WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon dew point

  1. Method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.J.; Pritchard, F.R.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of a gas. A gas sample is supplied to a dew-point detector and the temperature of a portion of the sample gas stream to be investigated is lowered progressively prior to detection until the dew-point is reached. The presence of condensate within the flowing gas is detected and subsequently the supply gas sample is heated to above the dew-point. The procedure of cooling and heating the gas stream continuously in a cyclical manner is repeated.

  2. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  3. Natural gas treatment: Simultaneous water and hydrocarbon-dew point-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Rennemann, D. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Schulz, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    Natural gas is a multicomponent mixture of hydrocarbons. The condensation behavior of such mixtures is different from single component systems. The so-called retrograde behavior leads to the observations that saturated vapor (dew point curve) and saturated liquid curve (bubble point curve) are not identical. Between both is a region of saturated phases which even can exist above the critical point. Following this behaviour it is possible that condensation might occur at pressure decrease or at temperature increase, respectively. This phenomenon is undesired in natural gas pipeline networks. Selective removal of higher hydrocarbons by the means of adsorption can change the phase behavior in such a way that condensation does not occur at temperatures and pressures specified for gas distribution. (orig.)

  4. Laser Dew-Point Hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    A rough-surface-type automatic dew-point hygrometer was developed using a laser diode and an optical fiber cable. A gold plate with 0.8 µ m average surface roughness was used as a surface for deposition of dew to facilitate dew deposition and prevent supersaturation of water vapor at the dew point. It was shown experimentally that the quantity of dew deposited can be controlled to be constant at any predetermined level, and is independent of the dew point to be measured. The dew points were measured in the range from -15° C to 54° C in which the temperature ranged from 0° C to 60° C. The measurement error of the dew point was ±0.5° C which was equal to below ±2% in relative humidity in the above dew-point range.

  5. Sales gas hydrocarbon dew point control with a refrigeration plant; Konditionierung des Kohlenwasserstofftaupunktes im Verkaufsgas mittels einer Kaelteanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konieczny, J.; Scsepka, H. [OMV Aktiengesellschaft, Exploration and Production, Gaenserndorf (Austria)

    2004-11-01

    A new refrigeration plant was put on stream in the gas plant Aderklaa, Austria in the fall 2003. The quality criteria inherent to hydrocarbon dew point of the sales gas have already been accomplished. The contract (Allgemeinen Netzzugangsbedingungen) defines the hydrocarbon dew point at the value of 0 C with a pressure ranging 0-70 bar(g). Process facilities are a gas/gas-heat exchanger and a low-temperature-separator flanged to the chiller. A propane cycle produces the required cooling energy. The propane cycle consists of two propane compressors, one of them as back up, a condenser, an accumulator and an evaporator. About 50,000 m{sup 3} (V{sub n}) sales gas per hour are produced at a working pressure of 65 bar(g). Process gas coming from the sweetening plant Aderklaa I is lowered to a temperature of -14 C, where approx. 250 litres liquid hydrocarbons per hour are separated and saved. When the refrigeration plant was designed, attention was given to the operating costs to keep them low. This could be achieved by maximising surface area for heat transfer in the gas/gas-heat exchanger. After commissioning and start-up, full operability of the new plant was tested and documented. The pre-set project goals were accomplished, with respect to both the technical point of view and the economic aspects. (orig.)

  6. Acid dew point measurement in flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-06-01

    The operation of modern boiler plants requires the continuous measurement of the acid dew point in flue gases. An existing measuring instrument was modified in such a way that it can determine acid dew points reliably, reproduceably and continuously. The authors present the mechanisms of the dew point formation, the dew point measuring principle, the modification and the operational results.

  7. Instrument air dew point requirements -- 108-P, L, K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    The 108 Building dew point analyzers measure dew point at atmospheric pressure. Existing 108 Roundsheets state the maximum dew point temperature shall be less than -50 F. After repeatedly failing to maintain a -50 F dew point temperature Reactor Engineering researched the basis for the existing limit. This report documents the results of the study and provides technical justification for a new maximum dew point temperature of -35 F at atmospheric pressure as read by the 108 building dew point analyzers

  8. Determination of dew point in natural gas; Determinacion del punto de rocio en el gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila Calzada, S.; Marco Martinez, G.; Montenegro Soto, S. [ENAGAS (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The natural gas can contain water and heavy hydrocarbons very dangerous for the equipments and the pipes. This is the reason of the importance of dew point. The value of this dew point is fixed in the supply contract conditions. This article studies the different evaluation methods, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages (Author)

  9. Automatic dew-point temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graichen, H; Rascati, R; Gonzalez, R R

    1982-06-01

    A device is described for measuring dew-point temperature and water vapor pressure in small confined areas. The method is based on the deposition of water on a cooled surface when at dew-point temperature. A small Peltier module lowers the temperature of two electrically conductive plates. At dew point the insulating gap separating the plates becomes conductive as water vapor condenses. Sensors based on this principle can be made small and rugged and can be used for measuring directly the local water vapor pressure. They may be installed within a conventional ventilated sweat capsule used for measuring water vapor loss from the skin surface. A novel application is the measurement of the water vapor pressure gradients across layers of clothing worn by an exercising subject.

  10. Calibration of Relative Humidity Sensors using a Dew Point Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Milo

    2010-01-01

    A relative humidity sensor can be calibrated using a dew point generator to continuously supply an air stream of known constant humidity and a temperature chamber to control the dew point and ambient temperature.

  11. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  12. Acid dew point measurements in combustion gases using the dew point measuring system AH 85100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1984-01-01

    Measuring system for continuous monitoring of the SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ dew point in the flue gas, characterized by a low failure rate, applicability inside the flue gas duct, maintenance-free continuous operation, and self-cleaning. The measuring principle is the cooling of the sensor element down to the 'onset condensation' message. Sensor surface temperatures are listed and evaluated as flue gas dew point temperatures. The measuring system is described. (DOMA).

  13. Comparison of dew point temperature estimation methods in Southwestern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus D. Williams; Scott L. Goodrick; Andrew Grundstein; Marshall Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    Recent upward trends in acres irrigated have been linked to increasing near-surface moisture. Unfortunately, stations with dew point data for monitoring near-surface moisture are sparse. Thus, models that estimate dew points from more readily observed data sources are useful. Daily average dew temperatures were estimated and evaluated at 14 stations in...

  14. A microwave resonance dew-point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, R. J.; Cuccaro, R.; Bell, S.; Gavioso, R. M.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Stevens, M.; de Podesta, M.

    2012-08-01

    We report the first measurements of a quasi-spherical microwave resonator used as a dew-point hygrometer. In conventional dew-point hygrometers, the condensation of water from humid gas flowing over a mirror is detected optically, and the mirror surface is then temperature-controlled to yield a stable condensed layer. In our experiments we flowed moist air from a humidity generator through a quasi-spherical resonator and detected the onset of condensation by measuring the frequency ratio of selected microwave modes. We verified the basic operation of the device over the dew-point range 9.5-13.5 °C by comparison with calibrated chilled-mirror hygrometers. These tests indicate that the microwave method may allow a quantitative estimation of the volume and thickness of the water layer which is condensed on the inner surface of the resonator. The experiments reported here are preliminary due to the limited time available for the work, but show the potential of the method for detecting not only water but a variety of other liquid or solid condensates. The robust all-metal construction should make the device appropriate for use in industrial applications over a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

  15. A microwave resonance dew-point hygrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R J; Bell, S; Stevens, M; De Podesta, M; Cuccaro, R; Gavioso, R M; Ripa, D Madonna

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurements of a quasi-spherical microwave resonator used as a dew-point hygrometer. In conventional dew-point hygrometers, the condensation of water from humid gas flowing over a mirror is detected optically, and the mirror surface is then temperature-controlled to yield a stable condensed layer. In our experiments we flowed moist air from a humidity generator through a quasi-spherical resonator and detected the onset of condensation by measuring the frequency ratio of selected microwave modes. We verified the basic operation of the device over the dew-point range 9.5–13.5 °C by comparison with calibrated chilled-mirror hygrometers. These tests indicate that the microwave method may allow a quantitative estimation of the volume and thickness of the water layer which is condensed on the inner surface of the resonator. The experiments reported here are preliminary due to the limited time available for the work, but show the potential of the method for detecting not only water but a variety of other liquid or solid condensates. The robust all-metal construction should make the device appropriate for use in industrial applications over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. (paper)

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Recognition of supercooled dew in a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor by slip phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Byung-Il

    2007-10-01

    Distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C in dew/frost-point measurements is an important and challenging problem that has not yet been completely solved. This study presents a new method for the recognition of a supercooled dew in a dew/frost-point sensor. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was used as a dew/frost-point sensor to detect a dew and a supercooled dew as well as frost. The slip phenomenon occurring at an interface between the water droplet and the surface of the quartz crystal resonator of the QCM sensor gives a simple and accurate way of distinguishing between a supercooled dew and frost below 0 °C. This method can give a highly accurate measurement of the dew or the frost point without misreading in the dew-point sensor at temperatures below 0 °C.

  17. Protection of HCl dew point corrosion in municipal incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S.; Tsuruta, T.; Maeda, N.

    1976-12-01

    HCl dew point corrosion is often observed on the components of municipal incinerators used for burning wastes which contain polyvinyl chloride. In order to solve the problem, the relation between concentrations of gaseous HCl and the corresponding dew points as well as concentrations of condensed HCl, was investigated. A series of HCl dipping tests for the materials concerned was performed and the dip test results were compared with in-plant tests. As a result it was concluded that HCl dew point corrosion can be reliably predicted from measurements of HCl concentrations in the water and in the gas and the partial pressure of the saturated steam at the dew point.

  18. Relationship between relative humidity and the dew point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed at determining the relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The dew point temperature was approximated from the measured air temperature and relative humidity with the aid of a currently self-designed weather monitoring system.

  19. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  20. Influence of the burning point on the dew point in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, C.

    1982-06-01

    A computation on the influence of the ignition point on the dew point in a cylinder of a diesel engine is presented. The cylinder-pressure diagrams are shown. The results of computation are given. A later ignition point diminishes the area with cylinder wall temperatures below the dew point. The endangering by cylinder wall temperatures below the dew point is illustrated.

  1. Pipeline drying using dehumidified air with low dew point temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Syed Younus; Gandhidasan, P.; Al-Farayedhi, A.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-05-01

    The presence of humidity may be detrimental to the operation of pipelines transporting natural gas or other petroleum products. In particular conditions water solidifies or reacts chemically with hydrocarbons, forming hydrates. Such crystalline substances may cause obstruction of the lines and damage the equipment of the relevant facilities. A procedure for predicting the performance of drying a pipeline using dehumidified air with a low dew point is described in this paper. The mathematical model estimates the time required for the complete removal of moisture in the pipeline for the given operating conditions with simplified assumptions. The governing equations are solved analytically as well as numerically and the results are briefly discussed in the paper. (Author)

  2. New methods of subcooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard

    2001-08-01

    Two new methods of sub-cooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers are presented in this paper. The first one- impedance method use a new semiconductor mirror in which the dew point detector, the thermometer and the heaters were integrated all together. The second one an optical method based on a multi-section optical detector is discussed in the report. Experimental results of both methods are shown. New types of dew pont hydrometers of ability to recognized sub-cooled water were proposed.

  3. A quartz crystal microbalance dew point sensor without frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Weishuo; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Jinglin

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the design of a dew point sensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) without measuring the frequency. This idea is inspired by the fact that the Colpitts oscillation circuit will stop oscillating when the QCM works in the liquid media. The quartz crystal and the electrode are designed through the finite element simulation and the stop oscillating experiment is conducted to verify the sensibility. Moreover, the measurement result is calibrated to approach the true value. At last a series of dew points at the same temperature is measured with the designed sensor. Results show that the designed dew point sensor is able to detect the dew point with the proper accuracy.

  4. Dew-point measurements at high water vapour pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomperski, S.; Dreier, J.

    1996-05-01

    A dew-point meter capable of measuring humidity at high vapour pressure and high temperature has been constructed and tested. Humidity measurements in pure steam were made over the temperature range 100 - 1500957-0233/7/5/003/img1C and a vapour pressure range of 1 - 4 bar. The dew-point meter performance was assessed by comparing measurements with a pressure transmitter and agreement between the two was within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity. Humidity measurements in steam - air mixtures were also made and the dew-point meter readings were compared to those of a zirconia oxygen sensor. For these tests the dew-point meter readings were generally within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity of the oxygen sensor measurements.

  5. Dew Point modelling using GEP based multi objective optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Siddharth; Dabhi, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    Different techniques are used to model the relationship between temperatures, dew point and relative humidity. Gene expression programming is capable of modelling complex realities with great accuracy, allowing at the same time, the extraction of knowledge from the evolved models compared to other learning algorithms. We aim to use Gene Expression Programming for modelling of dew point. Generally, accuracy of the model is the only objective used by selection mechanism of GEP. This will evolve...

  6. Bubble and Dew Point Calculations in Multicomponent and Multireactive Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Acosta-Martínez, A.; Bravo-Sánchez, U. I.; Segovia-Hernández, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Bubble and dew point calculations are useful in chemical engineering and play an important role in the study of separation equipments for non-reactive and reactive mixtures. To the best of the authors’s knowledge, few methods have been proposed for these calculations in systems with several chemical reactions. The objective of this paper is to introduce new conditions for performing bubble and dew point calculations in reactive mixtures. We have developed these conditions based on the a...

  7. Temperature distribution model for the semiconductor dew point detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Gniazdowski, Z.; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Lysko, Jan M.

    2001-08-01

    The simulation results of temperature distribution in the new type silicon dew point detector are presented in this paper. Calculations were done with use of the SMACEF simulation program. Fabricated structures, apart from the impedance detector used to the dew point detection, contained the resistive four terminal thermometer and two heaters. Two detector structures, the first one located on the silicon membrane and the second one placed on the bulk materials were compared in this paper.

  8. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  9. Verification of alternative dew point hygrometer for CV-LRT in MONJU. Short- and long-term verification of capacitance-type dew point hygrometer (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Shoichi; Chiba, Yusuke; Ono, Fumiyasu; Hatori, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Takanori; Uekura, Ryoichi; Hashiri, Nobuo; Inuzuka, Taisuke; Kitano, Hiroshi; Abe, Hisashi

    2017-03-01

    To reduce the influence of maintenance of dew point hygrometers on the plant schedule at the prototype fast-breeder reactor MONJU, Japan Atomic Energy Agency examined a capacitance-type dew point hygrometer as an alternative to the lithium-chloride dew point hygrometer being used in the containment vessel leak rate test. As verifications, a capacitance-type dew point hygrometer was compared with a lithium-chloride dew point hygrometer under a containment vessel leak rate test condition. And the capacitance-type dew point hygrometer was compared with a high-precision-mirror-surface dew point hygrometer for long-term (2 years) in the containment vessel as an unprecedented try. A comparison of a capacitance-type dew point hygrometer with a lithium-chloride dew point hygrometer in a containment vessel leak rate test (Atmosphere: nitrogen, Testing time: 24 h) revealed no significant difference between the capacitance-type dew point hygrometer and the lithium-chloride dew point hygrometer. A comparison of the capacitance-type dew point hygrometer with the high-precision-mirror-surface dew point hygrometer for long-term verification (Atmosphere: air, Testing time: 24 months) revealed that the capacitance-type dew point hygrometer satisfied the instrumental specification (synthesized precision of detector and converter: ±2.04°C) specified in the Leak Rate Test Regulations for Nuclear Reactor Containment Vessel. It was confirmed that the capacitance-type dew point hygrometer can be used as a long-term alternative to the lithium-chloride dew point hygrometer without affecting the dew point hygrometer maintenance schedule of the MONJU plant. (author)

  10. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  11. A micro dew point sensor with a thermal detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M.; Merz, J.; Hummel, W.-J.; Glosch, H.; Messner, S.; Zengerle, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a dew point temperature sensor with the thermal detection of condensed water on a thin membrane, fabricated by silicon micromachining. The membrane (600 × 600 × ~1 µm3) is part of a silicon chip and contains a heating element as well as a thermopile for temperature measurement. By dynamically heating the membrane and simultaneously analyzing the transient increase of its temperature it is detected whether condensed water is on the membrane or not. To cool the membrane down, a peltier cooler is used and electronically controlled in a way that the temperature of the membrane is constantly held at a value where condensation of water begins. This temperature is measured and output as dew point temperature. The sensor system works in a wide range of dew point temperatures between 1 K and down to 44 K below air temperature. In experimental investigations it could be proven that the deviation of the measured dew point temperatures compared to reference values is below ±0.2 K in an air temperature range of 22 to 70 °C. At low dew point temperatures of -20 °C (air temperature = 22 °C) the deviation increases to nearly -1 K.

  12. A new comparison method for dew-point generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    1999-12-01

    A new method for comparing dew-point generators was developed at the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation. In this method, the generators participating in a comparison are compared with a transportable saturator unit using a dew-point comparator. The method was tested by constructing a test apparatus and by comparing it with the MIKES primary dew-point generator several times in the dew-point temperature range from -40 to +75 °C. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of the apparatus was estimated to be between 0.05 and 0.07 °C and the difference between the comparator system and the generator is well within these limits. In particular, all of the results obtained in the range below 0 °C are within ±0.03 °C. It is concluded that a new type of a transfer standard with characteristics most suitable for dew-point comparisons can be developed on the basis of the principles presented in this paper.

  13. A micro dew point sensor with a thermal detection principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, M; Merz, J; Glosch, H; Messner, S; Zengerle, R; Hummel, W-J

    2012-01-01

    We present a dew point temperature sensor with the thermal detection of condensed water on a thin membrane, fabricated by silicon micromachining. The membrane (600 × 600 × ∼1 µm 3 ) is part of a silicon chip and contains a heating element as well as a thermopile for temperature measurement. By dynamically heating the membrane and simultaneously analyzing the transient increase of its temperature it is detected whether condensed water is on the membrane or not. To cool the membrane down, a peltier cooler is used and electronically controlled in a way that the temperature of the membrane is constantly held at a value where condensation of water begins. This temperature is measured and output as dew point temperature. The sensor system works in a wide range of dew point temperatures between 1 K and down to 44 K below air temperature. In experimental investigations it could be proven that the deviation of the measured dew point temperatures compared to reference values is below ±0.2 K in an air temperature range of 22 to 70 °C. At low dew point temperatures of −20 °C (air temperature = 22 °C) the deviation increases to nearly −1 K

  14. Dew point measurement technique utilizing fiber cut reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Dikevich, A. A.; Korkishko, Yu. N.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The fiber optical dew point hygrometer based on change of reflection coefficient for fiber cut has been developed and examined. We proposed and verified the model of condensation detector functioning principle. Experimental frost point measurements on air with different frost points have been performed.

  15. Numerical study of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riangvilaikul, B.; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Dew point evaporative cooling system is an alternative to vapor compression air conditioning system for sensible cooling of ventilation air. This paper presents the theoretical performance of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system operating under various inlet air conditions (covering dry, moderate and humid climate) and influence of major operating parameters (namely, velocity, system dimension and the ratio of working air to intake air). A model of the dew point evaporative cooling system has been developed to simulate the heat and mass transfer processes. The outlet air conditions and system effectiveness predicted by the model using numerical method for known inlet parameters have been validated with experimental findings and with recent literature. The model was used to optimize the system parameters and to investigate the system effectiveness operating under various inlet air conditions. (author)

  16. A New Primary Dew-Point Generator at TUBITAK UME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Karaböce, N.; Heinonen, M.; Sairanen, H.

    2018-05-01

    An implementation of a new low-range primary humidity generator as a part of an international collaboration between TUBITAK UME and VTT MIKES was initiated as a EURAMET Project Number 1259. The dew-point generator was designed and constructed within the scope of the cooperation between TUBITAK UME and VTT MIKES in order to extend the dew-point temperature measurement capability of Humidity Laboratory of TUBITAK UME down to - 80 °C. The system was thoroughly characterized and validated at TUBITAK UME to support the evidence for dew-point temperature uncertainties. The new generator has a capability of operating in the range of - 80 °C to +10 °C, but at the moment, it was characterized down to - 60 °C. The core of the generator system is a saturator which is fully immersed in a liquid bath. Dry air is supplied to the saturator through a temperature-controlled pre-saturator. The operation of the system is based on the single-pressure generation method with a single pass, i.e., the dew-point temperature is only controlled by the saturator temperature, and the humidity-controlled air is not returned to the system after leaving of the saturator. The metrological performance of the saturator was investigated thoroughly at both National Metrology Institutes. The pre-saturator was also tested using a thermostatic bath at VTT MIKES prior to sending them to TUBITAK UME. This paper describes the principle and design of the generator in detail. The dew-point measurement system and the corresponding uncertainty analysis of the dew-point temperature scale realized with the generator in the range from - 60 °C to 10 °C is also presented.

  17. Experimental investigation of a super performance dew point air cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xudong; Fancey, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The cooler had a complex heat & mass exchanger with an advanced wet material layer. •Intermittent water supply scheme was implemented. •The cooler achieved 100–160% higher COP compared to the existing dew point coolers. •Electricity use of the cooler was reduced by 50–70% compared to existing dew coolers. •This optimal working air ratio was 0.364 that enabled maximised cooling effectiveness. -- Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a super performance dew point air cooler which, by employing a super performance wet material layer, innovative heat and mass exchanger and intermittent water supply scheme, has achieved a significantly higher energy efficiency (i.e. Coefficient of Performance, COP) and a much lower electrical energy use compared to the existing air coolers of the same type. This involves the dedicated system design & construction, fully planned experimental testing under various simulated climatic conditions representing the climate of hot & dry, warm & dry, moderate, warm & humid and standard lab testing condition, testing results analysis and discussion, as well as the parallel comparison against the commercial dew point air cooler. Under the standard test condition, i.e. dry bulb temperature of 37.8 °C and coincident wet bulb temperature of 21.1 °C, the prototype cooler achieved the wet-bulb cooling effectiveness of 114% and dew-point cooling effectiveness of 75%, yielding a significantly high COP value of 52.5 at the optimal working air ratio of 0.364. The testing also indicated that the lower inlet air relative humidity led to a higher cooling efficiency, while the lower cooling output helped increase COP and cooling effectiveness (including the wet-bulb effectiveness and dew-point effectiveness) of the cooler.

  18. Automatic continuous dew point measurement in combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1986-08-01

    Low exhaust temperatures serve to minimize energy consumption in combustion systems. This requires accurate, continuous measurement of exhaust condensation. An automatic dew point meter for continuous operation is described. The principle of measurement, the design of the measuring system, and practical aspects of operation are discussed.

  19. Predicting acid dew point with a semi-empirical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Baixiang; Tang, Bin; Wu, Yuxin; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Man; Lu, Junfu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The previous semi-empirical models are systematically studied. • An improved thermodynamic correlation is derived. • A semi-empirical prediction model is proposed. • The proposed semi-empirical model is validated. - Abstract: Decreasing the temperature of exhaust flue gas in boilers is one of the most effective ways to further improve the thermal efficiency, electrostatic precipitator efficiency and to decrease the water consumption of desulfurization tower, while, when this temperature is below the acid dew point, the fouling and corrosion will occur on the heating surfaces in the second pass of boilers. So, the knowledge on accurately predicting the acid dew point is essential. By investigating the previous models on acid dew point prediction, an improved thermodynamic correlation formula between the acid dew point and its influencing factors is derived first. And then, a semi-empirical prediction model is proposed, which is validated with the data both in field test and experiment, and comparing with the previous models.

  20. Evaluation of the dew point cooling technology; Beoordeling technologie dauwpuntskoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootsveld, N.R.; Afink, J. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Uges, P.G.H. (ed.) [Standex Periodieken, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    Results of measurements on an indirect adiabatic dew point cooling system are presented and discussed. The cooling system has been developed by ComfortAir, Raalte, Netherlands. [Dutch] De meetresultaten van door ComfortAir in samenwerking met TNO-MEP uitgevoerde metingen aan een indirect werkende adiabatische dauwpuntkoeler worden gepresenteerd en besproken.

  1. Automatic dew-point hygrometer making use of US -ray backscattering and controlled at the constant amount of dew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Hisanobu

    1988-08-01

    A control system which consists of proportional and integral control to maintain the constant amount of dew was developed in this hygrometer. The dew points were measured within an accuracy of +-1 deg C in the ranging from -4 to 32 deg C. The response time for suddenly changing humidity was about 8 min.

  2. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (−90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range

  3. Integrated CMOS dew point sensors for relative humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicolo; Baglio, Salvatore; Castorina, Salvatore; Sacco, Vincenzo; Tringali, Cristina

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the development of integrated relative humidity dew point sensors realized by adopting standard CMOS technology for applications in various fields. The proposed system is composed by a suspended plate that is cooled by exploiting integrated Peltier cells. The cold junctions of the cells have been spread over the plate surface to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over its surface, where cooling will cause the water condensation. The temperature at which water drops occur, named dew point temperature, is a function of the air humidity. Measurement of such dew point temperature and the ambient temperature allows to know the relative humidity. The detection of water drops is achieved by adopting a capacitive sensing strategy realized by interdigited fixed combs, composed by the upper layer of the adopted process. Such a capacitive sensor, together with its conditioning circuit, drives a trigger that stops the cooling of the plate and enables the reading of the dew point temperature. Temperature measurements are achieved by means of suitably integrated thermocouples. The analytical model of the proposed system has been developed and has been used to design a prototype device and to estimate its performances. In such a prototype, the thermoelectric cooler is composed by 56 Peltier cells, made by metal 1/poly 1 junctions. The plate has a square shape with 200 μm side, and it is realized by exploiting the oxide layers. Starting from the ambient temperature a temperature variation of ΔT = 15 K can be reached in 10 ms thus allowing to measure a relative humidity greater than 40%.

  4. Estimation of precipitable water from surface dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T.A.

    1991-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation which is of the form lnw=a+bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water content from surface dew point temperature at different locations. The study confirms that the slope of this equation (b) remains constant at the value of .0681 deg. C., while the intercept (a) changes rapidly with the latitude. The use of the variable intercept can improve the estimated result by 2%. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Multiobjective optimization in Gene Expression Programming for Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Siddharth; Dabhi, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    The processes occurring in climatic change evolution and their variations play a major role in environmental engineering. Different techniques are used to model the relationship between temperatures, dew point and relative humidity. Gene expression programming is capable of modelling complex realities with great accuracy, allowing, at the same time, the extraction of knowledge from the evolved models compared to other learning algorithms. This research aims to use Gene Expression Programming ...

  6. Temporal trends in United States dew point temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter J.

    2000-07-01

    In this study, hourly data for the 1951-1990 period for 178 stations in the coterminous United States were used to establish temporal trends in dew point temperature. Although the data had been quality controlled previously (Robinson, 1998. Monthly variations of dew point temperatures in the coterminous United States. International Journal of Climatology 18: 1539-1556), comparisons of values between nearby stations suggested that instrumental changes, combined with locational changes, may have modified the results by as much as 1°C during the 40-year period. Nevertheless, seasonally averaged results indicated an increase over much of the area, of slightly over 1°C/100 years in spring and autumn, slightly less than this in summer. Winter displayed a drying of over 1°C/100 years. When only the 1961-1990 period was considered, the patterns were similar and trends increased by approximately 1-2°C/100 years, except in autumn, which displayed a slight drying. Analyses for specific stations indicated periods of both increasing and decreasing Td, the change between them varying with observation hour. No single change point was common over a wide area, although January commonly indicated maximum values early in the period in the east and west, and much later in the north-central portion. Rates of increase were generally higher in daytime than at night, especially in summer. Investigation of the inter-decadal differences in dew point, as a function of wind conditions, indicated that changes during calm conditions were commonly similar in magnitude to that of the overall average changes, suggesting an important role for the local hydrologic cycle in driving changes. Other inter-decadal changes could be attributed to the changes in the frequency and moisture content of invading air-streams. This was particularly clear for the changes in north-south flow in the interior.

  7. Measurement of dew droplets in initial deposition at dew point by using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru; Hoshino, Mitsuo

    2002-09-01

    In order to measure the total mass per unit area of dew droplets deposited on a metal plate in the dew-point hygrometer, the shape of a dew droplet deposited on a copper plate was measured accurately by using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an usual interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fiber cable was introduced to depress speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the copper plate surface with 0.1 μm in average roughness was measured with an accuracy of +/-3nm. The mass of a dew droplet could be calculated numerically from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of dew droplets deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity were obtained under a gentle wind. The total mass was the order of 10-5 g/cm2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity was ranged from 2x10-6 to 6x10-5 g/cm2.min.

  8. Experimental study of influence characteristics of flue gas fly ash on acid dew point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinhui; Li, Jiahu; Wang, Shuai; Yuan, Hui; Ren, Zhongqiang

    2017-12-01

    The long-term operation experience of a large number of utility boilers shows that the measured value of acid dew point is generally lower than estimated value. This is because the influence of CaO and MgO on acid dew point in flue gas fly ash is not considered in the estimation formula of acid dew point. On the basis of previous studies, the experimental device for acid dew point measurement was designed and constructed, and the acid dew point under different smoke conditions was measured. The results show that the CaO and MgO in the flue gas fly ash have an obvious influence on the acid dew point, and the content of the fly ash is negatively correlated with the temperature of acid dew point At the same time, the concentration of H2SO4 in flue gas is different, and the acid dew point of flue gas is different, and positively correlated with the acid dew point.

  9. Initial response of an automatic dew-point hygrometer using [beta]-ray backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki (Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the initial response of an automatic dew-point hygrometer using [beta]-ray backscattering. The response time after starting of measurement was evaluated in which the dew point measured with the hygrometer reached a value of 90 percent of the correct dew point in its response. Theoretical calculation was made by means of the loop transfer function of a control system employed in the hygrometer. The response times ranged from 1.7 min to 16 min corresponding to the dew point of 47.5degC and -6degC, respectively, and agreed well with experimental ones. (author).

  10. Continuous acid dew point measurement in coal-fired power plants; Kontinuierliche Saeuretaupunktmessung in Braunkohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foedisch, Holger; Schulz, Joerg; Schengber, Petra; Dietrich, Gabriele [Dr. Foedisch Umweltmesstechnik AG, Markranstaedt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The reduction of flue gas losses is one option to increase power plant efficiency. The target is the optimised low waste gas temperature. When applying lignite and other high-sulphur fuels the temperature of the flue gas is mainly determined by the acid dew point. Temperature of the flue gas system is to amount some 10 to 20 K above the assumed acid dew point. The acid dew point measuring system AMD 08 is able to detect the real acid dew point in a quasi-continuous way. Thus, it is possible to deliberately decrease waste gas temperature. (orig.)

  11. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  12. Technology assessment of dew point cooling; Beoordeling technologie dauwpuntskoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uges, P.G.H. [Koudetechnisch Centrum, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Reinder, T.M.

    2003-03-01

    Results of measurements on an indirect adiabatic dew point cooling system are presented and discussed. The cooling system has been developed by OxyCom (formerly ComfortAir), Raalte, Netherlands. [Dutch] De techniek van dauwpuntskoeling is gebaseerd op bet principe van indirecte verdamping van water in een secundair circuit, waarbij geen extra vocht aan de te koelen luchtstroom wordt toegevoegd en waarmee luchttemperaturen worden bereikt die net boven het dauwpunt liggen en dus onder de natteboltemperatuur. Dauwpuntskoeling is een technische ontwikkeling met goede toekomstverwachtingen. Voorzover bekend zijn er tot op heden geen meetgegevens gepubliceerd met een dergelijke indirect werkende koeler. Dit artikel geeft de meetresultaten weer van een door OxyCorn in samenwerking met TNO-MEP uitgevoerd meetprogramma. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de TNO-MEP rapportage met als auteurs N.R. Bootsveld en J. Afink en heeft eerder in het blad Koude en Luchtbehandeling, januari 2003, gestaan.

  13. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, J.

    1981-07-01

    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  14. A dew point signaller for conservation of works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, D; Valcher, S

    1986-03-01

    All works of art, from paintings, frescoes, sculptures, to monuments and buildings, are affected by diurnal and seasonal variations of the local microclimate, which induce interactions with the environmental atmosphere. Heat and vapour exchanges cause fluxes of heat and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, and may favour the agressivity of environmental pollutants. Condensation-evaporation cycles are recognized as being very important processes which adversely affect the life-time of the work of art. The need to control the microclimate or to stop condensation processes has been resolved by means of a dew-point signaller especially designed to overcome this problem. This paper discusses the characteristics of this device as well as the environmental philosophy which should be followed when conserving works of art.

  15. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  16. The dew point response of the annulus gas system of Bruce NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchington, J.; Ellis, P.J.; Meranda, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dew point response of the Annulus Gas System in Bruce A, Units 1 and 2 has been modelled in order to alert the operator of the presence of heavy water and to estimate the leak rate into the annulus. The computer model can be easily adapted to determine the Annulus Gas System dew point response in any station. It models the complex arrangement of the system and the transportation of moisture through the annuli by a combination of plug flow and mixing of CO 2 and D 2 O vapor. It predicts the response of the dew point monitor for a range of specified leak rates and positions of a leaking channel in a string of channels. This model has been used to calculate the variation of dew point and rate of change of dew point with respect to time (t). It shows that there is a maximum in the rate of dew point change (dT/dt) with respect to the corresponding dew point (T). This maximum is unique for a given leak rate and channel position. It is independent of the starting time for the leak. The computer programme has been verified by an analytical solution for the model

  17. Calculating the flue gas dew point for raw brown coal fired steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyzes parameters influencing the sulfuric acid dew point in flue gas of steam generators. Sulfur content and alkaline earths content in the fuel air ratio during combustion, fly ash content in the flue gas (which absorbs sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide) and combustion conditions in steam generators are relevant parameters in the combustion process. A thermodynamic and reaction kinetic calculation of the sulfuric acid dew point is, however, not yet possible. A statistical evaluation of dew point measurements in steam generators is, therefore, employed. Various diagrams show results of dew point measurements carried out at generators with steam capacities ranging from 40 to 660 t/h, which demonstrate relations of these parameters to flue gas dew points, in particular the relative sulfur content (sulfur content in the raw brown coal compared to coal ash content and alkaline earths content). A function is derived for the conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide. A diagram presents the relation of the flue gas dew point to partial pressures of sulfuric acid and steam. Direct calculation of the flue gas dew point was achieved by the proposed method. It is applied in steam generator design. (17 refs.)

  18. Mechanism research on coupling effect between dew point corrosion and ash deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun-Gang; Zhao, Qin-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the coupling mechanism between ash deposition and dew point corrosion, five kinds of tube materials frequently used as anti-dew point corrosion materials were selected as research objects. Dew point corrosion and ash deposition experiments were performed with a new type experimental device in a Chinese thermal power plant. The microstructures of the materials and the composition of ash deposition were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the ash deposition layer could be divided into non-condensation zone, the main condensation zone and the secondary condensation zone. The acid vapor condensed in the main condensation zone rather than directly on the tube wall surface. The dew point corrosion mainly is oxygen corrosion under the condition of the viscosity ash deposition, and the corrosion products are composed of the ash and acid reaction products in the outer layer, iron sulfate in the middle layer, and iron oxide in the inner layer. The innermost layer is the main corrosion layer. With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the ash deposition changes from the viscosity ash deposition to the dry loose ash deposition, the ash deposition rate decreases dramatically and dew point corrosion is alleviated efficiently. The sulfuric dew point corrosion resistance of the five test materials is as follows: 316L > ND > Corten>20G > 20 steel. -- Highlights: ► Dew point corrosion and ash deposition tests of five materials were performed. ► Acid vapor condensed in the ash deposit rather than directly on the tube surface. ► Dew point corrosion resistance is as follow: 316L > ND > Corten>20G > 20 steel. ► Dew point corrosion mainly is oxygen corrosion under viscosity ash deposition

  19. Improvement of lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer for direct reading and controlling of relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.Z.; Chu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer has many advantages over other types of hygrometers. However, it only reads and controls the dew-point temperature of air instead of the relative humidity, which is more important in industry, agriculture, food storage, and hygiene. This paper describes a new hygrometer which is based on the same principle as the lithium chloride dew-point hygrometer, but it can read and control the relative humidity directly. The instrument is quick in response and the ranges of temperature and relative humidity are quite large. Its accuracy is normally within 3% RH and its precision is within 2% RH.

  20. Environmental dew point and skin and lip weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, S

    2010-05-01

    Xerosis represents a physiological response of the stratum corneum (SC) to environmental threats. The influence of the environmental dew point (DP) is not fully understood. This parameter is the air temperature at which the relative humidity is maximum. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the environmental DP and the water-holding capacity of the skin and lower lip vermilion. For comparison, SC property was evaluated after occlusive application of cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. Electrometric measurements using a dermal phase meter (DPM) device were performed on the back of the hands, the cheeks and the lower lip of 40 healthy menopausal women. Assessments were performed in the outdoor conditions during winter and spring. The same measurements were recorded after hydrogel pads, at room temperature or cooled to 4 degrees C, were placed for 15 min on the test sites. The environmental DP was recorded at each evaluation time. The SC water-holding capacity was discretely influenced by the DP. In the open-air environmental conditions, a positive linear relationship was found on the cheeks between the DP and DPM values. The relationship was weaker on the lips. Conversely, a consistent increase in DPM values was recorded immediately after removal of the cooled and uncooled hydrogel pads. The observations made in the open-air testing conditions are consistent with the predicted events following the Arrhenius law. By contrast, the combination of cooling and occlusion by the hydrogel pads is responsible for the reverse effect on the SC.

  1. Pressure-Drop Considerations in the Characterization of Dew-Point Transfer Standards at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, H.; Böse, N.; Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    During calibration of precision optical dew-point hygrometers (DPHs), it is usually necessary to take into account the pressure drop induced by the gas flow between the "point of reference" and the "point of use" (mirror or measuring head of the DPH) either as a correction of the reference dew-point temperature or as part of the uncertainty estimation. At dew-point temperatures in the range of ambient temperature and below, it is sufficient to determine the pressure drop for the required gas flow, and to keep the volumetric flow constant during the measurements. In this case, it is feasible to keep the dry-gas flow into the dew-point generator constant or to measure the flow downstream the DPH at ambient temperature. In normal operation, at least one DPH in addition to the monitoring DPH are used, and this operation has to be applied to each instrument. The situation is different at high dew-point temperatures up to 95 °C, the currently achievable upper limit reported in this paper. With increasing dew-point temperatures, the reference gas contains increasing amounts of water vapour and a constant dry-gas flow will lead to a significant enhanced volume flow at the conditions at the point of use, and therefore, to a significantly varying pressure drop depending on the applied dew-point temperature. At dew-point temperatures above ambient temperature, it is also necessary to heat the reference gas and the mirror head of the DPH sufficiently to avoid condensation which will additionally increase the volume flow and the pressure drop. In this paper, a method is provided to calculate the dry-gas flow rate needed to maintain a known wet-gas flow rate through a chilled mirror for a range of temperature and pressures.

  2. An automatic dew-point hygrometer making use of β-ray backscattering and controlled at the constant amount of dew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Hisanobu

    1988-01-01

    A control system which consists of proportional and integral control to maintain the constant amount of dew was developed in this hygrometer. The dew points were measured within an accuracy of ±1 deg C in the ranging from -4 to 32 deg C. The response time for suddenly changing humidity was about 8 min. (author)

  3. The Influence of Air Temperature on the Dew Point Temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    done to determine the influence and effect of temperature on other climatic environmental ... Key words: Air Temperature, Dew point temperature, Weather, Climate, Influence. Weather ... humidity, clouds and atmospheric pressure. Its.

  4. Memory persistency and nonlinearity in daily mean dew point across India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Ghosh, Koushik; Bhattacharjee, Anup Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Enterprising endeavour has been taken in this work to realize and estimate the persistence in memory of the daily mean dew point time series obtained from seven different weather stations viz. Kolkata, Chennai (Madras), New Delhi, Mumbai (Bombay), Bhopal, Agartala and Ahmedabad representing different geographical zones in India. Hurst exponent values reveal an anti-persistent behaviour of these dew point series. To affirm the Hurst exponent values, five different scaling methods have been used and the corresponding results are compared to synthesize a finer and reliable conclusion out of it. The present analysis also bespeaks that the variation in daily mean dew point is governed by a non-stationary process with stationary increments. The delay vector variance (DVV) method has been exploited to investigate nonlinearity, and the present calculation confirms the presence of deterministic nonlinear profile in the daily mean dew point time series of the seven stations.

  5. Dew point of combustion products of coal from the Berezovo deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V.A. (UralVTI (USSR))

    1990-11-01

    Evaluates properties of brown coal from the Berezovo deposit, Kansk-Achinsk basin, and properties of its combustion products. Coal properties are the following: sulfur content from 0.26 to 0.49%, ash content from 3.49 to 6.58%, moisture content from 31.6 to 36.9%, calorific value from 14,200 to 15,840 kJ/kg. Dew point of the combustion products amounts to 51 C and is equal to that of water vapor present in flue gases. Changing boiler output does not influence dew point. Increase in the excess air coefficient from 1.2 to 1.4 results in an increase in dew point by 2-3 K; further increase in air excess coefficient to 1.64 causes a decline in dew point by 3-4 K. 2 refs.

  6. Measuring the exhaust gas dew point of continuously operated combustion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1985-07-16

    Low waste-gas temperatures represent one means of minimizing the energy consumption of combustion facilities. However, condensation should be prevented to occur in the waste gas since this could result in a destruction of parts. Measuring the waste-gas dew point allows to control combustion parameters in such a way as to be able to operate at low temperatures without danger of condensation. Dew point sensors will provide an important signal for optimizing combustion facilities.

  7. Investigation of a novel dew point indirect evaporative air conditioning system for buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Zhiyin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to improve the performance of existing indirect evaporative coolers. A new dew point indirect evaporative cooler with counter-current heat/mass exchanger was developed in this research by optimal design, material selection, numerical simulation, experimental investigations and economic, environmental, regional acceptance analysis. A new dew point heat/mass exchanger using a counter-current flow pattern was designed by numerical simulation in terms of material, structure, g...

  8. Dew point measurements of flue gases in steam generators with brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines empirical data on sulfuric acid condensation and resulting internal corrosion in brown coal fired steam generators. Due to the high sulfur content in brown coal (0.5% to 5.0%) and relative short duration of the gases in the combustion chamber the concentrations of sulfur trioxide present in the flue gases can condense at the heat exchange surfaces of the steam generators. A number of diagrams show sulfuric acid dew point temperatures depending on brown coal sulfur content, the influence of combustion air supply on the dew point, and condensing speed and the rate of corrosion in relation to different heat exchange surface temperatures. The conclusion is made that a five-fold increase in corrosion can be caused by a 10 K higher flue gas dew point, a 5 K cooling of heating surfaces can also cause heavy corrosion at a certain dew point. Maximum corrosion results at 20 to 50 K differences between flue gas dew point and heat exchange surfaces. Optimum operation of steam generators with minimal internal corrosion requires the consideration of flue gas and heating surface temperatures as well as flue gas sulfur acid dew points. (10 refs.) (In German)

  9. Investigation of the dew-point temperature scale maintained at the MIKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    1999-01-01

    For the investigation of the dew-point temperature scale realized by the MIKES primary dew-point generator, a two-pressure generator and a dew-point indicator based on condensation in a cooled coil were constructed and tested. In addition, a chilled mirror hygrometer was validated by means of an uncertainty analysis. The comparison of these systems was focused on the dew-point temperature range from 0957-0233/10/1/010/img1 to 0957-0233/10/1/010/img2 but measurements were made up to 0957-0233/10/1/010/img3. The generator systems were compared using a dew-point comparator based on two relative humidity sensors. According to the results of the comparisons, the differences between the measurement systems were less than 0957-0233/10/1/010/img4, while the expanded uncertainty of the MIKES generator was between 0957-0233/10/1/010/img5 and 0957-0233/10/1/010/img6. The uncertainty of the other systems was from 0957-0233/10/1/010/img7 to 0957-0233/10/1/010/img8. It was concluded that the dew-point temperature scale was not dependent on the realization method.

  10. Theory of acid deposition and its application to the dew-point meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T.

    1977-06-01

    The theory of convective mass transfer is used to calculate the rate of deposition of sulphuric acid on cooled surfaces in boiler flues. The mass deposited per unit area per second is ah/c (p/sub Ag/ - p/sub As/) where h is the coefficient of convective heat transfer, c is the specific heat of the gas and a is a factor having a value of about 1.9; p/sub Ag/ and p/sub As/ are the partial pressures of sulphuric acid in the bulk of the gas and in saturated gas at the temperature of the surface. Values of p/sub A/ are tabulated against dew-point temperature and water vapour content. The theory explains how fog formation in the gas reduces the rate of acid deposition within a certain band of temperature between the acid dew-point and the water dew-point. The rate of deposition on a probe is shown to depend on the local mass flow as well as on the acid content. By contrast the dew-point depends only on the acid content. The sensitivity of the dew-point meter to changes in acid content is not very high but it is adequate for the control of combustion. A continuously recording dew-point meter is being successfully used on industrial boilers.

  11. Dew point of flue gas in the combustion of brown coal briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W

    1977-08-01

    Economical operation of small steam generators can follow two courses, viz. to channel the emitted gases through the plant and reduce waste gas loss. Two possibilities exist to achieve this: firstly a steam generating process with only slight excess air; secondly a reduction of the emitted gas temperature. The lowest waste gas temperature found in sulphur-containing combustion materials is measured by finding the acid dew-point of the waste gas. The following results in the case of brown coal briquettes were found. Measurements of the dew point of flue gas in two steam generators, both of the double flue type, one having a capacity of 12.5 t/h, the other 25 t/h, one using brown coal briquettes with 1% sulphur content, the other with 3%, resulted in the fact that the dew point can be measured. It was shown that a low air ratio leads to a lowering of the dew point. However this process is unfortunately economically unviable in chain grate generators as the waste gas becomes so thin under a high air ratio that the dew point can only be minimally reduced. Further the acid dew point is only slightly influenced by partial operation of the generator and the infusion of briquette residue.

  12. Dew point temperature affects ascospore release of allergenic genus Leptosphaeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Rodinkova, Victoria; Prikhodko, Alex; Bilous, Elena; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Herbert, Robert J.; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2018-01-01

    The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multivariate regression trees (MRTs), we selected the best model for each site, as well as for joint two-site combinations. The performance of all computed models was tested against records from 1 year which had not been used for model construction. The statistical analysis of the fungal spore data was supported by a comprehensive study of both climate and land cover within a 30-km radius from the air sampler location. High-performance forecasting models were obtained for individual sites, showing that the local micro-climate plays a decisive role in biology of the fungi. Based on the previous epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that dew point temperature (DPT) would be a critical factor in the models. The impact of DPT was confirmed only by one of the final best neural models, but the MRT analyses, similarly to the Spearman's rank test, indicated the importance of DPT in all but one of the studied cases and in half of them ranked it as a fundamental factor. This work applies artificial neural modeling to predict the Leptosphaeria airborne spore concentration in urban areas for the first time.

  13. Dew point temperature affects ascospore release of allergenic genus Leptosphaeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Rodinkova, Victoria; Prikhodko, Alex; Bilous, Elena; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Herbert, Robert J.; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2018-06-01

    The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multivariate regression trees (MRTs), we selected the best model for each site, as well as for joint two-site combinations. The performance of all computed models was tested against records from 1 year which had not been used for model construction. The statistical analysis of the fungal spore data was supported by a comprehensive study of both climate and land cover within a 30-km radius from the air sampler location. High-performance forecasting models were obtained for individual sites, showing that the local micro-climate plays a decisive role in biology of the fungi. Based on the previous epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that dew point temperature (DPT) would be a critical factor in the models. The impact of DPT was confirmed only by one of the final best neural models, but the MRT analyses, similarly to the Spearman's rank test, indicated the importance of DPT in all but one of the studied cases and in half of them ranked it as a fundamental factor. This work applies artificial neural modeling to predict the Leptosphaeria airborne spore concentration in urban areas for the first time.

  14. Feedback dew-point sensor utilizing optimally cut plastic optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Irvine, J.; Keating, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A plastic optical fibre reflectance sensor that makes full use of the critical angle of the fibres is implemented to monitor dew formation on a Peltier-cooled reflector surface. The optical configuration permits isolation of optoelectronic components from the sensing head and better light coupling between the reflector and the detecting fibre, giving a better signal of the onset of dew formation on the reflector. Continuous monitoring of the rate of change in reflectance as well as the absolute reflectance signals, the use of a novel polymethyl-methacrylate-coated hydrophobic film reflector on the Peltier element and the application of feedback around the point of dew formation, further reduces the possibility of contamination of the sensor head. Under closed-loop operation, the sensor is capable of cycling around the point of dew formation at a frequency of 2.5 Hz.

  15. Estimation of combustion flue gas acid dew point during heat recovery and efficiency gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadori, A. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    When cooling combustion flue gas for heat recovery and efficiency gain, the temperature must not be allowed to drop below the sulfur trioxide dew point. Below the SO{sub 3} dew point, very corrosive sulfuric acid forms and leads to operational hazards on metal surfaces. In the present work, simple-to-use predictive tool, which is easier than existing approaches, less complicated with fewer computations is formulated to arrive at an appropriate estimation of acid dew point during combustion flue gas cooling which depends on fuel type, sulfur content in fuel, and excess air levels. The resulting information can then be applied to estimate the acid dew point, for sulfur in various fuels up to 0.10 volume fraction in gas (0.10 mass fraction in liquid), excess air fractions up to 0.25, and elemental concentrations of carbon up to 3. The proposed predictive tool shows a very good agreement with the reported data wherein the average absolute deviation percent was found to be around 3.18%. This approach can be of immense practical value for engineers and scientists for a quick estimation of acid dew point during combustion flue gas cooling for heat recovery and efficiency gain for wide range of operating conditions without the necessity of any pilot plant setup and tedious experimental trials. In particular, process and combustion engineers would find the tool to be user friendly involving transparent calculations with no complex expressions for their applications.

  16. An ultrahigh-accuracy Miniature Dew Point Sensor based on an Integrated Photonics Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jifang; Luo, Yu; Wang, Li; Cai, Hong; Sun, Tao; Song, Junfeng; Liu, Hui; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    The dew point is the temperature at which vapour begins to condense out of the gaseous phase. The deterministic relationship between the dew point and humidity is the basis for the industry-standard “chilled-mirror” dew point hygrometers used for highly accurate humidity measurements, which are essential for a broad range of industrial and metrological applications. However, these instruments have several limitations, such as high cost, large size and slow response. In this report, we demonstrate a compact, integrated photonic dew point sensor (DPS) that features high accuracy, a small footprint, and fast response. The fundamental component of this DPS is a partially exposed photonic micro-ring resonator, which serves two functions simultaneously: 1) sensing the condensed water droplets via evanescent fields and 2) functioning as a highly accurate, in situ temperature sensor based on the thermo-optic effect (TOE). This device virtually eliminates most of the temperature-related errors that affect conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers. Moreover, this DPS outperforms conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers with respect to size, cost and response time, paving the way for on-chip dew point detection and extension to applications for which the conventional technology is unsuitable because of size, cost, and other constraints.

  17. An Investigation of the Relation Between Contact Thermometry and Dew-Point Temperature Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Böse, N.; Mitter, H.; Mutter, D.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    Precision optical dew-point hygrometers are the most commonly used transfer standards for the comparison of dew-point temperature realizations at National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and for disseminating traceability to calibration laboratories. These instruments have been shown to be highly reproducible when properly used. In order to obtain the best performance, the resistance of the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) embedded in the mirror is usually measured with an external, traceable resistance bridge or digital multimeter. The relation between the conventional calibration of miniature PRTs, prior to their assembly in the mirrors of state-of-the-art optical dew-point hygrometers and their subsequent calibration as dew-point temperature measurement devices, has been investigated. Standard humidity generators of three NMIs were used to calibrate hygrometers of different designs, covering the dew-point temperature range from -75 °C to + 95 °C. The results span more than a decade, during which time successive improvements and modifications were implemented by the manufacturer. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of enabling the optimum use of these transfer standards and as a basis for determining contributions to the uncertainty in their calibration.

  18. Using dew points to estimate savings during a planned cooling shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlein, Matthew T.; Changnon, David; Musselman, Eric; Zielinski, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In an effort to save money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in electricity usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total electricity savings of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest savings during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959 2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9°C (58.8°F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and electrical usage, a predictive model that could estimate electrical daily savings was created. This model suggests that electrical savings related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the potential value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making.

  19. Dew point vs bubble point : a misunderstood constraint on gravity drainage processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenninger, J. [N-Solv Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Gunnewiek, L. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study demonstrated that gravity drainage processes that use blended fluids such as solvents have an inherently unstable material balance due to differences between dew point and bubble point compositions. The instability can lead to the accumulation of volatile components within the chamber, and impair mass and heat transfer processes. Case studies were used to demonstrate the large temperature gradients within the vapour chamber caused by temperature differences between the bubble point and dew point for blended fluids. A review of published data showed that many experiments on in-situ processes do not account for unstable material balances caused by a lack of steam trap control. A study of temperature profiles during steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) studies showed significant temperature depressions caused by methane accumulations at the outside perimeter of the steam chamber. It was demonstrated that the condensation of large volumes of purified solvents provided an efficient mechanism for the removal of methane from the chamber. It was concluded that gravity drainage processes can be optimized by using pure propane during the injection process. 22 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  20. Effects of dew point on selective oxidation of TRIP steels containing Si, Mn, and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Sang; Choi, Jin-Won; Kang, Namhyun; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2011-04-01

    The selective oxidation of Si, Mn, and B on TRIP steel surfaces is a widely known phenomenon that occurs during heat treatment. However, the relationship between oxide formation and the annealing factors is not completely understood. This study examines the effect of the annealing conditions (dew point and annealing temperature) on oxide formation. A low dew point of -40 °C leads to the formation of Si-based oxides on the surface. A high dew point of -20 °C changes the oxide type to Mn-based oxides because the formation of Si oxides on the surface is suppressed by internal oxidation. Mn-based oxides exhibit superior wettability due to aluminothermic reduction during galvanizing.

  1. An experimental study of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riangvilaikul, B.; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2010-05-15

    A novel dew point evaporative cooling system for sensible cooling of the ventilation air for air conditioning application was constructed and experiments were carried out to investigate the outlet air conditions and the system effectiveness at different inlet air conditions (temperature, humidity and velocity) covering dry, temperate and humid climates. The results showed that wet bulb effectiveness ranged between 92 and 114% and the dew point effectiveness between 58 and 84%. A continuous operation of the system during a typical day of summer season in a hot and humid climate showed that wet bulb and dew point effectiveness were almost constant at about 102 and 76%, respectively. The experiment results were compared with some recent studies in literature. (author)

  2. A MEMS-based super fast dew point hygrometer—construction and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachowicz, Ryszard S; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Paczesny, Daniel; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The paper shows how MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) technology and a modified principle of fast temperature control (by heat injection instead of careful control of cooling) can considerably improve the dynamic parameters of dew point hygrometers. Some aspects of MEMS-type integrated sensor construction and technology, whole measurement system design, the control algorithm to run the system as well as empirical dynamic parameters from the tests are discussed too. The hygrometer can easily obtain five to six measurements per second with an uncertainty of less than 0.3 K. The meter range is between −10 °C and 40 °C dew point. In the second part of the paper (section 2), two different successful applications in medicine based on fast humidity measurements have been discussed. Some specific constructions of these super fast dew point hygrometers based on a MEMS sensor as well as limited empirical results from clinical tests have been reported too

  3. A novel method of measuring the concentration of anaesthetic vapours using a dew-point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R; Mapleson, W W; Mecklenburgh, J S

    1994-02-01

    The Antoine equation relates the saturated vapour pressure of a volatile substance, such as an anaesthetic agent, to the temperature. The measurement of the 'dew-point' of a dry gas mixture containing a volatile anaesthetic agent by a dew-point hygrometer permits the determination of the partial pressure of the anaesthetic agent. The accuracy of this technique is limited only by the accuracy of the Antoine coefficients and of the temperature measurement. Comparing measurements by the dew-point method with measurements by refractometry showed systematic discrepancies up to 0.2% and random discrepancies with SDS up to 0.07% concentration in the 1% to 5% range for three volatile anaesthetics. The systematic discrepancies may be due to errors in available data for the vapour pressures and/or the refractive indices of the anaesthetics.

  4. The influence of dew point during annealing on the power loss of electrical steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broddefalk, Arvid [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Ltd., P.O. Box 201, SE-735 23 Surahammar (Sweden)], E-mail: arvid.broddefalk@sura.se; Jenkins, Keith [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Ltd., P.O. Box 201, SE-735 23 Surahammar (Sweden); Silk, Nick [Corus RD and T, Swinden Technology Centre, Moorgate Rotherham S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Lindenmo, Magnus [Development and Market Research, Cogent Power Ltd., P.O. Box 201, SE-735 23 Surahammar (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    Decarburization is a necessary part of the processing of electrical steels if their carbon content is above a certain level. The process is usually carried out in a wet hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere. Having a high dew point has a negative influence on the power loss, though. This is due to oxidation of the steel, which hinders domain wall motion near the surface. In this study, an increase of the power loss was only observed at a fairly high dew point (>20 deg. C). It was also only at these high dew points where a subsurface oxide layer was observed. The surfaces of samples with and without this layer were etched in steps. The magnetic properties of the etched samples corresponded well with the expected behavior based on GDOES profiles of the samples.

  5. A MEMS-based super fast dew point hygrometer—construction and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowicz, Ryszard S.; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Paczesny, Daniel; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2009-12-01

    The paper shows how MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) technology and a modified principle of fast temperature control (by heat injection instead of careful control of cooling) can considerably improve the dynamic parameters of dew point hygrometers. Some aspects of MEMS-type integrated sensor construction and technology, whole measurement system design, the control algorithm to run the system as well as empirical dynamic parameters from the tests are discussed too. The hygrometer can easily obtain five to six measurements per second with an uncertainty of less than 0.3 K. The meter range is between -10 °C and 40 °C dew point. In the second part of the paper (section 2), two different successful applications in medicine based on fast humidity measurements have been discussed. Some specific constructions of these super fast dew point hygrometers based on a MEMS sensor as well as limited empirical results from clinical tests have been reported too.

  6. Note: A dual-channel sensor for dew point measurement based on quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2017-05-01

    A new sensor with dual-channel was designed for eliminating the temperature effect on the frequency measurement of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in dew point detection. The sensor uses active temperature control, produces condensation on the surface of QCM, and then detects the dew point. Both the single-channel and the dual-channel methods were conducted based on the device. The measurement error of the single-channel method was less than 0.5 °C at the dew point range of -2 °C-10 °C while the dual-channel was 0.3 °C. The results showed that the dual-channel method was able to eliminate the temperature effect and yield better measurement accuracy.

  7. The influence of dew point during annealing on the power loss of electrical steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broddefalk, Arvid; Jenkins, Keith; Silk, Nick; Lindenmo, Magnus

    Decarburization is a necessary part of the processing of electrical steels if their carbon content is above a certain level. The process is usually carried out in a wet hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere. Having a high dew point has a negative influence on the power loss, though. This is due to oxidation of the steel, which hinders domain wall motion near the surface. In this study, an increase of the power loss was only observed at a fairly high dew point (>20 °C). It was also only at these high dew points where a subsurface oxide layer was observed. The surfaces of samples with and without this layer were etched in steps. The magnetic properties of the etched samples corresponded well with the expected behavior based on GDOES profiles of the samples.

  8. Evaluation of the physical dew point in the economizer of a combined cycle burning natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, F.; Blanco, J.M. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/E.H.U. Alameda de Urquijo s/n, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Sup. de Ingenieria

    2007-08-15

    Natural gas contents a considerable percentage of hydrogen, so is obvious to expect an amount of water vapour in its combustion exhaust gases, which would raise the dew point temperature. That means a higher speed of corrosion over the whole exposed physical area, which could represent a serious risk of breakdown, especially in pressurized hot-water equipments. In this work, a new methodology for determining the physical dew point inside a economizer depending on the fuel type burned (in this case is natural gas) has been developed. The calculation of the total amount of condensed water has also been carried out as well as the localization of the area where this condensation occurs. Acid dew point has not been taken into account here although exhaust gases are acidic, due mainly to the low sulphur content which is almost undetectable when burning natural gas, but it will be performed in a later study coming soon. (author)

  9. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...... system, which includes a desiccant wheel and a dew point cooler. The system is simulated during the summer period in the Mediterranean climate of Rome and it results completely independent of external water sources. The seasonal thermal COP drops 8% in comparison to the open regeneration circuit solution...

  10. High Response Dew Point Measurement System for a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new high response on-line measurement system has been developed to continuously display and record the air stream dew point in the NASA Lewis 10 x 10 supersonic wind tunnel. Previous instruments suffered from such problems as very slow response, erratic readings, and high susceptibility to contamination. The system operates over the entire pressure level range of the 10 x 10 SWT, from less than 2 psia to 45 psia, without the need for a vacuum pump to provide sample flow. The system speeds up tunnel testing, provides large savings in tunnel power costs and provides the dew point input for the data-reduction subroutines which calculate test section conditions.

  11. A comparative study of compression-expansion type dehumidification systems to achieve low dew point air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Choon; Bansal, Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical feasibility study of three dehumidification systems to achieve air with dew points down to (-) 40 deg. C. The systems consist of compressors, heat exchangers, expanders and heaters. A thermodynamic model has been developed of the systems to study the effect of the compressor, expander, and heat recovery heat exchanger efficiency as a function of pressure ratio, net required work, quantity of condensed moisture, and system outlet dew point temperature. The analysis has revealed that the selection of a heat recovery heat exchanger is critical for an efficient dehumidification system, where compressor efficiency has the dominant effect on power consumption.

  12. Concerning the acid dew point in waste gases from combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoche, K.F.; Deutz, W.; Hein, K.; Derichs, W.

    1986-09-01

    The paper discusses the problems associated with the measurement of acid dew point and of sulphuric acid-(say SO/sub 3/-)concentrations in the flue gas from brown coal-fired boiler plants. The sulphuric acid content in brown coal flue gas has been measured at 0.5 to 3 vpm in SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 200 to 800 vpm. Using a conditional equation, the derivation of which from new formulae for phase stability is described in the paper, an acid dew point temperature of 115 to 125/sup 0/C is produced.

  13. Trends in temperature and dew point at the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, 1935-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A. N.; Pszenny, A. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2005-05-01

    Dry and wet bulb temperatures from sling psychrometer measurements taken every six hours from 1935 to 2004 at the summit of Mount Washington, located at 44 °16'N, 71 °18'W, 1914 m ASL have recently been digitized. Annual temperature has increased by 0.3°C, and annual dew point has decreased by 0.4°C over this 70-year period. Synoptic temperature has increased most in spring and winter, changing by 1.0°C and 0.5°C, respectively, while it has decreased slightly in summer and fall. Dew point has decreased in fall, summer, and winter, 0.9°C, 0.5°C, and 0.4°C respectively, and increased by 0.1°C in spring. Preliminary analysis suggests that some of the larger trends in winter and spring may be statistically significant; results of Monte Carlo simulations will be reported. Changes in dew point may be attributed to two factors. Decreasing dew points are expected if the temperature increases but the amount of water vapor present stays the same. Alternatively, lower dew points could be indicative of the presence of drier air. Other dew point climatologies of the continental United States for the second half of the century have shown mixed results, with increased dew points evident at some stations, decreased dew points at others, and no clear regional patterns.

  14. Observed changes in relative humidity and dew point temperature in coastal regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Tabari, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of trends in hydroclimatic parameters and assessment of their statistical significance have recently received a great concern to clarify whether or not there is an obvious climate change. In the current study, parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann-Kendall tests were applied for detecting annual and seasonal trends in the relative humidity (RH) and dew point temperature ( T dew) time series at ten coastal weather stations in Iran during 1966-2005. The serial structure of the data was considered, and the significant serial correlations were eliminated using the trend-free pre-whitening method. The results showed that annual RH increased by 1.03 and 0.28 %/decade at the northern and southern coastal regions of the country, respectively, while annual T dew increased by 0.29 and 0.15°C per decade at the northern and southern regions, respectively. The significant trends were frequent in the T dew series, but they were observed only at 2 out of the 50 RH series. The results showed that the difference between the results of the parametric and nonparametric tests was small, although the parametric test detected larger significant trends in the RH and T dew time series. Furthermore, the differences between the results of the trend tests were not related to the normality of the statistical distribution.

  15. Estimation of dew point temperature using neuro-fuzzy and neural network techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Kim, Sungwon; Shiri, Jalal

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the ability of two different artificial neural network (ANN) models, generalized regression neural networks model (GRNNM) and Kohonen self-organizing feature maps neural networks model (KSOFM), and two different adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models, ANFIS model with sub-clustering identification (ANFIS-SC) and ANFIS model with grid partitioning identification (ANFIS-GP), for estimating daily dew point temperature. The climatic data that consisted of 8 years of daily records of air temperature, sunshine hours, wind speed, saturation vapor pressure, relative humidity, and dew point temperature from three weather stations, Daego, Pohang, and Ulsan, in South Korea were used in the study. The estimates of ANN and ANFIS models were compared according to the three different statistics, root mean square errors, mean absolute errors, and determination coefficient. Comparison results revealed that the ANFIS-SC, ANFIS-GP, and GRNNM models showed almost the same accuracy and they performed better than the KSOFM model. Results also indicated that the sunshine hours, wind speed, and saturation vapor pressure have little effect on dew point temperature. It was found that the dew point temperature could be successfully estimated by using T mean and R H variables.

  16. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of −3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  17. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  18. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ningning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of -3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  19. Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam H.

    Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their

  20. Dew point fast measurement in organic vapor mixtures using quartz resonant sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Liu, Jia; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fast dew point sensor has been developed for organic vapor mixtures by using the quartz crystal with sensitive circuits. The sensor consists of the quartz crystal and a cooler device. Proactive approach is taken to produce condensation on the surface of the quartz crystal, and it will lead to a change in electrical features of the quartz crystal. The cessation of oscillation was measured because this phenomenon is caused by dew condensation. Such a phenomenon can be used to detect the dew point. This method exploits the high sensitivity of the quartz crystal but without frequency measurement and also retains the stability of the resonant circuit. It is strongly anti-interfered. Its performance was evaluated with acetone-methanol mixtures under different pressures. The results were compared with the dew points predicted from the universal quasi-chemical equation to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. Though the maximum deviations of the sensor are less than 1.1 °C, it still has a fast response time with a recovery time of less than 10 s, providing an excellent dehumidifying performance.

  1. The measurement of tiny dew droplets at the initial deposition stage and dew point using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeaki, Matsumoto

    2003-12-01

    The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the mirror surface of a copper plate was measured accurately using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fibre cable was used to depress any speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited at dew point on the plate surface with average roughness of 0.1 µm was measured with an accuracy of ± 3 nm. The mass of a tiny dew droplet could be determined from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of a dew droplet deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity under a gentle wind were also obtained in a similar way. The total mass was of the order of 10-5 g cm-2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity ranged from 1 × 10-5 to 6 × 10-5 g cm-2 min-1 at room temperature.

  2. Bubble-point and dew-point equation for binary refrigerant mixture R22-R142b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liancheng Tan; Zhongyou Zhao; Yonghong Duan (Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China). Dept. of Power Machinery Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A bubble-point and dew-point equation (in terms either of temperature or of pressure is suggested for the refrigerant mixture R22-R142b), which is regarded as one of the alternatives to R12. This equation has been examined with experimental data. A modified Rackett equation for the calculation of the bubble-point volume is also proposed. Compared with the experimental data, the rms errors in the calculated values of the bubble-point temperature, the dew-point temperature, and the bubble-point volume are 1.093%, 0.947%, and 1.120%, respectively. The calculation covers a wide range of temperatures and pressures, even near the critical point. It is shown how the equations are extrapolated to calculate other binary refrigerant mixtures. (author)

  3. Contribution to the study of sulfur trioxide formation and determination of the sulfuric acid dew point in boiler plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.

    1983-11-01

    This paper analyzes chemical reaction kinetics of the formation of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in combustion air and flue gas of steam generators. Formulae for sulfuric acid equilibrium reactions according to Wahnschaffe (W. Grimm, 1972) and R. Hasse, H.W. Borgmann (1962) are presented. Theoretical acid dew point, combustion parameters with influence on the dew point temperature and formation of sulfates are further discussed. Sulfur trioxide formation at temperatures above 1,000 C as a non-equilibrium reaction is outlined as another variant of chemical reactions. A graphic evaluation is made of dew point conditions in brown coal dust fired, and heating oil fired steam generators. (11 refs.)

  4. Development of Bioclimatic Design Tool for Oman Using Dry Bulb and Dew Point Temperatures Open Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Azri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioclimatic charts are used by engineers and architects in implementing passive cooling systems and architectural optimization with respect to natural air conditioning. Conventionally, the development of these charts is based on the availability of typical meteorological year which requires a record of meteorological data that are rarely available in sufficient amounts. Bioclimatic charts in Oman were developed earlier by the authors for limited locations based on the available typical meteorological years. Using dry bulb and dew point temperatures only, bioclimatic charts are developed for Adam, Buraimi, Ibra, Muscat, Nizwa, Rustaq, Saiq, Salalah, Suhar and Sur. These charts are better representative of bioclimatic trends since their development is mainly based on the relevant parameters, namely dry bulb temperature and dew point.

  5. Selective oxidation of dual phase steel after annealing at different dew points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Madeira, Laureanny; Vilela, Jose Mario Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Guimarães, Juliana Porto; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo

    2011-04-01

    Hot galvanized steels have been extensively used in the automotive industry. Selective oxidation on the steel surface affects the wettability of zinc on steel and the grain orientation of inhibition layer (Fe-Al-Zn alloy) and reduces the iron diffusion to the zinc layer. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify selective oxidation on the surface of a dual phase steel, and an experimental steel with a lower content of manganese, annealed at different dew points. The techniques employed were atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. External selective oxidation was observed for phosphorus on steel surface annealed at 0 °C dp, and for manganese, silicon, and aluminum at a lower dew point. The concentration of manganese was higher on the dual phase steel surface than on the surface of the experimental steel. The concentration of molybdenum on the surface of both steels increased as the depth increased.

  6. Sensitive skin at menopause; dew point and electrometric properties of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Fumal, I; Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-12

    A number of menopausal women experience skin sensitive to various environmental threats. Two panels of 15 menopausal women on or without HRT were compared. We studied the response of their stratum corneum to variations in environmental humidity, either in air or in response to an emollient. Environment dew point and electrometric measurements on the skin were recorded to search for correlations. Data show that the baseline stratum corneum hydration is influenced by the dew point. HRT improves the barrier function of the skin. The use of emollient further extends the improvement in the functional properties of skin in menopausal women. Both HRT and an emollient can counteract in part some of the deleterious effects of cold and dry weather.

  7. Automated and continuously operating acid dew point measuring instrument for flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckmann, D.; Naundorf, G.

    1986-06-01

    Design and operation is explained for a sulfuric acid dew point indicator for continuous flue gas temperature control. The indicator operated successfully in trial tests over several years with brown coal, gas and oil combustion in a measurement range of 60 to 180 C. The design is regarded as uncomplicated and easy to manufacture. Its operating principle is based on electric conductivity measurement on a surface on which sulfuric acid vapor has condensed. A ring electrode and a PtRh/Pt thermal element as central electrode are employed. A scheme of the equipment design is provided. Accuracy of the indicator was compared to manual dew point sondes manufactured by Degussa and showed a maximum deviation of 5 C. Manual cleaning after a number of weeks of operation is required. Fly ash with a high lime content increases dust buildup and requires more frequent cleaning cycles.

  8. Measurement and estimation of dew point for SNG. [Comparison of calculated and measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Y.

    1974-08-01

    Toho Gas measured and estimated SNG dew points in high-pressure deliveries by calculating the theoretical values by the high-pressure gas-liquid equilibrium theory using the pressure-extrapolation method to reach K = 1, and the BWR method to estimate fugacity, then verifying these values experimentally. The experimental values were measured at 161.7 to 367.5 psi using the conventional static and circulation methods, in addition to a newly developed method consisting of circulating a known composition of gas mixtures, partially freezing them, and monitoring the dew point by observing the droplets on a mirror cooled by blowing liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the experimental values.

  9. An automatic dew-point hygrometer making use of beta-ray backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sigeaki; Kobayashi, Hisanobu

    1981-01-01

    A proportional control system was employed on this hygrometer. The hygrometer was used in a box in which the temperature and the humidity were constantly regulated. The range of measured dew-point was from -26 0 C to 60 0 C in the atmospheric temperature of 0 0 C to 60 0 C, that was the relative humidity of 12% to 100%, and the accuracy of the measurement was +-1 0 C. (author)

  10. Estimation of precipitable water at different locations using surface dew-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T. A.

    1995-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation of the form ln w = a + bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water vapor content from the surface dew point temperature at different locations. The results of this study indicate that the slope b of the above equation has a constant value of 0.0681, while the intercept a changes rapidly with latitude. The use of the variable intercept technique can improve the estimated result by about 2%.

  11. Draught regulator with control flap lowers dew point, keeps stacks dry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, U.; Dreizler, W.

    1982-11-30

    Draught regulators for auxiliary air are particularly important in older stacks operated with new boilers and burners. Owing to better ventilation during burner operation and standstill, the dew point of flue gases will be lowered so that water vapour condensation will be prevented. Postfitting of draught regulators will also help in stacks already damaged by condensation water. The draught regulator has a control flap for better control of auxiliary air supply.

  12. Feasibility study of a novel dew point air conditioning system for China building application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Shuang; Duan, Zhiyin; Riffat, Saffa B. [School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The paper investigated the feasibility of a novel dew point evaporative cooling for air conditioning of buildings in China regions. The issues involved include analyses of China weather conditions, investigation of availability of water for dew point cooling, and assessment of cooling capacity of the system within various regions of China. It is concluded that the dew point system is suitable for most regions of China, particularly northern and west regions of China where the climate is hot and dry during the summer season. It is less suitable for Guangzhou and Shanghai where climates are hot and humid. However, an air pre-treatment process involving a silica-gel dehumidification will enable the technology to be used for these humid areas. Lower humidity results in a higher difference between the dry bulb and dew point of the air, which benefits the system in terms of enhancing its cooling performance. Tap water has adequate temperature to feed the system for cooling and its consumption rate is in the range 2.6-3 litres per kWh cooling output. The cooling output of the system ranges from 1.1 to 4.3 W per m{sup 3}/h air flow rate in China, depending on the region where the system applies. For a unit with 2 kW of cooling output, the required air volume flow rate varies with its application location and is in the range 570-1800 m{sup 3}/h. For a 50 m{sup 2} building with 60 W/m{sup 2} cooling load, if the system operates at working hours, i.e., 09:00 to 17:00 h, its daily water consumption would be in the range of 60-70 litres. Compared with mild or humid climates, the dry and hot climates need less air volume flow rate and less water. (author)

  13. The effect of water contamination on the dew-point temperature scale realization with humidity generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilbaste, M.; Heinonen, M.; Saks, O.; Leito, I.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of contaminated water in the context of humidity generators. Investigation of different methods to determine the drop in dew-point temperature due to contamination and experiments on actual contamination rates are reported. Different methods for calculating the dew-point temperature effect from electrical conductivity and density measurements are studied with high-purity water and aqueous solutions of NaCl and LiCl. The outcomes of the calculation methods are compared with the results of direct humidity measurements. The results show that the often applied Raoult's law based calculation method is in good agreement with other methods. For studying actual contamination, water samples were kept in glass, plastic, copper and stainless-steel vessels for up to 13 months to investigate natural ionic and organic contamination in vessels with different wall materials. The amount of ionic contamination was found to be higher in copper and glass vessels than in stainless-steel and plastic vessels. The amount of organic contamination was found to be highest in the plastic vessel. In all the cases, however, the corresponding drop in dew-point temperature due to natural contamination was found to be below 0.1 mK. The largest rate of change of dew-point temperature was 26 µK/month. Thus, if proper cleanness is maintained in a humidity generator the effect of contamination of water in the saturator is insignificant compared with the major uncertainty components even in the most accurate generators today.

  14. Test and evaluation of the Fort St. Vrain dew point moisture monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, G.A.; Del Bene, J.V. Jr.; Gitterman, M.; Hastings, G.A.; Hawkins, W.M.; Hinz, R.F.; McCue, D.E.; Swanson, L.L.; Vavrina, J.; Zwetzig, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Descriptions are given of the Fort St. Vrain Dew Point Moisture Monitor (DPMM) System; the bases for the DPMM system response time requirements for safety related functions at the required reactor operating conditions; the results and evaluation of recent testing which measured the performance of the current system at simulated operating conditions; predicted response times for reactor power operation from 0 to 100 percent and a modification to provide improved response times for low-load and plant start-up conditions

  15. [An automatic dew-point hygrometer making use of beta-ray backscattering (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S; Kobayashi, H

    1981-04-01

    A proportional control system was employed on this hygrometer. The hygrometer was used in a box in which the temperature and the humidity were constantly regulated. The range of measured dew-point was from -26 degrees C to 60 degrees C in the atmospheric temperature of 0 degree C to 60 degrees C, that was the relative humidity of 12% to 100%, and the accuracy of the measurement was +/- 1 degree C.

  16. Development of a new densimeter for the combined investigation of dew-point densities and sorption phenomena of fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Katharina; Kleinrahm, Reiner; McLinden, Mark O.; Richter, Markus

    2017-12-01

    For the determination of dew-point densities and pressures of fluid mixtures, a new densimeter has been developed. The new apparatus is based on the well-established two-sinker density measurement principle with the additional capability of quantifying sorption effects. In the vicinity of the dew line, such effects cause a change in composition of the gas mixture under study, which can significantly distort accurate density measurements. The new experimental technique enables the accurate measurement of dew-point densities and pressures and the quantification of sorption effects at the same time.

  17. Consistency of the national realization of dew-point temperature using NIS standard humidity generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Galil Doaa Abd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two standard humidity generators (two-temperature (2-T and one-temperature (1-T generators that are developed by the National Institute for Standards (NIS has been performed using a transfer standard chilled-mirror hygrometer and measurement procedures to realize dew-point temperature Td in the range from −50 °C to 0 °C. The main objective of this comparison was to compare the realizations of dew-point temperature and to establish the level of consistency between the two generators. For a level of consistency between two measurements, it is expressed by the difference between the measured values, m1 − m2, and the expanded pair uncertainty of this difference Up [1]. The comparison measurements revealed dew-point temperature differences of 0.02 °C and 0.07 °C with expanded pair uncertainties of ±0.09 °C and ±0.15 °C.

  18. Dew-point hygrometry system for measurement of evaporative water loss in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Glotzbach, S F; Baldwin, R B; Rector, D M; Bowley, S M; Moffat, R J

    1997-03-01

    Evaporation of water from the skin is an important mechanism in thermal homeostasis. Resistance hygrometry, in which the water vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface is calculated, has been the measurement method of choice in the majority of pediatric investigations. However, resistance hygrometry is influenced by changes in ambient conditions such as relative humidity, surface temperature, and convection currents. We have developed a ventilated capsule method that minimized these potential sources of measurement error and that allowed second-by-second, long-term, continuous measurements of evaporative water loss in sleeping infants. Air with a controlled reference humidity (dew-point temperature = 0 degree C) is delivered to a small, lightweight skin capsule and mixed with the vapor on the surface of the skin. The dew point of the resulting mixture is measured by using a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer. The system indicates leaks, is mobile, and is accurate within 2%, as determined by gravimetric calibration. Examples from a recording of a 13-wk-old full-term infant obtained by using the system give evaporative water loss rates of approximately 0.02 mgH2O.cm-2.min-1 for normothermic baseline conditions and values up to 0.4 mgH2O.cm-2. min-1 when the subject was being warmed. The system is effective for clinical investigations that require dynamic measurements of water loss.

  19. A Calibration Facility for Dew Point in Air up to 1 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, P. A.; Bell, S. A.; Stevens, M.

    2015-12-01

    The provision of primary dew-point standards for humidified air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is well established, and measurement traceability to these standards provides confidence in a vast number of air humidity measurements. However, hygrometers are used industrially at a wide range of pressures. Both the performance of hygrometers and the properties of humid gases are known to vary with gas pressure. The pressure-dependence of gas non-ideality for air-water mixtures (water-vapor enhancement factor) is well enough known at moderate pressures, but there remains a need to characterize hygrometers at the pressure of use. To address this, a humidity calibration capability of wider scope is under development at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL). As an initial stage in the development of this capability, a humidity standard generating air or nitrogen in the dew-point range from -60° C to +10° C, at pressures up to 1 MPa (10 bar) has been validated for the calibration of hygrometers. The expanded uncertainty of the dew-point generator in this range with a coverage factor k= 2 is ± 0.07° C.

  20. A new steel with good low-temperature sulfuric acid dew point corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.Q.; Li, X.G. [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection (Ministry of Education), Beijing (China); Sun, F.L. [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Lv, S.J. [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Equipment and Power Department, Shijiazhuang Refine and Chemical Company Limited, SINOPEC, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2012-07-15

    In this work, new steels (1, 2, and 3) were developed for low-temperature sulfuric acid dew point corrosion. The mass loss rate, macro- and micro-morphologies and compositions of corrosion products of new steels in 10, 30, and 50% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions at its corresponding dew points were investigated by immersion test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results indicated that mass loss rate of all the tested steels first strongly increased and then decreased as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration increased, which reached maximum at 30%. Corrosion resistance of 2 steel is the best among all specimens due to its fine and homogeneous morphologies of corrosion products. The electrochemical corrosion properties of new steels in 10 and 30% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions at its corresponding dew points were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results demonstrated that corrosion resistance of 2 steel is the best among all the experimental samples due to its lowest corrosion current density and highest charge transfer resistance, which is consistent with the results obtained from immersion tests. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Technical aspects of acid dew point measurement in furnace exhaust. Messtechnik fuer die Saeuretaupunktmessung in Feuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-01-01

    SO/sub 3/ formation in flue gases and the effect of furnace parameters, furnace type and design on the efficiency of SO/sub 2/ conversion were investigated in a detailed bibliographic study. Phase equilibrium data for the binary system H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and equations for calculating the acid dew point are presented, and the available wet chemical methods for SO/sub 3/ concentration measurements in flue gases are reviewed. The SM1 acid dew point measuring instrument availabe at the authors' institute was modified by installing a new measuring probe, an external thermoelement intensifier, and a new PD control element for temperature control in the measuring surfaces. Acid dew point measurements were carried out in two different furnaces, i.e. a domestic boiler for light fuel oil and an industrial furnace fuelled with heavy oil at the Stuttgart University heat- and power plant. The measurements are compared with data from relevant publications. (orig./RB) With 80 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Fuzzy logic prediction of dew point pressure of selected Iranian gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowroozi, Saeed [Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman (Iran); Iranian Offshore Oil Company (I.O.O.C.) (Iran); Ranjbar, Mohammad; Hashemipour, Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin [Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman (Iran)

    2009-12-15

    The experimental determination of dew point pressure in a window PVT cell is often difficult especially in the case of lean retrograde gas condensate. Besides all statistical, graphical and experimental methods, the fuzzy logic method can be useful and more reliable for estimation of reservoir properties. Fuzzy logic can overcome uncertainty existent in many reservoir properties. Complexity, non-linearity and vagueness are some reservoir parameter characteristics, which can be propagated simply by fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic dew point pressure modeling system used in this study is a multi input single output (MISO) Mamdani system. The model was developed using experimentally constant volume depletion (CVD) measured samples of some Iranian fields. The performance of the model is compared against the performance of some of the most accurate and general correlations for dew point pressure calculation. Results show that this novel method is more accurate and reliable with an average absolute deviation of 1.33% and 2.68% for developing and checking, respectively. (orig.)

  3. The dew point temperature as a criterion for optimizing the operating conditions of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In this article an analytical method to calculate the dew point temperatures of the anode and cathode exit gas streams of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is developed. The results of these calculations are used to create diagrams that show the dew point temperatures as function of the operat...... for conventional flow field plates. The diagrams presented here are created for completely dry inlet gases, but they can be easily corrected for a nonzero inlet relative humidity....

  4. Effect of dew point on the formation of surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Lee, Joonho; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Jeon, Sun-Ho; Chin, Kwang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    The surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel annealed at 800 °C for 43 s were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. During the annealing process, the oxygen potential was controlled by adjusting the dew point in a 15%H 2 –N 2 gas atmosphere. It was found that the type of surface oxides formed and the thickness of the oxide layer were determined by the dew point. In a gas mixture with a dew point of − 20 °C, a MnO layer with a thickness of ∼ 100 nm was formed uniformly on the steel surface. Under the MnO layer, a MnAl 2 O 4 layer with a thickness of ∼ 15 nm was formed with small Mn 2 SiO 4 particles that measured ∼ 70 nm in diameter. Approximately 500 nm below the MnAl 2 O 4 layer, Al 2 O 3 was formed at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, in a gas mixture with a dew point of − 40 °C, a MnAl 2 O 4 layer with a thickness of ∼ 5 nm was formed on most parts of the surface. On some parts of the surface, Mn 2 SiO 4 particles were formed irregularly up to a thickness of ∼ 50 nm. Approximately 200 nm below the MnAl 2 O 4 layer, Al 2 O 3 was found at the grain boundaries. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to explain the experimental results. The calculations showed that when a O2 > ∼ 1.26 × 10 −28 , MnO, MnAl 2 O 4 , and Mn 2 SiO 4 can be formed together, and the major oxide is MnO. When a O2 is in the range of 1.26 × 10 −28 –2.51 × 10 −31 , MnO is not stable but MnAl 2 O 4 is the major oxide. When a O2 < ∼ 2.51 × 10 −31 , only Al 2 O 3 is stable. Consequently, the effective activity of oxygen is considered the dominant factor in determining the type and shape of surface oxides of TWIP steel. - Highlights: • The surface oxides of TWIP steel annealed at 800 °C were investigated using TEM. • The surface oxides were determined by the dew point during the annealing process. • The activity of oxygen is the major factor determining the oxides of TWIP steel

  5. Numerical study of a novel counter-flow heat and mass exchanger for dew point evaporative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.; Riffat, S.B. [School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Li, J.M. [Department of Thermal Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents numerical investigation of a novel counter-flow heat and mass exchanger used in the indirect evaporative dew point cooling systems, a potential alternative to the conventional mechanical compression air conditioning systems. Numeric simulation was carried out to optimise the geometrical sizes and operating conditions of the exchanger in order to enhance the cooling (dew point and wet bulb) effectiveness of the exchanger and maximise the energy efficiency of the dew point cooling system. The results of the simulations indicated that cooling (dew point and wet bulb) effectiveness and energy efficiency are largely dependent on the dimensions of the airflow passages, air velocity and working-to-intake-air ratio, and less dependent on the temperature of the feed water. It is recommended that exchanger intake air velocity should be controlled to a value below 0.3-0.5 m/s; height of air passage (channel) should be set to 6 mm or below and the length of the passage should be 200 time the height; the working-to-intake-air ratio should be around 0.4. Under the UK summer design condition, i.e., 28{sup o}C of dry bulb temperature, 20{sup o}C of wet bulb temperature and 16{sup o}C of dew point temperature, the exchanger can achieve wet-bulb effectiveness of up to 1.3 and dew-point effectiveness of up to 0.9. (author)

  6. Using ANFIS for selection of more relevant parameters to predict dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Yee, Por Lip; Mansor, Zulkefli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ANFIS is used to select the most relevant variables for dew point temperature prediction. • Two cities from the central and south central parts of Iran are selected as case studies. • Influence of 5 parameters on dew point temperature is evaluated. • Appropriate selection of input variables has a notable effect on prediction. • Considering the most relevant combination of 2 parameters would be more suitable. - Abstract: In this research work, for the first time, the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to propose an approach for identifying the most significant parameters for prediction of daily dew point temperature (T_d_e_w). The ANFIS process for variable selection is implemented, which includes a number of ways to recognize the parameters offering favorable predictions. According to the physical factors influencing the dew formation, 8 variables of daily minimum, maximum and average air temperatures (T_m_i_n, T_m_a_x and T_a_v_g), relative humidity (R_h), atmospheric pressure (P), water vapor pressure (V_P), sunshine hour (n) and horizontal global solar radiation (H) are considered to investigate their effects on T_d_e_w. The used data include 7 years daily measured data of two Iranian cities located in the central and south central parts of the country. The results indicate that despite climate difference between the considered case studies, for both stations, V_P is the most influential variable while R_h is the least relevant element. Furthermore, the combination of T_m_i_n and V_P is recognized as the most influential set to predict T_d_e_w. The conducted examinations show that there is a remarkable difference between the errors achieved for most and less relevant input parameters, which highlights the importance of appropriate selection of input parameters. The use of more than two inputs may not be advisable and appropriate; thus, considering the most relevant combination of 2 parameters would be more suitable

  7. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  8. Study on dew point evaporative cooling system with counter-flow configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Thu, K.; Bui, T.D.; Wang, R.Z.; Ng, K.C.; Chua, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical model for a dew point evaporative cooler verified with experiments. • Saturation point of the working air is independent of the inlet air conditions. • The intensity of cooling capacity and water evaporation are studied. • The overall heat transfer coefficient for the working air is analyzed. • The conditions to achieve sub-wet bulb cooling are examined. - Abstract: Dew point evaporative cooling has great potential as a disruptive process for sensible cooling of air below its entering wet bulb temperature. This paper presents an improved mathematical model for a single-stage dew point evaporative cooler in a counter-flow configuration. Longitudinal heat conduction and mass diffusion of the air streams, channel plate and water film, as well as the temperature difference between the plate and water film, are accounted for in the model. Predictions of the product air temperature are validated using three sets of experimental data within a discrepancy of 4%. The cooler’s heat and mass transfer process is analyzed in terms of its cooling capacity intensity, water evaporation intensity, and overall heat transfer coefficient along the channel. Parametric studies are conducted at different geometric and operating conditions. For the conditions evaluated, the study reveals that (1) the saturation point of the working air occurs at a fixed point regardless of the inlet air conditions, and it is mainly influenced by the working air ratio and channel height; (2) the intensity of the water evaporation approaches a minimum at 0.2 to 0.3 m from the entrance; (3) the wet channel can be separated into two zones, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is above 100 W/(m"2·K) after the temperature of water film becomes higher than the working air temperature.

  9. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  10. Monthly variations of dew point temperature in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter J.

    1998-11-01

    The dew point temperature, Td, data from the surface airways data set of the U.S. National Climatic Data Center were used to develop a basic dew point climatology for the coterminous United States. Quality control procedures were an integral part of the analysis. Daily Td, derived as the average of eight observations at 3-hourly intervals, for 222 stations for the 1961-1990 period were used. The annual and seasonal pattern of average values showed a clear south-north decrease in the eastern portion of the nation, a trend which was most marked in winter. In the west, values decreased inland from the Pacific Coast. Inter-annual variability was generally low when actual mean values were high. A cluster analysis suggested that the area could be divided into six regions, two oriented north-south in the west, four aligned east-west in the area east of the Rocky Mountains. Day-to-day variability was low in all seasons in the two western clusters, but showed a distinct winter maximum in the east. This was explained in broad terms by consideration of air flow regimes, with the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico acting as the major moisture sources. Comparison of values for pairs of nearby stations suggested that Td was rather insensitive to local moisture sources. Analysis of the patterns of occurrence of dew points exceeding the 95th percentile threshold indicated that extremes in summer tend to be localized and short-lived, while in winter they are more widespread and persistent.

  11. Investigation of Primary Dew-Point Saturator Efficiency in Two Different Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, D.; Heinonen, M.; Sestan, D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation process of the performance of the low-range saturator (LRS), when exposed to two different thermal environments. The examined saturator was designed, built, and tested at MIKES (Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland), and then transported to the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM) in Croatia, where it was implemented in a new dew-point calibration system. The saturator works on a single-pressure-single-pass generation principle in the dew/frost-point temperature range between and . The purpose of the various tests performed at MIKES was to examine the efficiency and non-ideality of the saturator. As a test bath facility in Croatia differs from the one used in Finland, the same tests were repeated at LPM, and the effects of different thermal conditions on saturator performance were examined. Thermometers, pressure gauges, an air preparation system, and water for filling the saturator at LPM were also different than those used at MIKES. Results obtained by both laboratories indicate that the efficiency of the examined saturator was not affected either by the thermal conditions under which it was tested or by equipment used for the tests. Both laboratories concluded that LRS is efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew/frost-point temperature scale in the range from to , with flow rates between and . It is also shown that a considerable difference of the pre-saturator efficiency, indicated by two laboratories, did not have influence to the overall performance of the saturator. The results of the research are presented in graphical and tabular forms. This paper also gives a brief description of the design and operation principle of the investigated low-range saturator.

  12. Study on dew point evaporative cooling system with counter-flow configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, J.

    2015-12-18

    Dew point evaporative cooling has great potential as a disruptive process for sensible cooling of air below its entering wet bulb temperature. This paper presents an improved mathematical model for a single-stage dew point evaporative cooler in a counter-flow configuration. Longitudinal heat conduction and mass diffusion of the air streams, channel plate and water film, as well as the temperature difference between the plate and water film, are accounted for in the model. Predictions of the product air temperature are validated using three sets of experimental data within a discrepancy of 4%. The cooler’s heat and mass transfer process is analyzed in terms of its cooling capacity intensity, water evaporation intensity, and overall heat transfer coefficient along the channel. Parametric studies are conducted at different geometric and operating conditions. For the conditions evaluated, the study reveals that (1) the saturation point of the working air occurs at a fixed point regardless of the inlet air conditions, and it is mainly influenced by the working air ratio and channel height; (2) the intensity of the water evaporation approaches a minimum at 0.2 to 0.3m from the entrance; (3) the wet channel can be separated into two zones, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is above 100W/(m2·K) after the temperature of water film becomes higher than the working air temperature.

  13. Wärtsilä turbocharger wash and dew point controller integration

    OpenAIRE

    Perälä, Antti

    2013-01-01

    There are two separate control cabinets used in Wärtsilä marine solutions, Turbocharger Wash Control and the Dew Point Control. The cabinets contain similar PLCs with I/O-cards needed in the system and touch screen for monitoring and controlling purposes. The purpose of the thesis was to find and implement a solution for integration of the control cabinets. The advantages of the integration are savings in material, space in the engine room and amount of work. The aim of the project was to cre...

  14. Development of a neural fuzzy system for advanced prediction of dew point pressure in gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowroozi, Saeed; Hashemipour, Hasan; Schaffie, Mahin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); ERC, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); Ranjbar, Mohammad [Department of Mining Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran); ERC, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Iran)

    2009-03-15

    Dew point pressure is one of the most critical quantities for characterizing a gas condensate reservoir. So, accurate determination of this property has been the main challenge in reservoir development and management. The experimental determination of dew point pressure in PVT cell is often difficult especially in case of lean retrograde gas condensate. Empirical correlations and some equations of state can be used to calculate reservoir fluid properties. Empirical correlations do not have ability to reliable duplicate the temperature behavior of constant composition fluids. Equations of state have convergence problem and need to be tuned against some experimental data. Complexity, non-linearity and vagueness are some reservoir parameter characteristic which can be propagated simply by intelligent system. With the advantage of fuzzy sets in knowledge representation and the high capacity of neural nets (NNs) in learning knowledge expressed in data, in this paper a neural fuzzy system(NFS) is proposed to predict dew point pressure of gas condensate reservoir. The model was developed using 110 measurements of dew point pressure. The performance of the model is compared against performance of some of the most accurate and general correlations for dew point pressure calculation. From the results of this study, it can be pointed out that this novel method is more accurate and reliable with the mean square error of 0.058%, 0.074% and 0.044% for training, validation and test processes, respectively. (author)

  15. Accelerated successive substitution schemes for bubble-point and dew-point calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, D.-Y. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Phase equilibrium calculations form an important part of the process design operations in the hydrocarbon and petroleum industry. The accelerated successive substitution (SS) algorithms developed by Mehra et al. (1983) for flash calculations have been extended to the prediction of saturation points. A transformation matrix which is used to calculate the acceleration parameter has been rewritten in a form that is applicable at the saturation conditions. Simple equations for estimating the initial values and recursive formulae according to which the iterates can be updated are presented. The proposed schemes were compared with the conventional SS method and a multivariate Newton's method. The comparison suggests that the accelerated SS schemes are more tolerant of poor initial values and sometimes more efficient than Newton's method. The features of the acceleration schemes and those of the empirical equations developed in this study are illustrated using three hydrocarbon mixtures: a 5-component mixture of n-alkanes, a typical natural gas system, and a volatile oil. 19 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Development of the High-Temperature Dew-Point Generator Over the Past 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, R.; Nielsen, J.; Peruzzi, A.

    2017-10-01

    At VSL a humidity generator was designed and constructed in the early 1990s. This generator was of the re-circulating-single-pressure type. Over the years, the generator has been thoroughly revised and several critical components have been replaced. Among others the pre-saturator and the change from re-circulation to single-pass mode. Validating experiments showed that the range of the new setup could be extended from 70 {°}C to 95 {°}C dew-point temperature, and the last modification allows an uncertainty of 0.048 {°}C (k = 2) at the maximum temperature. In 2009 the setup was used in the Euramet-T-K8 humidity intercomparison at temperatures up to 95 {°}C. In the period from 2003 to 2015, four state-of-the-art chilled mirror hygrometers were regularly calibrated with the generator. One of these was also calibrated with the primary dew-point standards of several other European National Metrology Institutes, which made it possible to link the VSL generator to the generators used in these institutes. An analysis of the results of these calibrations shows an agreement in calibration capabilities within 0.01 {°}C with PTB and NPL.

  17. Unsteady-state analysis of a counter-flow dew point evaporative cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, J.

    2016-07-19

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of the dew point evaporative cooler is crucial in achieving efficient cooling for real applications. This paper details the development of a transient model for a counter-flow dew point evaporative cooling system. The transient model approaching steady conditions agreed well with the steady state model. Additionally, it is able to accurately predict the experimental data within 4.3% discrepancy. The transient responses of the cooling system were investigated under different inlet air conditions. Temporal temperature and humidity profiles were analyzed for different transient and step responses. The key findings from this study include: (1) the response trend and settling time is markedly dependent on the inlet air temperature, humidity and velocity; (2) the settling time of the transient response ranges from 50 s to 300 s when the system operates under different inlet conditions; and (3) the average transient wet bulb effectiveness (1.00–1.06) of the system is observed to be higher than the steady state wet bulb effectiveness (1.01) for our range of study. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Effect of dew point on the formation of surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunkyum [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonho, E-mail: joonholee@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kwang-Soo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790–600 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sun-Ho; Chin, Kwang-Geun [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 545–090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    The surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel annealed at 800 °C for 43 s were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. During the annealing process, the oxygen potential was controlled by adjusting the dew point in a 15%H{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas atmosphere. It was found that the type of surface oxides formed and the thickness of the oxide layer were determined by the dew point. In a gas mixture with a dew point of − 20 °C, a MnO layer with a thickness of ∼ 100 nm was formed uniformly on the steel surface. Under the MnO layer, a MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer with a thickness of ∼ 15 nm was formed with small Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} particles that measured ∼ 70 nm in diameter. Approximately 500 nm below the MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, in a gas mixture with a dew point of − 40 °C, a MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer with a thickness of ∼ 5 nm was formed on most parts of the surface. On some parts of the surface, Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} particles were formed irregularly up to a thickness of ∼ 50 nm. Approximately 200 nm below the MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found at the grain boundaries. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to explain the experimental results. The calculations showed that when a{sub O2} > ∼ 1.26 × 10{sup −28}, MnO, MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} can be formed together, and the major oxide is MnO. When a{sub O2} is in the range of 1.26 × 10{sup −28}–2.51 × 10{sup −31}, MnO is not stable but MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the major oxide. When a{sub O2} < ∼ 2.51 × 10{sup −31}, only Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is stable. Consequently, the effective activity of oxygen is considered the dominant factor in determining the type and shape of surface oxides of TWIP steel. - Highlights: • The surface oxides of TWIP steel annealed at 800 °C were investigated using TEM. • The surface oxides were determined by the dew point

  19. Sensitivity of a soil-plant-atmosphere model to changes in air temperature, dew point temperature, and solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab.,TN); Stolzy, J.L.; Holdeman, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature, dew point temperature and solar radiation were independently varied in an hourly soil-plant-atmosphere model in a sensitivity analysis of these parameters. Results suggested that evapotranspiration in eastern Tennessee is limited more by meteorological conditions that determine the vapor-pressure gradient than by the necessary energy to vaporize water within foliage. Transpiration and soil water drainage were very sensitive to changes in air and dew point temperature and to solar radiation under low atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit conditions associated with reduced air temperature. Leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were reduced under conditions having high evapotranspiration. Representative air and dew point temperature input data for a particular application are necessary for satisfactory results, whereas irradiation may be less well characterized for applications with high atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit. The effects of a general rise in atmospheric temperature on forest water budgets are discussed.

  20. Densimetry for the Quantification of Sorption Phenomena on Nonporous Media Near the Dew Point of Fluid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Markus; McLinden, Mark O

    2017-07-21

    Phase equilibria of fluid mixtures are important in numerous industrial applications and are, thus, a major focus of thermophysical property research. Improved data, particularly along the dew line, are needed to improve model predictions. Here we present experimental results utilizing highly accurate densimetry to quantify the effects of sorption and capillary condensation, which exert a distorting influence on measured properties near the dew line. We investigate the (pressure, density, temperature, composition) behaviour of binary (CH 4  + C 3 H 8 ) and (Ar + CO 2 ) mixtures over the temperature range from (248.15 to 273.15) K starting at low pressures and increasing in pressure towards the dew point along isotherms. Three distinct regions are observed: (1) minor sorption effects in micropores at low pressures; (2) capillary condensation followed by wetting in macro-scale surface scratches beginning approximately 2% below the dew-point pressure; (3) bulk condensation. We hypothesize that the true dew point lies within the second region.

  1. The New LMK Primary Standard for Dew-Point Sensor Calibration: Evaluation of the High-Range Saturator Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoklin, Domen; Drnovšek, Janko

    2008-10-01

    In the field of hygrometry, a primary dew-point standard can be realized according to several proven principles, such as single-pressure (1-P), two-pressure (2-P), or divided flow. Different realizations have been introduced by various national laboratories, each resulting in a stand-alone complex generation system. Recent trends in generator design favor the single-pressure principle without recirculation because it promises theoretically lower uncertainty and because it avoids problems regarding the leak tightness of the recirculation. Instead of recirculation, the efficiency of saturation, the key factor, is increased by preconditioning the inlet gas entering the saturator. For preconditioning, a presaturator or purifier is used to bring the dew point of the inlet stream close to the saturator temperature. The purpose of the paper is to identify the minimum requirements for the preconditioning system and the main saturator to assure efficient saturation for the LMK generator. Moreover, the aim is also to find out if the preconditioning system can be avoided despite the rather simple construction of the main saturator. If this proves to be the case, the generator design can be simplified while maintaining an accurate value of the generated dew point. Experiments were carried out within the scope of improving our existing primary generator in the above-ambient dew-point range up to +70°C. These results show the generated dew point is within the measurement uncertainty for any dew-point value of the inlet gas. Thus, the preconditioning subsystem can be avoided, which leads to a simplified generator design.

  2. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  3. New correlation of dew point temperature for gases with low H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, J.

    1986-04-01

    During the last years increased concern about pollution problems has encouraged the development of many methods to remove particulate and other undesirable substances from flue gases. These efforts have also brought renewed interest in aqueous sulfuric acid vapour-liquid equilibrium for predicting the flue gas dew point. This article presents the principal methods, contributing to solve the inherent problems and summarizes the available data and presents a new empirical correlation of the dew point as a function of the partial pressures of sulfuric acid and the water in the vapour.

  4. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  5. The change of steel surface chemistry regarding oxygen partial pressure and dew point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Martin; Blumenau, Marc; Wuttke, Thiemo; Peters, Klaus-Josef

    2013-04-01

    By investigating the surface state of a Ti-IF, TiNb-IF and a MnCr-DP after several series of intercritical annealing, the impact of the annealing gas composition on the selective oxidation process is discussed. On behalf of the presented results, it can be concluded that not the general oxygen partial pressure in the annealing furnace, which is a result of the equilibrium reaction of water and hydrogen, is the main driving force for the selective oxidation process. It is shown that the amounts of adsorbed gases at the strip surface and the effective oxygen partial pressure resulting from the adsorbed gases, which is mainly dependent on the water content of the annealing furnace, is driving the selective oxidation processes occurring during intercritical annealing. Thus it is concluded, that for industrial applications the dew point must be the key parameter value for process control.

  6. Measurement of evaporative water loss in small animals by dew-point hygrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M H; Hudson, D M; Stearns, J M; Hoyt, R W

    1977-08-01

    This paper presents the procedures and equations to be utilized for measurement of evaporative water loss (mw), by use of the dew-point hygrometer, in small animals exposed to air containing water vapor in an open-flow system. The system accounted accurately for the water evaporated from a bubble flask. In addition, hygrometric measurements of pulmocutaneous mw in pigeons (Columba livia, mean mass 0.31 kg) agreed closely with simultaneous gravimetric measurements, utilizing a desiccant in the sample stream, in a manner independently of air temperature (Ta, 20 or 40 degrees C), ambient water vapor pressure (PW, 4-16 10(2) Pa), or mw (5-66 mg-min-1). Evaporation in pigeons was independent of PW at 20 degrees C, but increased with decreasing PW at 40 degrees C, suggesting differences in ventilatory adjustments to changes in PW at the two temperatures.

  7. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  8. Consistency of the National Realization of Dew-Point Temperature Using Standard Humidity Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    The comparison of two high-range standard humidity generators used by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial to realize dew-point temperature in the range from -10 °C to +95 °C has been performed using state-of-the art transfer standards and measurement procedures, over their overlapping range from -10 °C to +75 °C. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of agreement between the two generators, to determine any bias, and to quantify the level of consistency of the two realizations. The measurement procedures adopted to minimize the effect of the influence factors due to the transfer standards are described, and the results are discussed in the context of the declared calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs).

  9. Use of dew-point detection for quantitative measurement of sweating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring sweat rate (SR) based on detection of dew point (DP) is proposed which has advantages that may be attractive to other laboratories concerned with recording SR from selected areas of skin. It is similar to other methods in that dry gas is passed through a capsule which isolates several square centimeters of skin surface. The difference is in the means of determining how much gaseous water is carried off in the effluent moist gas. The DP detector used is free of the drawbacks of previous devices. DP is obtained through the fundamental technique of determining the temperature at which condensate forms on a mirror. Variations in DP are tracked rapidly, and accurately (+ or - 0.8 C nominal, sensitivity + or - 0.05 C) over a wide range ( -40 C to +50 C) without measurable hysteresis. The detector asembly is rugged and readily opened for cleaning and inspection.

  10. Trends in extremes of temperature, dew point, and precipitation from long instrumental series from central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürbis, K.; Mudelsee, M.; Tetzlaff, G.; Brázdil, R.

    2009-09-01

    For the analysis of trends in weather extremes, we introduce a diagnostic index variable, the exceedance product, which combines intensity and frequency of extremes. We separate trends in higher moments from trends in mean or standard deviation and use bootstrap resampling to evaluate statistical significances. The application of the concept of the exceedance product to daily meteorological time series from Potsdam (1893 to 2005) and Prague-Klementinum (1775 to 2004) reveals that extremely cold winters occurred only until the mid-20th century, whereas warm winters show upward trends. These changes were significant in higher moments of the temperature distribution. In contrast, trends in summer temperature extremes (e.g., the 2003 European heatwave) can be explained by linear changes in mean or standard deviation. While precipitation at Potsdam does not show pronounced trends, dew point does exhibit a change from maximum extremes during the 1960s to minimum extremes during the 1970s.

  11. Catalysts macroporosity and their efficiency in sulphur sub-dew point Claus tail gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsybulevski, A.M.; Pearson, M. [Alcoa Industrial Chemicals, 16010 Barker`s Point Lane, Houston, TX (United States); Morgun, L.V.; Filatova, O.E. [All-Russian Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharp, M. [Porocel Corporation, Westheimer, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-08

    The efficiency of 4 samples of alumina catalyst has been studied experimentally in the course of the Claus `tail gas` treating processes at the sulphur sub-dew point (TGTP). The samples were characterized by the same chemical and crystallographic composition, the same volume of micropores, the same surface area and the same catalytic activity but differed appreciably in the volume of macropores. An increase in the effective operation time of the catalysts before breakthrough of unrecoverable sulphur containing compounds, with the increasing macropore volume has been established. A theoretical model of the TGTP has been considered and it has been shown that the increase in the sulphur capacity of the catalysts with a larger volume of macropores is due to an increase in the catalysts efficiency factor and a slower decrease in their diffusive permeability during filling of micropores by sulphur

  12. Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability and Temperature Coefficient of Dew-Point Hygrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.; Hernández, P.; De Rivas, L.; Conde, F.

    2012-09-01

    The continuous quest for improved specifications of optical dew-point hygrometers has raised customer expectations on the performance of these devices. In the absence of a long calibration history, users with a limited prior experience in the measurement of humidity, place reliance on manufacturer specifications to estimate long-term stability. While this might be reasonable in the case of measurement of electrical quantities, in humidity it can lead to optimistic estimations of uncertainty. This article reports a study of the long-term stability of some hygrometers and the analysis of their performance as monitored through regular calibration. The results of the investigations provide some typical, realistic uncertainties associated with the long-term stability of instruments used in calibration and testing laboratories. Together, these uncertainties can help in establishing initial contributions in uncertainty budgets, as well as in setting the minimum calibration requirements, based on the evaluation of dominant influence quantities.

  13. Measurement Uncertainty of Dew-Point Temperature in a Two-Pressure Humidity Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L. Lages; Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Forbes, Alistair B.

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the measurement uncertainty evaluation of the dew-point temperature when using a two-pressure humidity generator as a reference standard. The estimation of the dew-point temperature involves the solution of a non-linear equation for which iterative solution techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson method, are required. Previous studies have already been carried out using the GUM method and the Monte Carlo method but have not discussed the impact of the approximate numerical method used to provide the temperature estimation. One of the aims of this article is to take this approximation into account. Following the guidelines presented in the GUM Supplement 1, two alternative approaches can be developed: the forward measurement uncertainty propagation by the Monte Carlo method when using the Newton-Raphson numerical procedure; and the inverse measurement uncertainty propagation by Bayesian inference, based on prior available information regarding the usual dispersion of values obtained by the calibration process. The measurement uncertainties obtained using these two methods can be compared with previous results. Other relevant issues concerning this research are the broad application to measurements that require hygrometric conditions obtained from two-pressure humidity generators and, also, the ability to provide a solution that can be applied to similar iterative models. The research also studied the factors influencing both the use of the Monte Carlo method (such as the seed value and the convergence parameter) and the inverse uncertainty propagation using Bayesian inference (such as the pre-assigned tolerance, prior estimate, and standard deviation) in terms of their accuracy and adequacy.

  14. Global Validation of MODIS Atmospheric Profile-Derived Near-Surface Air Temperature and Dew Point Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, C.; Fisher, J.; Halverson, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study validates a method of remote sensing near-surface meteorology that vertically interpolates MODIS atmospheric profiles to surface pressure level. The extraction of air temperature and dew point observations at a two-meter reference height from 2001 to 2014 yields global moderate- to fine-resolution near-surface temperature distributions that are compared to geographically and temporally corresponding measurements from 114 ground meteorological stations distributed worldwide. This analysis is the first robust, large-scale validation of the MODIS-derived near-surface air temperature and dew point estimates, both of which serve as key inputs in models of energy, water, and carbon exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. Results show strong linear correlations between remotely sensed and in-situ near-surface air temperature measurements (R2 = 0.89), as well as between dew point observations (R2 = 0.77). Performance is relatively uniform across climate zones. The extension of mean climate-wise percent errors to the entire remote sensing dataset allows for the determination of MODIS air temperature and dew point uncertainties on a global scale.

  15. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-06-13

    Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. In this

  16. Hourly predictive Levenberg-Marquardt ANN and multi linear regression models for predicting of dew point temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the ability of two models of multi linear regression (MLR) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) feed-forward neural network was examined to estimate the hourly dew point temperature. Dew point temperature is the temperature at which water vapor in the air condenses into liquid. This temperature can be useful in estimating meteorological variables such as fog, rain, snow, dew, and evapotranspiration and in investigating agronomical issues as stomatal closure in plants. The availability of hourly records of climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity and pressure) which could be used to predict dew point temperature initiated the practice of modeling. Additionally, the wind vector (wind speed magnitude and direction) and conceptual input of weather condition were employed as other input variables. The three quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, i.e. the root mean squared error, mean absolute error, and absolute logarithmic Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient ( {| {{{Log}}({{NS}})} |} ) were employed to evaluate the performances of the developed models. The results showed that applying wind vector and weather condition as input vectors along with meteorological variables could slightly increase the ANN and MLR predictive accuracy. The results also revealed that LM-NN was superior to MLR model and the best performance was obtained by considering all potential input variables in terms of different evaluation criteria.

  17. Validation of a dew-point generator for pressures up to 6 MPa using nitrogen and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, R.; Mutter, D.; Peruzzi, A.

    2012-08-01

    A new primary humidity standard was developed at VSL that, in addition to ordinary operation with air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, can be operated with other carrier gases such as natural gas at pressures up to 6 MPa and SF6 at pressures up to 1 MPa. The temperature range of the standard is from -80 °C to +20 °C. In this paper, we report the validation of the new primary dew-point generator in the temperature range -41 °C to +5 °C and the pressure range 0.1 MPa to 6 MPa using nitrogen and air. For the validation the flow through the dew-point generator was varied up to 10 l min-1 (at 23 °C and 1013 hPa) and the dew point of the gas entering the generator was varied up to 15 °C above the dew point exiting the generator. The validation results showed that the new generator, over the tested temperature and pressure range, can be used with a standard uncertainty of 0.02 °C frost/dew point. The measurements used for the validation at -41 °C and -20 °C with nitrogen and at +5 °C with air were also used to calculate the enhancement factor at pressures up to 6 MPa. For +5 °C the differences between the measured and literature values were compatible with the respective uncertainties. For -41 °C and -20 °C they were compatible only up to 3 MPa. At 6 MPa a discrepancy was observed.

  18. Determination of the dew point and the frost point below 0 degrees C making use of the beta-ray backscattering and the electric conductivity on the narrow surface of insulated layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S; Kobayashi, H

    1979-10-15

    It is necessary to distinguish between the dew point and the frost point below 0 degrees C. The freezing of the dew and the melting of the frost are respectively detected by the rapid decrease and the increase of the conduction current on the narrow surface of insulated layer made of epoxy, 0.5 mm in width and 10 mm in length, on which the dew deposits. The dew point -9 degrees C and the frost point -8 degrees C in the humidity 21% at the temperature 13 degrees C are clearly distinguished in this method.

  19. Effects of leaf hair points of a desert moss on water retention and dew formation: implications for desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Zhang, Yuan Ming

    2012-05-01

    Leaf hair points (LHPs) are important morphological structures in many desiccation-tolerant mosses, but study of their functions has been limited. A desert moss, Syntrichia caninervis, was chosen for examination of the ecological effects of LHPs on water retention and dew formation at individual and population (patch) levels. Although LHPs were only 4.77% of shoot weight, they were able to increase absolute water content (AWC) by 24.87%. The AWC of samples with LHPs was always greater than for those without LHPs during dehydration. The accumulative evaporation ratio (AER) showed an opposite trend. AWC, evaporation ratio and AER of shoots with LHPs took 20 min longer to reach a completely dehydrated state than shoots without LHPs. At the population level, dew formation on moss crusts with LHPs was faster than on crusts without LHPs, and the former had higher daily and total dew amounts. LHPs were able to improve dew amounts on crusts by 10.26%. Following three simulated rainfall events (1, 3 and 6 mm), AERs from crusts with LHPs were always lower than from crusts without LHPs. LHPs can therefore significantly delay and reduce evaporation. We confirm that LHPs are important desiccation-tolerant features of S. caninervis at both individual and population levels. LHPs greatly aid moss crusts in adapting to arid conditions.

  20. Development of manufacturing of low dew-point mixed gas of butane-air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Hitoshi

    1988-09-10

    A dehumidifying plant was installed to supply high-quality dehumidified butane-air mixed gas aiming at saving the heat required for vaporizing liquid butane by the heat exchange with the potential heat of air as well as the dehumidification of the air used for the mixed gas by cooling with the vaporizing latent heat of liquid butane. The plant has been smoothly operated since August, 1987. Butane sent from the air-dehumidifier is completely vaporized by hot water in the vaporizer and the vaporized butane ejected by the Venturi mixer to mix with the dehumidified air. The gas production capacity is 3000Nm/sup 3//h and the treating capacities of butane and air are 661 and 2339 Nm/sup 3//h, respectively. The dew point of the mixed gas is 18/sup 0/C under 0.7kg/cm/sup 2/G at atmospheric temperature of 38/sup 0/C subject to the operation of the plant only in hot and humid summer. It was demonstrated that the plant is characterized by low construction and operating costs, low level of noise and stable heat value of the product gas. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  1. Parametric analysis of a combined dew point evaporative-vapour compression based air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A dew point evaporative-vapour compression based combined air conditioning system for providing good human comfort conditions at a low cost has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system has been parametrically analysed for a wide range of ambient temperatures and specific humidity under some reasonable assumptions. The proposed system has also been compared from the conventional vapour compression air conditioner on the basis of cooling load on the cooling coil working on 100% fresh air assumption. The saving of cooling load on the coil was found to be maximum with a value of 60.93% at 46 °C and 6 g/kg specific humidity, while it was negative for very high humidity of ambient air, which indicates that proposed system is applicable for dry and moderate humid conditions but not for very humid conditions. The system is working well with an average net monthly power saving of 192.31 kW h for hot and dry conditions and 124.38 kW h for hot and moderate humid conditions. Therefore it could be a better alternative for dry and moderate humid climate with a payback period of 7.2 years.

  2. Accurate prediction of the dew points of acidic combustion gases by using an artificial neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZareNezhad, Bahman; Aminian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach based on using an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the acid dew points of the combustion gases in process and power plants. The most important acidic combustion gases namely, SO 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , HCl and HBr are considered in this investigation. Proposed Network is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm and the hyperbolic tangent sigmoid activation function is applied to calculate the output values of the neurons of the hidden layer. According to the network's training, validation and testing results, a three layer neural network with nine neurons in the hidden layer is selected as the best architecture for accurate prediction of the acidic combustion gases dew points over wide ranges of acid and moisture concentrations. The proposed neural network model can have significant application in predicting the condensation temperatures of different acid gases to mitigate the corrosion problems in stacks, pollution control devices and energy recovery systems.

  3. Development of a Dew-Point Generator for Gases Other than Air and Nitrogen and Pressures up to 6 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, R.; Peruzzi, A.

    2012-09-01

    A new primary humidity standard is currently being developed at VSL that, in addition to ordinary operation with air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, can be operated also with special carrier gases such as natural gas and SF6 and at pressures up to 6 MPa. In this paper, the design and construction of this new primary dew-point generator and the preliminary tests performed on the generator are reported. The results of the first efficiency tests, performed for the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to 20°C, for pressures up to 0.7MPa and for carrier gas flow rates up to 4L· min-1, showed satisfactory generator performance when used in the single-pass mode, i.e., with no recirculation of the carrier gas.

  4. Effect of the temperature and dew point of the decarburization process on the oxide subscale of a 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Maria das Gracas M.M. E-mail: gracamelo@acesita.com.br; Mantel, Marc J

    2003-01-01

    The oxide subscale formed on the decarburization annealing of 3% Si-Fe was investigated using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the morphology as well as the molecular structure of the subscale are affected by temperature and dew point. The results suggest that there is an optimum level of internal oxidation and an optimum fayalite/silica ratio in the subscale to achieve a oriented grain silicon steel having a continuous and smooth ceramic film and low core loss.

  5. Flue gas heat recovery operating below the dew point and its utilisation for low temperature heating installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdorf, J.

    1986-11-01

    This paper deals at first with the characteristics of two principal systems for the flue gas heat recovery by reducing the temperature below the dew point. With test results on experimental plants are shown the typical differences between surface and direct contact heat exchange. A second part informs about experiences from the application for low temperature heating installations, especially about thermodynamics condensate quality and technical design. The possible increasing of the efficiency ranges between 10 to 20 per cent.

  6. Development of ultra low dew-point clean air generator; Cho tei roten seijo kuki hassei sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H.; Okamura, N. [Takasago thermal Engineering Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    To reduce the manufacturing cost of semiconductors, some systems have been proposed that use a cheap and high purity Clean Dry Air (CDA). CDA can reduce process step such as wafer cleaning, because CDA flow in stocker prevents the wafer surface from adsorbing of moisture and organic impurities. We have already optimized a two-stage rotary dehumidifier and have conducted a study of methods for cheaply manufacturing air that has a low dew-point of -70 degree C to -50 degree C. We have further developed the method in which a dry dehumidifier is used, and developed an ultra low dew-point air generator. The air generator is a three-stage rotary dehumidifier in which a further stage is added to the two-stage rotary dehumidifier. The main component of the rotors is metal silicate. The air generator can supply dry air with a dew-point of -110 degree C. or less, in which the concentration in all gaseous contaminants is far below 1 ppb. We made a trial calculation of the manufacturing cost, and an average cost of 0.25 yen/m{sup 3} was obtained. (author)

  7. Dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Herman, D.T.; Crump, S.; Miller, T.J.; McIntosh, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) produced 55 canistered waste forms containing simulated waste glass during the four Waste Qualification campaigns of the DWPF Startup Test Program. Testing of the gas within the free volume of these canisters for dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition was performed as part of a continuing effort to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Results are presented for six glass-filled canisters. The dew points within the canisters met the acceptance criterion of < 20 degrees C for all six canisters. Factors influencing the magnitude of the dew point are presented. The chemical composition of the free volume gas was indistinguishable from air for all six canisters. Hence, no foreign materials were present in the gas phase of these canisters. The internal gas pressures within the sealed canisters were < 1 atm at 25 degrees C for all six canisters which readily met the acceptance criterion of an internal gas pressure of less than 1.5 atm at 25 degrees C. These results provided the evidence required to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications

  8. Use of dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water losses to determine sweating rates in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-02-01

    To compare dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water loss as methods for determination of sweating rate (SR) in exercising horses. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. SR was measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km, with a 15-minute rest at the end of each 15-km phase. Each horse completed 2 exercise trials. Dew-point hygrometry, as a method of local SR determination, was validated in vitro by measurement of rate of evaporative water loss. During exercise, local SR was determined every 10 minutes by the following 2 methods: (1) dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax, and (2) on the basis of the volume of sweat collected from a sealed plastic pouch attached to the lateral area of the thorax. Mean whole body SR was calculated from total body water loss incurred during exercise. Evaporation rate measured by use of dew-point hygrometry was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.92) with the actual rate of evaporative water loss. There was a similar pattern of change in SR measured by dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax during exercise, with a significantly higher SR on the neck. The SR measured on the thorax by direct sweat collection and by dew-point hygrometry were of similar magnitude. Mean whole body SR calculated from total body water loss was not significantly different from mean whole body SR estimated from direct sweat collection or dew-point hygrometry measurements on the thorax. Dew-point hygrometry and direct sweat collection are useful methods for determination of local SR in horses during prolonged, steady-state exercise in moderate ambient conditions. Both methods of local SR determination provide an accurate estimated of whole body SR.

  9. Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Using a Novel Dew Point Cooling System in Data Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Information technology (IT has brought significant changes in people’s lives. As an important part of the IT industry, data centres (DCs have been rapidly growing in both the number and size over the past 40 years. Around 30% to 40% of electricity consumption in DCs is used for space cooling, thus leading to very inefficient DC operation. To identify ways to reduce the energy consumption for space cooling and increase the energy efficiency of DCs’ operation, a dedicated investigation into the energy usage in DCs has been undertaken and a novel high performance dew point cooling system was introduced into a DC operational scheme. Based on the cooling load in DCs, a case study was carried out to evaluate the energy consumptions and energy usage effectiveness when using the novel dew point cooling system in different scales of DCs in various climates. It was found that by using the novel dew point cooling system, for 10 typical climates a DC can have a much lower power usage effectiveness (PUE of 1.10 to 1.22 compared to that of 1.7 to 3.7 by using existing traditional cooling systems, leading to significantly increased energy efficiency of the DC operation. In addition, the energy performance by managing the cooling air supply at the different levels in DCs, i.e., room, row and rack level, was simulated by using a dynamic computer model. It was found that cooling air supply at rack level can provide a higher energy efficiency in DCs. Based on the above work, the energy saving potential in DCs was conducted by comparing DCs using an the novel dew point cooling system and the optimum management scheme for the cooling air supply to that using traditional air cooling systems and the same supply air management. Annual electricity consumptions for the two cases were given. It was found that by using the novel dew point cooling system and optimum management system for the cooling air supply, an 87.7~91.6% electricity consumption saving for

  10. Dew point effect of cooled hydrogel pads on human stratum corneum biosurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Paquet, Philippe; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been thoroughly studied. To describe the changes in transepidermal water loss and electrometric properties of the skin surface following application of cooled hydrogel pads. Measurements were performed on normal forearm skin of 27 healthy volunteers and on freshly excised skin from abdominoplasty. LaserAid hydrogel pads cooled to 4 degrees C were placed for 15 min on the forearm skin. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrometric properties (Corneometer, Nova DPM 900) were performed before application and after removal of the cooled pads. A consistent increase in corneometer units, dermal phase meter (DPM) values and TEWL were recorded at removal of the cooled hydrogel pads. Both the in vivo and in vitro assessments brought similar information. The similar changes disclosed in vitro and in vivo suggest that a common physical process is operating in these conditions. The observed phenomenon is opposite to the predicted events given by the Arrhenius law probably because of the combination of cooling and occlusion by the pads. A dew point effect (air temperature at which relative humidity is maximal) is likely involved in the moisture content of the stratum corneum. Thus, the biological impact of using cooling hydrogel pads during laser therapy is different from the effect of a cryogenic spray cooling procedure. The better preservation of the water balance in the stratum corneum by the cooled hydrogel pads could have a beneficial esthetic effect on laser treated areas. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Influence of Gas Atmosphere Dew Point on the Galvannealing of CMnSi TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lawrence; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Young Ha; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2013-11-01

    The Fe-Zn reaction occurring during the galvannealing of a Si-bearing transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was investigated by field-emission electron probe microanalysis and field-emission transmission electron microscopy. The galvannealing was simulated after hot dipping in a Zn bath containing 0.13 mass pct Al at 733 K (460 °C). The galvannealing temperature was in the range of 813 K to 843 K (540 °C to 570 °C). The kinetics and mechanism of the galvannealing reaction were strongly influenced by the gas atmosphere dew point (DP). After the galvannealing of a panel annealed in a N2+10 pct H2 gas atmosphere with low DPs [213 K and 243 K (-60 °C and -30 °C)], the coating layer consisted of δ (FeZn10) and η (Zn) phase crystals. The Mn-Si compound oxides formed during intercritical annealing were present mostly at the steel/coating interface after the galvannealing. Galvannealing of a panel annealed in higher DP [263 K and 273 K, and 278 K (-10 °C, 0 °C, and +5 °C)] gas atmospheres resulted in a coating layer consisting of δ and Г (Fe3Zn10) phase crystals, and a thin layer of Г 1 (Fe11Zn40) phase crystals at the steel/coating interface. The Mn-Si oxides were distributed homogeneously throughout the galvannealed (GA) coating layer. When the surface oxide layer thickness on panels annealed in a high DP gas atmosphere was reduced, the Fe content at the GA coating surface increased. Annealing in a higher DP gas atmosphere improved the coating quality of the GA panels because a thinner layer of oxides was formed. A high DP atmosphere can therefore significantly contribute to the suppression of Zn-alloy coating defects on CMnSi TRIP steel processed in hot dip galvanizing lines.

  12. Study of the influence of the cool-down speed at the dew-point level of the readings of the dew-point temperature; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Abkuehlgeschwindigkeit am Taupunktspiegel auf Messwerte der Taupunkttemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogoya, J.D. [Univ. Nacional de Colombia (Colombia); Mueller, C. [Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Oellrich, L.R. [Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The impact of the cool-down speed at the dew-point mirror on the behaviour of the readings of dew-point temperature of nitrogen-water mixtures has been investigated with the focus on mixtures with low water content. For this purpose a commercial dew-point mirror was equipped with a refrigerating device in order to cool the mirror surface. Moreover a data acquisition system was connected for the measurement of the rates of cooling. Via a control valve in the refrigerant cycle rates of cooling of about 1 to 35 C/min could be chosen. With a saturation system saturation conditions could be varied in the pressure range from 5 to 90 bar and in the temperature range from +10 to -15 C. The measuring instrument was continuously supplied with the gas mixture. The measurements were carried out under constant volume flow of the carrier gas. The results are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einfluss der Abkuehlgeschwindigkeit am Taupunktspiegel auf die Lage der Messwerte der Taupunkttemperaturen von Stickstoff/Wasser-Gemischen wurde speziell im Bereich niedriger Wassergehalte untersucht. Dazu wurde ein kommerzieller Taupunktspiegel zur Kuehlung der Spiegeloberflaeche mit einer Kaeltemaschine ausgestattet und eine Messwerterfassung, mit der Abkuehlgeschwindigkeiten ermittelt werden konnte, angeschlossen. Ueber ein Regelventil im Kaeltemittelkreislauf konnten Abkuehlgeschwindigkeiten von ca. 1 bis 35 C/min eingestellt werden. Ueber eine Saettigungsanlage wurden Saettigungsbedingungen im Druckbereich von 5 bis 90 bar und im Temperaturbereich von +10 bis -15 C variiert und das Messgeraet kontinuierlich mit Gasgemisch versorgt. Die Messungen wurden bei konstantem Volumenstrom des Traegergases durchgefuehrt. Die Messergebisse werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. Wet-bulb, dew point, and air temperature trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Soriano, B.; Centeno, A.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.

    2017-10-01

    This study analyses trends of mean ( T m), maximum ( T x), minimum ( T n), dew point ( T d), and wet-bulb temperatures ( T w) on an annual, seasonal, and monthly time scale over Spain during the period 1981-2010. The main purpose was to determine how temperature and humidity changes are impacting on T w, which is probably a better measure of climate change than temperature alone. In this study, 43 weather stations were used to detect data trends using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method to estimate the slope of trends. Significant linear trends observed for T m, T x, and T n versus year were 56, 58, and 47 % of the weather stations, respectively, with temperature ranges between 0.2 and 0.4 °C per decade. The months with bigger trends were April, May, June, and July with the highest trend for T x. The spatial behaviour of T d and T w was variable, with various locations showing trends from -0.6 to +0.3 °C per decade for T d and from -0.4 to +0.5 °C per decade for T w. Both T d and T w showed negative trends for July, August, September, November, and December. Comparing the trends versus time of each variable versus each of the other variables exhibited poor relationships, which means you cannot predict the trend of one variable from the trend of another variable. The trend of T x was not related to the trend of T n. The trends of T x, T m, and T n versus time were unrelated to the trends versus time of either T d or T w. The trend of T w showed a high coefficient of determination with the trend of T d with an annual value of R 2 = 0.86. Therefore, the T w trend is more related to changes in humidity than temperature.

  14. Application of model MTS5 dew-point meter in gas sampling and analyzing system of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang; Li Zhihui

    2010-01-01

    The feature of humidity detector to measure the content of water in pure helium of main loop of reactor was discussed, and the circumstances using Al 2 O 3 moisture sensor to measure the content of water in helium on-line were introduced. During those few years, the dew-point meter has sufficed to measure the content of water in the helium gas during the running of the reactor. On the other hand, excursion can happen when the instrument running. Demarcate must be made periodically to improve the veracity of the meter. (authors)

  15. Fort St. Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pt. 12. The dew point moisture monitor testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, H.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Brey, H.L. (Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver (USA)); Swart, F.E. (Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Forbis, J.M. (Storage Technology Corp., Louisville, CO (USA))

    1982-09-01

    Moisture ingress into the core volume could cause damaging reactions with the moderator-reflector graphite and burnable poison, therefore a dew point moisture monitoring system has been developed with the basic design criteria that a plant protective system trip is signaled after the system detects high primary coolant helium moisture levels and that the system is able to correctly identify which of two steam generator loops is leaking. Modifications to the sample supplies to the monitors were necessary to reduce the system's unsatisfactory response time at lower reactor power levels.

  16. Experimental study on dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yungang; Ma, Haidong; Liang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Heng; Zhao, Qinxin; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew point corrosion and ash deposit tests in a biomass-fired boiler were performed. • The XRD, XRF and SEM methods were used to analyze corrosion samples. • The deposits were made up of ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. • The metal matrix simultaneously confronted chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. - Abstract: The dew point corrosion characteristics of the heating surface in a 65 t/h biomass-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler were experimentally studied. The cross-sectional morphology and composition of the ash deposition were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), respectively. The results showed that the test tube surface was covered by ash deposit layer, coupling layer and corrosion layer. The ash deposit layer and the coupling layer were prone to spall off together. The coupling layer consists of partial ash and corrosion products. The corrosion layer was mainly composed of chlorides (FeCl_3, FeCl_2, and FeOCl) and oxides (FeOOH, Fe_2O_3). With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the corrosion depth decreased dramatically and the dew point corrosion was alleviated efficiently. The metal matrix simultaneously suffered from chlorine corrosion and oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was above water dew point, the main corrosion mode was oxygen corrosion. As the tube wall temperature was below water dew point, the main corrosion mode was chlorine corrosion.

  17. [Comparison of ability to humidification of inspired air through the nose and oral cavity using dew point hygrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to check at the hospital the dew point hygrometer for fast measurement of air humidity in upper airways. The nose ability to humidification of inspired air and partially recover moisture from expired air was evaluated. Measurements from respiration through the nose and oral cavity were compared. The study was carried out in a group of 30 people (8 female and 22 male), age group 18 to 70 (mean age: 37 years old). In 22 of the participants there were no deviation from normal state in laryngologic examination, while in 4 participants nasal septum deviation without imaired nasal; oatency was found, in other 3--nasal vonchae hyperthrophy and in 1--nasal polips (grade I). The measurements of air humidity in upper air ways was done using specially designed and constructed measurement system. The air inspired through the nose and oral cavity is humidified. For typical external conditions (T = 22 degrees C i RH = 50%) the nose humidifies inspired air two times better then oral cavity (short time range of measurement approximately 1 min). Moisture from expired air through the nose is partially recovered (for patients with regular patency is 25% of the value of humidifying of inspired air). The oral cavity does not have ability to partially recovery moisture form expired air. The paper presented fast dew point hygrometer based on semiconductor microsystems for measurement humidity in inspired and expired air through the nose and oral cavity. Presented system can be a proper instrument for evaluation of nasal functions.

  18. Analysis of points of dew and contents of humidity of gassy mixtures N2-H2 O and CH4 H2 O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya M, D; Muller, C; Oellrich, L R

    1995-01-01

    The actual knowledge of the exact water content in saturated gas mixtures still is incomplete, especially in the high pressure and low temperature region. Hence, dew point measurements with nitrogen - water and methane-water mixtures were performed; at pressures of 3 and 6 MPa and temperatures from 258 K to 288 K. The dew points were determined with the dew point mirror method and the water content by means of the Karl-Fischer-titration. The experimental values were compared to correlations from the literature. The approach by Sharma-Campbell resulted in the best description of the system nitrogen - water. For temperatures below 273 K the assumption of ideal behavior proved to be sufficient for the system methane-water, whereas for temperatures above 273 K calculations with the two-parameter corresponding states principle in combination with a fugacity correction turned out to be the best

  19. Application of a two-sinker densimeter for phase-equilibrium measurements: A new technique for the detection of dew points and measurements on the (methane + propane) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLinden, Mark O.; Richter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new technique for detecting dew points in fluid mixtures is described. • The method makes use of a two-sinker densimeter. • The technique is based on a quantitative measurement of sample mass adsorbed onto the surface of the densimeter sinkers. • The dew-point density and dew-point pressure are determined with low uncertainty. • The method is applied to the (methane + propane) system and compared to traditional methods. - Abstract: We explore a novel method for determining the dew-point density and dew-point pressure of fluid mixtures and compare it to traditional methods. The (p, ρ, T, x) behavior of three (methane + propane) mixtures was investigated with a two-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter over the temperature range of (248.15–293.15) K; the measurements extended from low pressures into the two-phase region. The compositions of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures were (0.74977, 0.50688, and 0.26579) mole fraction methane. We analyzed isothermal data by: (1) a “traditional” analysis of the intersection of a virial fit of the (p vs. ρ) data in the single-phase region with a linear fit of the data in the two-phase region; and (2) an analysis of the adsorbed mass on the sinker surfaces. We compared these to a traditional isochoric experiment. We conclude that the “adsorbed mass” analysis of an isothermal experiment provides an accurate determination of the dew-point temperature, pressure, and density. However, a two-sinker densimeter is required.

  20. New Primary Dew-Point Generators at HMI/FSB-LPM in the Range from -70 °C to +60 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Heinonen, Martti; Sestan, Danijel

    2012-09-01

    To extend the dew-point range and to improve the uncertainties of the humidity scale realization at HMI/FSB-LPM, new primary low- and high-range dew-point generators were developed and implemented in cooperation with MIKES, in 2009 through EUROMET Project No. 912. The low-range saturator is designed for primary realization of the dew-point temperature scale from -70 °C to + 5 °C, while the high-range saturator covers the range from 1 °C to 60 °C. The system is designed as a single-pressure, single-pass dew-point generator. MIKES designed and constructed both the saturators to be implemented in dew-point calibration systems at LPM. The LPM took care of purchasing and adapting liquid baths, of implementing the temperature and pressure measurement equipment appropriate for use in the systems, and development of gas preparation and flow control systems as well as of the computer-based automated data acquisition. The principle and the design of the generator are described in detail and schematically depicted. The tests were performed at MIKES to investigate how close both the saturators are to an ideal saturator. Results of the tests show that both the saturators are efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew-point temperature scale from -70 °C to + 60 °C, in the specified flow-rate ranges. The estimated standard uncertainties due to the non-ideal saturation efficiency are between 0.02 °C and 0.05 °C.

  1. Prediction of the critical point and the dew- and bubble-point curves fo natural gases. Tennen gas no rinkaiten oyobi roten futten kyokusen no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Arai, D.; Uematsu, M. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1993-02-25

    Related to the natural gas transport by pipeline, etc., the critical point, dew point and bubble point of natural gas were presumed by calculation through equation of state for determining the exact thermophysical values. The natural gas is multi-component mixed fluid which is represented by methane as a representative component. It considerably differs in composition by its place of origin. Because the conventional method was complicated in process for thermodynamically determining the most stable composition of phases, algorithm of phasic equilibrium was applied by the equation of state which used the discrimination method by Nitta, et al. for the therodynamic stability of phases. The method by Michelsen was applied to the flash calculation, and figuration of both dew point and bubble point curves, while that by Heidemann, et al. was done to the critical point calculation. Peng-Robinson's was applied to an equation of state. To start the calculation, the constant of seven two-component systems the main component of which was methane was determined as a function of temperature based on the actually measured gas/liquid equilibrium value. Then, possibility of calculatively presuming the thermophysical values was shown through comparison of the actually measured values with those obtained by applying the present method to the above systems. Finally, the presumption was made for the natural gas which differed in place of origin. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Correlation of dew- and bubble-point curves for binary refrigerant mixtures. [Correlation between dew-point pressure(saturated vapor state) and bubble-point pressure(saturated liquid state)]. Niseibunkei kongo reibai no roten oyobi futten kyokusen no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yada, N. (Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)); Watanabe, K. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1991-12-25

    The paper makes a correlation expressing dew- and bubble-point curves using measured values for seven binary refrigerant freon-mixtures. In most binary systems at the same temperature, the pressure shows a different value between in a saturated vapor state (dew-point pressure) and in a saturated liquid state (bubble-point pressure). The target is such correlation as has as simple a function form as possible and is able to estimate even near the critical point where it used to be difficult to estimate. The pressure difference between measured values of the dew- and bubble-point pressure and values calculated from Raoult's law showing an ideal mixture of fluid is expressed by a simple function form of reduced temperature Tr and molar fraction. Tr is thermodynamic temperature/critical temperature. Reproducibility of this correlation is less than {plus minus}3% of the pressure deviation. Concerning also the arbitary composition range and near the critical point, the dew- and bubble-point pressure can be calculated accurately. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Determination of equilibrium phase composition in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system by ''dew point'' method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanyukov, A.V.; Krotov, I.I.; Ermakov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Using the ''dew point'' method a study has been made of the equilibrium composition of the solid and liquid phases in the Hg-HgTe-CdTe system at 404, 435 and 454 deg C. It has been pointed out that crystallization of cadmium-rich solid solutions of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x) Te takes place from a liquid phase with a much higher concentration of Hg. The activity of Hg in the liquid phase increases along the liquidus isotherm in the direction from section Hg-HgTe to section HgCdTe in accordance with the increase of its concentration. An increase in activity of Hg in the solid phase of Cdsub(x)Hgsub(1-x)Te has been noted with the reduction of its concentration

  4. A technical basis to relax the dew point specification for the environment in the vapor space in DWPF canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    This memorandum establishes the technical basis to conclude that relaxing, from 0 C to 20 C, the dew point specification for the atmosphere in the vapor space (free volume) of a DWPF canister will not provide an environment that will cause significant amounts of corrosion induced degradation of the canister wall. The conclusion is based on engineering analysis, experience and review of the corrosion literature. The basic assumptions underlying the conclusion are: (1) the canister was fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel; (2) the corrosion behavior of the canister material, including base metal, fusion zones and heat effected zones, is typified by literature data for, and industrial experience with, 300 series austenitic stainless steels; and (3) the glass-metal crevices created during the pouring operation will not alter the basic corrosion resistance of the steel although such crevices might serve as sites for the initiation of minor amounts of corrosion on the canister wall

  5. Exploitation of humid air latent heat by means of solar assisted heat pumps operating below the dew point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, Federico; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The opportunity of humid air latent heat exploitation by DX-SAHP is investigated. • A set of experimental tests confirms this opportunity and quantifies it as relevant. • A parametric analysis is performed, via simulation, to deepen the subject. • The energy gain is relevant during both night and daytime. - Abstract: Nowadays, the exploitation of environmental exergy resources for heating purposes (solar energy, convection heat transfer from ambient air, moist air humidity condensation) by means of properly designed heat pump systems is a possible opportunity. In particular, the use of direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps (DX-SAHP) is investigated in this study, when a bare external plate (the solar collector) is kept at temperatures lower than the dew point temperature of ambient air, so that condensation takes place on it. The potential of this technology is settled and an instrumented prototype of a small DX-SAHP system is used to verify the actual performance of the system, in terms of specific thermal energy delivered to the user, efficiency and regulation capabilities. Results clearly show that the contribution of the condensation is significant (20%–30% of the total harvested energy) overnight or in cloudy days with very low or no solar irradiation, and must be taken into account in a system model devoted to describe the DX-SAHP behavior. During daytime, the percentage gain decreases but is still consistent. By investigating along these lines, the heat due to condensation harvested by the collector is found to be a function of the dew-point temperature alone.

  6. EFFECT OF DEW POINT OF ATMOSPHERE OF CGL’S ANNEALING FURNACES ON THE QUALITY OF GA COATING ON BAKE HARDENABLE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Porto Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The strip steel surface condition after continuous annealing of strip is extremely important to the quality of galvannealed coating (GA. The presence of oxides or precipitated can affect the reactions at the coating/substrate interface and decrease the zinc wettability on the steel surface, leading to various defects in the final product. To avoid oxidation of the material during continuous annealing, a protective atmosphere is used in the furnaces. Despite this atmosphere, it is possible the selective oxidation or precipitation of second phase particles, being the dew point of atmosphere one of the leading factors to reduce this occurrence. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the dew point on the quality of GA coatings applied to a bake hardenable steel. The continuous annealing under dew points of –60°C, 30°C and 0°C, as well as hot dip galvanizing, were performed in a Hot Dip Process Simulator. It is found that the dew point has a decisive influence on the amount, distribution and type of oxides formed, and the condition of –30°C provided the coating with less failures and better adhesion.

  7. The Mollier diagram in theory and practice. Part 3. Examples on Calculation of Dew Point Cooling; Het Mollierdiagram in theorie en praktijk. Deel 3. Rekenvoorbeelden Dauwpuntkoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenhoven, H.J.L. [Frigidarium, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands); Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland HTH, Zuidwolde (Netherlands); Bootsveld, N.R. [YNO, Delft (Netherlands); Janssen, M. [Re-gent, Helmond (Netherlands); Uges, P.G.H. [StatiqCooling, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2007-04-15

    The use of direct and indirect adiabatic cooling, and recently in particular indirect diabatic cooling (dew point cooling) require knowledge of the Mollier diagram. [Dutch] Het gebruik van direct en indirect werkende adiabatische koeling en recentlijk vooral de indirect werkende systemen zoals diabatische koeling (dauwpuntkoeling, al of niet uitgevoerd als statische koeling) vragen om kennis van het Mollierdiagram.

  8. Growth responses of male broilers subjected to increasing air velocities at high ambient temperatures and a high dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined live performance responses of male broilers to increasing air velocity of 120 and 180 m/min reared under high cyclic temperatures (25-35-25 degrees C) with a 23 degrees C dew point from 21 to 49 d. Birds were reared in an environmental facility containing 2 wind tunnels (4 pens/tunnel) and 6 floor pens (control). At 21 d, 53 birds were placed in each pen of the wind tunnels and control group, respectively, and growth performance was determined weekly. Increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min improved BW and BW gain from 29 to 35, 36 to 42, and 43 to 49 d of age leading to a cumulative advantage of 287 g in BW gain and a 10-point difference in feed conversion from 21 to 49 d of age. Subjecting birds to air velocity improved growth rate, feed consumption, and feed conversion at each weekly interval from 28 to 49 d over the control birds. These results indicate that male broilers approximating 2.0 to 3.0 kg respond to an air velocity of 180 m/min when exposed to high cyclic temperatures.

  9. Study on dew point evaporative cooling system with counter-flow configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, J.; Thu, K.; Bui, T.D.; Wang, R.Z.; Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    coefficient along the channel. Parametric studies are conducted at different geometric and operating conditions. For the conditions evaluated, the study reveals that (1) the saturation point of the working air occurs at a fixed point regardless of the inlet

  10. Improving indoor air quality through the use of continual multipoint monitoring of carbon dioxide and dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearg, D W

    1998-09-01

    This article summarizes an approach for improving the indoor air quality (IAQ) in a building by providing feedback on the performance of the ventilation system. The delivery of adequate quantities of ventilation to all building occupants is necessary for the achievement of good IAQ. Feedback on the performance includes information on the adequacy of ventilation provided, the effectiveness of the distribution of this air, the adequacy of the duration of operation of the ventilation system, and the identification of leakage into the return plenum, either of outdoor or supply air. Keeping track of ventilation system performance is important not only in terms of maintaining good IAQ, but also making sure that this system continues to perform as intended after changes in building use. Information on the performance of the ventilation system is achieved by means of an automated sampling system that draws air from multiple locations and delivers it to both a carbon dioxide monitor and dew point sensor. The use of single shared sensors facilitates calibration checks as well as helps to guarantee data integrity. This approach to monitoring a building's ventilation system offers the possibility of achieving sustainable performance of this important aspect of good IAQ.

  11. Uncertainty Evaluation of the New Setup for Measurement of Water-Vapor Permeation Rate by a Dew-Point Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoklin, D.; Šetina, J.; Drnovšek, J.

    2012-09-01

    The measurement of the water-vapor permeation rate (WVPR) through materials is very important in many industrial applications such as the development of new fabrics and construction materials, in the semiconductor industry, packaging, vacuum techniques, etc. The demand for this kind of measurement grows considerably and thus many different methods for measuring the WVPR are developed and standardized within numerous national and international standards. However, comparison of existing methods shows a low level of mutual agreement. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the necessary uncertainty evaluation for WVPR measurements, so as to provide a basis for development of a corresponding reference measurement standard. This paper presents a specially developed measurement setup, which employs a precision dew-point sensor for WVPR measurements on specimens of different shapes. The paper also presents a physical model, which tries to account for both dynamic and quasi-static methods, the common types of WVPR measurements referred to in standards and scientific publications. An uncertainty evaluation carried out according to the ISO/IEC guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) shows the relative expanded ( k = 2) uncertainty to be 3.0 % for WVPR of 6.71 mg . h-1 (corresponding to permeance of 30.4 mg . m-2. day-1 . hPa-1).

  12. Vertical profiles of ozone, carbon monoxide, and dew-point temperature obtained during GTE/CITE 1, October-November 1983. [Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Beck, Sherwin M.; Hill, Gerald F.

    1987-01-01

    A set of 14 pairs of vertical profiles of ozone and carbon monoxide, obtained with fast-response instrumentation, is presented. Most of these profiles, which were measured in the remote troposphere, also have supporting fast-response dew-point temperature profiles. The data suggest that the continental boundary layer is a source of tropospheric ozone, even in October and November, when photochemical activity should be rather small. In general, the small-scale vertical variability between CO and O3 is in phase. At low latitudes this relationship defines levels in the atmosphere where midlatitude air is being transported to lower latitudes, since lower dew-point temperatures accompany these higher CO and O3 concentrations. A set of profiles which is suggestive of interhemispheric transport is also presented. Independent meteorological analyses support these interpretations.

  13. STUDY ON THE DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IN AREAS WITH SUPERFICIAL LIMESTONE UNDERGROUND ENVIRONMENT (SCREE IN THE GHIMBAV AREA, LEAOTA MOUNTAINS, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalin-Leonard Dorobăţ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dew point of a mixture of a gas (air and the water vapors represents the temperature at which the cold air becomes saturated in water vapors and they condensate. Sometimes, especially in colder periods, it is more revealing regarding the water quantity in the air as vapors, than the relative humidity indicator. The field observations have shown that, always, in the surveys in the ecologic stationaries I have installed in limestone scree in Leaota Massive, condense is formed on the walls of the PVC tubes, irrespective of the season. The continuous measuring, for a period of several months, of more abiotic parameters, amongst which the temperature of the dew point was carried out with dataloggers, which were installed at different depths in limestone scree. This type of continuous monitoring of abiotic parameters at different scree depths is a premiere for Leaota and even is a first for Romania.

  14. Filter for underground mining for suction of preferably full cut and part cut machines, to be provided with preheated air, to avoid dropping below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.

    1976-10-28

    Particularly when cutting hard rock, the cutting room to be provided with suction is wetted with water from nozzles, which, when sucking out air containing dust with high humidity leads to encrustation in the filter cloth. In order to avoid this, it is proposed that the air should be heated, using heat from the motor driving the ventilator, so that one avoids dropping below the dew point in the filter.

  15. STUDY ON THE DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IN AREAS COVERED BY COLLUVIAL MESOVOID SHALLOW SUBSTRATUM (CRYSTALLINE SCHISTS SCREE IN THE LEAOTA MOUNTAINS, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalin Leonard Dorobăţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present and discussed the results of the monitoring of the dew point values, recorded in October and November 2014, in an ecological station in the Leaota Mountains. In this station, two polls were located in areas covered by colluvial mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS formed by epi- and mesometamorphic crystalline schists. In the ecological stations we located in the Leaota Mountains, almost always we found condensation on the walls of the polls tubes placed at different depths. Most often in spring or autumn or in other cold days, the dew point is more revealing regarding the recording actual amount of moisture in the air, than the relative humidity indicator. This work is part of a larger project that seeks correlations between ecological factors (humidity, temperature and dew point registered in various types of screes (limestone and crystalline schists and some zoocenotic components (invertebrates. This research aim to know the importance of mesovoid shallow substratum for invertebrates or small vertebrates fauna and represents a premiere for Leaota Mountains, not only regarding the continuous monitoring of some ecologic factors of these types of ecosystems (MSS, rarely researched even at global level, and also regarding the inventory of the invertebrate fauna in scree for these mountains.

  16. Future PMPs Estimation in Korea under AR5 RCP 8.5 Climate Change Scenario: Focus on Dew Point Temperature Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okjeong, Lee; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    According to future climate change scenarios, future temperature is expected to increase gradually. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect the effects of these climate changes to predict Probable Maximum Precipitations (PMPs). In this presentation, PMPs will be estimated with future dew point temperature change. After selecting 174 major storm events from 1981 to 2005, new PMPs will be proposed with respect to storm areas (25, 100, 225, 400, 900, 2,025, 4,900, 10,000 and 19,600 km2) and storm durations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours) using the Korea hydro-meteorological method. Also, orographic transposition factor will be applied in place of the conventional terrain impact factor which has been used in previous Korean PMPs estimation reports. After estimating dew point temperature using future temperature and representative humidity information under the Korea Meteorological Administration AR5 RCP 8.5, changes in the PMPs under dew point temperature change will be investigated by comparison with present and future PMPs. This research was supported by a grant(14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  17. Development of sulfuric acid dew point corrosion resistant stainless steel for smokestacks and its ducts. Entotsu endoyo tairyusan roten fushoku stainless ko no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, E.; Matsuhashi, R.; Koseki, T. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Ebara, R.; Nakamoto, H. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-05-20

    A new corrosion resistant steel was developed as a metal system lining material to prevent sulfuric acid dew point corrosion in smokestacks and ducts. SO3 in stack gas turns to sulfuric acid as a result of reacting with coexistent moisture in non-steady conditions during boiler actuation and shutdown when smokestack walls have low temperatures. When sulfuric acid thus generated contacts with metallic materials at temperatures lower than the sulfuric acid dew point temperature, sulfuric acid dew point corrosion occurs. During boiler steady operation, localized corrosion develops at clearance between salt deposits and the metallic materials. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, Mo, Cu and N were added in a reasonable range of amount. Entire surface corrosion resistance and local corrosion resistance were experimented in aqueous solutions simulating the smokestack environments to derive relational formulas with steel compositions. The new corrosion resistant steel met the the entire surface and local corrosion resistance requirements and was found economical. Low torsional velocity tensile and U-bend tests proved the steel satisfying the stress corrosion resistance requirement. Semi-automatic CO2 welding and shielded are welding provided good workability with no cracking, and impact strength and corrosion resistance in joints equivalent to those in the base material. 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Correlations between boiling points and relative retention data for hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sojak, L.; Krupcik, J.; Rijks, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An equation correlating retention indices, boiling points and activity coefficients is proposed. The equation can be applied not only to homologous series, but also to different classes of hydrocarbons.

  19. Measurements to determine the sulfuric acid dew point and the SO sub 3 concentration in flue gas of power plant vessels. Messungen zur Bestimmung des Saeuretaupunktes und der SO sub 3 -Konzentration im Rauchgas von Kraftwerkskesseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derichs, W.; Menden, W. (RWE Energie AG, Bergheim (Germany)); Ebel, P.K. (Apparatebau Hundsbach GmbH, Baden-Baden (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    Among the customary methods of dew point determination, the technique of recording the increase in conductivity between two electrodes at the moment of acid condensing onto them, and measuring at the same time the temperature of the sensor, is appropriate to determine the sulfuric acid dew point in dust-laden flue gas. By means of the sensitivity of a newly developed sensor, the accuracy of the measurement method could be improved to such an extent that also low acid dew points and rapid changes can be recorded reliably. Measurements have shown that the acid dew point primarily depends on the SO{sub 3} content which is substantially determined by the sulfur content of the fuel and the type of flue gas ducts. Further influential quantities include flue gas humidity, air surplus, other gaseous flue gas components such as HCl and HF, as well as the quantity, composition and temperature-dependent adsorption capability of the flue dusts. (orig./BBR).

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of APMP.T-K6 (original name APMP-IC-1-97): Comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Takahashi, C.; Hussain, F.; Hong, Yi; Nham, H. S.; Chan, K. H.; Lee, L. T.; Chahine, K.

    2007-01-01

    This APMP key comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard was carried out among eight national metrology institutes from February 1999 to January 2001. The NMC/SPRING, Singapore was the pilot laboratory and a chilled mirror dew point meter offered by NMIJ was used as a transfer standard. The transfer standard was calibrated by each participating institute against local humidity standards in terms of frost and dew point temperature. Each institute selected its frost/dew point temperature calibration points within the range from -70 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point with 5 °C step. The majority of participating institutes measured from -60 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point and a simple mean evaluation was performed in this range. The differences between the institute values and the simple means for all participating institutes are within two standard deviations from the mean values. Bilateral equivalence was analysed in terms of pair difference and single parameter Quantified Demonstrated Equivalence. The results are presented in the report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Live performance of male broilers subjected to constant or increasing air velocities at moderate temperatures with a high dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the effects of varying air velocities vs. a constant air velocity with a cyclic temperature curve of 25-30-25 degrees C and a dew point of 23 degrees C on broilers from 28 to 49 d of age. Four replicate trials were conducted. In each trial, 742 male broilers were randomly allocated to 6 floor pens or 2 air velocity tunnels, with each tunnel consisting of 4 pens. Bird density, feeder, and waterer space were similar across all pens (53 birds/ pen; 0.07 m2/bird). The treatments were control (still air), constant air velocity of 120 m/min, and increasing air velocity (90 m/min from 28 to 35 d, 120 m/min from 36 to 42 d, and 180 m/min from 43 to 49 d). Birds grown in a still air environment gained less weight, consumed less feed, and converted feed less efficiently between 28 and 49 d than birds subjected to moving air (constant or increasing). Growth responses between the air velocity treatments were similar from 28 to 35 and 36 to 42 d of age. Increasing air velocity to 180 m/min improved (P < or = 0.02) the growth rate of broilers from 43 to 49 d of age over birds receiving an air velocity of 120 m/min, but the incidence of mortality was not affected. These results provide evidence that increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min is beneficial to broilers weighing 2.5 kg or greater when exposed to moderate temperatures.

  2. Intercomparison of the Dew-Point Temperature Realizations at LPM and MIKES in the Range from -70 °C to + 20 ° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Zvizdic, Davor; Sestan, Danijel

    2012-09-01

    The first European humidity key comparison EURAMET-T.K6 was completed in 2008, and it covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to + 20 °C. Both LPM and MIKES participated in the comparison, but a new low dew-point generator was introduced at LPM as a result of progress in the EUROMET P912 project. To extend the range of available comparison evidence down to -70 °C and to study the validity of improved uncertainties of LPM, a bilateral comparison was carried out between LPM and MIKES in 2009-2010. The applied comparison procedure was similar to that applied in EURAMET-T.K6. However, only one transfer standard was used instead of two units and the measurement point -70 °C was added in the measurement scheme. The results show that the bilateral equivalence between LPM and MIKES is between (0.00 ± 0.06) °C and (0.02 ± 0.08) °C in the range from -50 °C to + 20 °C and (0.01 ± 0.10) °C at -70 °C. Using MIKES results as the link to the EURAMET.T-K6, it is shown that the difference between the results obtained with the new LPM dew-point temperature standard and the EURAMET Comparison Reference Values is between (-0.02 ± 0.08) °C at 20 °C and (+ 0.02 ± 0.07) ° C at -50 °C.

  3. Investigation of the Equivalence of National Dew-Point Temperature Realizations in the -50 °C to + 20 °C Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Anagnostou, Miltiadis; Bell, Stephanie; Stevens, Mark; Benyon, Robert; Bergerud, Reidun Anita; Bojkovski, Jovan; Bosma, Rien; Nielsen, Jan; Böse, Norbert; Cromwell, Plunkett; Kartal Dogan, Aliye; Aytekin, Seda; Uytun, Ali; Fernicola, Vito; Flakiewicz, Krzysztof; Blanquart, Bertrand; Hudoklin, Domen; Jacobson, Per; Kentved, Anders; Lóio, Isabel; Mamontov, George; Masarykova, Alexandra; Mitter, Helmut; Mnguni, Regina; Otych, Jan; Steiner, Anton; Szilágyi Zsófia, Nagyné; Zvizdic, Davor

    2012-09-01

    In the field of humidity quantities, the first CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6 is at its end. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was completed in early 2008, about 4 years after the starting initial measurements in the project. In total, 24 NMIs from different countries took part in the comparison. This number includes 22 EURAMET countries, and Russia and South Africa. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was carried out in three parallel loops, each with two chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. It is shown that the standard uncertainty due to the long-term instability was smaller than 0.008 °C in all loops. The standard uncertainties due to links between the loops were found to be smaller than 0.025 °C at -50 °C and 0.010 °C elsewhere. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from the EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Taking into account 16 different primary dew-point realizations and 8 secondary realizations, the results demonstrate the equivalence of a large number of laboratories at an uncertainty level that is better than achieved in other multilateral comparisons so far in the humidity field.

  4. Numerical investigation of the energy performance of a guideless irregular heat and mass exchanger with corrugated heat transfer surface for dew point cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Xiaoli; Diallo, Thierno M.O.; Zhao, Xudong; Fancey, Kevin; Li, Deying; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation into the energy performance of a novel irregular heat and mass exchanger for dew point cooling which, compared to the existing flat-plate heat exchangers, removed the use of the channel supporting guides and implemented the corrugated heat transfer surface, thus expecting to achieve the reduced air flow resistance, increased heat transfer area, and improved energy efficiency (i.e. Coefficient of Performance (COP)) of the air cooling process. CFD simulation was carried out to determine the flow resistance (K) factors of various elements within the dry and wet channels of the exchanger, while the ‘finite-element’ based ‘Newton-iteration’ numerical simulation was undertaken to investigate its cooling capacity, cooling effectiveness and COP at various geometrical and operational conditions. Compared to the existing flat-plate heat and mass exchangers with the same geometrical dimensions and operational conditions, the new irregular exchanger could achieve 32.9%–37% higher cooling capacity, dew-point and wet-bulb effectiveness, 29.7%–33.3% higher COP, and 55.8%–56.2% lower pressure drop. While undertaking dew point air cooling, the irregular heat and mass exchanger had the optimum air velocity of 1 m/s within the flow channels and working-to-intake air ratio of 0.3, which allowed the highest cooling capacity and COP to be achieved. In terms of the exchanger dimensions, the optimum height of the channel was 5 mm while its length was in the range 1–2 m. Overall, the proposed irregular heat and mass exchanger could lead to significant enhanced energy performance compared to the existing flat-plate dew point cooling heat exchanger of the same geometrical dimensions. To achieve the same amount cooling output, the irregular heat and mass exchanger had the reduced size and cost against the flat-plate ones. - Highlights: • Numerical investigation of an irregular heat and mass exchanger was undertaken. • A

  5. Selective Oxidation of a 0.1C-6Mn-2Si Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel During Dew-Point Controlled Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmajidian, Maedeh; McDermid, Joseph R.

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the selective oxidation of a 0.1C-6Mn-2Si medium-Mn advanced high-strength steel during austenization annealing heat treatments as a function of process atmosphere oxygen partial pressure and annealing time. It was determined that the surface oxide growth kinetics followed a parabolic rate law with the minimum rate belonging to the lowest oxygen partial pressure atmosphere at a dew point of 223 K (- 50 °C). The chemistry of the surface and subsurface oxides was studied using STEM + EELS on the sample cross sections, and it was found that the surface oxides formed under the 223 K (- 50 °C) dew-point atmosphere consisted of a layered configuration of SiO2, MnSiO3, and MnO, while in the case of the higher pO2 process atmospheres, only MnO was detected at the surface. Consistent with the Wagner calculations, it was shown that the transition to internal oxidation for Mn occurred under the 243 K (- 30 °C) and 278 K (+ 5 °C) dew-point atmospheres. However, the predictions of the external to internal oxidation for Si using the Wagner model did not correlate well with the experimental findings nor did the predictions of the Mataigne et al. model for multi-element alloys. Investigations of the internal oxide network at the grain boundaries revealed a multilayer oxide structure composed of amorphous SiO2 and crystalline MnSiO3, respectively, at the oxide core and outer shell. A mechanism for the formation of the oxide morphologies observed, based on kinetic and thermodynamic factors, was proposed. It is expected that only the fine and nodule-like MnO oxides formed on the surface of the samples annealed under the 278 K (+ 5 °C) dew-point process atmosphere for 60 and 120 seconds are sufficiently thin and of the desired dispersed morphology to promote reactive wetting by the molten galvanizing bath.

  6. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.1 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −25 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Hill, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April, 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC. PMID:26663952

  7. Increase in the boiler's performance in terms of the acid dew point temperature: Environmental advantages of replacing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.M.; Pena, F. [Dpto. Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del Pais Vasco/E.H.U., Alameda de Urquijo s/n (48013) Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of air pre-heaters is to raise the temperature of the combustion air in boilers, using heat recovered from the power plant combustion gases. On the one hand, this paper compares the effects of the acid dew point temperature (ADT) on pre-heaters in a reference thermal power plant for two types of fuel, ''fuel No. 2'' and ''low sulphur fuel'' respectively and on the other hand, it shows how a changeover to this latter fuel would increase the useful lifetime of this equipment, reducing this way cost of maintenance due to the considerable decrease in the area exposed to ADT with the subsequent increase in the boiler's performance. (author)

  8. Spatial interpolation of hourly precipitation and dew point temperature for the identification of precipitation phase and hydrologic response in a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garen, D. C.; Kahl, A.; Marks, D. G.; Winstral, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    In mountainous catchments, it is well known that meteorological inputs, such as precipitation, air temperature, humidity, etc. vary greatly with elevation, spatial location, and time. Understanding and monitoring catchment inputs is necessary in characterizing and predicting hydrologic response to these inputs. This is true all of the time, but it is the most dramatically critical during large storms, when the input to the stream system due to rain and snowmelt creates the potential for flooding. Besides such crisis events, however, proper estimation of catchment inputs and their spatial distribution is also needed in more prosaic but no less important water and related resource management activities. The first objective of this study is to apply a geostatistical spatial interpolation technique (elevationally detrended kriging) to precipitation and dew point temperature on an hourly basis and explore its characteristics, accuracy, and other issues. The second objective is to use these spatial fields to determine precipitation phase (rain or snow) during a large, dynamic winter storm. The catchment studied is the data-rich Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed near Boise, Idaho. As part of this analysis, precipitation-elevation lapse rates are examined for spatial and temporal consistency. A clear dependence of lapse rate on precipitation amount exists. Certain stations, however, are outliers from these relationships, showing that significant local effects can be present and raising the question of whether such stations should be used for spatial interpolation. Experiments with selecting subsets of stations demonstrate the importance of elevation range and spatial placement on the interpolated fields. Hourly spatial fields of precipitation and dew point temperature are used to distinguish precipitation phase during a large rain-on-snow storm in December 2005. This application demonstrates the feasibility of producing hourly spatial fields and the importance of doing

  9. The Mollier diagram in theory and practice. Part 2. Evaporative indirect static dew point cooling and the Mollier diagram; Het Mollierdiagram in theorie en praktijk. Deel 2. Verdampingskoeling verklaard vanuit het Mollierdiagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uges, P.G.H. (ed.) [StatiqCooling, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The use of direct and indirect adiabatic cooling, and recently in particular indirect diabatic cooling (dew point cooling) require knowledge of the Mollier diagram. [Dutch] Het gebruik van direct en indirect werkende adiabatische koeling en recentlijk vooral de indirect werkende systemen zoals diabatische koeling (dauwpuntkoeling, al of niet uitgevoerd als statische koeling) vragen om kennis van het Mollierdiagram.

  10. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performances using electrochemical spectroscopy and voltammetry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasterlain, S.; Hissel, D. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), ENISYS Department, University of Franche-Comte, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Candusso, D.; Harel, F. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); INRETS, The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Bergman, P.; Menard, P.; Anwar, M. [University of Connecticut, Connecticut Global Fuel Cell Center Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 44 Weaver Road, Unit 5233, Storrs, CT 06269-5233 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently. (author)

  11. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performances using electrochemical spectroscopy and voltammetry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, S.; Candusso, D.; Hissel, D.; Harel, F.; Bergman, P.; Menard, P.; Anwar, M.

    A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently.

  12. Performance of operational radiosonde humidity sensors in direct comparison with a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer and its climate implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhong; Carlson, David J.; Parsons, David B.; Hock, Terrence F.; Lauritsen, Dean; Cole, Harold L.; Beierle, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Edward

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluates performance of humidity sensors in two widely used operational radiosondes, Vaisala and Sippican (formally VIZ), in comparison with a research quality, and potentially more accurate, chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer named ``Snow White''. A research radiosonde system carrying the Snow White (SW) hygrometer was deployed in the Oklahoma panhandle and at Dodge City, KS during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002). A total of sixteen sondes were launched with either Vaisala RS80 or Sippican VIZ-B2 radiosondes on the same balloons. Comparisons of humidity data from the SW with Vaisala and Sippican data show that (a) Vaisala RS80-H agrees with the SW very well in the middle and lower troposphere, but has dry biases in the upper troposphere (UT), (b) Sippican carbon hygristor (CH) has time-lag errors throughout the troposphere and fails to respond to humidity changes in the UT, sometimes even in the middle troposphere, and (c) the SW can detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause and possibly estimate their ice water content (IWC). The failure of CH in the UT results in significant and artificial humidity shifts in radiosonde climate records at stations where a transition from VIZ to Vaisala radiosondes has occurred.

  13. Impact of Continuous Cropping on the Diurnal Range of Dew Point Temperature during the Foliar Expansion Period of Annual Crops on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat M. Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to increase our knowledge of the role of land use in changing the regional climate. This study asked, “Has the increase in continuous cropping over the past 50 years on the Canadian Prairies influenced the daily mean and range of morning dew point temperatures (Td during the foliar expansion period (from mid-June to mid-July of annual field crops?” We found that there has been a general increase in the decadal average of mean daily Td and in the range of morning Td from the 1960s to the 2000s. The increase in the observed range of Td between the daily minimum value, which typically occurs near sunrise, and the late morning peak was found to be related to the increase in annual crop acreage and consequent decrease in summerfallow area. The relationship was more significant in the subhumid climatic zone than in the semiarid climatic zone, and it was influenced by whether the region was experiencing either wet, normal, or dry conditions.

  14. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM -30 °C TO +20 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C W; Solano, A

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range -30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET.

  15. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  16. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.2 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -20 °c to 20 °c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. H.; Meyer, C. W.; Martines-López, E.; Dávila Pacheco, J. A.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2014-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM, Mexico) between July 2008 and December 2008. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and CENAM and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and CENAM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Smart textile plasmonic fiber dew sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hamid; Rivard, Maxime; Arzi, Ezatollah; Légaré, François; Hassani, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensor that detects dew formation in optical fiber-based smart textiles. The proposed SPR sensor facilitates the observation of two phenomena: condensation of moisture and evaporation of water molecules in air. This sensor detects dew formation in less than 0.25 s, and determines dew point temperature with an accuracy of 4%. It can be used to monitor water layer depth changes during dew formation and evaporation in the range of a plasmon depth probe, i.e., 250 nm, with a resolution of 7 nm. Further, it facilitates estimation of the relative humidity of a medium over a dynamic range of 30% to 70% by measuring the evaporation time via the plasmon depth probe.

  18. Methods for the analysis of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S in flue gas and the calculation of the acid dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertyn, C.H.

    1986-02-01

    Methods are given for the analysis of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, and H/sub 2/S in flue gas. Two methods are described for the determination of SO/sub 2/. The method to be used depends on whether or not H/sub 2/S is present in the gas stream. An equation for the calculation of acid dew point is given as well.

  19. Mechanisms of corrosion, falling short of dew point and formation of corrosion in boilers and exhaust systems. Mechanismen der Korrosionsbildung, der Taupunktunterschreitung und Entstehung von Korrosionen in Kessel- und Abgassystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, E.

    1994-09-01

    In order to save energy boilers for heating systems are run on increasingly lower exhaust gas- and boiler temperatures. Combustion as such depends of type of fuel, boiler and burner design, design of exhaust systems and atmospheric disturbance variables. This article looks at the influence which these factors have on corrosion. Falling short of the dew point is an important parameter in this context. Possibilities of avoiding corrosion are explained. (BWI)

  20. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  1. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  2. Multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E.; Mozafari, Morteza; Amiri, Hesam; Légaré, François

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we introduce a multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor which works using a novel method based on relation between surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and water vapor condensation. The proposed sensor can instantly detect moisture or dew formation through its fiber optic channels, separately situated in different places. It enables to simultaneously measure the ambient Relative Humidity (RH) and dew point temperature of several environments with accuracy of 5%.

  3. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  4. Final report on CCT-K6: Comparison of local realisations of dew-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.; Stevens, M.; Abe, H.; Benyon, R.; Bosma, R.; Fernicola, V.; Heinonen, M.; Huang, P.; Kitano, H.; Li, Z.; Nielsen, J.; Ochi, N.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Scace, G.; Smorgon, D.; Vicente, T.; Vinge, A. F.; Wang, L.; Yi, H.

    2015-01-01

    A key comparison in dew-point temperature was carried out among the national standards held by NPL (pilot), NMIJ, INTA, VSL, INRIM, MIKES, NIST, NIM, VNIIFTRI-ESB and NMC. A pair of condensation-principle dew-point hygrometers was circulated and used to compare the local realisations of dew point for participant humidity generators in the range -50 °C to +20 °C. The duration of the comparison was prolonged by numerous problems with the hygrometers, requiring some repairs, and several additional check measurements by the pilot. Despite the problems and the extended timescale, the comparison was effective in providing evidence of equivalence. Agreement with the key comparison reference value was achieved in the majority of cases, and bilateral degrees of equivalence are also reported. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Dew Frequency across the NEON Network from Infrared Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, F.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Beysens, D.

    2017-12-01

    The surface energy budget is more difficult to close at night because of the absence of strong atmospheric turbulence, central in the eddy-covariance calculations. One approach to assessing the direction of the nocturnal latent heat flux is through studying the frequency and magnitude of dew formation in different ecosystems. However, most former dew studies on dew dynamics utilized artificial surfaces to collect dew, and did not have access to the surface temperature of natural surfaces in an ecosystem to provide a continuous whole-plot approach to constrain dew formation. Hourly in-situ measurements recently made available by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) of the radiometric surface temperature and the meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to make continuous estimates of dew formation across 19 ecosystems (9 grasslands and 10 forests) at the plot-scale. Here, dew duration was calculated for each night based on the difference between the surface temperature and the dew point temperature of the air. The results from this analysis show that dew duration is limited by wind speed during the night, with a maximum dew yield at 1.1 m/s and no dew occurrence when the wind speed exceeds 7 m/s. This observation is consistent with previous studies but has been expanded here across multiple biomes to produce a well-defined turbulent limit on dew formation. The sensitivity of dew to wind speed arises because of the exhaustion of the water vapor supply close to the surface of the leaf at very low wind speed, and because the enhanced thermal exchange between the air and the surface counteracts dewfall at high wind speed. This well-defined wind speed limit that persists across sites and seasons could help to estimate the surface energy budget at night by constraining the latent heat flux.

  6. Characterisation of a microwave re-entrant cavity resonator for phase-equilibrium measurements and new dew-point data for a (0.25 argon + 0.75 carbon dioxide) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsankova, Gergana; Richter, Markus; Madigan, Adele; Stanwix, Paul L.; May, Eric F.; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A microwave reentrant cavity resonator was refurbished and extensively characterised. • Vacuum resonance frequencies and Q-factors were modelled and experimentally validated. • Whispering gallery-type modes first-time reported for present cavity geometry. • Dew points of a (0.2491 argon + 0.7509 carbon dioxide) mixture were measured. • Measurements were carried out from T = (252–280) K at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. - Abstract: An apparatus based on a microwave re-entrant cavity resonator, originally built for accurate measurements of the dielectric permittivity of natural gas mixtures, was refurbished and extensively characterised. This was done to enable the future investigation of phase equilibria and (p, ρ, T, x) behaviour of fluid mixtures utilizing the present experimental technique. Vacuum resonance frequencies and Q-factors of the resonator’s modes were modelled using both analytic and finite element methods, and found to compare well with experimental values. The finite element models helped to identify two whispering gallery-type modes not previously reported for such cavity geometries. The models also predict distributions of the electric and magnetic fields in the re-entrant cavity resonator useful for identifying regions in the cavity more sensitive to the presence of a liquid. Following the resonator’s characterisation, its ability to measure dew points was tested using a gravimetrically prepared (0.2501 argon + 0.7499 carbon dioxide) mixture over the temperature range from (252 to 280) K at pressures from (2.8 to 6.9) MPa. The combined expanded uncertainty with a level of confidence of approximately 95% (k = 2) in dew-point temperature and pressure ranged between (0.025 and 0.044) K and from (0.009 to 0.015) MPa, respectively. We compared the experimental dew-point pressures with the recently developed multi-parameter equation of state optimised for combustion gases (EOS-CG), showing relative deviations in the range of (0

  7. Automated calibration of laser spectrometer measurements of δ18 O and δ2 H values in water vapour using a Dew Point Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Cheesman, Alexander W; Gray-Spence, Andrew; Cernusak, Lucas A; Bird, Michael I

    2018-06-30

    Continuous measurement of stable O and H isotope compositions in water vapour requires automated calibration for remote field deployments. We developed a new low-cost device for calibration of both water vapour mole fraction and isotope composition. We coupled a commercially available dew point generator (DPG) to a laser spectrometer and developed hardware for water and air handling along with software for automated operation and data processing. We characterised isotopic fractionation in the DPG, conducted a field test and assessed the influence of critical parameters on the performance of the device. An analysis time of 1 hour was sufficient to achieve memory-free analysis of two water vapour standards and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values were found to be independent of water vapour concentration over a range of ≈20,000-33,000 ppm. The reproducibility of the standard vapours over a 10-day period was better than 0.14 ‰ and 0.75 ‰ for δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, respectively (1 σ, n = 11) prior to drift correction and calibration. The analytical accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of a third independent vapour standard. The DPG distillation process requires that isotope calibration takes account of DPG temperature, analysis time, injected water volume and air flow rate. The automated calibration system provides high accuracy and precision and is a robust, cost-effective option for long-term field measurements of water vapour isotopes. The necessary modifications to the DPG are minor and easily reversible. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. sarcome d'ewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... Le sarcome d'Ewing est une tumeur osseuse rare corres- pondant à la ... Introduction : petrous Ewing sarcoma is exceptional. We report a ..... (15) Iriz A, Albayrak L, Eryilmaz A. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's sarcoma of the.

  9. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Multiple DASs were installed at Fort Carson, and the data from all the sensors were stored and partially processed on Campbell Scientific Data Loggers. The...evaporative cooling technologies would be expected to easily overcome utility- scale water withdrawal rates. As an example, an evaluation of an...Ambient pressure Outdoor Setra 276 1% of full scale Pyranometer Horizontal Campbell Scientific CS300 5% of daily total The OAT measurement has an

  10. Characterization of Emericella nidulans RodA and DewA hydrophobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    hydrophobins RodA and DewA. Individual knock-out mutants rodAΔ, dewAΔ and the double deletion strain rodAΔdewAΔ were constructed. Furthermore, two strains containing a point mutation in the first of the cysteines of RodA (rodA-C57G), where one was coupled to the dewA deletion, were included. The reference...... strain (NID1) and dewAΔ displayed green conidia. However, rodAΔ and rodAΔdewAΔ showed a dark green/brown conidial pigmentation, while rodA-C57G and rodAC57G dewAΔ displayed lighter brown conidia. rodAΔ and rodAΔdewAΔ displayed a higher degree of hülle cells compared to the moderate amount observed...... for NID1 and dewAΔ, while rodA-C57G and rodA-C57G dewAΔ displayed a low number of hülle cells. NID1 and dewAΔ conidia were dispersed as spore chains. rodAΔ, rodAΔdewAΔ, rodA-C57G and rodA-C57G dewAΔ spores were associated in large clumps, where the conidia seemed to adhere to one another. The largest...

  11. Influence of Gas Atmosphere Dew Point on the Selective Oxidation and the Reactive Wetting During Hot Dip Galvanizing of CMnSi TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lawrence; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Young Ha; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2013-01-01

    The selective oxidation and reactive wetting of intercritically annealed Si-bearing CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity steels were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In a N2 + 10 pct H2 gas atmosphere with a dew point (DP) ranging from 213 K to 278 K (-60 °C to 5 °C), a continuous layer of selective oxides was formed on the surface. Annealing in a higher DP gas atmosphere resulted in a thinner layer of external oxidation and a greater depth of internal oxidation. The hot dipping was carried out in a Zn bath containing 0.22 mass pct Al, and the bath temperature was 733 K (460 °C). Coarse and discontinuous Fe2Al5- x Zn x grains and Fe-Zn intermetallics (ζ and δ) were observed at the steel/coating interface after the hot dip galvanizing (HDG) of panels were annealed in a low DP atmosphere 213 K (-60 °C). The Fe-Zn intermetallics were formed both in areas where the Fe2Al5- x Zn x inhibition layer had not been formed and on top of non-stoichiometric Fe-Al-Zn crystals. Poor wetting was observed on panels annealed in a low DP atmosphere because of the formation of thick film-type oxides on the surface. After annealing in higher DP gas atmospheres, i.e., 263 K and 278 K (-10 °C and 5 °C), a continuous and fine-grained Fe2Al5- x Zn x layer was formed. No Fe-Zn intermetallics were formed. The small grain size of the inhibition layer was attributed to the nucleation of the Fe2Al5- x Zn x grains on small ferrite sub-surface grains and the presence of granular surface oxides. A high DP atmosphere can therefore significantly contribute to the decrease of Zn-coating defects on CMnSi TRIP steels processed in HDG lines.

  12. A systematic approach to find the best road map for enhancement of a power plant with dew point inlet air pre-cooling of the air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohani, Ali; Farasati, Yashar; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew-point cooler was proposed in order to enhance a power plant. • A systematic method to find the best road map was offered. • Investigation was done considering four optimization scenarios and different investment plans. • Payback period of the final plan was 2.67 years. • Annual net power and steam generation’s capability were improved 6.02% and 8.92%. - Abstract: Dimensional characteristics and operating parameters of the optimized Maisotsenko indirect evaporative cooler for pre-cooling of the compressor’s inlet air and consequently enhancement of the gas-turbine power generation system as well as the best investment strategy for it were found for an in-operation combined cycle power plant through a systematic approach. Four optimization scenarios were proposed considering different combinations of annual average of net power of the gas-turbine power generation system, payback period time and enthalpy difference of exhaust gases compared to the reference state of each gas-turbine power generation system as objective functions. In each scenario, optimization was conducted for different possible percentages of investment allocated to the research and development of the project. After that, analytical hierarchy process was used to find the best percentage of investment allocated to the research and development of the project of each scenario and the final selected one. Having introduced the approach, it was implemented for Montazer-Ghaem combined cycle power plant in Iran. The results showed for that case study, the analytical hierarchy process selected an optimization scenario in which the annual average of the net power and the enthalpy difference of the exhaust gases compared to the reference state were the objective functions and 15% of the total profit of the gas-turbine power generation system sold electricity was dedicated to the improvement project. This optimization had the payback period time of 2.67 years and it also improved

  13. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  14. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  15. Final report: Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.3 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -30°C to 20°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peter; Meyer, Christopher; Brionizio, Julio D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO, Brazil) between October 2009 and March 2010. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and INMETRO and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and INMETRO. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.1 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -25 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. W.; Hill, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC. This paper is the final report of the comparison including analysis of the uncertainty of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT WG-KC, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.5 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -30 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica) between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Correlation between the solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and micellar solutions, with their normal boiling points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, M.; Grieser, F.; Powell, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A linear correlation between the logarithm of the solubility in water of aromatic hydrocarbons and their normal boiling points is shown. Similarly, the logarithm of the distribution ratio of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous micellar solution is shown to be linearly related to the boiling points of the hydrocarbons. 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Effects of temperature at constant air dew point on leaf carboxylation efficiency and CO2 compensation point of different leaf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J A; Tenhunen, J D; Lange, O L

    1985-09-01

    The effect of temperature on photosynthesis at constant water-vapor pressure in the air was investigated using two sclerophyll species, Arbutus unedo and Quercus suber, and one mesophytic species, Spinacia oleracea. Photosynthesis and transpiration were measured over a range of temperatures, 20-39° C. The external concentration of CO2 was varied from 340 μbar to near CO2 compensation. The initial slope (carboxylation efficiency, CE) of the photosynthetic response to intercellular CO2 concentration, the CO2 compensation point (Γ), and the extrapolated rate of CO2 released into CO2-free air (R i) were calculated. At an external CO2 concentration of 320-340 μbar CO2, photosynthesis decreased with temperature in all species. The effect of temperature on Γ was similar in all species. While CE in S. oleracea changed little with temperature, CE decreased by 50% in Q. suber as temperature increased from 25 to 34° C. Arbutus unedo also exhibited a decrease in CE at higher temperatures but not as marked as Q. suber. The absolut value of R i increased with temperature in S. oleracea, while changing little or decreasing in the sclerophylls. Variations in Γ and R i of the sclerophyll species are not consistent with greater increase of respiration with temperature in the light in these species compared with S. oleracea.

  20. A re-entrant resonator for the measurement of phase boundaries: dew points for {0.4026CH4 + 0.5974C3H8}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, Mohamed E.; Marsh, Kenneth N.; Goodwin, Anthony R.H.

    2005-01-01

    For a natural gas and, especially, retrograde condensates, it is important for exploration and production that the (liquid + gas) phase boundary be known along with the ratio of liquid-to-gas volumes within the (liquid + gas) two-phase region. These fluid properties can be measured by a plethora of methods and here we report a method based on the measurement of the resonance frequency of the lowest order inductive-capacitance mode of a re-entrant cavity capable of operating at temperatures up to 473 K and pressures below 20 MPa. This instrument has been used to measure, at T 4 + 0.5974C 3 H 8 }. The measured dew pressures differ by less than 0.5 % from values obtained by interpolation of those reported in the literature, which were determined from measurements with experimental techniques that suffer from quite different potential sources of systematic error than the radio-frequency resonator used here. Dew pressures estimated from both NIST 14 and the Peng-Robinson equation of state lie within <±1 % of our results at temperature between (315 and 337) K while predictions obtained from the Soave Redlich Kwong cubic equation of state deviate from our results by 0.4 % at T = 315 K and these absolute differences increase smoothly with increasing temperature to be -2.4 % at T = 337 K

  1. Estimation of Freezing Point of Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Mixtures for Mixed Refrigerant jt Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the freezing point of refrigerant is an essential part in designing an MR JT (Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson) cryocooler to prevent itself from clogging and to operate with stability. There were researches on estimating freezing point, but some of them resulted in the wrong prediction of clogging. In this paper, the freezing point of the MR is precisely estimated with caution of clogging. The solubility of HC (hydrocarbon) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) mixture components are obtained with their activity coefficients, which represent the molecular interaction among the components. The freezing points of the MR JT cryocooler are systematically investigated in the operating temperature range from 70 K to 90 K.

  2. Final report on EURAMET.T-K6.1: Bilateral comparison of the realisations of local dew/frost-point temperature scales in the range -70 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Zvizdic, Davor; Sestan, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    As the European extension of the first CCT humidity key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6 was successfully completed in year 2008. After this comparison, a new low dew-point generator was introduced at LPM in Croatia as a result of progress in the EUROMET P912 project. With this new facility, the LPM uncertainties decreased significantly and the operating range became significantly wider. Therefore, it was decided to arrange a bilateral comparison between LPM and MIKES in Finland providing a link to EUROMET.T-K6 and CCT-K6. This comparison was carried out in a manner similar to other K6 comparisons but only one transfer standard was used instead of two units and the measurement point -70 °C was added to the measurement scheme. At all measurement points, the bilateral equivalence was well within the estimated expanded uncertainty at the approximately 95% confidence level. Also, the deviations of the LPM results from the EUROMET.T-K6 reference values were smaller than their expanded uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  4. Is KCl(g) corrosive at temperatures above its dew point? Influence of KCl(g) on initial stages of the high temperature corrosion of 11% Cr steel at 600 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerdahl, K.; Pettersson, J.; Svensson, J.E.; Johansson, L.G. [Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, High Temperature Corrosion Centre, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The influence of gaseous KCl on the high temperature oxidation of CrMoV11 1 (X20) steel at 600 C is reported. The sample temperature was above the dew point of KCl, the partial pressure of KCl being about 5ppm. The samples were investigated by a number of surface analytical techniques including grazing angle XRD, SEM/EDX, and SAM. CrMoV11 1 steel shows protective behaviour in clean dry O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment because of the formation of a chromium-rich oxide ({alpha}-(Fe,Cr){sub 2}O{sub 3}). It is often considered that alkali salts accelerate the corrosion of steel only when present on the surface in solid or liquid form. In contrast, the present result shows that gaseous KCl is very corrosive, also in the absence of condensation. KCl(g) reacts with chromium in the scale, forming K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}(s). This depletes the protective oxide in chromium and leads to the formation of non-protective hematite, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (orig.)

  5. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  6. Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control. PMID:22163813

  7. The Effect of Climate Change on Variations in Dew Amount in a Paddy Ecosystem of the Sanjiang Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to global warming, a drying and warming trend has been observed over the last 50 years in the Sanjiang Plain of Heilongjiang Province, China, which could significantly affect the condensation of vapor in paddy ecosystems. Dew is a crucial factor in the water and nutrient cycling of farmland ecosystems, and it exerts an important influence on fertilization and other agricultural activities. In order to reveal the effects of global warming on dew variation in a paddy ecosystem, an in situ experiment was conducted in paddy fields in the Sanjiang Plain during the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013. Dew was collected and measured with a poplar stick. The results of correlation analysis between meteorological factors and dew intensity in the paddy ecosystem indicate that the dew point temperature and relative humidity significantly influenced the dew intensity. Based on synchronous meteorological data, a stepwise linear multivariation regression model was established to predict dew amount. The model successfully interpreted the relationship between simulated and measured dew intensity. The results suggest that a warmer and drier climate would lead to a reduction in dew amount because water cannot condense when relative humidity falls below 71%.

  8. KEY COMPARISON Report to the CCT on key comparison EUROMET.T-K6 (EUROMET Project no. 621): Comparison of the realizations of local dew/frost-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    2010-01-01

    The first humidity CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6, will be completed in 2010. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was carried out in 2004 to 2008. National metrology institutes from 24 countries participated in the comparison. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was organized as three parallel loops with two specially manufactured precision chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. MIKES was coordinating the project. This report presents the results of the comparison and provides detailed information on the measurements performed by all participating laboratories and the analysis of the results. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Control of dew and frost formation on leaf by radiative cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.; Eguchi, H.; Mori, K.

    1981-01-01

    A radiative cooling system was developed to control dew and frost formations and to examine the effect of the radiative cooling on the leaf temperature. The growth chamber was provided with a box which was constructed by using heat insulating materials to minimize the disturbances and to regulate the air current. A cooling coil (cooling surface of 300 cm was equipped at the bottom of the box and manipulated by a refrigerator of 1, 430 kcal hour -1 , and a concave mirror was attached to the ceiling of the box to facilitate the reflection of the radiation from the leaf to the cooling coil. The moisture in air was supplied by flowing the controlled air (0.2 m min -1 ) into the box. The distribution of dew point temperatures was almost uniform horizontally even under vertically slight conversion (downward velocity of 1.3 cm sec -1 ) of the air. The leaf temperature became about 1.0°C lower than the ambient air temperature under the radiative cooling. The dew and the frost were clearly observed on the leaf after the time when the leaf temperature had become lower than the dew point temperature. The dew increased in size in course of time, and the frost varied in shape and in size with the temperatures. Thus, artificial formations of the dew and the frost were made possible by the radiative cooling system developed in this experiment

  10. Fog and dew climatology over Hisar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surender, S.; Diwan, S.; Rao, V.U.M.

    2006-05-01

    In many arid and semi-arid areas, pumped ground water and the water from streams, rivers and reservoirs is no longer sufficient to cover the ever increasing water demand. Therefore new interest in 'marginal' water resources like fog and dew harvesting are to be developed after studying climatology of these parameters in a region. The observations on dew and fog events recorded at Hisar, representing semi-arid region of India during winter season (October to March) for the period 1980 to 2005 have been analyzed. The total annual dew amount in winter season ranged between 33 mm (1987-88) and 79 mm (1981-82) during the period under study. The seasonal dewfall showed a decreasing trend of 1.4 mm during the period under investigation. Average maximum dew events (26.1) were recorded during November and average minimum dew events were recorded in February. In a particular season, the highest dew events (168) were observed during the winter seasons of 1982-83 and 1983-84, whereas, the minimum number of dew events (97) was reported during 1998-99. Interestingly, an increasing trend (1.3 day/season) in occurrence of fog events was seen. Average maximum foggy events (8.7) recorded in a month were observed in January. In a particular season, the maximum foggy events (41) were recorded during 2002-03 and the minimum (2) during 1983-84. To achieve the objective of alternate source of water and to assess the impact of dew and fog on agricultural crops for their growth and development, inputs from various specialized disciplines and allied sciences engaged in meteorological applications along with forecasting skills from non scientific quarters are needed to predict the weather parameter accurately, thus the active cooperation between meteorological/remote sensing agencies, agricultural organizations and farming community is needed for sustainable agricultural development in scarce/limited water availability regions. (author)

  11. TFOS DEWS II Report Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jennifer P; Nelson, J Daniel; Azar, Dimitri T; Belmonte, Carlos; Bron, Anthony J; Chauhan, Sunil K; de Paiva, Cintia S; Gomes, José A P; Hammitt, Katherine M; Jones, Lyndon; Nichols, Jason J; Nichols, Kelly K; Novack, Gary D; Stapleton, Fiona J; Willcox, Mark D P; Wolffsohn, James S; Sullivan, David A

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an Executive Summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the 10-chapter TFOS DEWS II report. The entire TFOS DEWS II report was published in the July 2017 issue of The Ocular Surface. A downloadable version of the document and additional material, including videos of diagnostic and management techniques, are available on the TFOS website: www.TearFilm.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of atmospheric corrosion environments and its application to constant dew-point corrosion test; Yagai taiki fushoku kankyo no modeling to sore ni motozuku teirotengata saikuru fushoku shikenho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, I. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] Sugimoto, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Recently, stainless steel is increasing its demand for corrosion resistant building materials. Then, as it is necessary to develop and accelerating testing method capable of accurately estimating weatherability at sea side area, such testing method has no been developed yet because of difficulty to quantify corrosive environment relating to atmospheric corrosion phenomenon. As air temperature and relative humidity in outdoor change in complex, specific temperature and relative humidity cannot be used for their representative values. And, construction of corrosive factors such as sea salt particles, and so on are also much different at each area. However, at coastal area, a dew water dissolving the sea salt particles, so called droplets of chlorides aqueous solution is formed onto material surface. Then, in this study, on a base of drying and humidity absorption behavior and daily change behavior of temperature and humidity in outdoor, modeling of atmospheric corrosion environment was tried. An accelerating testing method according to this modeling was developed, long-term weathering test was compared with the corrosion behavior of the same steel, and validity of a new accelerating testing method was evaluated. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Anthony J; de Paiva, Cintia S; Chauhan, Sunil K; Bonini, Stefano; Gabison, Eric E; Jain, Sandeep; Knop, Erich; Markoulli, Maria; Ogawa, Yoko; Perez, Victor; Uchino, Yuichi; Yokoi, Norihiko; Zoukhri, Driss; Sullivan, David A

    2017-07-01

    The TFOS DEWS II Pathophysiology Subcommittee reviewed the mechanisms involved in the initiation and perpetuation of dry eye disease. Its central mechanism is evaporative water loss leading to hyperosmolar tissue damage. Research in human disease and in animal models has shown that this, either directly or by inducing inflammation, causes a loss of both epithelial and goblet cells. The consequent decrease in surface wettability leads to early tear film breakup and amplifies hyperosmolarity via a Vicious Circle. Pain in dry eye is caused by tear hyperosmolarity, loss of lubrication, inflammatory mediators and neurosensory factors, while visual symptoms arise from tear and ocular surface irregularity. Increased friction targets damage to the lids and ocular surface, resulting in characteristic punctate epithelial keratitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, filamentary keratitis, lid parallel conjunctival folds, and lid wiper epitheliopathy. Hybrid dry eye disease, with features of both aqueous deficiency and increased evaporation, is common and efforts should be made to determine the relative contribution of each form to the total picture. To this end, practical methods are needed to measure tear evaporation in the clinic, and similarly, methods are needed to measure osmolarity at the tissue level across the ocular surface, to better determine the severity of dry eye. Areas for future research include the role of genetic mechanisms in non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye, the targeting of the terminal duct in meibomian gland disease and the influence of gaze dynamics and the closed eye state on tear stability and ocular surface inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of Nigeria's Inland Basins: From the View Point of Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Abubakar, M. B.; Jauro, A.; Tukur, A.; Wehner, H.

    2003-01-01

    The inland basins of Nigeria comprise the Anambra basin, the lower, middle and upper Benue trough, the southeastern sector of the Chad basin, the Mid-Niger (Bida) basin, and the Sokoto basin. Organic geochemical and organic petrologic studies indicate that coal beds constitute major potential source rocks in the whole of the Benue trough (Anambra basin inclusive). The generation and production of liquid and i gaseous hydrocarbons from coal beds presently is world-wide indisputable. In the Anambra basin, the coal beds in the Mamu Formation have TOC contents of up to 60.8wt%, mean Hydrogen Index (HI) of 364mgHC/gTOC, vitrinite reflectivity (Ro) of 0.54 to 0.56% and Tmax 430 to 433degrees C. Biomarker data indicate a dominance of high molecular weight : n-alkanes, very high pristane/phytane ratios, pronounced odd-over-even predominance (OEP), preponderance of C29 regular steranes but with also relatively high contents of C28. In the middle Benue trough, the coal beds of the Awgu Formation have TOC contents of up to 79.1 Owt%, Ro of 0.83 to 1.07%, and mean HI of 281 mgHC/gTOC; unimodal distributions of both low and high molecular weight n-alkanes with no obvious OEP, and a predominance of C29 steranes but also with relatively high contents of C27 and C28. Coal beds from the Lamja Formation in the upper Benue trough yielded TOC contents of up to 50.7wt% with HI of 184mgHC/gTOC, Ro of 0.70 to 0.73%, low and high molecular weights n- alkane dominance with an unpronounced OEP, high pristane/phytane ratios, and very high contents of C29 regular steranes. On a basinal evaluation level, incorporating source rock data from the other formations in the respective sectors, plots on the modified Van Krevelen diagram alongside biomarker and maceral data indicate good i to fair source rock qualities (oil and gas) in the Anambra basin and middle Benue trough; and fair to poor (gaseous to dry) in the upper Benue trough and the Chad basin, with sporadic good to fair source rock

  15. Dew measurement and estimation of rain-fed jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill) in a semi-arid loess hilly region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing; GAO Zhiyong; WANG Youke; Wang Zhi; JIN Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    Dew is an important water source for plants in arid and semi-arid regions.However,information on dew is scarce in such regions.In this study,we explored dew formation,amount,and duration of rain-fed jujube (Zi(w)phus jujube Mill) trees in a semi-arid loess hilly region of China (i.e.,Mizhi County).The data included dew intensity and duration,relative humidity,temperature,and wind speed measured from 26 July to 23 October,2012 and from 24 June to 17 October,2013 using a micro-climate system (including dielectric leaf wetness sensors,VP-3 Relative Humidity/Temperature Sensor,High Resolution Rain Gauge,and Davis Cup Anemometer).The results show that atmospheric conditions of relative humidity of >78% and dew point temperature of 1℃C-3℃C are significantly favorable to dew formation.Compared with the rainfall,dew was characterized by high frequency,strong stability,and long duration.Furthermore,heavy dew accounted for a large proportion of the total amount.The empirical models (i.e.,relative humidity model (RH model) and dew point depression model (DPD model)) for daily dew duration estimation performed well at 15-rain intervals,with low errors ranging between 1.29 and 1.60 h,respectively.But it should be noted that the models should be calibrated firstly by determining the optimal thresholds of relatively humidity for RH model and dew point depression for DPD model.For rain-fed jujube trees in the semi-arid loess hilly regions of China,the optimal threshold of relative humidity was 78%,and the optimal upper and lower thresholds of dew point depression were 1℃C and 5℃C,respectively.The study further demonstrates that dew is an important water resource that cannot be ignored for rain-fed jujube trees and may affect water balance at regional scales.

  16. Application of passive radiative cooling for dew condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beysens, Daniel; Muselli, Marc; Milimouk, Iryna

    2006-01-01

    Dew water was collected from several passive foil-based radiative condensers established in a variety of geographic settings: continental (Grenoble, in an alpine valley, and Brive-la-Gaillarde, in the Central Massif volcanic area, both in France), French Atlantic coast (Bordeaux), eastern Mediterranean (Jerusalem, Israel), and the island of Corsica (Ajaccio, France) in the Mediterranean Sea. In Ajaccio two large 30 m 2 condensers have been operating since 2000. Additional semi-quantitative dew measurements were also carried out for Komiza, island of Vis (Croatia) in the Adriatic Sea, and in Mediterranean Zadar and Dubrovnik (both in Croatia). Dew potential was calculated for the Pacific Ocean island of Tahiti (French Polynesia). The data show that significant amounts of dew water can be collected. Selected chemical and biological analyses established that dew is, in general, potable. Continued research is required for new and inexpensive materials that can enhance dew condensation

  17. Evaluation of hydrocarbon-liquid disposition. Topical report, July 1990-November 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, J.E.; Tannehill, C.C.

    1991-08-01

    The report examines the current practice and technology used in natural gas liquids (NGL) extraction in small scale gas processing facilities. The removal of NGLs from a natural gas stream is driven by two factors: (1) hydrocarbon dew point and heating value control; and (2) economic recovery of the NGLs. Wellhead condensates are purchased at a price per barrel adjusted for transportation costs. Water is disposed of by truck at an approximate cost of $1.00 per barrel. Natural gas with a BTU content greater than 1150 normally will require NGL extraction prior to pipeline delivery. NGL recovery, if not required for hydrocarbon dew point or heating value control, must be justified by the value of the liquids exceeding the sum of the following costs: BTU value of the liquids; fuel consumed in the process; operating costs for the plant; and return of the plant investment capital. Liquids are purchased based on component posted prices with the cost of transportation, component fractionation and marketing subtracted. Rich gas in small quantities is normally processed in a straight refrigeration plant. Leaner gas in larger quantities is normally processed in a cryogenic expansion plant. With current technology, there is not sufficient margin to treat lean gases on a small scale

  18. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  19. On Use of the Variable Zagreb vM2 Index in QSPR: Boiling Points of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Jurić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The variable Zagreb vM2 index is introduced and applied to the structure-boiling point modeling of benzenoid hydrocarbons. The linear model obtained (thestandard error of estimate for the fit model Sfit=6.8 oC is much better than thecorresponding model based on the original Zagreb M2 index (Sfit=16.4 oC. Surprisingly,the model based on the variable vertex-connectivity index (Sfit=6.8 oC is comparable tothe model based on vM2 index. A comparative study with models based on the vertex-connectivity index, edge-connectivity index and several distance indices favours modelsbased on the variable Zagreb vM2 index and variable vertex-connectivity index.However, the multivariate regression with two-, three- and four-descriptors givesimproved models, the best being the model with four-descriptors (but vM2 index is notamong them with Sfit=5 oC, though the four-descriptor model contaning vM2 index isonly slightly inferior (Sfit=5.3 oC.

  20. On dew and micrometeorology in an arid coastal ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated intriguing aspects of dew within a sandy arid ecosystem situated in the NW Negev desert, Israel. The goal was to quantify dew formation and evaporation processes through sensor design, field measurements and modelling. To do this, two new sensors were developed. The first

  1. Dew Measurements along a Longitudinal Sand Dune Transect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a desert environment dew can serve as an important source of moisture for plants, biological crusts, insects and small animals. A measurement programme was carried out within a sand dune belt situated in the northwestern Negev desert, Israel, to measure daily amounts of dew deposition as well as

  2. Dew Point Temperature Affects Ascospore Release of Allergenic Genus Leptosphaeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sadyś, M.; Kaczmarek, J.; Grinn-Gofron, A.; Rodinkova, V.; Prikhodko, A.; Bilous, E.; Strzelczak, A.; Herbert, Rob; Jedryczka, M.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Leptosphaeria contains numerous fungi that cause the symptoms of asthma and also parasitize wild and crop plants. In search of a robust and universal forecast model, the ascospore concentration in air was measured and weather data recorded from 1 March to 31 October between 2006 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in three European countries of the temperate climate, i.e., Ukraine, Poland, and the UK. Out of over 150 forecast models produced using artificial neural networks (ANNs...

  3. Control of the dew point for refreshing ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrach, R.; Nitz, T.

    1996-03-01

    The functioning of a refreshing ceiling, delivered in water, needs a global regulation which must take in consideration, the local, the building and its environment. Then efficiency and energy and investments economy are optimized. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  5. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  6. Inertially Stabilized Platforms for Precision Pointing Applications to Directed-Energy Weapons and Space-Based Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negro, J; Griffin, S

    2006-01-01

    .... This article addresses directed-energy-weapon (DEW) precision pointing requirements and implementation alternatives in the context of strapdown and stable-platform inertial-reference technologies...

  7. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Argüeso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A; Holopainen, Juha M; Laurie, Gordon W; Millar, Tom J; Papas, Eric B; Rolland, Jannick P; Schmidt, Tannin A; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Uçakhan, Omür Ö; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-07-01

    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jennifer P; Nichols, Kelly K; Akpek, Esen K; Caffery, Barbara; Dua, Harminder S; Joo, Choun-Ki; Liu, Zuguo; Nelson, J Daniel; Nichols, Jason J; Tsubota, Kazuo; Stapleton, Fiona

    2017-07-01

    The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition. In the light of new data, neurosensory abnormalities were also included in the definition for the first time. In the classification of DED, recent evidence supports a scheme based on the pathophysiology where aqueous deficient and evaporative dry eye exist as a continuum, such that elements of each are considered in diagnosis and management. Central to the scheme is a positive diagnosis of DED with signs and symptoms, and this is directed towards management to restore homeostasis. The scheme also allows consideration of various related manifestations, such as non-obvious disease involving ocular surface signs without related symptoms, including neurotrophic conditions where dysfunctional sensation exists, and cases where symptoms exist without demonstrable ocular surface signs, including neuropathic pain. This approach is not intended to override clinical assessment and judgment but should prove helpful in guiding clinical management and research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Projected climate change impacts upon dew yield in the Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszkiewicz, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Abou Najm, M., E-mail: majdian@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Beysens, D. [Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, UMR 7636 CNRS — ESPCI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie — Universite Paris Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Service des Basses Temperatures, CEA-Grenoble & Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); OPUR, 60 rue Emeriau, 75015 Paris (France); Alameddine, I. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bou Zeid, E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); El-Fadel, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-10-01

    Water scarcity is increasingly raising the need for non-conventional water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this context, atmospheric moisture can potentially be harvested in the form of dew, which is commonly disregarded from the water budget, although its impact may be significant when compared to rainfall during the dry season. In this study, a dew atlas for the Mediterranean region is presented illustrating dew yields using the yield data collected for the 2013 dry season. The results indicate that cumulative monthly dew yield in the region can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season and 1.5 mm during the driest months, compared to < 1 mm of rainfall during the same period in some areas. Dew yields were compared with potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (ET) during summer months thus highlighting the role of dew to many native plants in the region. Furthermore, forecasted trends in temperature and relative humidity were used to estimate dew yields under future climatic scenarios. The results showed a 27% decline in dew yield during the critical summer months at the end of the century (2080). - Highlights: • Dew atlas for Mediterranean region is presented. • Cumulative dew yields can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season. • Dew yields compared with PET and ET show the role of dew to many native plants. • Forecasted trends under future climatic scenarios show a 27% decline in dew yield.

  10. On the contribution of atmospheric moisture to dew formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.

    1988-09-01

    The relative contributions of dewfall (a flux of water vapour from air to surface) and distillation (a flux of water vapour from soil to canopy) to dew formation on closed canopy and bare soil surfaces are assessed, and the dependence of dew amount upon wind speed, absolute temperature, atmospheric stability, relative humidity, soil characteristics and cloudiness, all of which are significant factors, is evaluated. Some of these evaluations provide refinements to similar ones given in Monteith (1961). High dewfall rates are usually ≲0.06 mm hr-1 over canopy or bare soil, though upon a canopy under soil-saturated and air-saturated conditions, rates of dew formation may reach 0.07 0.09 mm hr-1 with contributions from distillation. Various sets of observations are reanalyzed to illustrate the importance of the horizontal advection of moisture in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to observed high rates of dew formation arising from the atmospheric contribution of water vapour (dewfall). These locally observed high dewfall rates must be the result of small-scale or mesoscale horizontal advection of moisture in the NBL, since the humidity changes within the typically shallow NBL required to balance the loss of water at the surface are not observed. Over extensive areas of uniform surface (horizontal scales ≫10 km), such continuously high dewfall rates could only be balanced by a local supply of atmospheric moisture since advection of moisture would necessarily be small.

  11. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  12. Miniaturised Optical Fibre Sensor for Dew Detection Inside Organ Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baldini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor for the continuous monitoring of the dew formation inside organ pipes was designed. This aspect is particularly critical for the conservation of organs in unheated churches since the dew formation or the condensation on the pipe surfaces can contribute to many kinds of physical and chemical disruptive mechanisms. The working principle is based on the change in the reflectivity which is observed on the surface of the fibre tip, when a water layer is formed on its distal end. Intensity changes of the order of 35% were measured, following the formation of the water layer on the distal end of a 400/430 μm optical fibre. Long-term tests carried out placing the fibre tip inside the base of an in-house-made metallic foot of an organ pipe located in an external environment revealed the consistency of the proposed system.

  13. Determination of dew absorption by coffee plant through deuterium concentrations in leaf water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, P R [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil); Salati, E; Matsui, E [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-12-01

    The effect of dew falling on leaves on the water metabolism of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) is examined. The use of natural stable isotopes variations in plant physiological studies is demonstrated. Water extracted from leaf samples is analysed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of deuterium concentrations in water extracted from plant leaves, dew and nutrient solutions are made. Determination of changes in deuterium concentration in the water of leaves from plants exposed to dew, compared with leaves not exposed to dew, is carried out. Results show that during daytime there is an enrichment in deuterium in water contained in the leaves, while at night the opposite occurs.

  14. Determination of dew absorption by coffee plant through deuterium concentrations in leaf water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dew falling on leaves on the water metabolism of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) is examined. The use of natural stable isotopes variations in plant physiological studies is demonstrated. Water extracted from leaf samples is analysed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of deuterium concentrations in water extracted from plant leaves, dew and nutrient solutions are made. Determination of changes in deuterium concentration in the water of leaves from plants exposed to dew, compared with leaves not exposed to dew, is carried out. Results show that during daytime there is an enrichment in deuterium in water contained in the leaves, while at night the opposite occurs [pt

  15. Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

    2014-05-01

    Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar

  16. Acoustic dew point and bubble point detector for gas condensates and reservoir fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, A.; Hu, Y.; Thomas, F. B.; Bennion, D. B.; Jamaluddin, A. K. M. [Hycal Energy Research Labs. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Detailed knowledge of bubblepoint and dewpoint pressures at reservoir temperature are crucial for natural gas processing, transportation, metering and utilization. This paper introduces a new acoustic dewpoint and bubblepoint detector that can be applied to a broad range of phase transitions, including very lean gas systems and opaque heavy oils. The system uses two acoustic transducers, one to stimulate and the other to detect normal mode vibrations of reservoir fluids in a small cylindrical resonator. The acoustic spectra are recorded at close intervals throughout the phase envelope, along with temperature, pressure and volume measurements, and the data is processed to obtain the specific condition of phase transition. Results of two systems, a binary mixture and live reservoir fluid, are presented. The detector system is claimed to be capable of operation in an isothermal mode with variable volume, and in a constant volume mode with variable temperatures. Interpretation of results is free of operator subjectivity; they show excellent agreement with results obtained by visual methods and equations of state calculations. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Effect of artificially-generated wind on removing guttation and dew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DynabookSS

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... wind on the formation and removal of guttation and dew droplets on rice leaves. ... Wind is thought to reduce the number of spores attached to rice plant and to promote removal of dew droplets on the leaves. Thus, the penetration of blast into ..... and the application for forecasting method of the rice blast.

  18. Estimating dew formation in rice, using seasonally averaged diel patterns of weather variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, W.; Goudriaan, J.

    2004-01-01

    If dew formation cannot be measured it has to be estimated. Available simulation models for estimating dew formation require hourly weather data as input. However, such data are not available for places without an automatic weather station. In such cases the diel pattern of weather variables might

  19. Dew variability in three habitats of a sand dune transect in a desert oasis ecotone, Northwestern China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Dew, as a supplementary water source, may have an important ecological role in arid and semi-arid regions. During August and September of 2007 and 2008, measurements were taken to investigate the dew accumulation and evaporation patterns in the very early morning hours, in three different habitats (dunetop, footslope, and interdune lowland) of a fixed sand dune in Northwest China. Dew quantities were measured using the cloth-plate method. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between dew amounts and relative humidity, but a negative correlation between dew amounts and mean temperature. Clear mornings were characterized by higher dew amounts and longer dew duration, whereas less dew was recorded during cloudy and especially windy mornings. Dew continued to condense even after sunrise, although a shorter warming time after dawn is also of vital importance in dew formation. The higher average maximum dew quantities (0.06mm) and longer average dew duration (2.3h) occurred in the interdune lo...

  20. TFOS DEWS II Management and Therapy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyndon; Downie, Laura E; Korb, Donald; Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose M; Dana, Reza; Deng, Sophie X; Dong, Pham N; Geerling, Gerd; Hida, Richard Yudi; Liu, Yang; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Tauber, Joseph; Wakamatsu, Tais H; Xu, Jianjiang; Wolffsohn, James S; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-07-01

    The members of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee undertook an evidence-based review of current dry eye therapies and management options. Management options reviewed in detail included treatments for tear insufficiency and lid abnormalities, as well as anti-inflammatory medications, surgical approaches, dietary modifications, environmental considerations and complementary therapies. Following this extensive review it became clear that many of the treatments available for the management of dry eye disease lack the necessary Level 1 evidence to support their recommendation, often due to a lack of appropriate masking, randomization or controls and in some cases due to issues with selection bias or inadequate sample size. Reflecting on all available evidence, a staged management algorithm was derived that presents a step-wise approach to implementing the various management and therapeutic options according to disease severity. While this exercise indicated that differentiating between aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye disease was critical in selecting the most appropriate management strategy, it also highlighted challenges, based on the limited evidence currently available, in predicting relative benefits of specific management options, in managing the two dry eye disease subtypes. Further evidence is required to support the introduction, and continued use, of many of the treatment options currently available to manage dry eye disease, as well as to inform appropriate treatment starting points and understand treatment specificity in relation to dry eye disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Engineered Wettability on the Efficiency of Dew Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William L; Ölçeroglu, Emre; McCarthy, Matthew; Benkoski, Jason J

    2018-01-31

    Surface wettability plays an important role in dew collection. Nucleation is faster on hydrophilic surfaces, while droplets slide more readily on hydrophobic surfaces. Plants and animals in coastal desert environments appear to overcome this trade-off through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. In this study, we investigate the effects of millimeter-scale wettability patterns, mimicking those of the Stenocara beetle, on the rate of water collection from humid air. The rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of subcooling (ΔT = 1, 7, and 27 °C) and angle of inclination (from 10° to 90°). It is then compared for superbiphilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and surperhydrophobic surfaces. For large subcooling, neither wettability nor tilt angle has a significant effect because the rate of condensation is so great. For 1 °C subcooling and large angles, hydrophilic surfaces perform best because condensation is the rate-limiting step. For low angles of inclination, superhydrophobic samples are best because droplet sliding is the rate-limiting step. Superbiphilic surfaces, in contrast to their superior fog collecting capabilities, generally collected dew at the slowest rate due to their inherent contact angle hysteresis. Theoretical considerations suggest that this finding may apply more generally to surfaces with patterned wettability.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  3. Urban dew and rain in Paris, France: Occurrence and physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beysens, D.; Mongruel, A.; Acker, K.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes one year (April 2011 to March 2012) measurements on planar condensing surfaces of dew and rain events and related physico-chemical characteristics in the urban environment of Paris (city center). Yearly collected water was 3.48 mm for dew (63 events) and 593 mm for rain (146 events). The latter value compares well with rain data (547 mm and 107 events) collected within 12 km at Paris-Orly airport. An estimation of dew yield based on meteo data gives 2.35 mm and 74 events, to be compared with 17.11 mm and 196 events at Paris-Orly. These differences highlight the large reduction in dew events and dew yields in an urban area as compared to a close rural-like area. This reduction is not due to a sky view reduction but to heat island that increases air temperature and decreases relative humidity. Analysis of dew (34) and rain (77) samples were done concerning pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations as well as selected trace metals and other minor ions. Mean pH values are found similar for both, dew (6.5) and rain (6.1), rain being slightly more acidic than dew. The mean dew total ionic content (TIC 1.8 meq/l) and EC value (124 μS/cm) are about four times that of rain (0.45 meq/l; 35 μS/cm), meaning that total dissolved solids in dew is nearly four times that in rain. Sulfate and nitrate are the most acidifying components, calcium the most neutralizing constituent with ratio of mean total acidity/total alkalinity comparable for dew and rain ( 0.9). Sulfate and nitrate have mainly anthropogenic sources, whereas chloride and magnesium are mostly connected with marine air masses. Dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition of pollutants; dew and rain ion concentrations, however, meet the WHO requirements for drinking water.

  4. Reprises textuelles dans The Dew Breaker d’Edwidge Danticat Rewriting / Reprising in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Duboin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In her recent novel, The Dew Breaker (2004, Haitian-American writer Edwidge Danticat weaves together the lives of her bruised Haitian characters and their torturer, a former Tonton Macoute, all in exile in the US. Seven of the nine chapters were previously published as separate short stories and have been rearranged to form a novel. The reader is then led to unravel a narrative tangle made of many threads. The disparate nature of the book, its non-linear narrative, the plurality of stories and voices, the gaps in a fragmented, elliptic text all bear witness to an alternative approach to creative writing. Like a seamstress, the novelist pieces together individual stories, connecting them as the multifarious facets of a great whole. In the wake of francophone Haitian writers (namely Jacques Roumain, the author of Masters of the Dew, and Jacques Stephen Alexis who wrote General Sun, My Brother, Edwidge Danticat fictionalizes the traumatic history of a people confronted with violence and terror and engages in a complex intertextual game. Combining ethics and aesthetics, temporal and textual memory, the novelist explores facts and, rather than giving answers, raises difficult questions. Her characters, whether victims or perpetrators, all strive to free themselves from a haunting past: is it ever possible to forgive so as to heal the pain? Can one make amends for the harm that has been done to victims who seek redress?

  5. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  6. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  7. Dew and hoarfrost frequency, formation efficiency and chemistry in Wroclaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Błaś, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.; Wałaszek, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research study concerning a comparison of frequency, formation efficiency and basic physico-chemical properties of dew and hoarfrost in urban conditions. Longer than two-year series of measurements was carried out from 1 February 2008 to 10 March 2010 in Wroclaw, Poland. Sampling of atmospheric deposits was made by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers, which allowed to collect 222 dew and 96 hoarfrost samples. The results indicate that the frequency of dew days was about threefold greater than hoarfrost days. The formation efficiency of both types of deposits was almost the same, and reached a mean value of about 100 mL·m- 2 per day. The conducted analysis of several meteorological parameters showed that dew and hoarfrost, despite seasonal weather changes, were formed in very similar meteorological conditions. Only water vapor pressure values were in average twice higher in the case of dew and the impact of this parameter on dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency seems to be more complex than expected. The role of night duration in counterbalancing of smaller amount of available moisture in hoarfrost days is not clear. The investigation showed also, that there was an expected clear positive dependence of dew and hoarfrost formation efficiency on relative humidity, and not so evident in the case of temperature inversion, and wind velocity. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the pH of dew was only slightly lower than the hoarfrost ones, regardless of the deposit formation intensity. Simultaneously, the lower pH values were much more frequent in the case of dew, which resulted from more effective absorption of anthropogenic NO3- and SO42 - ions. For both types of deposits, the average pH was low (4.5-4.8) in relation to majority of studies reported in literature. In spite of seasonal changes of pollutant concentration, various weather conditions and different mechanisms of pollutant absorption of dew

  8. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  9. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  10. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Alaska DEW Line Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Chlorinate hydrocarbons Radar components Calgon corrosion inhibitor 55 gallon drums (empty) Lye Lime Corrosives Antifreeze Paper Wood Plastics AVGAS...Factor Subsoare A I Persistence Vcor * Subaccro a C. Appl~y "yicaJ. state =iLtipiisr Sub•coce 3 X Physical State Mltipler - Waste Caracteristics

  11. Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into account the type of land use and characteristics of pollutant emission, sampling sites were divided into the following categories: rural, coastal urban and inland urban stations. Selected anions and cations as well as formaldehyde and sum of phenols were determined. The average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content values in dew samples ranged from 0.83 to 3.93 between individual stations with 10.9 meq/L as the highest daily value of TIC measured. The average TIC values observed in dew at all stations were at a similar level (2.46 meq/L when compared with hoarfrost (2.86 meq/L. However, these values were much higher in comparison with other kinds of atmospheric water like precipitation (wet only; 0.37 meq/L or fog/cloud (1.01 meq/L. The pH values of dew water ranged from 5.22 to 7.35 for urban coastal stations, from 5.67 to 8.02 for urban inland stations and from 4.16 to 8.76 for dew samples collected in the rural area. HCHO was found in 97 % of dew samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 5.40 meq/L. Excluding stations near the seashore, where the contribution of Na+ and Cl- increased, the most important ions were sulphates. A very low contribution of NO3- and noticeable increase of Ca2+ which were not observed in the case of precipitation and fog water, were typical in all stations. The contribution of ammonium ion was two times higher at rural stations as a result of agricultural ammonia emissions. The strongest correlations were noticed between the sum of acidifying anions SO42- + NO3- and Ca2+ ion for all urban and rural stations. A very strong correlation was also observed for Na+ and Cl- ions in urban coastal stations, as a natural consequence of the location of these

  12. Simultaneous measurements of formaldehyde and nitrous acid in dews and gas phase in the atmosphere of Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, María A.; Lissi, Eduardo; Villena, Guillermo; Elshorbany, Y. F.; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The amounts of formaldehyde and nitrous acid (HONO) in gas phase and dews of Santiago de Chile were simultaneously measured. Formaldehyde concentrations values in the liquid phase (dews) correlate fairly well with those in the gaseous phase and are even higher than those expected from gas-dew equilibrium. On the other hand, nitrite concentrations in dews were considerably smaller (ca. 15 times) than those expected from the gas-phase concentrations. This under-saturation is attributed to diffusion limitations due to the relatively large HONO solubility. In agreement with this, under-saturation increases with the rate of dew formation and the pH of the collected waters, factors that should increase the rate of gas to liquid HONO transfer required to reach equilibrium.

  13. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  14. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  15. Unsteady-state analysis of a counter-flow dew point evaporative cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, J.; Thu, K.; Bui, T.D.; Wang, R.Z.; Ng, Kim Choon; Kumja, M.; Chua, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    temperature, humidity and velocity; (2) the settling time of the transient response ranges from 50 s to 300 s when the system operates under different inlet conditions; and (3) the average transient wet bulb effectiveness (1.00–1.06) of the system is observed

  16. Test and evaluation of a method of utilizing flue gas below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdorf, J.; Mueller, R.

    1983-09-01

    Technological possibilities of using power plant waste heat for low temperature heating of buildings or for industrial heat supply are discussed. Waste heat is recovered with a water circulating heat exchanger to a degree of 15%. Diagrams are presented for a hot water supply system at conventional power generators of 600 to 2,500 kW. Heat balances for a small steam generator of 800 kg/h steam capacity are calculated, comparing the energy efficiency with and without low temperature heat recovery systems. Economic benefits, which can be realized with waste heat recovery systems are calculated. 8 references.

  17. Increasing the efficiency of heating systems by reducing the flue gas temperature below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.

    1981-06-01

    This paper deals with the fundamentals and technical possibilities of increasing the combustion efficiency of gas-fired heating units for domestic heating by cooling the flue gases below their water vapor saturation temperature. The improvement of the efficiency can be more than 15% in comparison even to modern warm water heating boilers. Important however is the availability of cooling fluids of sufficiently low temperatures which could be recirculated heating water, freshwater and air. Different possible applications of this method are discussed in detail.

  18. Satellite-derived vertical profiles of temperature and dew point for mesoscale weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Thomas; Schluessel, P.

    1995-12-01

    Weather forecast-models need spatially high resolutioned vertical profiles of temperature and dewpoint for their initialisation. These profiles can be supplied by a combination of data from the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the imaging Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the NOAA polar orbiting sate!- lites. In cloudy cases the profiles derived from TOVS data only are of insufficient accuracy. The stanthrd deviations from radiosonde ascents or numerical weather analyses likely exceed 2 K in temperature and 5Kin dewpoint profiles. It will be shown that additional cloud information as retrieved from AVHIRR allows a significant improvement in theaccuracy of vertical profiles. The International TOVS Processing Package (ITPP) is coupled to an algorithm package called AVHRR Processing scheme Over cLouds, Land and Ocean (APOLLO) where parameters like cloud fraction and cloud-top temperature are determined with higher accuracy than obtained from TOVS retrieval alone. Furthermore, a split-window technique is applied to the cloud-free AVHRR imagery in order to derive more accurate surface temperatures than can be obtained from the pure TOVS retrieval. First results of the impact of AVHRR cloud detection on the quality of the profiles are presented. The temperature and humidity profiles of different retrieval approaches are validated against analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weatherforecasts.

  19. Satellite remote sensing and cloud modeling of St. Anthony, Minnesota storm clouds and dew point depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1988-01-01

    Rawinsonde data and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to investigate the life cycles of St. Anthony, Minnesota's severe convective storms. It is found that the fully developed storm clouds, with overshooting cloud tops penetrating above the tropopause, collapsed about three minutes before the touchdown of the tornadoes. Results indicate that the probability of producing an outbreak of tornadoes causing greater damage increases when there are higher values of potential energy storage per unit area for overshooting cloud tops penetrating the tropopause. It is also found that there is less chance for clouds with a lower moisture content to be outgrown as a storm cloud than clouds with a higher moisture content.

  20. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  1. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  2. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  3. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  4. An automated microlysimeter to study dew formation and evaporation in arid and semiarid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Hillen, W.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a simple and low-cost portable weighing microlysimeter that makes use of a load cell for automated recording and for studying daily dew formation, rate of accumulation, and subsequent evaporation in arid or semiarid regions during rainless seasons is presented. The sampling cup is

  5. Large Dew water collectors in a village of S-Morocco (Idouasskssou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekouch, I.; Clus, O.; Durand, M.; Lanfourmi, M.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2010-07-01

    With precipitations close to 227 mm/year in average, the coastal region of south Morocco presents a chronically shortage of drinkable and fresh water. Since 1994, in the Mirleft area (150 km south of Agadir), inhabitants are facing a critically drought event. In the year 2007, only 49 mm of rain was recorded. However, measurements in Mirleft in the same year, showed that the dew yield was on order of 40 % of rain fall. In order to show to the local population the interest of recovering dew water in addition to rain water, a small nearby village (Idouasskssou, 8 km SE of Mirleft) was equipped with three pilot condensers of 136 m2 total surface area. In order to ensure a good integration of the project by the village inhabitants, a local organization (Association IMRJANE) collaborated to the project. A concrete tank at ground level with a flat horizontal surface, easily accessible for inhabitants and also a model for traditional Morocco terrace roofings, has been equipped with two lines of condensers (40.6 m²). All roofing materials were from local shops. Only the special radiative and hydrophilic coating was coming from non local resources (see www.opur.fr). The top of a second tank (aside the first one) was renovated and covered with a 21.2 m² two slopes steel roof, insulated and painted with the special dew coating as above. These roofs represent a condensation surface comparable to that of a very little house. A third condenser, with 73.8 m² surface area, was implemented directly on the ground, ensuring minimal work and very cheap implementation costs. Dew was collected and measured in one of the concrete tanks. The water production during 6 months, from 15-12-2008 to 31-07-2009 (137 dew events, 47 % of days) was more than 3800 L (more than 0.2 mm/dew day). It is important to note that, while the devices are specifically designed to condense dew water, they also harvest rain and fog as well, thus providing to the population a valuable water resource.

  6. Dew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dew formation was investigated in three developmental stages of biological soil crusts (BSC, which were collected along a catena of an inland dune and in the initial substrate. The Penman equation, which was developed for saturated surfaces, was modified for unsaturated surfaces and used for prediction of dewfall rates. The levels of surface saturation required for this approach were predicted using the water retention functions and the thicknesses of the BSCs. During a first field campaign (2–3 August 2011, dewfall increased from 0.042 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.058, 0.143 and 0.178 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. During a second field campaign (17–18 August 2011, where dew formation was recorded in 1.5 to 2.75-h intervals after installation at 21:30 CEST, dewfall increased from 0.011 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.013, 0.028 and 0.055 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. Dewfall rates remained on low levels for the substrate and for crust 1, and decreased overnight for crusts 2 and 3 (with crust 3 > crust 2 > crust 1 throughout the campaign. Dew formation was well reflected by the model response. The suggested mechanism of dew formation involves a delay in water saturation in near-surface soil pores and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS where the crusts were thicker and where the water capacity was high, resulting in elevated vapor flux towards the surface. The results also indicate that the amount of dewfall was too low to saturate the BSCs and to observe water flow into deeper soil. Analysis of the soil water retention curves revealed that, despite the sandy mineral matrix, moist crusts clogged by swollen EPS pores exhibited a clay-like behavior. It is hypothesized that BSCs gain double benefit from suppressing their competitors by runoff generation and from improving their water supply by dew collection. Despite higher amounts of dew, the

  7. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  8. Dew water effects on leaf water using a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Lee, X.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of dew is a common meteorological phenomenon in field conditions and takes into account for significant portion of hydrologic processes in terrestrial ecosystems. The isotope composition of leaf water plays an important role in the isotopic water and carbon fluxes between terrestrial plants and the atmosphere. However, the consequence of dew formation in the plant-atmosphere relations has been ignored in many studies. The objective of this study is to improve our understanding of environmental and biological controls on the leaf water in equilibrium with dew water through laboratory experiments. Five species of plants (soybean, corn, sorghum, wheat, cotton) were grown hydroponically with water of a known isotopic content in a greenhouse. On the day of the experiment, they were first moved to ambient environment in full sunlight for at least 6 hr and then into a dark container inside the lab for up to 48 hr in which water vapor isotope ratios, temperature, and humidity were controlled. This arrangement created a step change in the forcing on the plant isotopic exchange. Leaves were sampled prior to the transfer to the dark container and 6 more times every 4 - 12 hr over the experiment. Humidity inside the container was saturated to mimic dew events in field conditions. Water from the leaf samples was extracted by a vacuum line and was analyzed for both δD and δ18O. The dataset will allow us to evaluate leaf water isotopic theories by exploring the transitions of the isotopic ratio of leaf water in response to the step change. Specifically, we are interested in whether the stomatal opening is an effective pathway for gaseous exchange in total darkness and how the transitional behaviors of the isotopic ratio of leaf water differ between the C3 and C4 photosynthesis pathways.

  9. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  10. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  11. Effects of sand burial on dew deposition on moss soil crust in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rong-liang; Li, Xin-rong; Liu, Li-chao; Pan, Yan-xia; Gao, Yan-hong; Wei, Yong-ping

    2014-11-01

    Sand burial and dew deposition are two fundamental phenomena profoundly influencing biological soil crusts in desert areas. However, little information is available regarding the effects of sand burial on dew deposition on biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sand burial at depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm on dew formation and evaporation of three dominant moss crusts in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert (Northern China) in 2010. The results revealed that sand burial significantly decreased the amount of dew deposited on the three moss crust types by acting as a semi-insulator retarding the dew formation and evaporation rates. The changes in surface temperature cannot fully explain the variations of the formation and evaporation rates of dew by moss crusts buried by sand. The extension of dew retention time was reflected by the higher dew ratios (the ratio of dew amount at a certain time to the maximum value in a daily course) in the daytime, and may to some extent have acted as compensatory mechanisms that diminished the negative effects of the reduction of dew amount induced by sand burial of moss crusts. The resistances to reduction of dewfall caused by sand burial among the three moss crusts were also compared and it was found that Bryum argenteum crust showed the highest tolerance, followed by crusts dominated by Didymodon vinealis and Syntrichia caninervis. This sequence corresponds well with the successional order of the three moss crusts in the revegetated area, thereby suggesting that resistance to reduction of dewfall may act as one mechanism by which sand burial drives the succession of moss crusts in desert ecosystems. This side effect of dew reduction induced by sand burial on biological soil crusts should be considered in future ecosystem construction and management of desert area.

  12. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  13. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  15. Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orieux, A.

    1990-01-19

    Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

  16. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  17. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  18. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  19. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  20. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  1. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  2. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  3. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  4. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  5. Estimativa da duração do período de molhamento por orvalho em um ecossistema cacau Estimate of the duration of the wetness period by dew in a cocoa ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. de Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a duração do período de molhamento por orvalho (DPM, entre 18 e 06 h, utilizando-se dois modelos empíricos: a o do número de horas com umidade relativa > a 97% (NHUR > 97% e b o da depressão do ponto de orvalho The objective of this study was to estimate the duration of wetness by dew (DWW, from 18 to 06 h, using two empirical models: a number of hours with relative air humidity > 97% (NHUR > 97% and b depression of the dew point 61%, although the percentage for winter and summer months was 80.8 and 15.8% respectively. The high statistical indexes observed here show the viability of the models for estimating, with high precision, the DWW in a cocoa ecosystem. The models are of easy application and operation, dispensing the utilization of sensors and of more complex methods. Howerer, they still need some adjustments to be used for other crops and conditions.

  6. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  7. A Dew Point Meter Comprising a Nanoporous Thin Film Alumina Humidity Sensor with a Linearizing Capacitance Measuring Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Ghara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel trace moisture analyzer is presented comprising a capacitive nanoporous film of metal oxide sensor and electronics. The change in capacity of the sensor is due to absorption of water vapor by the pores. A simple capacitance measuring electronics is developed which can detect any change in capacitance and correlates to ambient humidity. The circuit can minimize the parasitic earth capacitance. The non linear response of the sensor is linearized with a micro-controller linearizing circuit. The experimental result shows a resolution of -4°C DP and accuracy within 2%.

  8. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  9. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  10. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  11. DEWS (DEep White matter hyperintensity Segmentation framework): A fully automated pipeline for detecting small deep white matter hyperintensities in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Seung-Hak; Cha, Jihoon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Hyunjin

    2018-01-01

    Migraineurs show an increased load of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and more rapid deep WMH progression. Previous methods for WMH segmentation have limited efficacy to detect small deep WMHs. We developed a new fully automated detection pipeline, DEWS (DEep White matter hyperintensity Segmentation framework), for small and superficially-located deep WMHs. A total of 148 non-elderly subjects with migraine were included in this study. The pipeline consists of three components: 1) white matter (WM) extraction, 2) WMH detection, and 3) false positive reduction. In WM extraction, we adjusted the WM mask to re-assign misclassified WMHs back to WM using many sequential low-level image processing steps. In WMH detection, the potential WMH clusters were detected using an intensity based threshold and region growing approach. For false positive reduction, the detected WMH clusters were classified into final WMHs and non-WMHs using the random forest (RF) classifier. Size, texture, and multi-scale deep features were used to train the RF classifier. DEWS successfully detected small deep WMHs with a high positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.98 and true positive rate (TPR) of 0.70 in the training and test sets. Similar performance of PPV (0.96) and TPR (0.68) was attained in the validation set. DEWS showed a superior performance in comparison with other methods. Our proposed pipeline is freely available online to help the research community in quantifying deep WMHs in non-elderly adults.

  12. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  13. Hygromorphic Scales for Use in Water from Morning Dew and Elementary Model of Hydrogel Expansion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Nate

    Secure access to water is a growing problem in the world today. Millions of people do not have contact with fresh or clean water for drinking. Consuming dirty water leads to many illnesses and deaths every year. When water is scarce people are less likely to follow basic hygiene which also adds to the problem of sickness from water. Currently most of the population gets their water from run-off such as rivers, lakes and other fresh water bodies. Aquafers can also provide water, however, once they do not replenish themselves so once they are empty they will no longer provide a fresh water source. This is a serious problem because the population has grown to 7 billion people and only 2% of the world's water is fresh water. Of this, most the fresh water is locked in the polar ice caps. This leaves only .77% of the available fresh water accessible for human use. While wealthy countries may not feel this burden due to their infrastructure. Impoverish countries will feel the full burden of a lack of water. This has led to a growing number of water conflicts over the years some of which have resulted in human deaths. There are several ways that people can collect water from the atmosphere such as collecting rain water or using a solar still to evaporate water out of an undrinkable source. In parts of the world where fog is prevalent, meshes have been used to collect the moisture from the air. However, these systems only work where the environment allows for it. In some places in the world, the only amount of water may come from morning dew. Certain places receive more water from morning dew than they do from annual precipitation. By studying nature, a novel water collection device was developed, tested and modeled. The model is compared to the test data to see the ways in which the device can be optimized. This could be used to help alleviate the growing problems of water shortages in specific parts of the world. The model and device design shows promising data but still

  14. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  15. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  16. Process and catalyst for the catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1939-10-27

    A process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbon oils of higher than gasoline end boiling point, into large yields of motor fuel of high anti-knock value and substantial yields of normally gaseous readily polymerizable olefins, which comprises subjecting said hydrocarbon oils at a temperature within the approximate range of 425 to 650/sup 0/C. to contact with a catalytic material comprising hydrated silica and hydrated zirconia substantially free from alkali metal compounds.

  17. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  18. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  19. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  20. Effect of Different Growth Stages and Dew Period Length on Disease Development of Alternaria alternata as a Biological Control Agent for Convolvulus arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zeidali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Field bindweed is an important perinial weed of agricultural crops word-wide. There are plant pathogen fungus which could cause necrotic spots on the leaves and stems of convolvulus arvensis under natural coditions. In order to evaluate the effects of weed growth stage and length of dew period on disease development causes by Aletrnaria alternata and Fusarium sp. two expriments were performed in the greenhouse based on a completely randomized design in factorial arrangement with four replications during 2006-2007. Spore concentration for both experiments was 107 spores per ml of distilled water. In the first experiment, treatments were different growth stages of field bindweed (cotyledon, 4-leaf, 6-leaf, 9-11-leaf stages. Results showed that disease development in the fungus of A. alternata was higher than Fusarium sp. The most susceptable growth stage of field bindweed plants to A. alternata was 2-4-leave stage. The second expriment was performed in order to study the effect of dew period length (6, 12, 24 and 48 hour dew periods on disease development at 4-leaf growth stage of field bindweed. The maximum disease development and minimum weed dry weight were observed with application of the fungus of A. alternata at dew periods of 24 and 48 hour, however, plant damage was also observed with a length of 6 hours dew period.

  1. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  2. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  3. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  4. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  5. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Djemiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria, and Chytridiomycota (fungi. No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming

  8. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  9. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  10. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  11. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  12. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  13. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  14. Flooding During Drought: Learning from Stakeholder Engagement & Partner Coordination in the California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    After more than 5 years of drought, extreme precipitation brought drought relief in California and Nevada and presents an opportunity to reflect upon lessons learned while planning for the future. NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (DEWS) in June 2017 convened a regional coordination workshop to provide a forum to discuss and build upon past drought efforts in the region and increase coordination, collaboration and information sharing across the region as a whole. Participants included federal, tribal, state, academic, and local partners who provided a post-mortem on the recent drought and impacts as well as recent innovations in drought monitoring, forecasts, and decision support tools in response to the historic drought. This presentation will highlight lessons learned from stakeholder outreach and engagement around flooding during drought, and pathways for moving forward coordination and collaboration in the region. Additional focus will be on the potential opportunities from examining California decision making calendars from this drought. Identified gaps and challenges will also be shared, such as the need to connect observations with social impacts, capacity building around available tools and resources, and future drought monitoring needs. Drought will continue to impact California and Nevada, and the CA-NV DEWS works to make climate and drought science readily available, easily understandable and usable for decision makers; and to improve the capacity of stakeholders to better monitor, forecast, plan for and cope with the impacts of drought.

  15. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  16. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  17. Optimising the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons within a risk management framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, R.; Brassington, K.; Sinke, A.; Crossley, J.; Paton, G.; Semple, K.; Risdon, G.; Jacobson, Ch.; Daly, P.; Jackman, S.; Lethbridge, G.; Pollard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty years of research into petroleum microbiology and bio-remediation have bypassed an important observation - that many hydrocarbon contaminated sites posing potential risks to human health harbour weathered, 'mid-distillate' or heavy oils rather than 'fresh product'. Ex-situ bio-piling is an important technology for treating soils contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons. However, its performance continues to be represented by reference to reductions in the hydrocarbon 'load' in the soils being treated, rather than reductions in the risks posed by the hydrocarbon contamination. The absence of 'risk' from the vocabulary of many operators and remediation projects reduces stakeholder (regulatory, investor, landowner, and public) confidence in remediation technologies, and subsequently limits the market potential of these technologies. Stakeholder confidence in the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons may be improved by demonstrating process optimisation within a validated risk management framework. To address these issues, a consortium led by Cranfield University's Integrated Waste Management Centre has secured funding from the UK Government's Bio-remediation LINK programme. Project PROMISE (involving BP, SecondSite Regeneration Ltd., Dew Remediation Ltd., TES Bretby (Mowlem Group), technology translators PERA, and academics from Aberdeen, Cranfield and Lancaster Universities) aims to improve market confidence in bio-piling by demonstrating how this treatment may be applied within a risk management context. For weathered hydrocarbons in particular, the underpinning scientific components of process control, waste diagnostics, environmental fate modelling, and risk assessment have yet to be fully integrated to allow bio-piling projects to be verified with improved confidence. The Joint Research Council Review of Bio-remediation recognised this in calling explicitly for the positioning of bio-remediation within a risk management framework. The PERF report (Thermo

  18. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  19. Delivery of State-Provided Predictive Analytics to Schools: Wisconsin's DEWS and the Proposed EWIMS Dashboard. WCER Working Paper No. 2016-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Bill; Knowles, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has maintained a statewide predictive analytics system providing schools with an early warning in middle grades of students at risk for not completing high school. DPI is considering extending and enhancing this system, known as the Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS). The proposed…

  20. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  1. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  2. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  3. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  4. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  8. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  9. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  10. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  11. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  12. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  13. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  15. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  19. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  20. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  2. Investigation on the pinch point position in heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisheng; Shi, Weixiu

    2016-06-01

    The pinch point is important for analyzing heat transfer in thermodynamic cycles. With the aim to reveal the importance of determining the accurate pinch point, the research on the pinch point position is carried out by theoretical method. The results show that the pinch point position depends on the parameters of the heat transfer fluids and the major fluid properties. In most cases, the pinch point locates at the bubble point for the evaporator and the dew point for the condenser. However, the pinch point shifts to the supercooled liquid state in the near critical conditions for the evaporator. Similarly, it shifts to the superheated vapor state with the condensing temperature approaching the critical temperature for the condenser. It even can shift to the working fluid entrance of the evaporator or the supercritical heater when the heat source fluid temperature is very high compared with the absorbing heat temperature. A wrong position for the pinch point may generate serious mistake. In brief, the pinch point should be founded by the iterative method in all conditions rather than taking for granted.

  3. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  5. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  6. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  8. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  9. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  10. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  11. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  12. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  18. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  19. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  20. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  1. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  2. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  3. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  4. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  5. Field desorption mass spectroscopy monitoring of changes in hydrocarbon type composition during petroleum biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group type separation, boiling point distribution, and hydrocarbon typing by field desorption mass spectroscopy (FDMS) has been developed to quantify changes in hydrocarbon type composition during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. FDMS is able to quantify the concentration of hundreds of specific hydrocarbon types based on their respective hydrogen deficiency (z-number) and molecular weight (carbon number). Analytical results from two bioremediation experiments involving soil contaminated with crude oil and motor oil indicate that alkanes and two-ring saturates (naphthenes) were readily biodegradable. In addition, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons generally were biodegraded to a larger extent than those of high molecular weight. More importantly, it was found that the extent of biodegradation of specific hydrocarbon types was comparable between treatments and appeared to be unaffected by the petroleum contaminant source, soil type, or experimental conditions. It was therefore concluded that in these studies the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation is primarily affected by the molecular composition of the petroleum hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil

  6. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  7. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  8. A New Global Open Source Marine Hydrocarbon Emission Site Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, E., Jr.; Wood, W. T.; Barnard, A.; Dada, T.; Qazzaz, M.; Lee, T. R.; Herrera, E.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrocarbon emission sites (e.g. seeps) discharge large volumes of fluids and gases into the oceans that are not only important for biogeochemical budgets, but also support abundant chemosynthetic communities. Documenting the locations of modern emissions is a first step towards understanding and monitoring how they affect the global state of the seafloor and oceans. Currently, no global open source (i.e. non-proprietry) detailed maps of emissions sites are available. As a solution, we have created a database that is housed within an Excel spreadsheet and use the latest versions of Earthpoint and Google Earth for position coordinate conversions and data mapping, respectively. To date, approximately 1,000 data points have been collected from referenceable sources across the globe, and we are continualy expanding the dataset. Due to the variety of spatial extents encountered, to identify each site we used two different methods: 1) point (x, y, z) locations for individual sites and; 2) delineation of areas where sites are clustered. Certain well-known areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, have a greater abundance of information; whereas significantly less information is available in other regions due to the absence of emission sites, lack of data, or because the existing data is proprietary. Although the geographical extent of the data is currently restricted to regions where the most data is publicly available, as the database matures, we expect to have more complete coverage of the world's oceans. This database is an information resource that consolidates and organizes the existing literature on hydrocarbons released into the marine environment, thereby providing a comprehensive reference for future work. We expect that the availability of seafloor hydrocarbon emission maps will benefit scientific understanding of hydrocarbon rich areas as well as potentially aiding hydrocarbon exploration and environmental impact assessements.

  9. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  10. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  11. Cooling by evaporation. Alternative for air cooling below the dew point; Koelen door verdampen. Alternatief bij koelen van lucht onder het dauwpunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.N.F.M. [Koninklijke Verhulst Luchtbehandeling, Waalwijk (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    One of the last developments in the indoor climate technology is desiccative evaporative cooling (DEC or cooling by dehumidification and evaporation). DEC is a combination of proven concepts, as e.g. adsorption, adiabatic cooling and heat recovery. DEC shows a high thermal comfort, low costs for exploitation and environment friendly components. The energy for drying requires a low-temperature level and can be produced by waste heat, a heat distribution system, through a cogeneration installation or by means of solar collectors. At the Royal Verhulst Air Conditioning company (`Koninklijke Verhulst Luchtbehandeling`) in Waalwijk, Netherlands, a DEC system was built to validate the programme to calculate the savings. In this article the principles and operation of the system (Roto-Cool) are briefly described. 4 figs., 2 ills.

  12. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  13. How is the operation of a dew point cooler effected? Part 1; Waardoor wordt de werking van een daupuntkoeler beinvloed? Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M. [Re/genT, Helmond (Netherlands); Uges, P.G.H. [StatiqCooling, Rijssen (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    A dewpoint cooler is defined as an indirect evaporative cooler with a countercurrent heat exchanger that cools the primary air, humidifies the process air and exudes it to the environment. Because of the countercurrent heat exchanger, the air outlet temperature is not limited to the wet bulb temperature. The structure consists of polypropylene slabs in which the primary air flow is conducted through the channels. The plates are covered with a hygroscopic foil. The process air is forced to flow between the plates and thus comes into direct contact with the foil. Water is supplied to the foil by means of a distribution system. A number of such systems has been experimentally investigated by Re/genT by order of StatiqCooling. [Dutch] Een dauwpuntkoeler wordt gedefinieerd als een indirecte verdampingskoeler met een tegenstroom warmtewisselaar die de primaire lucht koelt en de proceslucht bevochtigt en afgeeft aan de omgeving. Door de tegenstroomwarmtewisselaar is de luchtuitblaastemperatuur niet beperkt tot de natteboltemperatuur. De constructie bestaat uit polipropyleen kanaalplaten waarbij de primaire luchtstroom door de kanalen geleid wordt. De platen zijn bedekt met een hygroscopische folie. De proceslucht wordt gedwongen tussen de platen door te stromen en komt daarmee in direct contact met de folie. Aan de folie wordt water toegevoerd door middel van een distributiesysteem. Een aantal van dergelijke installaties is in opdracht van StatiqCooling experimenteel onderzocht door Re/genT.

  14. Measurements for the determination of acid dew point and SO[sub 3] concentration in the flue gas of utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derichs, W.; Menden, W.; Ebel, P.K. (RWE Energie AG, Bergheim (Germany))

    1991-10-01

    Until now, the well-known measuring systems for determining acid dewpoint have been applied primarily to flue gases from oil-fired combustion. Using an acid dewpoint measuring system which has now been available on the market for some time, it is possible to measure the acid dewpoint reliably and continuously in flue gas from coal-fired combustion, with low SO[sub 3] concentrations. This measuring system has also been used for flue gas from which the dust and sulphur have been removed as well as for untreated flue gas of conventional combustion systems with gas, oil, hard coal and brown coal firing and also in fluidized bed combustion systems. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Numerical analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes in selected M-Cycle heat exchangers for the dew point evaporative cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The comparative numerical study of the eight M-Cycle heat exchangers was presented. • The mathematical model is compared against the experimental data. • The results show, that the original M-Cycle heat and mass exchanger can be improved. • The effectiveness of the heat and mass exchangers depends strongly on the inlet air parameters. - Abstract: This paper investigates a mathematical simulation of heat and mass transfer in eight different types of the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) heat and mass exchangers (HMXs) used for indirect evaporative air cooling. A two-dimensional heat and mass transfer model is developed to perform the thermal calculations of the indirect evaporative cooling process and quantifying the overall performance. The mathematical model was validated against experimental data. A numerical simulation reveals many unique features of the considered HMXs, enabling an accurate prediction of their performance. Results of the model allow for comparison of the analyzed devices in order to improve the performance of the original HMX

  16. Polarization (ellipsometric) measurements of liquid condensate deposition and evaporation rates and dew points in flowing salt/ash-containing combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, K.; Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    An application of an optical polarization technique in a combustion environment is demonstrated by following, in real-time, growth rates of boric oxide condensate on heated platinum ribbons exposed to seeded propane-air combustion gases. The results obtained agree with the results of earlier interference measurements and also with theoretical chemical vapor deposition predictions. In comparison with the interference method, the polarization technique places less stringent requirements on surface quality, which may justify the added optical components needed for such measurements.

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  18. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  19. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  20. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  1. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  2. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  3. Dew drops on spider web appearance: a newly named pattern of IgG4 deposition in pemphigus with direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dmochowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel appearances in cutaneous pathology as well as mucocutaneous clinical signs are being described which indicate that this is still an attractive area for exploration. The H + E histology terms of “decorated tomb stoning” and “undecorated tomb stoning”, advocated by some pathologists, are misleading and as such should be avoided. Here, an appearance of IgG4 pemphigus deposits examined cost-effectively with direct immunofluorescence and suggested to be called “dew drops on spider web” is depicted in depth.

  4. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  5. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  8. Process and catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. [high antiknock motor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-14

    High anti-knock motor fuel is produced from hydrocarbons by subjecting it at an elevated temperature to contact with a calcined mixture of hydrated silica, hydrated alumina, and hydrated zirconia, substantially free from alkali metal compounds. The catalyst may be prepared by precipitating silica gel by the acidification of an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate, intimately mixing hydrated alumina and hydrated zirconia therewith, drying, purifying the composite to substantially remove alkali metal compounds, again drying, forming the dried material into particles, and finally calcining. The resultant conversion products may be fractionated to produce gasoline, hydrocarbon oil above gasoling boiling point range, and a gaseous fraction of olefins which are polymerized into gasoline boiling range polymers.

  9. Proceedings of the Hydrocarbons annual days - JAH 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunck, Robert; Bouchard, Georges; Jones, Richard; Percebois, Jacques; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Barre, Bertrand; Duval, Valerie; Nauroy, Jean-Francois; Su, Kun; Borelli, Antoine; Daniel, Olivier; Bobrie, Xavier; Cambos, Philippe; Foussard, Christian; Despeche, Jean-Michel; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Roland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand; Pelcot, Julien; Aulnoit, Thierry de l'; Pinchon, Philippe; Karnik, Jean-Luc; Josse, Philippe; Bouteca, Maurice; Argillier, Jean-Francois; Durieux, Jean-Yves; Josseron, Eric; Zaitoun, Alain; Alazard Toux, Nathalie; Lacoin, Geoffroy; Marcus, Philippe; Malcor, Jean-Georges; Bales, Vincent; Appert, Olivier; Le Cuziat, Jean-Yves; Peyrat, Olivier; Fort, Joel; Fallouey, Patrick; Contie, Michel; Heurtier, Jean-Michel; Bouchard, Alban; Hazel, Terence; Baylocq, Pascal; Saincry, Daniel; Laparra, Thibault; Burban, Bruno; Poyet, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Christine; Foussard, Christian; Collieux, Regis; Schilansky, Jean-Louis; Nusbaumer, Bertrand; Muller, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Francois; Jullian, Sophie; Blez, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed during plenary sessions and workshops. Plenary sessions addressed the relationship between hydrocarbons and new energy balances, the attractiveness of oil industry for students, operators operating in France, perspectives for the refining activity in Europe, the evolution of French system for research and innovation. The workshop topics have been: Gas, renewable and nuclear as the winning trio for 2050, Geomechanics for a better production, Economic intelligence, Ships for offshore service, Safety in the oil industry, Peak oil or peak demand, A know-how at the service of sea energies, Education in oil producing countries, Water treatment in hydrocarbon industries, Re-development of mature fields, Standards as an unavoidable tool for the international development, Future underwater fields, Technological challenges, environmental impact and safety for deep sea and ground-based drillings, Refining development and project financing

  10. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  11. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  12. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  14. Upgrading of syngas hydrotreated fractionated oxidized bio-oil to transportation grade hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yan; Hassan, El Barbary; Guda, Vamshi; Wijayapala, Rangana; Steele, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrotreating of fractionated oxidized bio-oil with syngas was feasible. • Hydrocarbon properties were similar with all syngas H_2/CO molar ratios except viscosity. • Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of (4:6) produced the highest hydrocarbon yield. • The produced hydrocarbons were in the range of gasoline, jet fuel and diesel boiling points. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils have the potential to replace a part of transportation fuels obtained from fossil. Bio-oil can be successfully upgraded into stable hydrocarbons (gasoline, jet fuel and diesel) through a two-stage hydrodeoxygenation process. Consumption large amount of expensive hydrogen during this process is the major hurdle for commercialization of this technology. Applying syngas in the hydrotreating step can significantly reduce the cost of the whole process and make it competitive. In this study, four different models of syngas with different H_2 concentrations (H_2/CO molar ratios = 2:8, 4:6, 6:4 and 8:2) were used for the 1st-stage hydrotreating step of oxidized fractionated bio-oil (OFB). The 2nd-stage hydrocracking step was performed on the produced organic liquid products (OLPs) by using pure H_2 gas. The effect of syngas H_2 concentrations on the yields and properties of OLPs and the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons (HCs) was investigated. Physical and chemical properties of the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were similar regardless syngas H_2 content, with the exception of the viscosity. Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of 4:6 gave significantly highest HCs yield (24.8 wt.%) based on the OFB. Simulated distillation analysis proved that all 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were mixture from a wide range boiling point fuels. These results also indicated that the successful 1st-stage syngas hydrotreating step was having the potential to produce different hydrocarbons.

  15. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  16. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  17. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  18. An Analytical Approach for Relating Boiling Points of Monofunctional Organic Compounds to Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2011-01-01

    The boiling point of a monofunctional organic compound is expressed as the sum of two parts: a contribution to the boiling point due to the R group and a contribution due to the functional group. The boiling point in absolute temperature of the corresponding RH hydrocarbon is chosen for the contribution to the boiling point of the R group and is a…

  19. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  20. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  1. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  2. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  3. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  4. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  5. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  6. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  7. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  8. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  9. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  10. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  11. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  12. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  13. A method for predicting the extent of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of solid- and slurry-phase soil bioremediation experiments involving different crude oils and refined petroleum products were performed to investigate the factors which affect the maximum extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation. The authors used a comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group-type separation analyses, boiling-point distributions, and hydrocarbon typing by field ionization mass spectroscopy. Initial and final concentrations of specified hydrocarbon classes were determined in each of seven different bioremediation treatments. Generally, they found that the degree of TPH biodegradation was affected mainly by the type of hydrocarbons in the contaminant matrix. In contrast, the influence of experimental variables such as soil type, fertilizer concentrations, microbial plate counts, and treatment type (slurry versus landfarming) on the overall extent of TPH biodegradation was insignificant. Based on these findings, a predictive algorithm was developed to estimate the extent of TPH biodegradation from the average reduction of 86 individual hydrocarbon classes and their respective initial concentrations. Model predictions for gravimetric TPH removals were in close agreement with analytical results from two independent laboratories

  14. Passive Seismic for Hydrocarbon Indicator : Between Expectation and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, Riky H. B.

    2018-03-01

    In between 5 – 10 years, in our country, passive seismic method became more popular to finding hydrocarbon. Low price, nondestructive acquisition and easy to mobilization is the best reason for choose the method. But in the other part, some people are pessimistically to deal with the result. Instrument specification, data condition and processing methods is several points which influence characteristic and interpretation passive seismic result. In 2010 one prospect in East Java Basin has been measurement constist of 112 objective points and several calibration points. Data measurement results indicate a positive response. Furthermore, in 2013 exploration drliing conducted on the prospect. Drill steam test showes 22 MMCFD in objective zone, upper – late oligocene. In 2015, remeasurement taken in objective area and show consistent responses with previous measurement. Passive seismic is unique method, sometimes will have difference results on dry, gas and oil area, in field production and also temporary suspend area with hidrocarbon content.

  15. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  16. The reorganization of the Russian hydrocarbons industry: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the main guidelines for the reorganization of the Russian hydrocarbon industry. Specifically, it focuses on the economic conditions concerning the constitution of Russian oil companies in an uncertain environment. In Russia, one of the main problems is to create autonomous energy enterprises. The main conclusion is that up to now the reorganization has been essentially juridical, connected with the constitution of joint stock companies. From an economic point of view, the organizational model behind these joint stock companies is not very well defined and lacks clearly defined coordination mechanisms. (author)

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  18. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil from view of bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mracnova, R.; Sojak, L.; Kubinec, R.; Kraus, A.; Eszenyiova, A.; Ostrovsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    The pollution of the environment by petroleum hydrocarbons is the most often pollution of them all. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons present in environment can be not only of petroleum or anthropogenic origin, but of biogenic as well. Typically the hydrocarbons are presented in the environment as very complex mixtures of individual compounds with very different chemical structure, wide range of the boiling points (∼800 0 C) as well as with the wide range of the number of carbon atoms. Immediately they are spread in any environmental matrix the complex physical, chemical and biochemical reactions start. A lot of methods have been developed and new are permanently in progress for the monitoring and control of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination and/or soils bioremediation. Generally, all methods by whose the hydrocarbons contaminants are determined in GC-FID system do not satisfied recommendations for enough accurate and precise results. Hyphenation of capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detector operated in the selective ion monitoring mode essentially allows detailed specification of non-polar extractable hydrocarbons. Isoprenoid alkanes, alkylhomologues of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic alkanes hopanes-like were investigated as markers for recognition of petroleum and biogenic contamination. C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane (C 30 -hopane) seems to be a suitable marker to identify hydrocarbons origin, to determine composting rates for nonpolar extractable compounds and to calculate real content of non-polar extractable compounds in final composting status on the assumption that the contamination is of mineral oil type. This is the survey into the results obtained in this field published in the literature as well as reached in our laboratory. (author)

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk elements in honey from the South Moravian region (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Batelková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the actual content of some exogenous contaminants in the honey from the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and risk elements (Mercury - Hg, Cadmium - Cd, Lead - Pb, and Arsenic - As in multifloral blossom and honey dew samples of honey were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. The samples were collected form beekeepers and from retail stores located in South Moravia in the Czech Republic. Concentrations of individual PAHs in honey samples ranged between 0.02 μg·kg-1–1.93 μg·kg-1. The limit of benzo[a]pyrene for infant formula (1.0 μg·kg-1 was not exceeded and fluoranthene was not quantified in any of the samples. Concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the range of 3.24 μg·kg-1–11.31 μg·kg-1, 0.95 μg·kg-1–32.35 μg·kg-1, and 22.80 μg·kg-1–177.85 μg·kg-1, respectively. Concentration of As exceeded the detection limit only in three samples, ranging from 3.51 μg·kg-1 to 4.35 μg·kg-1. Acceptable limits for trace elements in infant formula were met. Results of this study complete present knowledge of the contaminant content in Czech honey and confirmed high quality and safety of honey from the South Moravian region.

  20. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  1. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  2. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  3. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  4. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  5. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  6. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  7. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  8. Hydrocarbon removal from bilgewater by a combination of air-stripping and photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoir, D., E-mail: david.cazoir@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France); Fine, L.; Ferronato, C.; Chovelon, J.-M. [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bilge water is an oily effluent that contaminates oceans and seas (MARPOL73/78). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrocarbon removal was studied by photocatalysis and air-stripping, together used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aqueous and gaseous phases were monitored by GC-MS during the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combined process showed a better efficiency and a synergistic effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Alkanes (N{sub C} > 15) appeared as being the most refractory compounds. - Abstract: In order to prevent hydrocarbon discharge at sea from the bilge of ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) enacted the MARPOL 73/78 convention in which effluents are now limited to those with maximum oil content of 15 ppmv. Thus, photocatalysis and air-stripping were combined for the hydrocarbon removal from a real oily bilgewater sample and an original monitoring of both aqueous and gaseous phases was performed by GC/MS to better understand the process. Our results show that the hydrocarbon oil index [HC] can be reduced to its maximum permissible value of 15 ppmv (MARPOL) in only 8.5 h when photocatalysis and air-stripping are used together in a synergistic way, as against 17 h when photocatalysis is used alone. However, this air-assisted photocatalytic process emits a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and, within the first four hours, ca. 10% of the hydrocarbon removal in the aqueous phase is actually just transferred into the gaseous one. Finally, we highlight that the n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms higher than 15 (N{sub C} > 15) are those which most decrease the rate of [HC] removal.

  9. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  10. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  11. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  12. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  13. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  14. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  15. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  16. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  17. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K M [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  18. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K.M. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  19. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  20. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  1. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  2. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  3. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  4. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  5. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  6. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  7. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  8. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. 1996 good year for the Hydrocarbons sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of the sector in its group to the national development is decisive for a better economic behavior. That yes it is evident it is that, without petroleum, the economy would grow less, according to an analysis of what was the balance of 1996 and what it constitute the main projections for 1997. The activity exporter of Ecopetrol and of the associate companies it will make that the participation of the petroleum is not only the highest in the commercial current of the country, but rather it will contribute to that the scale of payments is less deficit. That of the hydrocarbons is one of the few sectors that in 1996 it was good in the country standing out the following activities: It revived the exploratory activity with the signature of 19 new association contracts and 5 in negotiation. The total number of associate companies and linked operators the country is of 65. The raw production, starting point for the generation of more revenues to the economy and the auto supply, reached significant figures with regard to 1995. It advanced substantially in the gas overcrowding with the construction of the necessary infrastructure for their execution and were discovered new reserves on the part of the associate companies. In refinement a wide program of modernization of the plants prosecution of petroleum is executed with the objective of to elevate its productivity and to guarantee a bigger supply of fuels. In transport the activities are guided to increase their capacity and the internal supply of fuels the same thing that the storage and readiness of exportable surpluses of raw and products

  11. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C 10 -C 35 ) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  12. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    /operational safety barriers are considered. The initiating events are divided into five main categories; (1) human and operational errors, (2) technical failures, (3) process upsets, (4) external events, and (5) latent failures from design. The development of the hydrocarbon release scenarios has generated new knowledge about causal factors of hydrocarbon releases and safety barriers introduced to prevent the releases. Collectively, the release scenarios cover the most frequent initiating events and the most important safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases. BORA-Release is a new method for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the hydrocarbon release frequency on oil and gas platforms. BORA-Release combines use of barrier block diagrams/event trees, fault trees, and risk influence diagrams in order to analyse the risk of hydrocarbon release from a set of hydrocarbon release scenarios. Use of BORA-Release makes it possible to analyse the effect on the hydrocarbon release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases. Further, BORA-Release may be used to analyse the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors. Thus, BORA-Release may improve today's quantitative risk analyses on two weak points; i) analysis of causal factors of the initiating event hydrocarbon release (loss of containment), and ii) analysis of the effect on the risk of human and organisational factors. The main focus of this thesis is safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases on offshore oil and gas production platforms. Thus, the results are primarily useful for the oil and gas industry in their effort to control and reduce the risk of hydrocarbon releases. The Norwegian oil and gas industry can use the results in their work to fulfil the requirements to safety barriers and risk analyses from the Petroleum Safety Authority. However, the concepts

  13. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  14. [Pattern of growth and metabolism of thermotolerant microorganisms on media containing carbohydrates and hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnikov, E I; Isakova, D M; Eliseeva, G S; Loiko, Z I

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to examine the growth and metabolism of thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis K-41 and bacteria Micrococcus freudenreichii that do not have a single temperature point but instead have an optimal temperature plateau at which the growth rate and biosynthetic activity remain unaltered or change insignificantly. Upon transition from the carbohydrate to the hydrocarbon pattern of nutrition these microorganisms show significant changes in metabolic processes: optimal concentration of biotin in the medium decreases significantly; the synthesis of riboflavin, nicotinic and pantothenic acids increases in yeast; the synthesis of nicotinic acid, biotin and vitamin B12 increases in bacteria. During microbial cultivation on hydrocarbons the content of cell lipids grows; yeast accumulate actively phospholipids and free fatty acids; bacteria build up intensively waxes and phospholipids. With the near-maximal growth rate the total synthesis of lipids decreases on carbohydrates and increases drastically on hydrocarbons, primarily at the expense of the above fractions.

  15. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes non-catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste materials. Three types of waste plastics were used in this study: polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). Under pyrolysis conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. In order to obtain useful gasoline-range hydrocarbons from the pyrolytic oil, fractional distillation is preferred for product separation. More valuable chemical raw materials including benzene, toluene and other condensed aromatic hydrocarbons may be obtained by refining the pyrolytic oil. The results showed that waste PS yielded higher liquid, and waste PE and PP yielded higher gaseous products. The dominant pyrolytic liquid product of PS waste was styrene.

  16. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  17. Stability of hydrocarbon systems at thermobaric conditions corresponding to depth down to 50 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcherov, V.; Kolesnikov, A.; Mukhina, E.; Serovaiskii, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the theoretical models show that crude oil stability is limited by the depth of 6-8 km (`oil window'). Commercial discovery of crude oil deposits on the depth more than 10 km in the different petroleum basins worldwide casts doubt on the validity of the above-mentioned theoretical calculations. Therefore, the question at which depth complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable is important not only from fundamental research point of view but has a great practical application. To answer this question a hydrocarbon mixture was investigated under thermobaric conditions corresponding to the conditions of the Earth's lower crust. Experiments were conducted by means of Raman Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable and remain their qualitative and quantitative composition at temperature 320-450 °C and pressure 0.7-1.4 GPa. The oxidizing resistance of hydrocarbon system was tested in the modelled the Earth's crust surrounding. The hydrocarbon system stability at the presence of Fe2O3 strongly confirms that the Earth's crust oxygen fugacity does not influence on petroleum composition. The data obtained broaden our knowledge about the possible range of depths for crude oil and natural gas deposits in the Earth's crust and give us the possibility to revise the depth of petroleum deposits occurrence.

  18. Prediction of ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using physicochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.C.L.; Chai, E.Y.; Chu, K.K.; Dorn, P.B.

    1999-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of eight hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were used to predict toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants. The toxicity of these preremediated soils was assessed using earthworm avoidance, survival, and reproduction and seed germination and root growth in four plant species. No-observed-effect and 25% inhibitory concentrations were determined from the earthworm and plant assays. Physical property measurements and metals analyses of the soils were conducted. Hydrocarbon contamination was characterized by total petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and GC boiling-point distribution. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine relationships between physical and chemical properties and biological endpoints. Soil groupings based on physicochemical properties and toxicity from cluster and principal component analyses were generally similar. Correlation analysis identified a number of significant relationships between soil parameters and toxicity that were used in univariate model development. Total petroleum hydrocarbons by gas chromatography and polars were identified as predictors of earthworm avoidance and survival and seed germination, explaining 65 to 75% of the variation in the data. Asphaltenes also explained 83% of the variation in seed germination. Gravimetric total petroleum hydrocarbons explained 40% of the variation in earthworm reproduction, whereas 43% of the variation in plant root growth was explained by asphaltenes. Multivariate one-component partial least squares models, which identified predictors similar to those identified by the univariate models, were also developed for worm avoidance and survival and seed germination and had predictive powers of 42 and 29%, respectively.

  19. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)