to liquid hydrocarbon fuels was studied in a fixed bed micro-reactor operated at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2.5 h{sup -1} over the synthesized mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 materials. Mesoporous aluminosilicate with Si/Al ratio of 50 was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Different pore sizes were obtained by changing the type of template and organic directing agent (ODA) used. The synthesized materials were characterized using various analytical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, inductive coupled plasma (ICP), MAS NMR, FTIR and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The materials exhibit a crystalline structure of MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves with surface area varying from 550 to 1200 m{sup 2}/g and an average pore size (APS) ranging from 1.8 to 2.8 nm. The synthesized MCM-41 catalysts show high activity for palm oil cracking. The conversion of palm kernel oil, lower-molecular-weight oil, was higher as compared to higher-molecular-weight, palm olein oil. MCM-41 materials were selective for the formation of linear hydrocarbons, particularly, C{sub 13} when palm kernel oil was used and C{sub 17} when palm olein oil was fed. The yield of liquid product decreased with the increase of surface area of the catalyst. The gasoline selectivity increased whereas diesel selectivity decreased with the conversion of palm oil.

  11. Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants:Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-ping; ZHENG Chun-miao

    2004-01-01

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  12. Substrate marking by an invasive ladybeetle: seasonal changes in hydrocarbon composition and behavioral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Durieux

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals use hydrocarbon markings deposited on surfaces by conspecifics to orient toward aggregation sites. In the current study, monthly GC-MS analyses revealed seasonal modifications in the chemical profile of substrate markings deposited by moving individuals. The markings of overwintering ladybeetles contained larger proportions of heptacosadiene, nonacosadiene, hentriacontadienes, and methyl-nonacosanes, along with a lower proportion of heptacosene and nonacosene. This finding suggests the importance of the unsaturated and/or branched hydrocarbons in the H. axyridis aggregation process. Subsequently, we conducted behavioral assays to test whether (1 there is seasonal variation in the behavioral response of H. axyridis individuals toward substrate markings deposited by conspecifics in the same physiological state and (2 the observed behavioral modification is due to a change in ladybeetle sensitivity and/or a change in the chemical composition of the substrate marking. The results indicate that overwintering individuals exhibit a stronger "following" response toward conspecific substrate markings. This behavior is linked to both the physiological state of ladybeetles and the specific chemical profile of the marking biomolecules deposited under overwintering conditions.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in soils and sediments of high altitude lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Ribes, Alejandra; Fernandez, Pilar; Appleby, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lake sediments and nearby soils of two European high mountain regions, Pyrenees and Tatra, have been studied. Similar mixtures of parent PAH were observed in all cases, indicating predominance of airborne transported combustion products. Nevertheless, the composition of these atmospherically long-range transported PAH was better preserved in the superficial layers of soils than sediments. This difference points to significant PAH degradation process, e.g. during lake water column transport, before accumulation in the latter. Post-depositional transformation was also different in both types of environmental compartments. Thus, lake sediments exhibit higher preservation of the more labile PAH involving lower degree of post-depositional oxidation. However, they also show the formation of major amounts of perylene by diagenetic transformation in the deep sections. This compound is not formed in soils where downcore enrichments of phenanthrene are observed, probably as a consequence of diagenetic aromatization of diterpenoids.

  14. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh).

  15. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: A Catalogue of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classified as toxicants in many of the substances to which humans are exposed are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Such exposures include air pollutants from a variety of sources, foodstuffs and beverages, and tobacco smoke. Since the early 1950s, the composition of the latter has been more completely defined than that of any other consumer product. Nearly 4800 components have been identified in tobacco smoke and among these are over 500 PAHs either completely or partially identified. Because of the tumorigenicity of many PAHs, much research has been conducted in attempts to define the relationship between the PAH structures and their specific tumorigenicities in laboratory animals. None of the theories to date completely answers all the questions.

  16. Nafion®/H-ZSM-5 composite membranes with superior performance for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Mustafa Hakan; Curos, Anna Roca; Motuzas, Julius; Julbe, Anne; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Solution cast composite direct methanol fuel cell membranes (DEZ) based on DE2020 Nafion® dispersion and in-house prepared H-ZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios were prepared and thoroughly characterized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. All composite membranes have indeed l

  17. Predicting fuel research octane number using Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectra of neat hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Shane R; Cannella, William J; Hagen, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Liquid transportation fuels require costly and time-consuming tests to characterize metrics, such as Research Octane Number (RON) for gasoline. If fuel sale restrictions requiring use of standard Cooperative Fuel Research testing procedures do not apply, these tests may be avoided by using multivariate statistical models to predict RON and other quantities. Here we show that an accurate statistical model for the RON of gasoline and gasoline-like fuels can be constructed by ensuring the representation of key functional groups in the spectroscopic data set are used to train the model. We found that a principal component regression model for RON based on IR absorbance and informed using neat and 134 mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol, methylcyclohexane, and 1-hexene could predict RON for the 10 Coordinating Research Council Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) gasolines and 12 FACE gasoline blends with ethanol within 34.8+/-36.1 on average and 51.2 in the worst case. We next studied the ef...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITE FUEL ON DIESEL OPERATION IN IDLE MODE

    OpenAIRE

    Godina, E.; Ukhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Unfavorable condition of the diesel engine is a separate idle mode, which is characterized by incomplete combustion, wasteful fuel consumption and increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. To evaluate the feasibility of using radish oil (RadishO) as the biological component of the diesel composite fuel (DCF) the experimental studies of tractor diesel engine D-243 at idle were conducted and the degree of the effect of different composition of radish and mineral fuel on eco...

  19. Understanding the role of multifunctional nanoengineered particulate additives on supercritical pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyung Sub

    This dissertation aims to understand the fundamental effects of colloidal nanostructured materials on the supercritical pyrolysis, injection, ignition, and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants. As a fuel additive, functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) without or with the decoration of metal catalysts, such as platinum (Pt) or polyoxometalates (POM) nanoparticles, were examined against conventional materials including nanometer sized fumed silica and aluminum particles. Supercritical pyrolysis experiments were performed as a function of temperature, residence time, and particle type, using a high pressure and temperature flow reactor designed to provide isothermal and isobaric flow conditions. Supercritical pyrolysis results showed that the addition of FGS-based particles at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw increased the conversion rates and reduced apparent activation energies for methylcyclohexane (MCH) and n-dodecane (n-C12H26) fuels. For example, conversion rates, and formations of C1-C5 n-alkanes and C2-C6 1-alkenes were significantly increased by 43.5 %, 59.1 %, and 50.0 % for MCH decomposition using FGS 19 (50 ppmw) at a temperature of 820 K and reduced pressure of 1.36. In addition, FGS decorated with 20 wt % Pt (20wt%Pt FGS) at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw exhibited additional enhancement in the conversion rate of n-C12H26 by up to 24.0 % compared to FGS. Especially, FGS-based particles seem to alter initiation mechanisms, which could result in higher hydrogen formation. Hydrogen selectivities for both MCH and n-C12H26 decompositions were observed to increase by nearly a factor of 2 and 10, respectively. Supercritical injection and combustion experiments were conducted using a high pressure and temperature windowed combustion chamber coupled to the flow reactor through a feed system. Supercritical injection/combustion experiments indicated that the presence of a small amount of particles (100 ppmw) in the fuel affected the injection, ignition

  20. An Overview of the Bathymetry and Composition of Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas from the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Poggiali, V.; Seu, R.; Hofgartner, J. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Le Gall, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR's altimetry mode has been successfully used for probing the depth and composition of Titan's hydrocarbons seas. In May 2013, during the spacecraft's 91stflyby of Titan (T91), the instrument demonstrates its capabilities as a radar sounder, presenting a unique opportunity to constrain direct measurements of the depth and composition of Titan's second largest sea, Ligeia Mare. Later, observations of Kraken Mare and Punga Mare were planned and executed in August 2014 (T104) and January 2015 (T108), respectively. While most of the seafloor was not detected at Kraken, suggesting the sea was either too deep or too absorptive in these areas to observe a return from the seafloor, shallow areas near Moray Sinus did return subsurface detections. At Punga Mare, a clear detection of the subsurface was observed with a maximum depth of 120 m along the interrogated track of the sea. We will present an analysis of all three altimetric observations of Titan's mare, as well a re-analysis of altimetry data acquired over southern Ontario Lacus. Depths measurements and liquid composition are obtained using a novel technique which makes use of radar simulations and Monte Carlo based inversions. Finally, we will show that the estimates obtained from the direct measurements described above can be used along with the RADAR's active (i.e. Synthetic Aperture Radar) and passive (Radiometry) modes to generate bathymetry maps of areas not observed by altimetry.

  1. A fundamental investigation into the relationship between lubricant composition and fuel ignition quality

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole Abiola

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental experiment involving the use of an ignition quality tester (IQT) was carried out to elucidate the effects of lubricant oil composition which could lead to low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) processes in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Prior to the IQT tests, lubricant base oils were analyzed using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry to reveal their molecular composition. High molecular-weight hydrocarbons such as nC16H34, nC17H36, and nC18H38 were selected as surrogates of lubricant base oil constituents, and then mixed with iso-octane (iC8H18-gasoline surrogate) in proportions of 1 vol.% (iC8H18 = 99 vol.%) and 10 vol.% (iC8H18 = 90 vol.%) for the IQT experiments. In addition, lubricant base oils such as SN100 (Group I) and HC4 and HC6 (Group III) and a fully formulated lubricant (SAE 20W50) were mixed with iso-octane in the same proportions. The IQT results were conducted at an ambient pressure of 15 bar and a temperature range of 680-873 K. In the temperature range of 710-850 K, the addition of 10 vol.% base oils surrogates, base oils, and lubricating oil to the 90 vol.% iC8H18 reduces the average total ignition delay time by up to 54% for all mixtures, while the addition of 1 vol.% to 99 vol.% iC8H18 yielded a 7% reduction within the same temperature range. The shorter total ignition delay was attributed to the higher reactivity of the lubricant base oil constituents in the fuel mixtures. A correlation between reactivity of base oils and their molecular composition was tentatively established. These results suggest that the lubricants have the propensity of initiating LSPI in DISI engines. Furthermore, similar results for n-alkanes, lubricant base oils, and fully formulated commercial lubricants suggest that it is the hydrocarbon fraction that contributes

  2. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  3. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  4. Specific features of ignition and flameholding of hydrocarbon fuels in high-speed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the results of experimental investigations of a supersonic combustion chamber with solid and discrete cavities at the entrance Mach numbers of 3 and 3.5. Kerosene and propane were used as fuel. The conditions required for self-ignition and intense combustion of the fuels were determined. The possibility of efficient combustion in a supersonic flow was demonstrated. Analysis of applicability of existing criteria predicting the conditions of self-ignition and extinction of combustion has been performed based on the experimental results obtained.

  5. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  6. A quantum chemistry study on thermochemical properties of high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Hu-Jun; Yue, Lei; Lu, Xiao-Xing; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2014-04-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level have been performed to explore the molecular structure, electronic structure, C-H bond dissociation enthalpy, and reaction enthalpies for five isodesmic reactions of a high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10. On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the carbonium ion C-6 isomer formed from the catalytic cracking at the C₆ site of JP-10 has the lowest energy, and the R-5 radical generated from the thermal cracking at the C₅ site of JP-10 is the most stable isomer. Furthermore, a series of hypothetical and isodesmic work reactions containing similar bond environments are used to calculate the reaction enthalpies for target compounds. For the same isodesmic reaction, the reaction enthalpy of each carbon site radical has also been calculated. The present work is of fundamental significance and strategic importance to provide some valuable insights into the component design and energy utilization of advanced endothermic fuels.

  7. The effect of fuel composition on the formation of photochemical smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, R.K. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Energy Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    The high level of solar radiation, moderate to high ambient temperatures and increasing vehicle density have resulted in an increasing number of incidents of photochemical smog in Cape Town. Whilst the situation has not reached levels reported from many cities around the world there is concern that photochemical smog may become a serious pollution problem. Work has started on a characterization of the photochemical smog and to determine what measures will be required to limit photochemical smog. The work has consisted of the monitoring of ambient levels of photochemical precursors such as hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, and measurement of ozone. In addition to continuous monitoring by the Cape Town City Council some measurements have been made of PAN and other components of photochemical smog. In addition a study is being carried out of the composition of a brown haze which envelopes CaPe Town during spring and autumn under strong inversion episodes. In addition to ambient monitoring, work is being carried out on the effect of vehicle emissions and fuel evaporation on the formation of photochemical smog. This work involves the formation of photochemical smog in an indoor smog chamber in which exhaust emissions and volatile organic compounds are tested in terms of their photochemical smog tendency. This work is aimed at estimating the effect of increasing precursor levels on the potential photochemical smog situation in Cape Town

  8. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time.

  9. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  10. Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

  11. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  12. Production of hydrocarbons by Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Malavika; Sørensen, Annette; Ahamed, Aftab; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus, Asperigillus carbonarius, is able to produce a series of hydrocarbons in liquid culture using lignocellulosic biomasses, such as corn stover and switch grass as carbon source. The hydrocarbons produced by the fungus show similarity to jet fuel composition and might have industrial application. The production of hydrocarbons was found to be dependent on type of media used. Therefore, ten different carbon sources (oat meal, wheat bran, glucose, carboxymethyl cellulose, avicel, xylan, corn stover, switch grass, pretreated corn stover, and pretreated switch grass) were tested to identify the maximum number and quantity of hydrocarbons produced. Several hydrocarbons were produced include undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane 2,4-dimethylhexane, 4-methylheptane, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl benzene, o-xylene. Oatmeal was found to be the carbon source resulting in the largest amounts of hydrocarbon products. The production of fungal hydrocarbons, especially from lignocellulosic biomasses, holds a great potential for future biofuel production whenever our knowledge on regulators and pathways increases.

  13. Effects of Fuel Composition on Combustion Stability and NO X Emissions for Traditional and Alternative Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijlee, Shazib Z.

    Synthetic jet fuels are studied to help understand their viability as alternatives to traditionally derived jet fuel. Two combustion parameters -- flame stability and NOX emissions -- are used to compare these fuels through experiments and models. At its core, this is a fuels study comparing how chemical makeup and behavior relate. Six 'real', complex fuels are studied in this work -- four are synthetic from alternative sources and two are traditional from petroleum sources. Two of the synthetic fuels are derived from natural gas and coal via the Fischer Tropsch catalytic process. The other two are derived from Camelina oil and tallow via hydroprocessing. The traditional military jet fuel, JP8, is used as a baseline as it is derived from petroleum. The sixth fuel is derived from petroleum and is used to study the effects of aromatic content on the synthetic fuels. The synthetic fuels lack aromatic compounds, which are an important class of hydrocarbons necessary for fuel handling systems to function properly. Several single-component fuels are studied (through models and/or experiments) to facilitate interpretation and understanding. The flame stability study first compares all the 'real', complex fuels for blowout. A toroidal stirred reactor is used to try and isolate temperature and chemical effects. The modeling study of blowout in the toroidal reactor is the key to understanding any fuel-based differences in blowout behavior. A detailed, reacting CFD model of methane is used to understand how the reactor stabilizes the flame and how that changes as the reactor approaches blowout. A 22 species reduced form of GRI 3.0 is used to model methane chemistry. The knowledge of the radical species role is utilized to investigate the differences between a highly aliphatic fuel (surrogated by iso-octane) and a highly aromatic fuel (surrogated by toluene). A perfectly stirred reactor model is used to study the chemical kinetic pathways for these fuels near blowout. The

  14. Permeation Characteristics of Light Hydrocarbons Through Poly(amide-6-β-ethylene oxide) Multilayer Composite Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiaoling; REN Jizhong; LI Hui; DENG Maicun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,poly(amide-6-β-ethylene oxide) (PEBA1657) copolymer was used to prepare multilayer polyetherimide (PEI)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/PEBA1657/PDMS composite membranes by dip-coating method.Permeation behaviors of ethylene,ethane,propylene,propane,n-butane,methane and nitrogen through the multilayer composite membranes were investigated over a range of operating temperature and pressure.The permeances of light hydrocarbons through PEI/PDMS/PEBA1657/PDMS composite membranes increase with their increasing condensability,and the olefins are more permeable than their corresponding paraffins.For light hydrocarbons,the gas permeances increase significantly as temperature increasing.When the transmembrane pressure difference increases,the gas permeance increases moderately due to plasticization effect,while their apparent activation energies for permeation decrease.

  15. Combustion of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Fuels and JP-8 at Moderate Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    corresponding results for methane, ethane, and ethylene , were obtained as well the effects of different reaction rates on comparisons between... ethylene , as well as showing the effects of different reaction rates on comparisons between predictions and measurements for all of the fuels tested. There...displacement effects imply that however an oxidizer -side strain rate may be defined, any correct value will be significantly greater than could be

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems with integrated reforming or gasification of hydrocarbons; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-Systeme mit integrierter Reformierung bzw. Vergasung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitzberger, Christian

    2012-07-01

    hydrocarbons as fuel are simulated. The simulation results serve as base for the final evaluation of the stack- and system-design concerning operation and feasibility and show the capability of the concept to meet the demands listed above as high electrical system-efficiencies up to 70% and nearly efficiency-neutral CO{sub 2}-separation. [German] In der Arbeit werden innovative Konzepte fuer baulich, thermisch und stofflich hochintegrierte oxidkeramische Brennstoffzellen (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC))-Systeme mit optionaler CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung entwickelt und untersucht. Zunaechst erfolgt die Ausarbeitung von Moeglichkeiten zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung, wie die Verschaltung der Gaserzeugungseinheit mit der Brennstoffzelle nach dem Prinzip der chemischen Waermepumpe oder die serielle elektrische Verschaltung der Einzelzellen. Diese Optionen werden anschliessend bezueglich ihrer thermodynamischen Grenzen, wie maximal erzielbare Wirkungsgrade oder maximal moeglicher interner Abwaermenutzung, evaluiert. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt unter Beachtung des Stands der Technik eine methodische Konzeption und Konstruktion eines SOFC-Systems, bei dem Reformierungsreaktor, Brennstoffzelle sowie die thermische Gaskonditionierung in einem Stack-Modul vereint sind. Diese Grundeinheit kann den Anwendungs-, Betriebs-und Brennstoffanforderungen angepasst werden und stellt aufgrund des hohen baulichen Integrationsgrades sowie der nur geringen Anzahl an zusaetzlich benoetigten peripheren Komponenten ein sehr kompaktes System dar. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt die mathematische Modeliierung der entsprechenden Systemkomponenten sowie die Modellimplementierung in das institutseigene, C++ basierte Kreislaufsimulationsprogramm ENBIPRO (Energie-Bilanz-Programm). Mittels der mathematischen Modelle werden SOFC-Systeme basierend auf dem entwickelten integrierten Stack-und System-Konzept fuer verschiedene Brennstoffe und Systemverschaltungen simuliert. Die Simulationsergebnisse dienen als Grundlage fuer

  17. Calculation of Free-Atom Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satyajit

    2006-01-01

    Free atom fractions (Beta) of nine elements are calculated in the exhaust plume of CH4- oxygen and RP-1-oxygen fueled rocket engines using free energy minimization method. The Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) computer program developed by the Glenn Research Center, NASA is used for this purpose. Data on variation of Beta in both fuels as a function of temperature (1600 K - 3100 K) and oxygen to fuel ratios (1.75 to 2.25 by weight) is presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Recommendation is made for the Beta value for a tenth element, Palladium. The CEA computer code was also run to compare with experimentally determined Beta values reported in literature for some of these elements. A reasonable agreement, within a factor of three, between the calculated and reported values is observed. Values reported in this work will be used as a first approximation for pilot rocket engine testing studies at the Stennis Space Center for at least six elements Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni - until experimental values are generated. The current estimates will be improved when more complete thermodynamic data on the remaining four elements Ag, Co, Mn and Pd are added to the database. A critique of the CEA code is also included.

  18. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20-50°C), salinity (0.5-2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40°C compared to MFC performance at 30°C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50°C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40°C was 1.15 mW/m(2) maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m(2), 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  19. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  20. Economic implications of incorporating emission controls to mitigate air pollutants emitted from a modeled hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery in the United States: Economic implications of air emission controls for a hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-07-15

    The implementation of the US Renewable Fuel Standard is expected to increase the construction and operation of new biofuel facilities. Allowing this industry to grow without adversely affecting air quality is an important sustainability goal sought by multiple stakeholders. However, little is known about how the emission controls potentially required to comply with air quality regulations might impact biorefinery cost and deployment strategies such as siting and sizing. In this study, we use a baseline design for a lignocellulosic hydrocarbon biofuel production process to assess how the integration of emission controls impacts the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of the biofuel produced. We evaluate the change in MFSP for two cases as compared to the baseline design by incorporating (i) emission controls that ensure compliance with applicable federal air regulations and (ii) advanced control options that could be used to achieve potential best available control technology (BACT) emission limits. Our results indicate that compliance with federal air regulations can be achieved with minimal impact on biofuel cost (~$0.02 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) higher than the baseline price of $5.10 GGE-1). However, if air emissions must be further reduced to meet potential BACT emission limits, the cost could increase nontrivially. For example, the MFSP could increase to $5.50 GGE-1 by adopting advanced emission controls to meet potential boiler BACT limits. Given tradeoffs among emission control costs, permitting requirements, and economies of scale, these results could help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing and mitigate risks associated with air permitting.

  1. Emission rates and comparative chemical composition from selected in-use diesel and gasoline-fueled vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; McDonald, Jacob D; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R

    2004-09-01

    Emission samples for toxicity testing and detailed chemical characterization were collected from a variety of gasoline- and diesel-fueled in-use vehicles operated on the Unified Driving Cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Gasoline vehicles included normal particle mass (particulate matter [PM]) emitters (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F), "black" and "white" smokers, and a new-technology vehicle (tested at 72 degrees F). Diesel vehicles included current-technology vehicles (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F) and a high PM emitter. Total PM emission rates ranged from below 3 mg/mi up to more than 700 mg/mi for the white smoker gasoline vehicle. Emission rates of organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), elements (metals and associated analytes), ions, and a variety of particulate and semi-volatile organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], nitro-PAH, oxy-PAH, hopanes, and steranes) are reported for these vehicles. Speciated organic analysis also was conducted on the fuels and lube oils obtained from these vehicles after the emissions testing. The compositions of emissions were highly dependent on the fuel type (gasoline vs. diesel), the state of vehicle maintenance (low, average, or high emitters; white or black smokers), and ambient conditions (i.e., temperature) of the vehicles. Fuel and oil analyses from these vehicles showed that oil served as a repository for combustion byproducts (e.g., PAH), and oil-burning gasoline vehicles emitted PAH in higher concentrations than did other vehicles. These PAH emissions matched the PAH compositions observed in oil.

  2. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column.

  3. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  4. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  5. Stabilized composite membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for high temperature/low relative humidity polymer electrolyte fuel cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Vijay Krishna

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have a variety of applications in the stationary power, mobile power and automotive power sectors. Existing membrane technology presently permits fuel cell operation at temperatures less than 100°C under fully saturated conditions. However, several advantages such as easier heat rejection rates and improved impurities tolerance by the anode electrocatalyst result by operating a PEMFC at elevated temperatures (above 100°C) and lower relative humidities. In an attempt to extend the operating range of the polymer electrolyte membrane, perfluorosulfonic acid (NafionRTM) based organic/inorganic (heteropolyacid) composite membranes were investigated in terms of thermal and electrochemical stability, additive stability and conductivity. Tungsten based heteropolyacids (HPAs) were found to be electrochemically stable as opposed to molybdenum based additives. The stability of the inorganic heteropolyacid additive in aqueous environments was enhanced by ion exchanging the protons of the HPAs with larger counter ions. An additional stabilization technique developed involved improving the interaction of HPA with NafionRTM by linking the particles to the sulfonic acid clusters via a sol-gel induced metal oxide linkage. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes was found to depend on the particle size of the HPA additive. A two order of magnitude change in additive particle size was attained by modification of the membrane preparation technique. This modification resulted in a nearly 50% increase in conductivity. The membranes prepared were characterized by thermal analysis, spectroscopy and microscopy. A technique was developed to incorporate existing MEA preparation and HPA stabilization techniques to the composite membranes with small HPA particles. All MEAs prepared were evaluated at high temperatures (120°C) and low relative humidities (35%) in an operating fuel cell, with membrane resistance and hence conductivity

  6. 40 CFR 94.108 - Test fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Table B-5—Federal Test Fuel Specifications Item Procedure 1 Value Cetane ASTM D 613-01 40-48... Flashpoint, °C ASTM D 93-02 54 minimum Gravity, API ASTM D 287-92 32-37 Hydrocarbon composition: Aromatics... 2 engines without exhaust aftertreatment obtained using a diesel fuel containing more than 0.40...

  7. A Simulator for a Hydrocarbon Ramrocket Fuel Gas Generator - First Phase Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Gas & Fuel Corporation of Vic., Manager Scientific Services SEC of Vic., Herman Research Laboratory...EXHAUST SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS 8 7.1 Solid Products 9 7.1.1 Probe System 9 7.1.2 Wet Filtering 9 7.1.3 Dry Filtering 10 7.2 Gaseous Products 10 7.2.1 Gas...Sampling System 10 7.2.2 Gas Chromatography 11 8. OBSERVATIONS OF TEST HARDWARE PERFORMANCE 11 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 13 9.1 Analysis of Zaccardi

  8. Chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of paraffinic hydrocarbons needed for primary reference fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is described which simulates the oxidation of the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. The high temperature subset of these mechanisms is identified, and the extensions to deal with low temperature conditions are also explained. The algorithms used to assign reaction rates to elementary steps in the reaction mechanism are described, and the means of identifying the different chemical species and the relevant reactions are outlined. Finally, we show how interested kinetic modeling researchers can obtain copies of this reaction mechanism.

  9. Bathymetry and Composition of Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas from the Cassini RADAR Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alex; Poggiali, Valerio; Lunine, Jonathan; Seu, Roberto; Hofgartner, Jason; Le Gall, Alice; Lorenz, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini RADAR's altimetry mode has been successfully used for probing the depth and composition of Titan's hydrocarbons seas. In May 2013, during the spacecraft's T91 flyby of Titan, the instrument demonstrated its capabilities as a radar sounder, presenting a unique opportunity to constraint the depth and composition of Titan's second largest sea, Ligeia Mare. Later, observations of Kraken Mare and Punga Mare were planned and executed in August 2014 (T104) and January 2015 (T108), respectively. While most of the seafloor was not detected at Kraken, suggesting the sea was either too deep or too absorptive in these areas to observe a return from the seafloor, shallow areas near Moray Sinus did show subsurface reflections. At Punga Mare, a clear detection of the subsurface was observed with a maximum depth of 120 m along the radar altimetry transect. Herein we present a re-analysis of altimetry data acquired over Ligeia Mare and, earlier in the Cassini mission (in December 2008 during T49), over the southern Ontario Lacus. Depths measurements and liquid composition are obtained using a novel technique which makes use of radar simulations and Monte Carlo-based inversions. Simulation is based on a two-layer model, where the surface is represented by a specular reflection and the seafloor is modeled using a facet-based synthetic surface, including thermal noise, speckle effects, analog to digital conversion (ADC), block adaptive quantization (BAQ), and allows for possible receiver saturation. This new analysis provides an update to the Ku-band attenuation (the Cassini RADAR operates at a wavelength of 2 cm) and results in a new estimate for loss tangent and composition. We found a value of specific attenuation of the liquid equal to 0.14±0.02 dB/m and 0.2±0.1 dB/m, which is equivalent to a loss tangent of 4.4±0.9x10^-5 and 7±3x10^-5 for Ligeia Mare and Ontario Lacus, respectively. Assuming that Titan's liquid bodies are composed by a ternary mixture of methane

  10. Mechanisms for the formation of exhaust hydrocarbons in a single cylinder spark-ignition engine, fueled with deuterium-labeled ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.; Jackson, R.A. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science; Bennett, P.J. [BP Oil, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Combustion studies in engines have investigated the chemistry leading to the formation in the exhaust of aromatic hydrocarbons from deuterium-labeled isomeric xylenes. These fuels were: ortho-xylene-d{sub 0} and ortho-xylene=d{sub 10} (1:1); para-xylene-d{sub 0} and para-xylene-d{sub 10} (1:1); and meta-xylene-2,4,5,6-d{sub 4}. Isotopic distributions within the exhausted hydrocarbons establish the postflame chemistry involved. There is an isotope effect in the consumption of residual fuel in the postflame region. The residual fuel from each experiment exhibits minimal H-D exchange. Toluene is an intermediate in the formation of ethylbenzene, and is produced through X{sup {sm_bullet}} atom (X{sup {sm_bullet}} = H or D) displacement of methyl radicals from the xylene fuel. Benzene is formed by direct demethylation, but there are other routes. Styrene from o- and p-xylene fuels is formed intramolecularly, probably involving xylylene and methylcycloheptatetraene intermediates. Ethyltoluene is formed by combination of methyl and methylbenzyl radicals.

  11. Self-doped Ti(3+)-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-28

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti(3+) into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.

  12. Quantification of compositional changes of petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and GC/MS during a long-term bioremediation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine S.; Arvin, Erik; Svensmark, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Samples from a long-term bioremediation experiment contaminated with two crude oils, Arabian Heavy and Gullfax, was used to analyze the compositional change of petroleum hydrocarbons. A time course of five different homologous series of petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed by GC/FID and GC...

  13. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  14. Hydrogen fuel for space conditioning of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, U.

    A comparative study is presented concerning the unique characteristics and relative advantages of hydrogen-air flames employed in boilers for building space heating. From the standpoint of safety, it is noted that the flammability limits of H2, at 4-75 percent in air, are far wider than the 5-15 percent of CH4. In addition to ignition characteristics, pipe sizing and storage tanks, stoichiometric fuel/air ratios, influence of fuel consumption on heating values, UV spectra, and the influence of fuel composition on fuel gas composition, are considered for a variety of hydrocarbon gas, heating oil, alcohols, and carbonaceous solid fuel alternatives to hydrogen.

  15. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  16. Exposure and size distribution of nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among the population using different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derivatives like nitrated and oxygenated PAHs are of growing concerns because of considerably higher toxicity and important roles during atmospheric chemical reactions. Residential solid fuel combustion is likely to be one large primary source of these pollutants in developing countries. In this study, inhalation exposure to nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives was evaluated among rural residents using carried samplers. The exposure levels of individual nitrated PAHs ranged from 4.04 (9-nitrated phenanthrene) to 89.8 (9-nitrated anthracene) pg/m(3), and of oxy-PAHs were 0.570 (benzo[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione) to 7.99 (Benzanthrone) ng/m(3), generally higher in wood user than that in anthracite user. A majority of derivatives in particle presented in PM2.5 (80% for nitrated naphthalene and over 90% for other targets) and even fine PM1.0. Mass fractions of PAH derivatives in fine and ultra-fine particles were significantly higher than the fractions of corresponding parent PAHs, indicating more adverse health outcomes induced by these derivatives. The inhalation exposure levels for residents adopting wood gasifier burners was significantly lower than the documented results for those burning wood in typical built-in brick stoves, and comparable to those using LPG and electricity, which provided vital information for clean stove development and intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-04-01

    The development of an ``artificial photosynthetic system'' (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as ``architecture-directing agents'' for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle.

  18. Determination of carbon isotopic composition of individual light hydrocarbons evolved from pyrolysis of source rocks by using GC-IRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual light hydrocarbons generated from source rocks that had been pyrolysed in vacuum glass tube were determined by using the GC-IRMS techniques. The results indicate that abundant CO2 in the pyrolysates has a remarkable effect on the determination of CH4δ13C. Running cryogenically with an initial temperature of -40℃can effectively eliminate the effect. In addition, it conduces to measuring the δ13C of C2+ hydrocarbons by increasing the injection volume and/or absorbing CO2 with the solution of sodium hydroxide.The above measures will help to get the carbon isotopic composition of C1-C7 components, which is of great significance for gas/source rock correlation and for study on the genesis of natural gas.

  19. Stocking rate and fuels reduction effects on beef cattle diet composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Clark; Tim DelCurto; Martin Vavra; Brian L. Dick

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of forest fuels reduction on diet quality, botanical composition, relative preference, and foraging efficiency of beef cattle grazing at different stocking rates. A split plot factorial design was used, with whole plots (3 ha) being fuel reduced or no treatment (control), and split plots (1 ha) within whole plots...

  20. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  1. Advanced Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an advanced composite bipolar plate is proposed for a unitized regenerative fuel cell and electrolyzer system that operates on pure feed streams...

  2. Selective transformation of syngas into light hydrocarbons in the presence of a composite [Molybdenum/ZnO + Mordenite] catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrault, J.; Avila, Y. (Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs, 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1994-01-06

    A catalyst obtained from the impregnation of a molybdenum salt on a zinc oxide used as support is rather selective in the syngas transformation into light alcohols (specially methanol). Moreover a composite catalyst formulated from the above molybdenum system and a dealuminated mordenite can be used for the one step selective conversion of syngas into light hydrocarbons (C[sub 2] - C[sub 4] [approx] 65%) where ethane and ethylene are the major compounds (40-45%). (authors).

  3. Research Of Polytropic Exponent Changing For Influence Evaluation Of Actual Mixture Composition On Hydrocarbons Concentration Decreasing On Deep Throttling Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Smolenskii, V. V.; Bobrovskij, I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present study of polytropic exponent as rating of thermodynamic process in internal combustion motor operating to deep throttling in a subcase of idle running. It is necessary to consider the influence of hydrocarbon part in exhaust gases in a process of development a new internal combustion engines especially on deep throttling operation: on combustion procedure, on irregularity of exhaust gases composition.

  4. Thorium utilisation in a small long-life HTR. Part III: Composite-rod fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrue, Jacques, E-mail: jacques.verrue@polytechnique.org [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); École Polytechnique (Member of ParisTech), 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ding, Ming, E-mail: dingm2005@gmail.com [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Kloosterman, Jan Leen, E-mail: j.l.kloosterman@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composite-rod fuel blocks are proposed for a small block-type HTR. • An axial separation of fuel compacts is the most important feature. • Three patterns are presented to analyse the effects of the spatial distribution. • The spatial distribution has a large influence on the neutron spectrum. • Composite-rod fuel blocks reach a reactivity swing less than 4%. - Abstract: The U-Battery is a small long-life high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) with power of 20 MWth. In order to increase its lifetime and diminish its reactivity swing, the concept of composite-rod fuel blocks with uranium and thorium was investigated. Composite-rod fuel blocks feature a specific axial separation between UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} compacts in fuel rods. The design parameters, investigated by SCALE 6, include the number and spatial distribution of fuel compacts within the rods, the enrichment of uranium, the radii of fuel kernels and fuel compacts, and the packing fractions of uranium and thorium TRISO particles. The analysis shows that a lower moderation ratio and a larger inventory of heavy metals results in a lower reactivity swing. The optimal atomic carbon-to-heavy metal ratio depends on the mass fraction of U-235 and is commonly in the 160–200 range. The spatial distribution of the fuel compacts within the fuel rods has a large influence on the energy spectrum in each fuel compact and thus on the beginning-of-life reactivity and the reactivity swing. At end-of-life, the differences caused by the spatial distribution of the fuel compacts are smaller due to the fissions of U-233 in the ThO{sub 2} fuel compacts. This phenomenon enables to design fuel blocks with a very low reactivity swing, down to less than 4% in a 10-year lifetime. Among three types of thorium fuelled U-Battery blocks, the composite-rod fuel block achieves the highest end-of-life reactivity and the lowest reactivity swing.

  5. Catalytic Surface Promotion of Composite Cathodes in Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, Cecilia; Navarrete, Laura; Bozza, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    Composite cathodes based on an electronic conductor and a protonic conductor show advantages for protonic ceramic fuel cells. In this work, the performance of a La5.5WO11.25-δ/ La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ (LWO/LSM) composite cathode in a fuel cell based on an LWO protonic conducting electrolyte is shown and...

  6. Computer Simulations of Composite Electrodes in Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Svein

    1999-07-01

    Fuel cells are devices for converting the combined chemical (free) energy of fuels and oxygen (air) directly to electrical energy without relying on the dynamic action of steam heated by reacting fuel-oxygen mixtures, like in steam turbines, or of the reacting gas mixtures themselves, like in gas turbines. The basic rationale for fuel cells is their high efficiencies as compared to indirect-conversion methods. Fuel cells are currently being considered for a number of applications, among them de-centralised power supply. Fuel cells come in five basic types and are usually classified according to the type of electrolyte used, which in turn to a significant degree limits the options for anode and cathode materials. The solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) , with which this thesis is concerned, is thus named after its oxide electrolyte, typically the oxide-ion conducting material yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). While the cathode of an SOFC is often uniform in chemical composition (or at least intended to be), various problems of delamination, cracking etc. associated with the use of metallic anode electrocatalysts led to the development of composite SOFC anodes. Porous anodes consisting of Ni and YSZ particles in roughly 50/50 wt-% mixtures are now almost standard with any SOFC-development programme. The designer of composite SOFC electrodes is faced with at least three, interrelated questions: (1) What will be the optimum microstructure and composition of the composite electrode? (2) If the structure changes during operation, as is often observed, what will be the consequences for the internal losses in the cell? (3) How do we interpret electrochemical and conductivity measurements with regard to structure and composition? It is the primary purpose of this thesis to provide a framework for modelling the electrochemical and transport properties of composite electrodes for SOFC, and to arrive at some new insights that cannot be offered by experiment alone. Emphasis is put on

  7. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  8. Experimental study on the effect of varying syngas composition on the emissions of dual fuel CI engine operating at various engine speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, B. K. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Z. A. A.; Hagos, F. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using syngas as a supplement fuel of diesel in dual fuel mode is a proposed solution in the effort to protect the environment and control the serious threats posed by greenhouse gas emissions from compression ignition engines. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the effect of syngas composition on the exhaust emission of dual fuel compression ignition (CI) engine at various engine speeds, and to compare the operating ranges of imitated syngas versus pure diesel. The study was conducted using a naturally aspirated, two strokes, single cylinder 3.7 kW diesel engine operated at speeds of 1200, 2000 and 3000 rpm. The engine was tested with three different syngas compositions. Diesel fuel was partially substituted by syngas through the air inlet. The test results disclose the impact of using syngas in CI engines on emission of CO2, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experimental measurements confirmed that all syngas compositions are capable of reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOX compared with diesel fuel. Wide range of diesel replacement ratios (up to 72%) was attained without any penalty. Syngas with composition of 49% N2, 12% CO2, 25% CO, 10% H2, and 4% CH4 reduced the emissions of CO2 and NOx at engine speed of 1200 rpm up to 1% and 108 ppm, respectively. The lowest emission of UHC and NOx was emitted when the engine was operating at speed of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively with composition of 38% N2, 8% Co2, 29% CO, 19% H2, and 6% CH4. Therefore, syngas could be a promising technique for controlling NOx emissions in CI engines. However, hydrogen content in syngas is important parameter that needs to be further investigation for its effect.

  9. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  10. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  12. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  13. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Peter C.; Coffey, Gregory W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Hardy, John S.; Singh, Prabhaker; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  14. Compositional and geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons for typical marine oils and typical coal-generated oils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Different types of crude oils have different light hydrocarbon compositional and geochemical characteristics. Based on the light hydrocarbon data from two kinds of oils, i.e., coal-generated oils and marine oils in China, light hydrocarbons in marine oils in the Tazhong area are generally relatively enriched in n-heptane, and coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are enriched in methylcyclohexane . The K1 values, reported by Mango (1987), range from 0.97 to 1.19 in marine oils, basically consistent with what was reported by Mango on light hydrocarbons in terms of the majority of the crude oil data. But the K1 values of coal-generated oils are particularly high (1.35-1.66) and far greater than those of marine oils; heptane values in marine oils, ranging from 32.3% to 45.4%, and isoheptane values, ranging from 1.9 to 3.7, are respectively higher than those of coal-generated oils, indicating that the oils are in the high-maturity stage. In addition, expulsion temperatures of coal-generated oils from the Turpan Basin are obviously lower than those of marine oils from the Tazhong area.

  15. Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2006-03-10

    In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential

  16. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  17. Influence of Gas Feed Composition and Pressure on the Catalytic Conversion of CO2 to Hydrocarbons Using a Traditional Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-25

    availability. Fuel independence would alleviate uncertainties in the world market supply of oil along with commercial fluctuations in price. In addition...this supply by supporting the development of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel from the vast natural resources, such as coal, shale, gas hydrates, and CO2...product a day by steam-reforming coal to generate syngas for the FT process.5 A water-gas shift is needed to obtain a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen/carbon

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  19. Paleozoic Composite Petroleum System of North Africa:Hydrocarbon Distribution and Main Controlling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping; Zheng Lei

    2007-01-01

    North Africa,which is one of the main oil and gas producing regions in the world,is best known for its sub-salt Paleozoic-Triassic reservoirs and Paleozoic source rocks. Hydrocarbon abundance varies greatly from one structural domain to another areally and from one stratigraphic interval to another vertically. Analyses of the essential elements and geological processes of the Paleozoic petroleum system indicate that the distribution of the Lower Silurian shale source rocks,the development of a thick Mesozoic overburden,the presence of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic evaporite seal are the most important factors governing the distribution of the Paleozoic-sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa. The Mesozoic sequence plays a critical role for hydrocarbons to accumulate by enabling the maturation of the Paleozoic source rocks during the Mesozoic-Paleogene times and preserving the accumulated hydrocarbons. Basins and surrounding uplifts,particularly the latter,with a thick Mesozoic sequence and a regional evaporite seal generally have abundant hydrocarbons. Basins where only a thin Mesozoic overburden was developed tend to have a very poor to moderate hydrocarbon prospectivity.

  20. Carbon nanotubes based nafion composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cele, NP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available surface oxidation as well as functionalisation in composite membranes was investigated by focussing on three aspects: thermo-mechanical stability, thermal degradation and proton conductivity. The oCNTs-containing Nafion composite membrane exhibited...

  1. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  2. Fuel Composition Analysis of Endothermically Heated JP-8 Fuel for Use in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    0.15 0.14 0.03 0.11 0.07 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.14 Methyl -cyclohexane * 3.38 0.13 0.25 0.30 0.37 0.38 0.18 0.31 0.26 0.31 0.28 0.32 0.33 Ethyl -cyclopentane...FUEL FOR USE IN A PULSE DETONATION ENGINE I. Introduction Motivation JP-8 is the predominant kerosene fuel currently used in the United States Air...Thermal Decomposition The fuel of choice for this research is JP-8 for many practical reasons. JP-8 is the predominant kerosene fuel currently used

  3. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of LSM/YSZ composite cathodes in solid oxide fuel cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B SHRI PRAKASH; S SENTHIL KUMAR; S T ARUNA

    2017-06-01

    La0.8Sr0.2MnO$_3$−$\\delta$ (LSM)/8 mol% yttria-stabilized ZrO$_2$ (YSZ) (LSM/YSZ) composite cathodes with varying composition are studied for both polarization and ohmic resistance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that total resistance and polarization resistance are lowest for the composite with 60 wt% of LSM (LSM60/YSZ40). However, the ohmic resistance was highest for the same composition and amounted to 60% of the total resistance value. Compositional dependence of resistances has been explained based on the variations of the triple phase boundaries and width of the O$_2$−ion migration path with the composition of the electrode. Based on the observed area specific ohmic resistance values for the composite cathodes, it is proposed to verify the advantages of LSM/YSZ over LSM cathode in anode-supported solidoxide fuel cell with thin electrolyte.

  4. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Derived Jet Fuels Compositional Factors Affecting Thermal Degradation of Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Hou, R.M. Copenhaver Fuel Science Program Department of Materials Science & Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 209 Academic Projects...AMMM, M. Sobbilif Y. LU. L N% R.M. Cap..kavw 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) .. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Fuel Science Program REPORT...NUMBER Department of Materials Science & Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 209 Academic Projects Builiding University Park, PA 16802 9

  5. Effects of Fuel Composition on EGR Dilution Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Fuel-specific differences in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution tolerance are studied in a modern, direct-injection single-cylinder research engine. A total of 6 model fuel blends are examined at a constant research octane number (RON) of 95 using n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol. Laminar flame speeds for these mixtures, which were calculated two different methods (an energy fraction mixing rule and a detailed kinetic simulation), spanned a range of about 6 cm/s. A constant fueling nominal load of 350 kPa IMEPg at 2000 rpm was operated with varying CA50 from 8-20 CAD aTDCf, and with EGR increasing until a COV of IMEP of 5% is reached. The results illustrate that flame speed affects EGR dilution tolerance; fuels with increased flame speeds increase EGR tolerance. Specifically, flame speed correlates most closely to the initial flame kernel growth, measured as the time of ignition to 5% mass fraction burned. The effect of the latent heat of vaporization on the flame speed is taken into account for the ethanol-containing fuels. At a 30 vol% blend level, the increased enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol compared to conventional hydrocarbons can decrease the temperature at the time of ignition by a maximum of 15 C, which can account for up to a 3.5 cm/s decrease in flame speed. The ethanol-containing fuels, however, still exhibit a flame speed advantage, and a dilution tolerance advantage over the slower flame-speed fuels. The fuel-specific differences in dilution tolerance are significant at the condition examined, allowing for a 50% relative increase in EGR (4% absolute difference in EGR) at a constant COV of IMEP of 3%.

  6. Variations in concentrations and compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coals related to the coal rank and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, S; Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Achten, C; Sachsenhofer, R F; Schwarzbauer, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-10-01

    The release of unburnt coal particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause adverse impacts on the environment. This study assessed variations in the concentration and composition of PAHs in a set of fifty coal samples from eleven coal basins worldwide. The maximum PAH concentrations at high volatile bituminous rank were recorded in samples from a single basin. Considering the entire sample set, the highest PAH concentrations were in fact found outside of this rank range, suggesting that the maceral composition and thus the coal's origin also influenced PAH concentrations. The examination of the PAH compositions revealed that alkylated 2-3 ring PAHs remain dominant compounds irrespective of coal rank or origin. Multivariate analysis based on PAH and maceral content, bulk and maturity parameters allowed the recognition of seven groups with different rank and origin within the coal sample set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Viscous sealing glass compositions for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Woon; Brow, Richard K.

    2016-12-27

    A sealant for forming a seal between at least two solid oxide fuel cell components wherein the sealant comprises a glass material comprising B.sub.2O.sub.3 as a principal glass former, BaO, and other components and wherein the glass material is substantially alkali-free and contains less than 30% crystalline material.

  8. Recovery of protactinium from molten fluoride nuclear fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Bamberger, C.; Ross, R.G.

    1973-12-25

    A method is provided for separating protactinium from a molten fluonlde salt composition consisting essentially of at least one alkali and alkaline earth metal fluoride and at least one soluble fluoride of uranium or thorium which comprises oxidizing the protactinium in said composition to the + 5 oxidation state and contacting said composition with an oxide selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal oxide, an alkaline earth oxide, thorium oxide, and uranium oxide, and thereafter isolating the resultant insoluble protactinium oxide product from said composition. (Official Gazette)

  9. Nonionic surfactants with linear and branched hydrocarbon tails: compositional analysis, phase behavior, and film properties in bicontinuous microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christian; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Allgaier, Jürgen; Prast, Hartmut

    2007-06-05

    Nonionic alcohol ethoxylates are widely used as surfactants in many different applications. They are available in a large number of structural varieties as technical grade products. This variety is mainly based on the use of different alcohols, which can be linear or branched and contain primary, secondary, or tertiary OH groups. Technical grade products are poorly defined as they are composed of alcohol mixtures being different in chain length and structure. On the other hand, monodisperse alcohol ethoxylates are commercially available; however, these surfactants exist only with primary and linear alcohols. In the field of microemulsion research the monodisperse alcohol ethoxylates are widely used. The phase behavior and film properties of these surfactants were studied intensively with respect to the size of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Due to the lack of appropriate model surfactants until now, there is little information on how the structure of the hydrocarbon tail influences the microemulsion behavior. To examine structural influences, we synthesized a series of surfactants with the composition C10E5 and having different linear and branched hydrocarbon tails. The surfactants were monodisperse with respect to the hydrocarbon tail but polydisperse with respect to the ethoxylation degree. However, a detailed characterization showed that they were similar concerning the average ethoxylation degree and EO chain length distribution. The phase behavior was investigated for bicontinuous microemulsions, and the film properties were analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our results show that the structure of the hydrocarbon tail strongly influences the microemulsion behavior. The most efficient surfactant is obtained if the hydrocarbon tail is linear and the hydrophilic group is attached in the C-1 position. Surfactants having the hydrophilic group bound to the C-2 or C-4 position or which contain a branched hydrocarbon tail are less efficient

  10. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF, was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5–7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12–15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  11. Effect of Fuel Composition on the Response of an Acoustically Forced Flat Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Jan

    Interest in alternative fuels for power generation is growing, yet these fuels bring new challenges to gas turbine design and operation. Among these challenges are combustor operability issues, highlighted by problems with combustion instabilities. For this thesis, a fundamental study of the effects of fuel composition on combustion dynamics was undertaken. An acoustically forced flat flame burner was constructed, allowing measurement of the flame transfer function (FTF) relating acoustic perturbations to heat release rate fluctuations in the flame. Tests were done using methane, along with simulated syngas and biogas fuel mixtures over a variety of operating conditions. Large variations in methane concentration had a significant impact on the FTF, while variations in the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio did not impact the FTF in fuel mixtures of equal parts methane and syngas. The Strouhal number was found to be an important parameter in predicting phase response independent of the fuel type. Flame liftoff distance and fuel composition were the key parameters determining the peak FTF magnitude. A hypothesis on the role of the non-adiabatic nature of the flat flame and thermal-diffusive effects on the trends in peak FTF magnitude is presented and discussed.

  12. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.

    2016-10-11

    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within the pilot stream. The inner tube, carrying fuel, can be recessed, leading to a varying degree of inhomogeneity in mixing with the outer air stream. Three fuels are tested: dimethyl ether (DME), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and compressed natural gas (CNG). It is found that improvement in flame stability at the optimal compositional inhomogeneity is highest for CNG and lowest for DME. Three possible reasons for this different enhancement in stability are investigated: mixing patterns, pilot effects, and fuel chemistry. Numerical simulations realized in the injection tube highlight similarities and differences in the mixing patterns for all three fuels and demonstrate that mixing cannot explain the different stability gains. Changing the heat release rates from the pilot affects the three fuels in similar ways and this also implies that the pilot stream is unlikely to be responsible for the observed differences. Fuel reactivity is identified as a key factor in enhancing stability at some optimal compositional inhomogeneity. This is confirmed by inference from joint images of PLIF-OH and PLIF-CHO, collected at a repetition rate of 10kHz in turbulent flames of DME, and from one-dimensional calculations of laminar flames using detailed chemistry for DME, CNG, and LPG.

  13. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  14. Abundance, composition and vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenye; Zhuang, Yi-Xuan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-08-01

    The distribution and changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in mangrove sediments of Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site of Hong Kong SAR were investigated. Surface sediments (10 cm) collected from four sampling sites (SZ, SP, MF and M) exhibited significant spatial variations in concentrations of total PAH (with ΣPAHs ranging from 161.7 to 383.7 ng g(-1) dry wt), as well as the composition of 16 US EPA priority PAH compounds. The highest PAHs concentrations were found in the mangrove sediments. Moreover, a sediment core was extracted from mangrove area is used to reconstruct the high-resolution depositional record of PAHs by (210)Pb isotope analysis, showing the amounts of PAHs remained relatively constant for the past 41 years. Urbanization of Shenzhen Economic Zone, the rapid increase in vehicle numbers and energy consumption in the last two decades contributed to the PAHs detected in sediments. The source-diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic input are important throughout the record and the surface sediments, and suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause of PAHs.

  15. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal region off Macao, China: assessment of input sources and transport pathways using compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bixian; Qi, Shihua; Zeng, Eddy Y; Yang, Qingshu; Zhang, Gan; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Pingan; Wang, Zhishi

    2003-11-01

    The coastal region off Macao is a known depositional zone for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pearl River Delta and Estuary of southern China and an important gateway for the regional contributions of contamination to the globe. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the input sources and transport pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the coastal sediments of Macao, based on measurements of 48 2-7 ring PAHs and 7 sulfur/oxygenated (S/O) PAH derivatives in 45 sediment, 13 street dust, and 68 aerosol samples. Total sediment PAHs concentrations ranged from 294 to 12741 ng/g, categorized as moderate contamination compared to other regions of Asia and the world. In addition, the PAH compounds appeared to be bound more strongly to aromatics-rich soot particles than to natural organic matter, implying a prevailing atmospheric transport route for PAHs to Macao's coast. Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that different classes of PAHs in the coastal sediments of Macao may have been derived from different input sources via various transport pathways. For example, alkylated and S/O PAHs were likely derived from fossil fuel leakage and transported to sediments by both aerosols particles and street runoff. High-molecular-weight parent PAHs were predominantly originated from automobile exhausts and distributed by direct and indirect atmospheric deposition. Low-molecular-weight parent PAHs, on the other hand, may have stemmed from lower temperature combustion and fossil fuel (such as diesel) spillage from ships and boats and were transported to sediments by river runoff or direct discharge as well as by air-water exchange.

  16. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  17. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  18. Self-doped Ti3+-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-01

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XPS, XRD and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02974k

  19. Quantitative analysis of fuel-related hydrocarbons in surface water and wastewater samples by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, J J; Hawthorne, S B; Miller, D J

    1996-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) parameters were examined on water contaminated with hydrocarbons including benzene and alkylbenzenes, n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Absorption equilibration times ranged from several minutes for low molecular weight compounds such as benzene to 5 h for high molecular weight compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene. Under equilibrium conditions, SPME analysis with GC/FID was linear over 3-6 orders of magnitude, with linear correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.96. Experimentally determined FID detection limits ranged from ∼30 ppt (w/w hydrocarbon/sample water) for high molecular weight PAHs (e.g., MW > 202) to ∼1 ppb for low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons. Experimental distribution constants (K) were different with 100- and 7-μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, and poor correlations with previously published values suggest that K depends on the fiber coating thickness and the sorbent preparation method. The sensitivity of SPME analysis is not significantly enhanced by larger sample volumes, since increasing the water volume (e.g., from 1 to 100 mL) has little effect on the number of analyte molecules absorbed by the fiber, especially for compounds with K solids. Quantitative determinations of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., in gasoline-contaminated water) can be performed using GC/MS with deuterated internal standard or standard addition calibration as long as the target components or standards had unique ions for quantitation or sufficient chromatographic resolution from interferences. SPME analysis gave good quantitative performance with surface waters having high suspended sediment contents, as well as with coal gasification wastewater which contained matrix organics at 10(6)-fold higher concentrations than the target aromatic hydrocarbons. Good agreement was obtained between a 45-min SPME and methylene chloride extraction for the determination of PAH concentrations in creosote

  20. Computer Simulations of Composite Electrodes in Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Svein

    1999-07-01

    Fuel cells are devices for converting the combined chemical (free) energy of fuels and oxygen (air) directly to electrical energy without relying on the dynamic action of steam heated by reacting fuel-oxygen mixtures, like in steam turbines, or of the reacting gas mixtures themselves, like in gas turbines. The basic rationale for fuel cells is their high efficiencies as compared to indirect-conversion methods. Fuel cells are currently being considered for a number of applications, among them de-centralised power supply. Fuel cells come in five basic types and are usually classified according to the type of electrolyte used, which in turn to a significant degree limits the options for anode and cathode materials. The solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) , with which this thesis is concerned, is thus named after its oxide electrolyte, typically the oxide-ion conducting material yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). While the cathode of an SOFC is often uniform in chemical composition (or at least intended to be), various problems of delamination, cracking etc. associated with the use of metallic anode electrocatalysts led to the development of composite SOFC anodes. Porous anodes consisting of Ni and YSZ particles in roughly 50/50 wt-% mixtures are now almost standard with any SOFC-development programme. The designer of composite SOFC electrodes is faced with at least three, interrelated questions: (1) What will be the optimum microstructure and composition of the composite electrode? (2) If the structure changes during operation, as is often observed, what will be the consequences for the internal losses in the cell? (3) How do we interpret electrochemical and conductivity measurements with regard to structure and composition? It is the primary purpose of this thesis to provide a framework for modelling the electrochemical and transport properties of composite electrodes for SOFC, and to arrive at some new insights that cannot be offered by experiment alone. Emphasis is put on

  1. Synthesis and investigation dark polymer hydrocarbon resins in the bitumen composites

    OpenAIRE

    Никулишин, Ірена Євгенівна; Піх, Зорян Григорович; Шевчук, Лілія Іванівна; Рипка, Анна Мирославівна; Чайківська, Руслана Тарасівна

    2016-01-01

    Thermal gas-phase pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw materials in pipe furnaces remains to be the main strategic process of ethylene and propylene production. Nowadays, the possibility of the pyrolysis process intensification to increase the target product yield draws attention of scientists. But besides the olefins (target products) the pyrolysis process is the source of heavy pyrolysis pitch. Considerable development of petrochemical industry requires finding new applications of the by-products f...

  2. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Levi D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huber, Tanja K. [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Breitkreutz, Harald [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische Universität München (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  3. Fuel Distribution Estimate via Spin Period to Precession Period Ratio for the Advanced Composition Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Russell; Smith, Eric; Lakin, John

    2015-01-01

    The spin period to precession period ratio of a non-axisymmetric spin-stabilized spacecraft, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), was used to estimate the remaining mass and distribution of fuel within its propulsion system. This analysis was undertaken once telemetry suggested that two of the four fuel tanks had no propellant remaining, contrary to pre-launch expectations of the propulsion system performance. Numerical integration of possible fuel distributions was used to calculate moments of inertia for the spinning spacecraft. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of output from a dynamics simulation was employed to relate calculated moments of inertia to spin and precession periods. The resulting modeled ratios were compared to the actual spin period to precession period ratio derived from the effect of post-maneuver nutation angle on sun sensor measurements. A Monte Carlo search was performed to tune free parameters using the observed spin period to precession period ratio over the life of the mission. This novel analysis of spin and precession periods indicates that at the time of launch, propellant was distributed unevenly between the two pairs of fuel tanks, with one pair having approximately 20% more propellant than the other pair. Furthermore, it indicates the pair of the tanks with less fuel expelled all of its propellant by 2014 and that approximately 46 kg of propellant remains in the other two tanks, an amount that closely matches the operational fuel accounting estimate. Keywords: Fuel Distribution, Moments of Inertia, Precession, Spin, Nutation

  4. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...

  5. Evolution of temperature of a droplet of liquid composite fuel interacting with heated airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic patterns of a temperature change at the center of a droplet of three-component (coal, water, petroleum) composite liquid fuel (CLF) were studied using a low-inertia thermoelectric converter and system of high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) video recording during the induction period at different heating intensity by the air flow with variable parameters: temperature of 670-870 K and motion velocity of 1-4 m/s. The studies were carried out for two groups of CLF compositions: fuel based on brown coal and coal cleaning rejects (filter cake). To assess the effect of liquid combustible component of CLF on characteristics of the ignition process, the corresponding composition of two-component coal-water fuel (CWF) was studied. The stages of inert heating of CLF and CWF droplets with characteristic size corresponding to radius of 0.75-1.5 mm, evaporation of moisture and liquid oil (for CLF), thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, gas mixture ignition, and carbon burnout were identified. Regularities of changes in the temperature of CLF and CWF droplets at each of identified stages were identified for the cooccurrence of phase transitions and chemical reactions. Comparative analysis of the times of ignition delay and complete combustion of the droplets of examined fuel compositions was performed with varying droplet dimensions, temperatures, and oxidant flow velocity.

  6. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied frac

  7. Analysis of the optimal fuel composition for the Indonesian experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.), Ibaraki (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Banten (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Arbie, Bakri; Subki, Iyos [PT MOTAB Technology, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2017-03-15

    The optimal fuel composition of the 10 MWth Experimental Power Reactor (RDE), to be built by the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), is a very important design parameter since it will directly affect the fuel cost, new and spent fuel storage capacity, and other back-end environmental burden. The RDE is a very small sized pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with low enriched uranium (LEU) UO{sub 2} TRISO fuel under multipass or once-through-then-out fueling scheme. A scoping study on fuel composition parameters, namely heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and uranium enrichment is conducted. All burnup, criticality calculations and core equilibrium search are carried out by using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code for pebble bed HTGRs, featured with many automatic equilibrium searching options as well as thermal-hydraulic calculation capability. The RDE User Requirement Document issued by BATAN is used to derive the main core design parameters and constraints. The scoping study is conducted over uranium enrichment in the range of 10 to 20 w/o and HM loading in the range of 4 g to 10 g/pebble. Fissile loading per unit energy generated (kg/GWd) is taken as the objective function for the present scoping study. The analysis results show that the optimal HM loading is around 8 g/pebble. Under the constraint of 80 GWd/t fuel discharge burnup imposed by the technical specification, the uranium enrichment for the optimal HM loading is approximately 13 w/o.

  8. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  9. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  10. Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, W.M.; Dhaliwal, J.S.; Perera, S.K.; Baumann, F.J. [California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No. 2 diesel fuel and motor oil are C{sub 10{minus}} C{sub 21} and C{sub 21}-C{sub 38}, respectively, and these ranges define TPHs in diesel fuel (TPH-D) and motor oil (TPH-M). By this convention, less than 6% of No. 2 diesel is characterized as TPH-M, and less than 9% of motor oil is quantitated as TPH-D. Inlet discrimination was observed when motor oil was injected with a splitless injector. Accurate motor oil quantitation with splitless sample introduction requires calibration with the product or triacontane, which has a similar response factor. Detector response to motor oil (and other petroleum products) and a homologous series of n-alkanes was nearly constant when on-column injection was used. Instrument detection limit for motor oil was about 0.5 {mu}g (splitless injection, total area under the curve), and the widest linear range (up to 100 {mu}g) was obtained by subtracting the solvent chromatogram. Procedures for isolation of motor oil from oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are described. Method detection limits for diesel fuel and motor oil in purified water were 0.041 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Membrane crystallinity and fuel crossover in direct ethanol fuel cells with Nafion composite membranes containing phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hongjun; Lee, Sunghwan; Kim, Suran; Oh, Chungik; Ryu, Jeongjae; Kim, Jaegyu; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2016-11-01

    Interest has been growing in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) due to their non-toxicity, low cost and potential contribution to energy issues in third world countries. A reduction in fuel cross-over is of key importance to enhance the performance of DEFCs that operate at low temperatures (<100 °C). We report on the effect of the addition of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) in Nafion membrane on the ethanol-crossover for DEFC application. A set of PWANafion composite membranes (PWA 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt%) was prepared by solution casting and their microstructures, diffraction patterns and permeability were systematically characterized. The significant reduction in ethanol-crossover was observed with increasing PWA concentration in PWA-Nafion membranes, which was mainly attributed to an improvement in crystallinity of the membrane. PWA provides additional nucleation sites during solidification leading to higher crystallinity, which is supported by the membrane permeability tests. These PWA-Nafion composites were implemented in proto-type DEFC devices as a membrane and the maximum power density achieved was 22% higher than that of commercial Nafion-117 device.

  12. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  13. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  14. Simultaneous NOx and hydrocarbon emissions control for lean-burn engines using low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell at open circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Ying

    2012-02-21

    The high fuel efficiency of lean-burn engines is associated with high temperature and excess oxygen during combustion and thus is associated with high-concentration NO(x) emission. This work reveals that very high concentration of NO(x) in the exhaust can be reduced and hydrocarbons (HCs) can be simultaneously oxidized using a low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). An SOFC unit is constructed with Ni-YSZ as the anode, YSZ as the electrolyte, and La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3) (LSC)-Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) as the cathode, with or without adding vanadium to LSC. SOFC operation at 450 °C and open circuit can effectively treat NO(x) over the cathode at a very high concentration in the simulated exhaust. Higher NO(x) concentration up to 5000 ppm can result in a larger NO(x) to N(2) rate. Moreover, a higher oxygen concentration promotes NO conversion. Complete oxidation of HCs can be achieved by adding silver to the LSC current collecting layer. The SOFC-based emissions control system can treat NO(x) and HCs simultaneously, and can be operated without consuming the anode fuel (a reductant) at near the engine exhaust temperature to eliminate the need for reductant refilling and extra heating.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-12-16

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source and stove design affects exposure. Indoor and personal PAH exposure resulting from solid fuel combustion in Xuanwei and Fuyuan was investigated using repeated 24 h particle bound and gas-phase PAH measurements, which were collected from 163 female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan. 549 particle bound (283 indoor and 266 personal) and 193 gas phase (all personal) PAH measurements were collected. Mixed effect models indicated that PAH exposure was up to 6 times higher when burning smoky coal than smokeless coal and varied by up to a factor of 3 between different smoky coal geographic sources. PAH measurements from unventilated firepits were up to 5 times that of ventilated stoves. Exposure also varied between different room sizes and season of measurement. These findings indicate that PAH exposure is modulated by a variety of factors, including fuel type, coal source, and stove design. These findings may provide valuable insight into potential causes of lung cancer in the area.

  16. Study of the aromatic hydrocarbons poisoning of platinum cathodes on proton exchange membrane fuel cell spatial performance using a segmented cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; St-Pierre, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are produced and used in many industrial processes, which makes them hazardous air pollutants. Currently, air is the most convenient oxidant for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and air quality is an important consideration because airborne contaminants can negatively affect fuel cell performance. The effects of exposing the cathode of PEMFCs to benzene and naphthalene were investigated using a segmented cell system. The introduction of 2 ppm C6H6 resulted in moderate performance loss of 40-45 mV at 0.2 A cm-2 and 100-110 mV at 1.0 A cm-2 due to benzene adsorption on Pt and its subsequent electrooxidation to CO2 under operating conditions and cell voltages of 0.5-0.8 V. In contrast, PEMFC poisoning by ∼2 ppm of naphthalene led to a decrease in cell performance from 0.66 to 0.13 V at 1.0 A cm-2, which was caused by the strong adsorption of C10H8 onto Pt at cell voltages of 0.2-1.0 V. Naphthalene desorption and hydrogenation only occurred at potentials below 0.2 V. The PEMFCs' performance loss due to each contaminant was recoverable, and the obtained results demonstrated that the fuel cells' exposure to benzene and naphthalene should be limited to concentrations less than 2 ppm.

  17. Polydiphenylamine/Zeolite Y composites and electrical conductivity responses toward halogenated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharaporn Permpool

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of polydiphenylamine (D-PDPA and zeolite Y with H+ as the cation (Y_H+ have been fabricated to be used as a sensing material towards non-halogenated and halogenated solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, 1, 2-dichloroethane, chloroform. These composites are toxic towards human and environment and are widely used as solvents in various industries. Polydiphenylamine, zeolite Y, and their composites are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, surface area, and pore size analysis. The effects of the Si/Al ratio, zeolite content, and vapor concentrations are investigated. The electrical conductivity sensitivity of the composites towards the solvents is higher than the pristine D-PDPA by ~1 order of magnitude. The composites can discriminate a non-halogenated solvent from halogenated solvents. They possess maximum electrical conductivity sensitivity values towards dichloromethane, but the composites do not respond to hexane. Generally, the sensitivity of the composites increases with increasing zeolite content and vapor concentration. The interactions between the composites and the vapors are investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. A mechanism for the interaction between the composites and the solvents is proposed.

  18. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  19. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  20. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  1. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  3. Initial characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened-Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, G. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    Characterization data and a hydrocarbon compositional analysis are presented for a research test fuel designated as an experimental referee broadened-specification aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a special blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a hypothetical representation of a future fuel should it become necessary to broaden current kerojet specifications. It is used as a reference fuel in research investigations into the effects of fuel property variations on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components, including combustors and fuel systems.

  4. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderately sensitive Kandeler et al. (1994) Batteries? of bioindicators Microbial bioluminescence, earthwormand seed germination Creosote, heavy, medium and light crude oils. Moderately sensitive. Earthworm4seed germination4 bioluminescence 25?17; 400 mggC01.... However, microbial bioluminescence, microbial biomass/counts and soil respiration have been evaluated as potential tools for monitoring of hydrocarbons (Delistraty, 1984; Kandeler et al., 1994; Steinberg et al., 1995; Van Beelen and Doelman, 1997; Phillips...

  5. Silica based composite membranes for methanol fuel cells operating at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Guzman, C.; Peza-Ledesma, C.; Godinez, Luis A.; Nava, R.; Duron-Torres, S.M.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2011-01-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are seen as an alternative energy source for several applications, particularly portable power sources. Nafion membranes constitute a well known proton exchange system for DMFC systems due to their convenient electrochemical, mechanical and thermal stability and high proton conductivity properties. But there are problems currently associated with the direct methanol fuel cell technology. Intensive efforts to decrease the methanol crossover are focused mainly on the development of new polymer electrolyte membranes. In this study, Nafion polymer was modified by means of the incorporation of inorganic oxides with different structural properties (SBA-15 and SiO2), both prepared by sol-gel method in order to increase the proton conductivity at high temperature of fuel cell and to contribute decrementing the methanol crossover effect. Composite membranes based in inorganic fillers showed a significant decrease in the concentration of methanol permeation.

  6. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  7. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  8. The effects of oxygen on the yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation of catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiju Thomas; Mary J. Wornat [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    To better understand the effects of oxygen on the formation and destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the burning of complex solid fuels, we have performed pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation experiments in an isothermal laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in coal, wood, and biomass. The catechol pyrolysis experiments are conducted at a fixed residence time of 0.3 s, at nine temperatures spanning the range of 500-1000{sup o}C, and under varying oxygen ratios ranging from 0 (pure pyrolysis) to 0.92 (near stoichiometric oxidation). The PAH products, ranging in size from two to nine fused aromatic rings, have been analyzed by gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection, and by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible absorbance detection. The quantified PAH products fall into six structural classes. A comparison of product yields from pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation of catechol reveals that at temperatures {lt}800{sup o}C, where only two-ring PAH are produced in significant quantities, increases in oxygen concentration bring about increases in yields of the two-ring aromatics indene and naphthalene. At temperatures {gt}800{sup o}C, increases in oxygen concentration bring about dramatic decreases in the yields of all PAH products, due to oxidative destruction reactions. The smaller-ring-number PAH are produced in higher abundance under all conditions studied, and the oxygen-induced decreases in the yields of PAH are increasingly more pronounced as the PAH ring number is increased. These observations fully support our finding from catechol pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen: that PAH formation and growth occur by successive ring-buildup reactions involving the C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products of catechol's thermal decomposition. 51 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Derivation of correction factor to be applied for calculated results of PWR fuel isotopic composition by ORIGEN2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murazaki, Minoru [Tokyo Nuclear Service Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, Hiroki [The Japan Research Institute Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    For providing conservative PWR spent fuel compositions from the view point of nuclear criticality safety, correction factors applicable for result of burnup calculation by ORIGEN2 were evaluated. Its conservativeness was verified by criticality calculations using MVP. To calculate these correction factors, analyses of spent fuel isotopic composition data were performed by ORIGEN2. Maximum or minimum value of the ratio of calculation result to experimental data was chosen as correction factor. These factors are given to each set of fuel assembly and ORIGEN2 library. They could be considered as the re-definition of recommended isotopic composition given in Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. (author)

  10. Comparison of Practical Investigations for CO Emissions Emitted From Single Cylinder S. I. Engine Fueled With Different Kinds of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ibrahim Abaas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, Natural gas (NG and hydrogen were all used to operate spark ignition internal combustion engine Ricardo E6. A comparison of CO emissions emitted from each case, with emissions emitted from engine fueled with gasoline as a fuel is conducted.The study was accomplished when engine operated at HUCR for gasoline n(8:1, was compared with its operation at HUCR for each fuel. Compression ratio, equivalence ratio and spark timing were studied at constant speed 1500 rpm.CO concentrations were little at lean ratios; it appeared to be effected a little with equivalence ratio in this side, at rich side its values became higher, and it appeared to be effected by equivalence ratio highly, the results showed that CO emissions resulted from gasoline engine were higher than that resulted from using LPG and NG all the time; while hydrogen engine emitted extremely low CO concentrations.

  11. Spent fuel isotopic composition data base system on WWW. SFCOMPO on W3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Spent Fuel Composition Data Base System `SFCOMPO` has been developed on IBM compatible PC. This data base system is not widely used, since users must purchase the data base software by themselves. `SFCOMPO on W3` is a system to overcome this problem. User can search and visualize the data in the data base by accessing WWW server through the Internet from local machine. Only a browsing software to access WWW should be prepared. It enables us to easily search data of spent fuel composition if we can access the Internet. This system can be operated on WWW server machine which supports use of Common Gateway Interface (CGI). This report describes the background of the development of SFCOMPO on W3 and is it`s user`s manual. (author)

  12. New composite membranes based on modified Nafion or Flemion for PEM fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huimin

    Nafion and Flemion during the procedure of casting composite membrane and there was the interaction between the sulphonic acid group and STA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the existence of W-S and W-C bonds in composite membrane. This can be used to explain the previous experimental observation that the composite membrane with STA has higher conductivity and water uptake than the composite membrane without STA. The above studies allowed us to conclude that the improvements in ionic conductivity and water uptake are due to the change of the chemical composition of the composite membranes by the addition of silicotungstic acid. The current-potential polarization characterization of composite Nafion/STA and Flemion/STA membranes was measured using H2/O2 single polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. The performance based on composite Nafion/STA and Flemion/STA membranes is always better than that based on cast Nafion or cast Flemion without STA membranes. The improvement in the fuel cell characteristics for the composite Nafion/STA and Flemion/STAmembrane is due to a combined effect of the polymer and STA. The existence of STA improves the fuel cell performance and make this operation feasible under high temperature.

  13. Species composition and fire: non-additive mixture effects on ground fuel flammability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra eVan Altena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity effects on many aspects of ecosystem function have been well documented. However, fire is an exception: fire experiments have mainly included single species, bulk litter, or vegetation, and, as such, the role of biodiversity as a determinant of flammability, a crucial aspect of ecosystem function, is poorly understood. This study is the first to experimentally test whether flammability characteristics of two-species mixtures are non-additive, i.e. differ from expected flammability based on the component species in monoculture. In standardized fire experiments on ground fuels, including monocultures and mixtures of five contrasting subarctic plant fuel types in a controlled laboratory environment, we measured flame speed, flame duration and maximum temperature. Broadly half of the mixture combinations showed non-additive effects for these flammability indicators; these were mainly enhanced dominance effects, where the fuel types with the more flammable value for a characteristic determined the flammability of the whole mixture. The high incidence of species non-additive effects on ground fuel flammability suggest that the combinations of fuel types may have important effects on ground fire regimes in vegetations differing or changing in species composition.

  14. Cost and performance prospects for composite bipolar plates in fuel cells and redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Hickmann, Thorsten; dos Santos, Antonio R.; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Carbon-polymer-composite bipolar plates (BPP) are suitable for fuel cell and flow battery applications. The advantages of both components are combined in a product with high electrical conductivity and good processability in convenient polymer forming processes. In a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of materials and production processes cost factors are quantified. For the first time a technical cost model for BPP is set up with tight integration of material characterization measurements.

  15. A Central Composite Face-Centered Design for Parameters Estimation of PEM Fuel Cell Electrochemical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled MAMMAR; CHAKER, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on Experimental of design methodology (DoE) is used to estimate the optimal of unknown model parameters proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This proposed approach combines the central composite face-centered (CCF) and numerical PEMFC electrochemical. Simulation results obtained using electrochemical model help to predict the cell voltage in terms of inlet partial pressures of hydrogen and oxygen, stack temperature, and operating current. The value o...

  16. The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Robert A

    2003-11-20

    The long-term carbon cycle operates over millions of years and involves the exchange of carbon between rocks and the Earth's surface. There are many complex feedback pathways between carbon burial, nutrient cycling, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, and climate. New calculations of carbon fluxes during the Phanerozoic eon (the past 550 million years) illustrate how the long-term carbon cycle has affected the burial of organic matter and fossil-fuel formation, as well as the evolution of atmospheric composition.

  17. High Proton Conducting SPEEK/SiO2/PWA Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaowen; JIANG Jiuxin; LIU Jianing

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) based composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application were prepared by sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the SPEEK matrix and the incorporation of phosphotungstic acid (PWA). The conductivity of the developed membranes was determined by impedance spectroscopy and the methanol permeability through the membranes was obtained from diffuseness experiments. The SEM images show that the addition of SiO2 and the covalent cross-linking structure lead to fine PWA particles and more uniformly dispersion. The swelling of composite membranes remains in the range of 5%-8% at 30-90 ℃ and the effusion of PWA reduces significantly. The composite membranes show a good balance in higher proton conductivity and lower methanol permeation. The cell with composite membrane has higher open circuit voltage(0.728 V) and higher peak power density(45 mW/cm2) than that with Nation 117.

  18. Usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions from engineering codes in Monte-Carlo code calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of VVER's cores by Monte-Carlo code is complex process and requires large computational costs. This fact makes Monte-Carlo codes usage complicated for project and operating calculations. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to use for the Monte-Carlo code (MCU) calculations of different states of VVER's core with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are proposed to calculate by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by engineering codes (TVS-M, PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FA and VVER with infinite height are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The MCU calculation data were compared with the data which were obtained by engineering codes.

  19. Development of cesium phosphotungstate salt and chitosan composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanxin; Xiang, Yan; Xiu, Ruijie; Lu, Shanfu

    2013-10-15

    A novel composite membrane has been developed by doping cesium phosphotungstate salt (CsxH3-xPW12O40 (0≤x≤3), Csx-PTA) into chitosan (CTS/Csx-PTA) for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Uniform distribution of Csx-PTA nanoparticles has been achieved in the chitosan matrix. The proton conductivity of the composite membrane is significantly affected by the Csx-PTA content in the composite membrane as well as the Cs substitution in PTA. The highest proton conductivity for the CTS/Csx-PTA membranes was obtained with x=2 and Cs2-PTA content of 5 wt%. The value is 6×10(-3) S cm(-1) and 1.75×10(-2) S cm(-1) at 298 K and 353 K, respectively. The methanol permeability of CTS/Cs2-PTA membrane is about 5.6×10(-7), 90% lower than that of Nafion-212 membrane. The highest selectivity factor (φ) was obtained on CTS/Cs2-PTA-5 wt% composite membrane, 1.1×10(4)/Scm(-3)s. The present study indicates the promising potential of CTS/Csx-PTA composite membrane as alternative proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. A graphite-coated carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ha Na; Lim, Jun Woo; Suh, Jung Do; Lee, Dai Gil

    A PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell or proton exchange membrane fuel cell) stack is composed of GDLs (gas diffusion layers), MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), and bipolar plates. One of the important functions of bipolar plates is to collect and conduct the current from cell to cell, which requires low electrical bulk and interfacial resistances. For a carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate, the interfacial resistance is usually much larger than the bulk resistance due to the resin-rich layer on the composite surface. In this study, a thin graphite layer is coated on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate to decrease the interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and the GDL. The total electrical resistance in the through-thickness direction of the bipolar plate is measured with respect to the thickness of the graphite coating layer, and the ratio of the bulk resistance to the interfacial contact resistance is estimated using the measured data. From the experiment, it is found that the graphite coating on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate has 10% and 4% of the total electrical and interfacial contact resistances of the conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate, respectively, when the graphite coating thickness is 50 μm.

  1. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  2. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  3. Electrospun Nafion®/Polyphenylsulfone Composite Membranes for Regenerative Hydrogen Bromine Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative H2/Br2-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br2 in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion® PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU, for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control. After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion® 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H2-Br2 fuel cell power output with a 65 μm thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 μm Nafion® 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H2/Br2-HBr systems.

  4. Electrospun Nafion(®)/Polyphenylsulfone Composite Membranes for Regenerative Hydrogen Bromine Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Woo; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N; Yarlagadda, Venkata; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2016-02-29

    The regenerative H₂/Br₂-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br₂ in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion(®) PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control. After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion(®) 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H₂-Br₂ fuel cell power output with a 65 μm thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 μm Nafion(®) 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H₂/Br₂-HBr systems.

  5. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  6. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil.

  7. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  8. Microbial diversity, community composition and metabolic potential in hydrocarbon contaminated oily sludge: prospects for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Kazy, Sufia K

    2014-06-01

    Microbial community composition and metabolic potential have been explored in petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge of an oil storage facility. Culture-independent clone library-based 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed that the bacterial community within the sludge was dominated by the members of β-Proteobacteria (35%), followed by Firmicutes (13%), δ-Proteobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%), Acidobacteria (6%), α-Proteobacteria (3%), Lentisphaerae (2%), Spirochaetes (2%), and unclassified bacteria (5%), whereas the archaeal community was composed of Thermoprotei (54%), Methanocellales (33%), Methanosarcinales/Methanosaeta (8%) and Methanoculleus (1%) members. Methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene (a functional biomarker) analyses also revealed predominance of hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic Archaea (Methanocellales, Methanobacteriales and Methanoculleus members) over acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosarcinales members). In order to explore the cultivable bacterial population, a total of 28 resident strains were identified and characterized in terms of their physiological and metabolic capabilities. Most of these could be taxonomically affiliated to the members of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Aerococcus, and Zimmermannella, while two strains were identified as Pseudomonas and Pseudoxanthomonas. Metabolic profiling exhibited that majority of these isolates were capable of growing in presence of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, tolerating different heavy metals at higher concentrations (≥1 mM) and producing biosurfactant during growth. Many strains could grow under a wide range of pH, temperature, or salinity as well as under anaerobic conditions in the presence of different electron acceptors and donors in the growth medium. Correlation between the isolates and their metabolic properties was estimated by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis. Overall

  9. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmisch Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS, the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita. Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (−-(E-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1, (+-germacrene A (MrTPS3, (E-β-ocimene (MrTPS4 and (−-germacrene D (MrTPS5. A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (−-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

  10. Epitaxial composite layers of electron donors and acceptors from very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorí, Paolo; Severin, Nikolai; Simpson, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2002-08-14

    Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be considered as nanographenes, whose electron donating or accepting properties are controlled by their size and shape as well as functionalities in their periphery. Epitaxial thin films of them are targets for optoelectronic applications; however, large PAHs are increasingly difficult to process. Here we show that epitaxial layers of very large unsubstituted PAHs (C(42)H(18) and C(132)H(34)), as well as a mixed layer of C(42)H(18) with an electron acceptor, can be obtained by self-assembly from solution. The C(132)H(34) is by far the largest nanographene that up to now has been processed into ordered thin films; due to its size it cannot be sublimed in a vacuum. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies reveal that the interaction with the substrate induces a strong perturbation of the electronic structure of the pure donor in the first epitaxial monolayer. In a second epitaxial layer with a donor acceptor stoichiometry of 2:1 the molecules are unperturbed.

  11. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke. An Historical Perspective of Several Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant advancements in fractionation, analytical, and characterization technologies since the early 1960s, hundreds of components of complex mixtures have been accurately characterized without the necessity of actually isolating the individual component. This has been particularly true in the case of the complex mixtures tobacco and tobacco smoke. Herein, an historical account of a mid-1950 situation concerning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in cigarette smoke is presented. While the number of PAHs identified in tobacco smoke has escalated from the initial PAH, azulene, identified in 1947 to almost 100 PAHs identified by late 1963 to more than 500 PAHs identified by the late 1970s, the number of PAHs isolated individually and characterized by several of the so-called classical chemical means (melting point, mixture melting point, derivative preparation and properties in the mid-1950s and since is relatively few, 14 in all. They were among 44 PAHs identified in cigarette mainstream smoke and included the following PAHs ranging from bicyclic to pentacyclic: Acenaphthylene, 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, fluoranthene, 9H-fluorene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. One of them, benzo[a]pyrene, was similarly characterized in another study in 1959 by Hoffmann.

  12. Gas composition modeling in a reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system using adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method for modeling the gas composition in a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system. The method is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Inference-Systems which are trained on experimental data. The developed models are of the H2, CO2, CO and CH3OH mass flows of the reformed gas. The ANFIS......, or fuel cell diagnostics systems....

  13. Review of Systems for Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to Hydrocarbon Fuels%光催化CO2转化为碳氢燃料体系的综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝奔月; 史海峰

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global warming and energy shortage caused by traditional fossil energy combustion to carbon dioxide (CO2) has become a significant global issue in view of humansʹcontinuing development. The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 produced from hydrocarbon fuels using solar light and semiconductor photocatalytic materials could not only decrease the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus reduce the greenhouse warming effect, but also provide hydrocarbon fuels to partial y al eviate the energy shortage crisis. Hence, the photocatalysis technique has attracted considerable attention in industry and academic areas. In this paper, the fundamental principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis and the recent progress in the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels are introduced and reviewed. Based on previous reports in the field of photocatalysis research, the main types of semiconductors capable of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide can be summarized as fol ows: pure TiO2 photocatalysts, ABO3 perovskite-structured photocatalysts, spinel-structured photocatalysts, doped oxide photocatalysts, composite semiconductor photocatalysts, V-, W-, Ge-, Ga-based photocatalysts, and graphene-based photocatalysts. In addition, the characteristics of various photocatalytic materials and some factors affecting photocatalytic activities are reviewed and analyzed. Final y, the prospects and chal enges for developing new photocatalysts for CO2 reduction are presented.%传统化石能源燃烧产生CO2引起的地球变暖和能源短缺已经成为一个严重的全球性问题。利用太阳光和光催化材料将CO2还原为碳氢燃料,不仅可以减少空气中CO2浓度,降低温室效应的影响,还可以提供碳氢燃料,缓解能源短缺问题,因此日益受到各国科学家的高度关注。本文综述了光催化还原CO2为碳氢燃料的研究进展,介绍了光催化还原CO2的反应机理,并对

  14. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell using polypyrrole coated carbon nanotubes composite as anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yongjin; Xiang, Cuili; Yang, Lini [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Li-Xian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Xu, Fen [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Cao, Zhong [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China)

    2008-09-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed using polypyrrole (PPy) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite as an anode material and Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The composite PPy-CNTs were synthesized by the in situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on the CNTs using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the composite modified anode were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and discharge experiments. The PPy-CNTs modified anode showed better electrochemical performance than that of plain carbon paper. The amount of the loading of the composite on the anode was also investigated. The power output of the MFC increased along with the increase of the composite loading. In the absence of exogenous electron mediators, the MFC with the composite modified anode contained 5 mg cm{sup -2} PPy-CNTs exhibited a maximum power density 228 mW m{sup -2}, which is much higher than those reported in the literature so far for E. coli using efficient electron mediators. These results show that the PPy-CNTs composite anode is promising for MFC application. (author)

  15. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  16. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  17. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  18. Nanostructured polypyrrole/carbon composite as Pt catalyst support for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Li, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yongming

    A novel catalyst support was synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on Vulcan XC-72 carbon in naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) solution containing ammonium persulfate as oxidant at room temperature. Pt nanoparticles with 3-4 nm size were deposited on the prepared polypyrrole-carbon composites by chemical reduction method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that Pt particles were homogeneously dispersed in polypyrrole-carbon composites. The Pt nanoparticles-dispersed catalyst composites were used as anodes of fuel cells for hydrogen and methanol oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of hydrogen and methanol oxidation showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on polypyrrole-carbon with NSA as dopant exhibit better catalytic activity than those on plain carbon. This result might be due to the higher electrochemically available surface areas, electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/carbon particle interfaces allowing a high dispersion and utilization of deposited Pt nanoparticles.

  19. Nanostructured polypyrrole/carbon composite as Pt catalyst support for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Li, Lei; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yongming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-10-01

    A novel catalyst support was synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on Vulcan XC-72 carbon in naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) solution containing ammonium persulfate as oxidant at room temperature. Pt nanoparticles with 3-4 nm size were deposited on the prepared polypyrrole-carbon composites by chemical reduction method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that Pt particles were homogeneously dispersed in polypyrrole-carbon composites. The Pt nanoparticles-dispersed catalyst composites were used as anodes of fuel cells for hydrogen and methanol oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of hydrogen and methanol oxidation showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on polypyrrole-carbon with NSA as dopant exhibit better catalytic activity than those on plain carbon. This result might be due to the higher electrochemically available surface areas, electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/carbon particle interfaces allowing a high dispersion and utilization of deposited Pt nanoparticles. (author)

  20. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... of toxic elements is shown exemplified by Hg. The average concentration is evaluated to be affected by three occurrences; background, rare items and very rare items (1/800 tonnes), that are all important to the Hg average concentration....

  1. Spent fuel composition database system on WWW. SFCOMPO on WWW Ver.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hiroki [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi; Okuno, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    'SFCOMPO on WWW Ver.2' is an advanced version of 'SFCOMPO on WWW' ('Spent Fuel Composition Database System on WWW') released in 1997. This new version has a function of database management by an introduced relational database software 'PostgreSQL' and has various searching methods. All of the data required for the calculation of isotopic composition is available from the web site of this system. This report describes the outline of this system and the searching method using Internet. In addition, the isotopic composition data and the reactor data of the 14 LWRs (7 PWR and 7 BWR) registered in this system are described. (author)

  2. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  3. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: A Chronology of the Studies of Four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a major class of identified cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components, are several shown to be tumorigenic in laboratory animals and suspect as possible tumorigens to humans. To date, nearly 540 PAHs have been completely or partially identified in tobacco smoke [Rodgman and Perfetti (1]. A detailed chronology is presented of studies on four much discussed PAHs identified in tobacco smoke, namely, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A, its 7,12-dimethyl derivative (DMB[a]A, dibenz[a, h]anthracene (DB[a, h]A, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P. Of the four, DMB[a]A, DB[a, h]A, and B[a]P are considered to be potently tumorigenic on mouse skin painting and subcutaneous injection. Opinions on the tumorigenicity of B[a]A to mouse skin vary. DMB[a]A is frequently used in tumorigenicity studies as an initiator. Examination of the number of tobacco smoke-related citations listed for these four PAHs reveals the enormous effort devoted since the early 1950s to B[a]P vs. the other three. An annotated chronology from 1886 to date describes the tobacco smoke-related research pertinent to these four PAHs, their discovery, isolation and/or identification, quantitation, and contribution to the observed biological activity of MSS or cigarette smoke condensate (CSC. Much of the major literature on these four PAHs in tobacco smoke is presented in order to permit the reader to decide whether the current evidence is sufficient to classify them as a health risk to smokers. There has certainly been a tremendous effort by researchers to learn about these PAHs over the past several decades. Each of these PAHs when tested individually has been shown to possess the following biological properties: 1 Mutagenicity in certain bacterial situations, 2 tumorigenicity in certain animal species, to varying degrees under various administration modes, and 3 a threshold limit below which no tumorigenesis occurs. For more than five decades, it has been

  4. Highly efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels by Cu-nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chang-Hui; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Jan-Kai; Wu, Chih-I; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-11-12

    The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (∼4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.

  5. Feasibility of Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composites for Cryogenic Fuel Tank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, K.; Doyle, A.; O Bradaigh, C. M.; Jaredson, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of CF/PEEK composites for manufacture of cryogenic fuel tanks for Next Generation Space Launchers. The material considered is CF/PEEK tape from Suprem SA and the proposed manufacturing process for the fuel tank is Automated Tape Placement. Material characterization was carried out on test laminates manufactured in an autoclave and also by Automated Tape Placement with in-situ consolidation. The results of the two processes were compared to establish if there is any knock down in properties for the automated tape placement process. A permeability test rig was setup with a helium leak detector and the effect of thermal cycling on the permeability properties of CF/PEEK was measured. A 1/10th scale demonstrator was designed and manufactured consisting of a cylinder manufactured by automated tape placement and an upper dome manufactured by autoclave processing. The assembly was achieved by Amorphous Interlayer Bonding with PEI.

  6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  7. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazole and clay composites for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Siu, Ana; Li, Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    and pyridinium salts with varying polarity and hydrogen-bonding capacity. Clay modification by ion-exchange reactions involving replacement of interlayer inorganic cations was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The cast PBI membranes were characterized by their water uptake......, acid doping and swelling, tensile strength, conductivity and hydrogen permeability as well as by fuel cell tests. For the composite membranes, high acid doping levels were achieved with sufficient mechanical strength and improved dimensional stability or reduced membrane swelling. At an acid doping......-doped pristine PBI membranes. In accordance with the hydrogen permeability measurements, fuel cell tests exhibited high open circuit voltages (i.e., 1.02 V) at room temperature as well as high I–V performance compared with normal PBI membranes....

  8. The effects of biodegradation on the compositions of aromatic hydrocarbons and maturity indicators in biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By the aid of GC-MS technique,a series of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin have been analyzed. The results show that the concentrations and relative compositions of various aromatic compounds in the biodegraded crude oils will change with increasing biodegradation degree. The concentrations of alkyl naphthalenes,alkyl phenanthrenes,alkyl dibenzothiophene are decreased,and the concentration of triaromatic steroids will increase with increasing biodegradation degree in biodegraded oils. Those phenomena indicate that various aromatic compounds are more easily biodegraded by bacteria like other kinds of hydrocarbons such as alkanes,but different series of aromatic compounds have a varied ability to resistant to biodegradation. The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenenthrene(DBTH/P) and methyl dibenzothiophene to methyl phenanthrene(MDBTH/MP) are related to the features of depositional environment for source rocks such as redox and ancient salinity. However,in biodegraded oils,the two ratios increase quickly with the increase of the biodegradation degree,indicating that they have lost their geochemical significance. In this case,they could not be used to evaluate the features of depositional environment. Methyl phenanthrene index,methyl phenanthrene ratio and methyl dibenzoyhiophene ratio are useful aromatic maturity indicators for the crude oils and the source rocks without vitrinite. But for biodegraded oils,those aromatic maturity indicators will be affected by biodegradation and decrease with the increase of the biodegradation degree. Therefore,those aromatic molecular maturity indicators could not be used for biodegraded oils.

  9. Variations on a theme - the evolution of hydrocarbon solids: I. Compositional and spectral modelling - the eRCN and DG models

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A P

    2015-01-01

    Context. The compositional properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to evolve in response to the local conditions. Aims. To present a model for low-temperature, amorphous hydrocarbon solids, based on the microphysical properties of random and defected networks of carbon and hydrogen atoms, that can be used to study and predict the evolution of their properties in the interstellar medium. Methods. We adopt an adaptable and prescriptive approach to model these materials, which is based on a random covalent network (RCN) model, extended here to a full compositional derivation (the eRCN model), and a defective graphite (DG) model for the hydrogen poorer materials where the eRCN model is no longer valid. Results. We provide simple expressions that enable the determination of the structural, infrared and spectral properties of amorphous hydrocarbon grains as a function of the hydrogen atomic fraction, XH. Structural annealing, resulting from hydrogen atom loss, results in a transition from H-rich, ali...

  10. Effect of fuel composition on the emission of phenols in the exhaust gas from a European car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeli, A; Morozzi, G; Zoccolillo, L

    1977-01-01

    The emission of phenols from a European car working with leaded and unleaded fuels with different percentage of aromatics has been considered. Fuels having the same aromatic content, but with a different composition of aromatic fraction, have also been taken into account. The results obtained showed that the emission of phenols increases with the increase of the aromatic content of fuel and also when unleaded instead of leaded fuels are used. The type of aromatic present in fuels was found to be important in forming the amount of both total and individual phenols emitted in the exhaust gas and in determining the number of phenolic compounds formed during combustion, although the phenol and isomer cresols were produced by combustion of all the fuels tested. The quantitative determination of individual phenols has been carried out on the benzene extract of the aqueous condensate and of the particulate matter of exhaust gas by the NaOH-extraction-GC-chromatographic method.

  11. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the different species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion from others origins of particulate matter (vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach of source tracking.

  12. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  13. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity, conductivity, water uptake and dimensional stability, thermal stability and morphology were characterized. The inclusion of functionalized nanoparticles proved advantageous, mainly due to a physical crosslinking effect and better water retention, with functionalized nanoparticles performing better than the pristine silica particles. For the same filler loading, better nanoparticle dispersion was achieved for solvent-cast membranes, resulting in higher proton conductivity. Filler agglomeration, however,was more severe for solvent-castmembranes at loadings beyond 5wt.%. The composite membranes showed excellent thermal stability, allowing for operation in medium temperature PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell performance of the compositemembranesdecreaseswithdecreasing relativehumidity, but goodperformance values are still obtained at 34% RHand 90 °C,with the best results obtained for solvent castmembranes loaded with 10 wt.% ODF-functionalized silica. Hydrogen crossover of the composite membranes is higher than that forpureNafion membranes,possiblydue toporosityresulting fromsuboptimalparticle- matrixcompatibility. © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid method for hydrocarbon-type analysis of heavy oils and synthetic fuels by pyrolysis thin layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.A.; George, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This work describes a rapid method for hydrocargon-type analysis applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) to the pentane-soluble fraction *malthenes) of the petroleum and synthetic fuels boiling above 200/sup 0/C. The principal component types encountered in this paper are saturates (SA), aromatics (AR), (mono and di together) polynuclear aromatics (PNA) and polar material (PO). The method uses a Iatroscan TLC pyrolyzer which combines the resolution capabilities of TLC with the possibility of quantification by using a flame-ionization detector (FID). Comparison of the results with those obtained by the API-60 procedure is presented.

  15. LDRD final report on "fundamentals of synthetic conversion of CO2 to simple hydrocarbon fuels" (LDRD 113486).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kemp, Richard Alan; Mavrikakis, Manos (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Miller, James Edward; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2009-11-01

    Energy production is inextricably linked to national security and poses the danger of altering the environment in potentially catastrophic ways. There is no greater problem than sustainable energy production. Our purpose was to attack this problem by examining processes, technology, and science needed for recycling CO{sub 2} back into transportation fuels. This approach can be thought of as 'bio-inspired' as nature employs the same basic inputs, CO{sub 2}/energy/water, to produce biomass. We addressed two key deficiencies apparent in current efforts. First, a detailed process analysis comparing the potential for chemical and conventional engineering methods to provide a route for the conversion of CO{sub 2} and water to fuel has been completed. No apparent 'showstoppers' are apparent in the synthetic route. Opportunities to improve current processes have also been identified and examined. Second, we have also specifically addressed the fundamental science of the direct production of methanol from CO{sub 2} using H{sub 2} as a reductant.

  16. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  18. Carbon composite bipolar plate for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-09-01

    A carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate is an ideal substitute for the brittle graphite bipolar plate for lightweight proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) because of its high specific strength and stiffness. However, conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plates are not applicable for high-temperature PEMFCs (HT-PEMFCs) because these systems are operated at higher temperatures than the glass transition temperatures of conventional epoxies. Therefore, in this study, a cyanate ester-modified epoxy is adopted for the development of a carbon composite bipolar plate for HT-PEMFCs. The composite bipolar plate with exposed surface carbon fibers is produced without any surface treatments or coatings to increase the productivity and is integrated with a silicone gasket to reduce the assembly cost. The developed carbon composite bipolar plate exhibits not only superior electrical properties but also high thermo-mechanical properties. In addition, a unit cell test is performed, and the results are compared with those of the conventional graphite bipolar plate.

  19. Solution-chemical route to generalized synthesis of metal germanate nanowires with room-temperature, light-driven hydrogenation activity of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-01-06

    A facile solution-chemical route was developed for the generalized preparation of a family of highly uniform metal germanate nanowires on a large scale. This route is based on the use of hydrazine monohydrate/H2O as a mixed solvent under solvothermal conditions. Hydrazine has multiple effects on the generation of the nanowires: as an alkali solvent, a coordination agent, and crystal anisotropic growth director. Different-percentage cobalt-doped Cd2Ge2O6 nanowires were also successfully obtained through the addition of Co(OAc)2·4H2O to the initial reaction mixture for future investigation of the magnetic properties of these nanowires. The considerably negative conduction band level of the Cd2Ge2O6 nanowire offers a high driving force for photogenerated electron transfer to CO2 under UV-vis illumination, which facilitates CO2 photocatalytic reduction to a renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor at room temperature.

  20. New Insights into Benzene Hydrocarbon Decomposition from Fuel Exhaust Using Self-Support Ray Polarization Plasma with Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new insight into self-support ray polarization (SSRP of nonthermal plasma for benzene hydrocarbon decomposition in fuel exhaust was put forward. A wire-tube dielectric barrier discharge (DBD AC plasma reactor was used at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The catalyst was made of nano-TiO2 and ceramic raschig rings. Nano-TiO2 was prepared as an active component by ourselves in the laboratory. Ceramic raschig rings were selected for catalyst support materials. Then, the catalyst was packed into nonthermal plasma (NTP reactor. Six aspects, benzene initial concentration, gas flux, electric field strength, removal efficiency, ozone output, and CO2 selectivity on benzene removal efficiency, were investigated. The results showed SSRP can effectively enhance benzene removal efficiency. The removal efficiency of benzene was up to 99% at electric field strength of 12 kV/cm. At the same time, SSRP decreases ozone yield and shows a better selectivity of CO2 than the single technology of nonthermal plasma. The final products were mostly CO, CO2, and H2O. Our research will lay the foundation for SSRP industrial application in the future.

  1. Investigation of the presence of toxic components of petroleum hydrocarbons in Guanabara Bay, Brazil following the 2000 PETROBRAS fuel oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Catia Maria [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Licenciamento de Petroleo e Nuclear; Vleet, Edward S. Van

    2003-07-01

    On January 18, 2000, approximately 340,000 gallons of marine fuel 380 oil were released into Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a consequence of a pipeline transfer accident at the Duque de Caxias Refinery (PETROBRAS). Two years after the spill, the present investigation (sponsored by Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance - College of Public Health - University of South Florida) was conducted to assess the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on samples of water, sediments and edible tissue of the fishes (Mullet - Mugilliza and Croaker - Micropogonias furnieri) collected using two types of device (nets and fish traps) from the spill area in July and August 2002. The fishes samples collected in both months were considered to range from being not contaminated to being moderately contaminated by PAHs. Among all the sediments, only one (Point 10, July 2002) showed a total PAH concentration representing highly contaminated conditions. Except for Point 10, all other sediments could be considered minimally to moderately contaminated. Dissolved PAH concentrations found in the water samples were considered to range from minimally to moderately contaminated. (author)

  2. A cobalt polypyrrole composite catalyzed cathode for the direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A cobalt polypyrrole carbon (Co-PPY-C) composite has been attempted for use as a cathode catalyst in a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC). A Co-PPY-C composite has been fabricated in laboratory and characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Fabricated Co-PPY-C catalyst demonstrates good short-term durability and activity which are comparable to those obtained from the Pt/C catalyst. A maximum power density of 65 mW cm -2 has been achieved at ambient conditions. This research concludes that metallo-organic coordination compounds would be potential candidates for use as cathode catalysts in the DBFC.

  3. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-07

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses.

  4. Validation of the scale system for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the SCALE system depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and SCALE/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and activation products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of SCALE functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.

  5. RF Plasma Torch System for Metal Matrix Composite Production in Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, Eddie, III

    2007-10-01

    For the first time in 30 years, plans are afoot to build new fission power plants in the US. It is timely to develop technology that could improve the safety and efficiency of new reactors. A program of development for advanced fuel cycles and Generation IV reactors is underway. The path to greater efficiency is to increase the core operating temperature. That places particular challenges to the cladding tubes that contain the fission fuel. A promising material for this purpose is a metal matrix composite (MMC) in which ceramic fibers are bonded within a high-strength steel matrix, much like fiberglass. Current MMC technology lacks the ability to effectively bond traditional high-temperature alloys to ceramic strands. The purpose of this project is to design an rf plasma torch system to use titanium as a buffer between the ceramic fibers and the refractory outer material. The design and methods of using an rf plasma torch to produce a non-equilibrium phase reaction to bond together the MMC will be discussed. The effects of having a long lived fuel cladding in the design of future reactors will also be discussed.

  6. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  7. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines , such as gasoline, diesel , or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...optimization, which determines the surrogate composition that minimizes the deviation from the target properties. For modern diesel engines , which employ...of biodiesel and diesel fuel. Pei et al. [20] conducted a sensitivity analysis with a diesel engine simulation to assess the relative effects of

  8. Permeability of Flexible Materials Used in Fuel Storage Tanks. Part 1. General Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    459 PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS: PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW B.C. Ennis- THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFMATION... GENERAL REVIEW Accession For NTIS T&i Ju £ , ,, L f T B.C. Ennis * .... . . ABSTRACT I A review of the transport of hydrocarbon fuels through composite...PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS% ’I PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW MT40R(S) COF"ATE AUTHOR Materlals Research Laboratories• !ENNIS

  9. Microbial production of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Progress report, February 1, 1979-September 30, 1979. [Optimization for commercial oily hydrocarbon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T G

    1979-09-01

    The neutral lipids of nine species of methanogenic bacteria, two thermoacidophiles, two alkalinophiles and 20 algal samples were analyzed. The major components were C/sub 30/, C/sub 25/, and/or C/sub 20/ acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons with a continuous range of hydroisoprenoid homologues. The range or acyclic isoprenoids detected were from C/sub 14/ to C/sub 30/. The neutral lipid composition from these bacteria resembles the isoprenoid distribution isolated from ancient sediments and petroleum. Therefore, these findings may have major implications to biological and biogeochemical evolution. In this connection, samples and cores from ancient sediments and future fossil fuel source beds are being analyzed for these neutral lipids as well as the more polar isopranyl glycerol-ether lipids. The derivation of fossil fuels and the biomass accumulations are the focal points of this phase of the study. Ancient and recent sediments, future source beds, and local esturaries are being enriched for microorganisms to establish a range and capability profile for hydrocarbon production. Only a relatively small percent of the microorganisms isolated demonstrated the ability to synthesize hydrocarbons; however, one particular algal isolate demonstrated that it can synthesize hydrocarbons while in a green physiological stage. Greater production is expected in the brown phase of growth. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis studies were conducted in an attempt to better understand the conditions required to maximize hydrocarbon production. The program involved physical and chemical parameters as well as assays of specifically labelled precusors with a cell free enzyme system to measure their conversions to hydrocarbons. The results have indicated a complex one enzyme system is involved in condensation and reduction of two fatty acids into hydrocarbons.

  10. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  11. Theoretical modeling of iodine value and saponification value of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, A.; Puhan, Sukumar; Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The properties of biodiesel depend on the type of vegetable oil used for the transesterification process. The objective of the present work is to theoretically predict the iodine value and the saponification value of different biodiesels from their fatty acid methyl ester composition. The fatty acid ester compositions and the above values of different biodiesels were taken from the available published data. A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict the iodine value and saponification value of different biodiesels. The predicted results showed that the prediction errors were less than 3.4% compared to the available published data. The predicted values were also verified by substituting in the available published model which was developed to predict the higher heating values of biodiesel fuels from their iodine value and the saponification value. The resulting heating values of biodiesels were then compared with the published heating values and reported. (author)

  12. Self-assembled dynamic perovskite composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J. Felix; Xu, Wen; Zanella, Marco; Dawson, Karl; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Claridge, John B.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Electrode materials for intermediate temperature (500-700 ∘C) solid oxide fuel cells require electrical and mechanical stability to maintain performance during the cell lifetime. This has proven difficult to achieve for many candidate cathode materials and their derivatives with good transport and electrocatalytic properties because of reactivity towards cell components, and the fuels and oxidants. Here we present Ba0.5Sr0.5(Co0.7Fe0.3)0.6875W0.3125O3-δ (BSCFW), a self-assembled composite prepared through simple solid state synthesis, consisting of B-site cation ordered double perovskite and disordered single perovskite oxide phases, as a candidate cathode material. These phases interact by dynamic compositional change at the operating temperature, promoting both chemical stability through the increased amount of W in the catalytically active single perovskite provided from the W-reservoir double perovskite, and microstructural stability through reduced sintering of the supported catalytically active phase. This interactive catalyst-support system enabled stable high electrochemical activity through the synergic integration of the distinct properties of the two phases.

  13. The impact of air-fuel mixture composition on SI engine performance during natural gas and producer gas combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, G.; Postrzednik, S.; Żmudka, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The paper summarizers results of experimental tests of SI engine fuelled with gaseous fuels such as, natural gas and three mixtures of producer gas substitute that simulated real producer gas composition. The engine was operated under full open throttle and charged with different air-fuel mixture composition (changed value of air excess ratio). The spark timing was adjusted to obtain maximum brake torque (MBT) for each fuel and air-fuel mixture. This paper reports engine indicated performance based on in-cylinder, cycle resolved pressure measurements. The engine performance utilizing producer gas in terms of indicated efficiency is increased by about 2 percentage points when compared to fuelling with natural gas. The engine power de-rating when producer gas is utilized instead the natural gas, varies from 24% to 28,6% under stoichiometric combustion conditions. For lean burn (λ=1.5) the difference are lower and varies from 22% to 24.5%.

  14. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of wood for heat and power production may cause problems such as ash deposition, corrosion, and harmful emissions of gases and particulate matter. These problems are all directly related to the release of inorganic elements (in particular Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb) from the fuel...... to the gas phase. The aims of this study are to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion and to investigate the influence of fuel composition. Quantitative release data were obtained by pyrolyzing and subsequently combusting small samples of wood (~30 g) at various...... temperatures in the range of 500–1150 °C in a laboratory-scale tube reactor and by performing mass balance calculations based on the weight measurements and chemical analyses of the wood fuels and the residual ash samples. Four wood fuels with different ash contents and inorganic compositions were investigated...

  15. A Nafion-Ceria Composite Membrane Electrolyte for Reduced Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Velayutham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content (1 wt. % CeO2 exhibits a proton conductivity of 176 mS·cm−1 at 70 °C, which is about 30% higher than that of the unmodified membrane. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane. In a single cell DMFC test, MEA fabricated with the optimized composite membrane delivered a peak power density of 120 mW·cm−2 at 70 °C, which is about two times higher in comparison with the pristine Nafion membrane under identical operating conditions.

  16. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hacer Doǧan; Emel Yildiz; Metin Kaya; Tülay Y Inan

    2013-08-01

    Two different commercial grade carbon black samples, Cabot Regal 400R (C1) and Cabot Mogul L (C2), were sulfonated with diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. The resultant sulfonated carbon black samples (S–C) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton conduction, water uptake, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. Incorporation of S–C particles above 0.25 wt% caused decrease in chemical stability. Pristine and composite membranes prepared from SPEEK82 decomposed completely in <1 h, which is undesirable for fuel cell applications. SPEEK60 membrane having wt% of 0.25–0.5 with S–C particles led to higher proton conductivity than that of pristine membrane. No positive effect was observed on the properties of the composite membranes with the addition of S–C particles at high concentrations due to the agglomeration problems and decrease in the content of conductive polymer matrix.

  17. The composition and the source of hydrocarbons in sediments taken from the tectonically active Andaman Backarc Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Rao, P.S.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    or hydrothermal organic matter. Anthropogenic sources in region studied are of minor importance. From the results obtained, it may be deduced that the hydrocarbons in the sediments of the tectonically active part of the Andaman Basin are mainly due...

  18. Natural Silica Sand/Alumina Ceramic Composites: Promising Candidates for Fuel-Cell Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, N.; Istiqomah; Widianto, M. Y. H.; Taufiq, A.; Sunaryono; Triwikantoro; Zainuri, M.; Baqiya, M. A.; Aristia, G.; Pratapa, S.

    2017-05-01

    An attempt has been developed to establish the prospect of the useful application of Indonesian natural silica sand, instead of commercially expensive materials, as a future fuel-cell sealant. The sand was initially washed and ball-milled at 150 rpm for 60 minutes and then heated at 1000 °C for the same duration. The resulting powder was then mixed with alumina powder at various amounts and shaped into discs before sintering at 1150 °C and 1250 °C to produce compact ceramics. The diameter shrinkage, porosity, and density of the ceramics were evaluated by Archimedes method. Their crystalline phase composition was quantified by Rietveld refinement analysis on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data and the phase weight fraction was then used for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) evaluation. It was observed that the bulk density increased while the porosity decreased with alumina addition. The XRD data analysis revealed that the prepared silica sand contains a very high purity of quartz-SiO2, i.e. 97.8(18)%. The sintering temperatures of 1150 °C and 1250 °C transformed some quartz-SiO2 to crystobalite-SiO2. All the calcite-CaCO3 exhibited reaction sintering with SiO2 forming wollastonite-CaSiO3. Therefore, the ceramic composites contained SiO2/Al2O3/CaSiO3. Regarding CTE, all of the composites meet the criteria for fuel-cell sealants, in the range of 9-12 ppm/°C.

  19. Effect of Fuel Content and Particle Size Distribution of Oxidiser on Ignition of Metal-Based Pyrotechnic Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Dugam

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of boron content in boron-based pyrotechnic composition and particle size distribution of oxidiser, i.e., KNO3 in boron-based pyrotechnic composition is examined by subjecting these to various tests. Study on boron-based pyrotechnic compositions reveals that compositions with 20, 25 and 30 parts by weight of boron are promising igniter compositions wrt their calorimetric values, pressure maximum, ignition delay, etc. However, from sensitivity point of view, the composition with 30 parts of boron is more safe to handle, manufacture and use. From the study of particle size distribution of KNO3 in Mg- based pyrotechnic compositions, it is observed that the composition with wider particle size distribution of oxidiser gives better packing density for their binary miJQ with metal fuel, which in turn gives lower ignition delay and ignition temperature.

  20. Diversity of ndo Genes in Mangrove Sediments Exposed to Different Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Newton C. Marcial; Borges, Ludmila R.; Paranhos,Rodolfo; Pinto, Fernando N.; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants originating from oil spills and wood and fuel combustion are pollutants which are among the major threats to mangrove ecosystems. In this study, the composition and relative abundance in the sediment bacterial communities of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes which are important for bacterial adaptation to environmental PAH contamination were investigated. Three urban mangrove sites which had characteristic compositions and levels of PAH compo...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and...

  2. Nafion/PTFE composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hsiu-Li; Yu, T. Leon; Chen, Li-Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Nei-Li, Taoyuan 32026 (Taiwan); Huang, Li-Ning; Shen, Kun-Sheng; Jung, Guo-Bin [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Nei-Li, Taoyuan 32026 (Taiwan)

    2005-10-04

    Using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is shown that a high-carbon-number alcohol/water, i.e., 2-propanol/water, mixed solvent is more effective than low-carbon-number alcohol/water, i.e., ethanol/water and methanol/water, mixed solvents in dispersing Nafion molecules. Thus, it is a better solvent for the preparation of Nafion/PTFE (poly(tetrafluoroethylene)) composite membranes. The performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) with a Nafion/PTFE composite membrane, which was prepared in-house, a commercial Nafion-117 membrane, or a commercial Nafion-112 membrane were investigated by feeding various concentrations, i.e., 2-5M, of methanol to the anode. The Nafion/PTFE composite membrane gave a better DMFC performance than that obtained with Nafion-117 or Nafion-112 membranes. Using a DMFC model and varying the methanol concentration at the anode, cell voltage data were analyzed with respect to methanol concentration and cell current. The results indicate that inserting porous PTFE into Nafion polymer causes a reduction not only in methanol diffusion cross-over but also in the electro-osmosis of methanol cross-over in the membrane. (author)

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell composite cathodes based on perovskite and fluorite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Vladislav; Mezentseva, Natalia; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Sadovskaya, Ekaterina; Ishchenko, Arkady; Pavlova, Svetlana; Bespalko, Yulia; Kharlamova, Tamara; Zevak, Ekaterina; Salanov, Aleksei; Krieger, Tamara; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bobrenok, Oleg; Uvarov, Nikolai; Okhlupin, Yury; Smorygo, Oleg; Smirnova, Alevtina; Singh, Prabhakar; Vlasov, Aleksandr; Korobeynikov, Mikhail; Bryazgin, Aleksandr; Kalinin, Peter; Arzhannikov, Andrei

    This work presents the results related to the functionally graded fluorite (F)-perovskite (P) nanocomposite cathodes for IT SOFC. Nanocrystalline fluorites (GDC, ScCeSZ) and perovskites (LSrMn, LSrFNi) were synthesized by Pechini method. Nanocomposites were prepared by the ultrasonic dispersion of F and P powders in isopropanol with addition of polyvinyl butyral. Different techniques for deposition and sintering of functionally graded cathode materials were applied including traditional approaches as well as original methods, such as radiation-thermal sintering under electron beam or microwave radiation. Morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of nanocomposites was characterized by XRD and HRTEM/SEM with EDX. Even for dense composites, the sizes of perovskite and fluorite domains remain in the nanorange providing developed P-F interfaces. Oxygen isotope heteroexchange and conductivity/weight relaxation studies demonstrated that these interfaces provide a path for fast oxygen diffusion. The redistribution of the elements between P and F phases in nanocomposites occurs without formation of insulating zirconate phases. Button-size fuel cells with nanocomposite functionally graded cathodes, thin YSZ layers and anode Ni/YSZ cermet (either bulk or supported on Ni-Al foam substrates) were manufactured. For optimized composition and functionally graded design of P-F nanocomposite cathodes, a stable performance in the intermediate temperature range with maximum power density up to 0.5 W cm -2 at 700 °C in wet H 2/air feeds was demonstrated.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  5. Bacterial and human cell mutagenicity study of some C[sub 18]H[sub 10] cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with fossil fuels combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, A.L.; Longwell, J.P.; Marr, J.A.; Monchamp, P.A.; Thilly, W.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Mulder, P.P.Y.; Boere, B.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Lugtenburg, J. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

    1993-06-01

    A number of isomeric C[sub 18]H[sub 10] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thought to be primarily cyclopenta-fused PAHs, are produced during the combustion and pyrolysis of fossil fuels. To determine the importance of their contributions to the total mutagenic activity of combustion and pyrolysis samples in which they are found, we characterized reference quantities of four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] CP-PAHs: benzol [ghi] fluoranthene (BF), cyclopenta [cd] pyrene (CPP), cyclopent [hi] acephenanthrylene (CPAP), and cyclopent [hi] acaenthrylene (CPAA). Synthesis of CPAA and CPAP is described. The availability of reference samples of these isomers also proved to be an essential aid in the identification of the C[sub 18]H[sub 10] species often found in combustion and pyrolysis samples. Chemical analysis of selected combustion and pyrolysis samples showed that CPP was generally the most abundant C[sub 18]H[sub 10] isomer, followed by CPAP and BF. CPAA was detected only in pyrolysis products from pure PAHs. We tested the four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] PAHs for mutagenicity in a forward mutation assay using S. typhimurium. CPP, BF, and CPAA were roughly twice as mutagenic as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), whereas CPAP was only slightly active. These PAHs were also tested for mutagenic activity in human cells. In this assay, CPP and CPAA were strongly mutagenic but less active than BaP, whereas CPAP and BF were inactive at the dose levels tested. Also, the bacterial and human cell mutagenicity of CPAA and CPAP were compared with the mutagenicity of their monocyclopenta-fused analogs, aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene. Although the mutagenicities of CPAP and acephenanthrylene are similar, the mutagenic activity of CPAA is an order of magnitude greater than that of aceanthrylene.

  6. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  7. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g{sup -1}. The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (40 C), and 14.6 h (110 C). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 C and -19 C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition. (author)

  8. Enhancement of the fuel cell performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell running with titanium composite polybenzimidazole-based membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Pinar, F. Javier

    2011-10-01

    The fuel cell performance of a composite PBI-based membrane with TiO2 has been studied. The behaviour of the membrane has been evaluated by comparison with the fuel cell performance of other PBI-based membranes, all of which were cast from the same polymer with the same molecular weight. The PBI composite membrane incorporating TiO2 showed the best performance and reached 1000 mW cm-2 at 175 °C. Moreover, this new titanium composite PBI-based membrane also showed the best stability during the preliminary long-term test under our operation conditions. Thus, the slope of the increase in the ohmic resistance of the composite membrane was 0.041 mΩ cm2 h-1 and this is five times lower than that of the standard PBI membrane. The increased stability was due to the high phosphoric acid retention capacity - as confirmed during leaching tests, in which the Ti-based composite PBI membrane retained 5 mol of H3PO4/PBI r.u. whereas the PBI standard membrane only retained 1 mol H3PO4/PBI r.u. Taking into account the results obtained in this study, the TiO2-PBI based membranes are good candidates as electrolytes for high temperature PEMFCs.

  9. Proton conductive montmorillonite-Nafion composite membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Nan; Shi, Chun-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Qi, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ya-Fang

    2016-12-01

    The preparation of Nafion membranes modified with montmorillonites is less studied, and most relative works mainly applied in direct methanol fuel cells, less in direct ethanol fuel cells. Organic/inorganic composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites (Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, K-montmorillonite, Mg-montmorillonite, and H-montmorillonite) and Nafion solution via casting method at 293 K in air, and with balance of their proton conductivity and ethanol permeability. The ethanol permeability and proton conductivity of the membranes are comparatively studied. The montmorillonites can well decrease the ethanol permeability of the membranes via inserted them in the membranes, while less decrease the proton conductivities of the membranes depending on the inserted amount and type of montmorillonites. The proton conductivities of the membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. The ethanol permeability of the membranes is between 0.69 × 10-6 cm2/s and 2.67 × 10-6 cm2/s.

  10. Enhancement of fuel cell performance with less-water dependent composite membranes having polyoxometalate anchored nanofibrous interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Jacob, Mohan V.; Ghassemi, Hossein; Ahmad, Arshad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Zakeri, Masoumeh; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxometalate immobilized nanofiber was used to fabricate low gas permeable layer for composite membranes designed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating at low relative humidity (RH). The composite membranes revealed enhanced proton conductivity in dry conditions compared with state-of-the-art pristine membrane (Nafion 112, N112). This was coupled with a low fuel crossover inheriting the composite membranes about 100 mV higher OCV than N112 when tested in PEMFC at 60 °C and 40% RH. A maximum power density of up to 930 mW cm-2 was also achieved which is substantially higher than the N112 under similar conditions (577 mW cm-2). Such remarkable performance enhancement along with undetectable leaching of immobilized polyoxometalate, high dimensional stability and low water uptake of the composite membranes suggest a strong potential for PEMFC under low RH operation.

  11. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  12. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  13. Characterization of SiC-SiC composites for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, C. P.; Jacobsen, G. M.; Sheeder, J.; Gutierrez, O.; Zhang, J.; Stone, J.; Khalifa, H. E.; Back, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being investigated for accident tolerant fuel cladding applications due to its high temperature strength, exceptional stability under irradiation, and reduced oxidation compared to Zircaloy under accident conditions. An engineered cladding design combining monolithic SiC and SiC-SiC composite layers could offer a tough, hermetic structure to provide improved performance and safety, with a failure rate comparable to current Zircaloy cladding. Modeling and design efforts require a thorough understanding of the properties and structure of SiC-based cladding. Furthermore, both fabrication and characterization of long, thin-walled SiC-SiC tubes to meet application requirements are challenging. In this work, mechanical and thermal properties of unirradiated, as-fabricated SiC-based cladding structures were measured, and permeability and dimensional control were assessed. In order to account for the tubular geometry of the cladding designs, development and modification of several characterization methods were required.

  14. A Central Composite Face-Centered Design for Parameters Estimation of PEM Fuel Cell Electrochemical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MAMMAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach based on Experimental of design methodology (DoE is used to estimate the optimal of unknown model parameters proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. This proposed approach combines the central composite face-centered (CCF and numerical PEMFC electrochemical. Simulation results obtained using electrochemical model help to predict the cell voltage in terms of inlet partial pressures of hydrogen and oxygen, stack temperature, and operating current. The value of the previous model and (CCF design methodology is used for parametric analysis of electrochemical model. Thus it is possible to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter to the simulation accuracy. However this methodology is able to define the exact values of the parameters from the manufacture data. It was tested for the BCS 500-W stack PEM Generator, a stack rated at 500 W, manufactured by American Company BCS Technologies FC.

  15. Analytical, 1-Dimensional Impedance Model of a Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    An analytical, 1-dimensional impedance model for a composite solid oxide fuel cell cathode is derived. It includes geometrical parameters of the cathode, e.g., the internal surface area and the electrode thickness, and also material parameters, e.g., the surface reaction rate and the vacancy...... diffusion coefficient. The model is successfully applied to a total of 42 impedance spectra, obtained in the temperature range 555°C–852°C and in the oxygen partial pressure range 0.028 atm–1.00 atm for a cathode consisting of a 50/50 wt% mixture of (La0.6Sr0.4)0.99CoO3 − δ and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 − δ...... and providing both qualitative and quantitative information on the evolution of the impedance spectra of cathodes with changing parameters....

  16. A fuel cell operating between room temperature and 250 C based on a new phosphoric acid based composite electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Rong [Department of Chemistry, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Xu, Xiaoxiang; Irvine, John T.S. [School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Tao, Shanwen [Department of Chemistry, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A phosphoric acid based composite material with core-shell microstructure has been developed to be used as a new electrolyte for fuel cells. A fuel cell based on this electrolyte can operate at room temperature indicating leaching of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with liquid water is insignificant at room temperature. This will help to improve the thermal cyclability of phosphoric acid based electrolyte to make it easier for practical use. The conductivity of this H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-based electrolyte is stable at 250 C with addition of the hydrophilic inorganic compound BPO{sub 4} forming a core-shell microstructure which makes it possible to run a PAFC at a temperature above 200 C. The core-shell microstructure retains after the fuel cell measurements. A power density of 350 mW/cm{sup 2} for a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell has been achieved at 200 C. The increase in operating temperature does not have significant benefit to the performance of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell. For the first time, a composite electrolyte material for phosphoric acid fuel cells which can operate in a wide range of temperature has been evaluated but certainly further investigation is required. (author)

  17. Development of Innovative Accident Tolerant High Thermal Conductivity UO2-Diamond Composite Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulenko, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Subhash, Ghatu [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The University of Florida (UF) evaluated a composite fuel consisting of UO2 powder mixed with diamond micro particles as a candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel (ATF). The research group had previous extensive experience researching with diamond micro particles as an addition to reactor coolant for improved plant thermal performance. The purpose of this research work was to utilize diamond micro particles to develop UO2-Diamond composite fuel pellets with significantly enhanced thermal properties, beyond that already being measured in the previous UF research projects of UO2 – SiC and UO2 – Carbon Nanotube fuel pins. UF is proving with the current research results that the addition of diamond micro particles to UO2 may greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity of the UO2 pellets producing an accident-tolerant fuel. The Beginning of life benefits have been proven and fuel samples are being irradiated in the ATR reactor to confirm that the thermal conductivity improvements are still present under irradiation.

  18. Variations on a theme - the evolution of hydrocarbon solids. I. Compositional and spectral modelling - the eRCN and DG models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The compositional properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to evolve in response to the local conditions. Aims: We present a model for low-temperature, amorphous hydrocarbon solids, based on the microphysical properties of random and defected networks of carbon and hydrogen atoms, that can be used to study and predict the evolution of their properties in the interstellar medium. Methods: We adopt an adaptable and prescriptive approach to model these materials, which is based on a random covalent network (RCN) model, extended here to a full compositional derivation (the eRCN model), and a defective graphite (DG) model for the hydrogen poorer materials where the eRCN model is no longer valid. Results: We provide simple expressions that enable the determination of the structural, infrared and spectral properties of amorphous hydrocarbon grains as a function of the hydrogen atomic fraction, XH. Structural annealing, resulting from hydrogen atom loss, results in a transition from H-rich, aliphatic-rich to H-poor, aromatic-rich materials. Conclusions: The model predicts changes in the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon dust in response to the likely UV photon-driven and/or thermal annealing processes resulting, principally, from the radiation field in the environment. We show how this dust component will evolve, compositionally and structurally in the interstellar medium in response to the local conditions. Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Prognosis and comparison of performances of composite CERCER and CERMET fuels dedicated to transmutation of TRU in an EFIT ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V.; Uyttenhove, W.; Thetford, R.; Maschek, W.

    2011-07-01

    The neutronic and thermomechanical performances of two composite fuel systems: CERCER with (Pu,Np,Am,Cm)O 2-x fuel particles in ceramic MgO matrix and CERMET with metallic Mo matrix, selected for transmutation of minor actinides in the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT), were analysed aiming at their optimisation. The ALEPH burnup code system, based on MNCPX and ORIGEN codes and JEFF3.1 nuclear data library, and the modern version of the fuel rod performance code TRAFIC were used for this analysis. Because experimental data on the properties of the mixed minor-actinide oxides are scarce, and the in-reactor behaviour of the T91 steel chosen as cladding, as well as of the corrosion protective layer, is still not well-known, a set of "best estimates" provided the properties used in the code. The obtained results indicate that both fuel candidates, CERCER and CERMET, can satisfy the fuel design and safety criteria of EFIT. The residence time for both types of fuel elements can reach about 5 years with the reactivity swing within ±1000 pcm, and about 22% of the loaded MA is transmuted during this period. However, the fuel centreline temperature in the hottest CERCER fuel rod is close to the temperature above which MgO matrix becomes chemically instable. Moreover, a weak PCMI can appear in about 3 years of operation. The CERMET fuel can provide larger safety margins: the fuel temperature is more than 1000 K below the permitted level of 2380 K and the pellet-cladding gap remains open until the end of operation.

  20. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  1. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities.

  2. Nafion/PTFE/silicate composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-Ning; Chen, Li-Chun; Yu, T. Leon; Lin, Hsiu-Li [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 32026 (Taiwan)

    2006-10-27

    Poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE)/Nafion composite membranes (PN composite membranes) were prepared by impregnating micro-porous PTFE membranes in Nafion/2-propanol/water solutions. The PN composite membranes were then further impregnated with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solutions to prepare PTFE/Nafion/silicate (PNS) composite membranes. The influence of hybridizing silicate into the PN membranes on their direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance and methanol crossover was investigated. Silicate in PN membranes causes reduction both in proton conductivity and methanol crossover of membranes. Thus PNS had a higher voltage than PN at low current densities due to the lower methanol crossover of PNS. However, at high current densities, PNS had a lower voltage than PN due to the higher resistance to proton transference of PNS. The range of lower current densities where PNS had a higher voltage than PN was i=0-120mAcm{sup -2} when the methanol feed concentration was 2M. This lower current density range became broader as the methanol feed concentration was increased, and it was broadened to i=0-190mAcm{sup -2} as the methanol feed concentration was increased to 5M. A comparison of the methanol crossover on the DMFC performance of PN and PNS with Nafion-112 was also studied. We showed that Nafion-112 exhibits higher methanol electro-osmosis than PN and PNS. Thus at a high current density, the higher methanol crossover via electro-osmosis caused Nafion-112 to have a lower voltage than PN and PNS. (author)

  3. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  4. CsH2PO4/NdPO4 Composites as Proton Conducting Electrolytes for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Composite proton conducting materials based on cesium dihydrogen phosphate and neodymium phosphate hydrate were prepared and investigated in terms of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, conductivity, stability and fuel cell performance. At 150°C the conductivity was 1.8 × 10−6 S cm−1 for the pri......Composite proton conducting materials based on cesium dihydrogen phosphate and neodymium phosphate hydrate were prepared and investigated in terms of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, conductivity, stability and fuel cell performance. At 150°C the conductivity was 1.8 × 10−6 S cm−1...... of the solid acid. The electromotive force, open circuit voltage and fuel cell performance were measured as demonstration of the material application....

  5. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  6. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA): Quarter 4 2013 Composite Data Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes the composite data products (CDPs) for early fuel cell market deployments in quarter 4 of 2013. Results are presented for ARRA (projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 [ARRA]) and Combined (projects funded by DOE Interagency Agreements [IAA], Department of Defense Defense Logistics Agency [DLA], and ARRA).

  7. Gas composition modeling in a reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system using adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method for modeling the gas composition in a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system. The method is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Inference-Systems which are trained on experimental data. The developed models are of the H2, CO2, CO and CH3OH mass flows of the reformed gas. The ANFIS...

  8. A new composite cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells with zirconia-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Huang, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Improving the electrocatalytic activity of electrode materials is vitally important to achieve practically meaningful performance for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The present work develops a composite cathode consisting of an electronic conductor Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) and an ionic conductor Y- and Ce- co-doped Bi2O3 (BYC7). BYC7 is an excellent oxide-ion conductor, exhibiting a high and stable ionic conductivity of 0.008 S cm-1 at 500 °C. The polarization resistance of LSM-BYC7 cathode in a symmetrical cell with doped ZrO2 as electrolyte varies from 5.76 at 500 °C to 0.25 Ω cm2 at 650 °C. The surface diffusion and charge transfer at the triple phase boundaries are the rate determining steps based on the dependence of polarization resistance on partial pressure of oxygen. The maximum power density of a ZrO2-based anode-supported cell with LSM-BYC7 composite cathode is 56.4, 154.6, 327.9, and 451.0 mW cm-2 at 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C respectively. AC impedance analysis reveals that the performance of IT-SOFC prepared in this study is actually limited by the anode, not by LSM-BYC7 cathode.

  9. Anhydrous proton conducting membranes for PEM fuel cells based on Nafion/Azole composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Unal; Ata, Ali [Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Uenueguer Celik, Sevim; Bozkurt, Ayhan [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    Proton conducting membranes are the most crucial part of energy generating electrochemical systems such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, Nafion based proton conducting anhydrous composite membranes were prepared via two different approaches. In the first, commercial Nafion115 and Nafion112 were swelled in the concentrated solution of azoles such as 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Tri), 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATri) and 5-aminotetrazole (ATet) as heterocyclic protogenic solvents. In the second, the proton conducting films were cast from the Nafion/Azole solutions. The partial protonation of azoles in the anhydrous membranes were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties were investigated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TGA results showed that Nafion/ATri and Nafion/ATet electrolytes are thermally stable at least up to 200 C. Methanol permeability measurements showed that the composite membranes have lower methanol permeability compared to Nafion112. Nafion115/ATri system has better conductivity at 180 C, exceeding 10{sup -3} S/cm compared to other Nafion/heterocycle systems under anhydrous conditions. (author)

  10. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area.

  11. Co-assembly of a Nafion-mesoporous zirconium phosphate composite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, A.K.; Pitchumani, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India); Sridhar, P. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India); Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Shukla, A.K.

    2009-04-15

    Synthesis of mesoporous zirconium phosphate (MZP) by co-assembly of a tri-block copolymer, namely pluronic-F127, as a structure-directing agent, and a mixture of zirconium butoxide and phosphorous trichloride as inorganic precursors is reported. MZP with a specific surface area of 84 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, average pore diameter of about 17 nm and pore volume of 0.35 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} has been prepared, and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Nafion-MZP composite membrane is obtained by employing MZP as a surface-functionalised solid-super-acid-proton-conducting medium as well as an inorganic filler with high affinity to absorb water and fast proton-transport across the electrolyte membrane even under low relative humidity (RH) conditions. The composite membranes have been evaluated in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) at varying RH values between 18 and 100%; a peak power density of 355 mW cm{sup -2} at a load current density of 1,100 mA cm{sup -2} is achieved with the PEFC employing Nafion-MZP composite membrane while operating at optimum temperature (70 C) under 18% RH and ambient pressure. On operating the PEFC employing Nafion-MZP membrane electrolyte with hydrogen and air feeds at ambient pressure and a RH value of 18%, a peak power density of 285 mW cm{sup -2} at the optimum temperature (60 C) is achieved. In contrast, operating under identical conditions, a peak power density of only {proportional_to}170 mW cm{sup -2} is achieved with the PEFC employing Nafion-1135 membrane electrolyte. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Bacterial nanocellulose/Nafion composite membranes for low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gao-peng; Zhang, Jing; Qiao, Jin-li; Jiang, Yong-ming; Zarrin, Hadis; Chen, Zhongwei; Hong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite membranes aimed for both proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are presented in this work. The membranes are based on blending bacterial nanocellulose pulp and Nafion (abbreviated as BxNy, where x and y indicates the mass ratio of bacterial cellulose to Nafion). The structure and properties of BxNy membranes are characterized by FTIR, SEM, TG, DMA and EIS, along with water uptake, swelling behavior and methanol permeability tests. It is found that the BxNy composite membranes with reinforced concrete-like structure show excellent mechanical and thermal stability regardless of annealing. The water uptake plus area and volume swelling ratios are all decreased compared to Nafion membranes. The proton conductivities of pristine and annealed B1N9 are 0.071 and 0.056 S cm-1, respectively, at 30 °C and 100% humidity. Specifically, annealed B1N1 exhibited the lowest methanol permeability of 7.21 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. Through the selectivity analysis, pristine and annealed B1N7 are selected to assemble the MEAs. The performances of annealed B1N7 in PEMFC and DMFC show the maximum power densities of 106 and 3.2 mW cm-2, respectively, which are much higher than those of pristine B1N7 at 25 °C. The performances of the pristine and annealed B1N7 reach a level as high as 21.1 and 20.4 mW cm-2 at 80 °C in DMFC, respectively.

  13. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  14. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  15. Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Various Fossil-fuel Combustion Nitrogen Oxide Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W.; Michalski, G. M.; Fang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. In order to help constrain NOx source contributions, the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of NOx (δ15N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning. However, despite anthropogenic emissions being the most prevalent source of NOx, there is still large uncertainty in the δ15N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources. To this end, this study provides a detailed analysis of several fossil-fuel combustion NOx sources and their δ15N-NOx values. To accomplish this, exhaust or flue samples from several fossil-fuel combustion sources were sampled and analyzed for their δ15N-NOx that included airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a catalytic converter, gasoline-powered lawn tools and utility vehicles, diesel-electric buses, diesel semi-trucks, and natural gas-burning home furnace and power plant. A relatively large range of δ15N-NOx values were measured from -28.1 to 0.3‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples with cold started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the lowest δ15N-NOx values at -20.9‰, and warm-started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the highest values of -1.7‰. The NOx sources analyzed in this study primarily originated from the "thermal production" of NOx and generally emitted negative δ15N-NOx values, likely due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with its production. It was found that there is a negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ15N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with catalytic NOx reduction technology, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx may have an influence on δ15N-NOx values. Based on the δ15N-NOx values reported in this study and in previous studies, a δ15N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous United States. The constructed isoscape demonstrates the seasonal importance of various

  16. Influence of Silica/Sulfonated Polyether-Ether Ketone as Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handayani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of non-humidified condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC using composite sPEEK-silica membrane is reported. Sulfonated membrane of PEEK is known as hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membrane for PEMFC and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The state of the art of fuel cells is based on the perluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion. Nafion has been the most used in both PEMFC and DMFC due to good performance although in low humidified condition showed poor current density. Here we reported the effect of silica in hydrocarbon sPEEK membrane that contributes for a better water management system inside the cell, and showed 0.16 W/cm2 of power density which is 78% higher than that of non-silica modified [Keywords: composite membrane, polyether-ether ketone, silica, proton exchange membrane fuel cell].

  17. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  18. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  19. A Multi-Layered Ceramic Composite for Impermeable Fuel Cladding for COmmercial Wate Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinroth, Herbert

    2008-03-03

    A triplex nuclear fuel cladding is developed to further improve the passive safety of commercial nuclear plants, to increase the burnup and durablity of nuclear fuel, to improve the power density and economics of nuclear power, and to reduce the amount of spent fuel requiring disposal or recycle.

  20. Effect of jet-fuel exposure on advanced aerospace composites, II: Mechanical properties. Final report, May-December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curliss, D.B.; Carlin, D.M.

    1990-08-01

    The sensitivity of several advanced aerospace composite materials to military jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in this study. The following commercially available fiber/matrix prepreg materials were used in this investigation: AS-4/3501-6; IM7/8551-7A; IM7/977-2 (1377-2T); IM7/5250-4; IM8HTA; and AS-4/PEEK(APC-2). The materials were chosen as representative state-of-the-art materials in their classes of standard epoxy, toughened epoxy, toughened BMI, and thermoplastic matrix composites respectively. The materials were processed into (+ or - 45)2S, (0)12T laminates using the manufacturer's recommended process cycle and standard quality assurance checks were performed on the panels. Standard geometry coupons were fabricated from the panels and divided into a control set and test set. The test coupons were immersed in JP-4 in a sealed pressure vessel at 180 F. The weight gain was recorded as a function of the square root of time and the jet fuel was exchanged each time the coupon weight was recorded. In general, the thermoset matrix composites did not pick-up significant levels of fuel in any lay-up examined; while the thermoplastics did absorb JP-4. The amount of JP-4 absorbed by the thermoplastic matrix composites was dependent on the lay-up. After 1680 hours of total exposure time the mechanical properties of the coupons were evaluated.

  1. Novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/Nano-ZrO₂ composite anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhua; Yu, Yingfeng; Meng, Yuezhong

    2013-02-01

    A series of composite anion exchange membranes based on novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/nanozirconia (QPAES/nano-ZrO₂) composites are prepared using a solution casting method. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes are characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and chemical stability of the composite membranes are measured to evaluate their applicability in fuel cells. The introduction of nano-ZrO₂ induces the crystallization of the matrix and enhances the IEC of the composite membranes. The modification with nano-ZrO₂ improves water uptake, dimension stability, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, and thermal and chemical stabilities of the composite membranes. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes show hydroxide ion conductivities over 25.7 mS cm⁻¹ at a temperature above 60 °C. Especially, the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 7.5% display hydroxide ion conductivities over 41.4 mS cm⁻¹ at 80 °C. The E(a) values of the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 5% are lower than 11.05 kJ mol⁻¹. The QPAES/7.5% nano-ZrO₂ composite membrane displays the lowest E(a) value and the best comprehensive properties and constitutes a good potential candidate for alkaline fuel cells.

  2. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX)...

  3. A polybenzimidazole/ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide composite membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Xiaoteng; Cheng, Jigui; Scott, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Graphite oxide is successfully functionalised by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ionic liquid and used as a filler material in a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide/polybenzimidazole (ILGO/PBI) composite membrane exhibits an appropriate level of proton conductivity when imbibed with phosphoric acid at low phosphoric acid loading, which promotes its use in fuel cells by avoiding acid leakage and materials corrosion. The ionic conductivities of the ILGO/PBI membranes at 175 °C are 0.035 S cm-1 and 0.025 S cm-1 at per repeat units of 3.5 and 2.0, respectively. The fuel cell performance of ILGO/PBI membranes exhibits a maximum power density of 320 mW cm-2 at 175 °C, which is higher than that of a pristine PBI membrane.

  4. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  5. Promising aquivion composite membranes based on fluoroalkyl zirconium phosphate for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadio, Anna; Pica, Monica; Subianto, Surya; Jones, Deborah J; Cojocaru, Paula; Casciola, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Layered zirconium phosphate (ZP) that bears fluorinated alkyl chains bonded covalently to the layers (ZPR) was used as a nanofiller in membranes based on a short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) to mechanically reinforce the PFSA hydrophobic component. Compared to the pristine PFSA, membranes with a ZPR loading up to 30 wt% show enhanced mechanical properties, and the largest improvement of elastic modulus (E) and yield stress (σY ) are observed for the 10 wt% ZPR membrane: ΔE/E up to 90% and ΔσY /σY up 70% at 70°C and 80% relative humidity (RH). In the RH range 50-95%, the in-plane conductivity of the composite membranes reaches 0.43 S cm(-1) for 10 wt% ZPR at 110°C and is on average 30% higher than the conductivity of the pristine PFSA. The 10 wt % ZPR membrane is as hydrated as the neat PFSA membrane at 50% RH but becomes progressively less hydrated with increasing RH both at 80 and 110°C. The fuel cell performance of this membrane, at 80°C and 30% RH, is better than that of the unmodified PFSA.

  6. Thermal conductivity analysis of SiC ceramics and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeon-Geun, E-mail: hglee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jae [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, 242, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM pellets was measured and discussed. • Thermal conductivity of FCM pellets was analyzed by the Maxwell-Eucken equation. • Effective thermal conductivity of TRISO particles applied in this study was assumed. - Abstract: The thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM fuel composites, consisting of a SiC matrix and TRISO coated particles, was measured and analyzed. SiC ceramics and FCM pellets were fabricated by hot press sintering with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additives. Several factors that influence thermal conductivity, specifically the content of sintering additives for SiC ceramics and the volume fraction of TRISO particles and the matrix thermal conductivity of FCM pellets, were investigated. The thermal conductivity values of samples were analyzed on the basis of their microstructure and the arrangement of TRISO particles. The thermal conductivity of the FCM pellets was compared to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation and the thermal conductivity of TRISO coated particles was calculated. The thermal conductivity of FCM pellets in various sintering conditions was in close agreement to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation with the fitted thermal conductivity value of TRISO particles.

  7. Spent fuel criticality and compositions evaluation for long-term disposal in a generic cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, C.E.; Sousa, R.V.; Fortini, A.; Pereira, C., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br; Costa, A.L.; Silva, C.A.M. da; Veloso, M.A.F.; Oliveira, A.H. de; Carvalho, F.R. de

    2014-08-15

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Expert Group on Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety published a Benchmark with results obtained from simulations with some nuclear codes for a PWR-UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel disposed of in a cask. The same situations were simulated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG) with the SCALE 6.0 (KENOVI/ORIGENS), MCNPX 2.6.0/CINDER and Monteburns (MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1). Combinations of codes and nuclear data are slightly different from those used by the organizations who participate of the Benchmark. For k{sub eff} time evolution, the results are very similar to the values obtained by the benchmark participants. For decay time evolution, the results obtained for several nuclides presented the expected behavior. Nevertheless, differences in the composition increase during the time specially using the Monteburns code. These differences may be attributed to the libraries and methodology for choosing libraries to decay calculation and the number of days to a year considered to calculations.

  8. Percolation Theory in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes with a Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Percolation theory is generalized to predict the effective properties of specific solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes, which consist of a pure ion conducting material (e.g., YSZ or GDC and a mixed electron and ion conducting material (e.g., LSCF, LSCM or CeO2. The investigated properties include the probabilities of an LSCF particle belonging to the electron and ion conducting paths, percolated three-phase-boundary electrochemical reaction sites, which are based on different assumptions, the exposed LSCF surface electrochemical reaction sites and the revised expressions for the inter-particle ionic conductivities among LSCF and YSZ materials. The effects of the microstructure parameters, such as the volume fraction of the LSCF material, the particle size distributions of both the LSCF and YSZ materials (i.e., the mean particle radii and the non-dimensional standard deviations, which represent the particle size distributions and the porosity are studied. Finally, all of the calculated results are presented in non-dimensional forms to provide generality for practical application. Based on these results, the relevant properties can be easily evaluated, and the microstructure parameters and intrinsic properties of each material are specified.

  9. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  10. Three-dimensional random resistor-network model for solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspour, Ali [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G6 (Canada); Luo Jingli, E-mail: jingli.luo@ualberta.c [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G6 (Canada); Nandakumar, K. [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2010-04-30

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes was developed to evaluate the performance and further investigate the effect of microstructure on the performance of SOFC electrodes. Porosity of the electrode is controlled by adding pore former particles (spheres) to the electrode and ignoring them in analysis step. To enhance connectivity between particles and increase the length of triple-phase boundary (TPB), sintering process is mimicked by enlarging particles to certain degree after settling them inside the packing. Geometrical characteristics such as length of TBP and active contact area as well as porosity can easily be calculated using the current model. Electrochemical process is simulated using resistor-network model and complete Butler-Volmer equation is used to deal with charge transfer process on TBP. The model shows that TPBs are not uniformly distributed across the electrode and location of TPBs as well as amount of electrochemical reaction is not uniform. Effects of electrode thickness, particle size ratio, electron and ion conductor conductivities and rate of electrochemical reaction on overall electrochemical performance of electrode are investigated.

  11. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  12. Stabilisation of composite LSFCO-CGO based anodes for methane oxidation in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, A.; Kopnin, E.; Dubitsky, Y.; Zaopo, A.; Aricò, A. S.; Gullo, L. R.; Rosa, D. La; Antonucci, V.

    A La 0.6Sr 0.4Fe 0.8Co 0.2O 3-Ce 0.8Gd 0.2O 1.9 (LSFCO-CGO) composite anode material was investigated for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methane in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). A maximum power density of 0.17 W cm -2 at 800 °C was obtained with a methane-fed ceria electrolyte-supported SOFC. A progressive increase of performance was recorded during 140 h operation with dry methane. The anode did not show any structure degradation after the electrochemical testing. Furthermore, no formation of carbon deposits was detected by electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Alternatively, this perovskite material showed significant chemical and structural modifications after high temperature treatment in a dry methane stream in a packed-bed reactor. It is derived that the continuous supply of mobile oxygen anions from the electrolyte to the LSFCO anode, promoted by the mixed conductivity of CGO electrolyte at 800 °C, stabilises the perovskite structure near the surface under SOFC operation and open circuit conditions.

  13. Characterization of thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene-based composites for fuel cell bipolar plates and development of educational tools in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Gaxiola, Daniel

    In this project we developed conductive thermoplastic resins by adding varying amounts of three different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB), synthetic graphite (SG) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to a polypropylene matrix for application as fuel cell bipolar plates. This component of fuel cells provides mechanical support to the stack, circulates the gases that participate in the electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell and allows for removal of the excess heat from the system. The materials fabricated in this work were tested to determine their mechanical and thermal properties. These materials were produced by adding varying amounts of single carbon fillers to a polypropylene matrix (2.5 to 15 wt.% Ketjenblack EC-600 JD carbon black, 10 to 80 wt.% Asbury Carbons' Thermocarb TC-300 synthetic graphite, and 2.5 to 15 wt.% of Hyperion Catalysis International's FIBRIL(TM) multi-walled carbon nanotubes) In addition, composite materials containing combinations of these three fillers were produced. The thermal conductivity results showed an increase in both through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities, with the largest increase observed for synthetic graphite. The Department of Energy (DOE) had previously set a thermal conductivity goal of 20 W/m·K, which was surpassed by formulations containing 75 wt.% and 80 wt.% SG, yielding in-plane thermal conductivity values of 24.4 W/m·K and 33.6 W/m·K, respectively. In addition, composites containing 2.5 wt.% CB, 65 wt.% SG, and 6 wt.% CNT in PP had an in-plane thermal conductivity of 37 W/m·K. Flexural and tensile tests were conducted. All composite formulations exceeded the flexural strength target of 25 MPa set by DOE. The tensile and flexural modulus of the composites increased with higher concentration of carbon fillers. Carbon black and synthetic graphite caused a decrease in the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. However, carbon nanotubes increased the composite tensile and flexural

  14. A solid fuel which includes coal, coke and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuti, Y.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Sonetaka, K.

    1983-04-15

    A composition of solid domestic fuel is proposed with a reduced liberation of toxic gases (CO and hydrocarbon (Uv)) upon combustion. The fuel is produced from (percent) 80 mineral coal, 10 charcoal, 10 CaC03 with an additive of 2 percent methylcellulose to the charge. Briquets are made from the mixture with perforated openings which have a transverse cross section (PS) of 10 to 200 square millimeters. The ratio of the total transverse cross section of all the openings and the transverse cross section of the fuel briquet, including the area of the openings is 25 to 70. Systems for disposition of the openings in the fuel are cited, along with the cross section of a furnace with the loaded fuel and the dependencies of the CO content in the furnace gas on the properties of the fuel.

  15. Microwave-assisted Pyrolysis of Swida wilsoniana Fruit Oil Soap for Preparing Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel via Selective Decarboxylation%微波裂解光皮树油皂化物脱羧制备烃类燃料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉环; 王允圃; 王应宽; 万益琴; 张锦胜; 阮榕生

    2012-01-01

    以光皮树果实油脂通过皂化反应获得的皂类为研究对象,利用微波裂解选择性加热优势开展皂类脱羧制备烃类燃料研究.通过气质联用等方法对裂解产物的分析表明,单纯钠皂微波裂解所得到液态产物一般都在皂类干质量的70%以上,裂解液态产物的密度为0.850~0.875 g/cm3,运动粘度为2.09 ~2.85 mm2/s,与柴油的性质基本相似.裂解液态产物中最高峰是十五碳烯,证实脱羧是皂类微波裂解的主要反应形式.%In order to prepare hydrocarbon fuel, sodium soap made from Swida wilsoniana fruit oil was chosen as a model compound with significant molecular polarity for preparing hydrocarbon fuel by microwave-assisted pyrolysis. The result showed that the hydrocarbon content were usually above 70% . In addition, its density and dynamic viscosity were 0. 850 ~ 0. 875 g/cm and 2. 09 ~ 2. 85 mm /s, respectively, similar with petroleum diesel. The highest peak in the GC - MS profile of liquid product was fifteen carbon alkenes, decarboxylation was proved to be main reaction in microwave-assisted pyrolysis.

  16. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  17. FY13 Summary Report on the Augmentation of the Spent Fuel Composition Dataset for Nuclear Forensics: SFCOMPO/NF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady Raap, Michaele C.; Lyons, Jennifer A.; Collins, Brian A.; Livingston, James V.

    2014-03-31

    This report documents the FY13 efforts to enhance a dataset of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition data for use in developing intrinsic signatures for nuclear forensics. A review and collection of data from the open literature was performed in FY10. In FY11, the Spent Fuel COMPOsition (SFCOMPO) excel-based dataset for nuclear forensics (NF), SFCOMPO/NF was established and measured data for graphite production reactors, Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) were added to the dataset and expanded to include a consistent set of data simulated by calculations. A test was performed to determine whether the SFCOMPO/NF dataset will be useful for the analysis and identification of reactor types from isotopic ratios observed in interdicted samples.

  18. Incorporation of Collision Probability Method in STREAM to Consider Non-uniform Material Composition in Fuel Subregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy.

  19. A Fast Numerical Method for the Calculation of the Equilibrium Isotopic Composition of a Transmutation System in an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Álvarez-Velarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast numerical method for the calculation in a zero-dimensional approach of the equilibrium isotopic composition of an iteratively used transmutation system in an advanced fuel cycle, based on the Banach fixed point theorem, is described in this paper. The method divides the fuel cycle in successive stages: fuel fabrication, storage, irradiation inside the transmutation system, cooling, reprocessing, and incorporation of the external material into the new fresh fuel. The change of the fuel isotopic composition, represented by an isotope vector, is described in a matrix formulation. The resulting matrix equations are solved using direct methods with arbitrary precision arithmetic. The method has been successfully applied to a double-strata fuel cycle with light water reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems. After comparison to the results of the EVOLCODE 2.0 burn-up code, the observed differences are about a few percents in the mass estimations of the main actinides.

  20. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of composite polyelectrolyte-Nafion membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, S.P.; Liu, Z.; Tian, Z.Q. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-18

    A novel