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Sample records for hydrocarbon deposits part

  1. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811 K. Results indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700 K. No improvements were obtained when deoxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. Results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, lating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  2. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811K. In addition, the effect of the inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in selected tests which were conducted using nickel-plated tubes. The results of the tests indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700K. No improvements were obtained when de-oxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. The results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, plating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  3. Direct radiometric dating of hydrocarbon deposits using rhenium-osmium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, David; Creaser, Robert A

    2005-05-27

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) data from migrated hydrocarbons establish the timing of petroleum emplacement for the giant oil sand deposits of Alberta, Canada, at 112 +/- 5.3 million years ago. This date does not support models that invoke oil generation and migration for these deposits in the Late Cretaceous. Most Re-Os data from a variety of deposits within the giant hydrocarbon system show similar characteristics, supporting the notion of a single source for these hydrocarbons. The Re-Os data disqualify Cretaceous rocks as the primary hydrocarbon source but suggest an origin from older source rocks. This approach should be applicable to dating oil deposits worldwide.

  4. Deposit formation and heat transfer in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to investigate the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of several hydrocarbon fuels under conditions that simulate high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. The rates of carbon deposition in heated copper and nickel-plated copper tubes were determined for RP-1, propane, and natural gas using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect on deposit formation of wall temperature, fuel pressure, and fuel velocity. In addition, the effects of fuel additives and contaminants, cryogenic fuel temperatures, and extended duration testing with intermittent operation were examined. Parametric tests to map the thermal stability characteristics of RP-1, commercial-grade propane, and natural gas were conducted at pressures of 6.9 to 13.8 MPa, bulk fuel velocities of 30 to 90 m/s, and tube wall temperatures in the range of 230 to 810 K. Also, tests were run in which propane and natural gas fuels were chilled to 230 and 160 K, respectively. Corrosion of the copper tube surface was detected for all fuels tested. Plating the inside of the copper tubes with nickel reduced deposit formation and eliminated tube corrosion in most cases. The lowest rates of carbon deposition were obtained for natural gas, and the highest rates were obtained for propane. For all fuels tested, the forced-convection heat transfer film coefficients were satisfactorily correlated using a Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number equation.

  5. Possibilities of three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nikolay; Beloglasova, Nadejda; Bajenova, Evgenia; Vdovin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    The geophysical method of oil-gas borehole investigation devised at the Institute of geophysics UB of RAS studies characteristics of geoacoustic emission (GAE) over the frequency range of 0.1÷5 kHz which displays peculiarities of fluid-gas dynamic processes in a volume of geological environment. More over: 1. The second displacement derivative (acceleration) of borehole walls' vibrations is recorded. 2. The three-component system of orthogonal transducers-accelerometers in a protecting casing of a borehole instrument with the diameter of 40-42 mm enabling to divide geoenvironment microvibrations into three directions is applied. 3. Frequency composition of recorded geoacoustic signals is analyzed. 4. Values of measured and calculated parameters representing distribution of signal amplitudes according to three components at four frequency bands are evaluated. Three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits solves the following problems: · Estimation of fluid saturation character at a qualitative level; · Detection of fluid flow outside and inside the casing string with division into fluid types; · Detection of fluid flow position in chambers of a cement ring with division into fluid types; · Detection of non-sealed points of borehole equipment; · Location of gas-water, gas-oil ad water-oil contacts; · Study of inflow section in a perforated interval of casing string which determines the boundaries of efficient intervals; · Detection of sections with high absorption of drilling fluid in an open shaft; · Test for leaks of the column (together with thermometry); · Detection of intervals of fluid movement in horizontal direction outside a casing string within seams (it is impossible to determine them by other methods); · Detection of industrial deposits; · Revelation of water-flooded intervals of a hydrocarbon deposit. Transducers-accelerometers with relative coefficient of transverse conversion not more than 6% allow confident division of

  6. Wet deposition of hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Pardakhti, Alireza; Mohajeri, Leila; Bateni, Farshid

    2010-06-01

    Air pollution in the city of Tehran has been a major problem for the past three decades. The direct effects of hydrocarbon contaminants in the air are particularly important such as their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects which can be transported to other environments via dry and wet deposition. In the present study, rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) as well as fuel fingerprints in two ranges of gasoline (C5-C11) and diesel fuel (C12-C20) using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs varied between 372 and 527 microg/L and for BTEX was between 87 and 188 microg/L with maximum of 36 microg/L for toluene. Both gasoline range hydrocarbons (GRH) and diesel range hydrocarbons (DRH) were also present in the collected rainwater at concentrations of 190 and 950 microg/L, respectively. Hydrocarbon transports from air to soil were determined in this wet deposition. Average hydrocarbon transportation for summation operatorPAHs, BTEX, GRH, and DRH was 2,747, 627, 1,152, and 5,733 microg/m(2), respectively.

  7. Sources and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to western US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal snowpack, lichens, and lake sediment cores were collected from fourteen lake catchments in eight western U.S. National Parks and analyzed for sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their current and historical deposition, as well as to identify thei...

  8. Light Hydrocarbons in Fluid Inclusions and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis:A Case Study of the Songxi Ag(Sb) Deposit,Eastern Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoming; David I.NORMAN; SUN Kai; WANG Min; CHEN Binghui; CHEN Jingde; YU Shoujun

    2003-01-01

    The Songxi deposit is a newly discovered large Ag (Sb) deposit. By using a suite of high-vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometer systems, the authors have recognized many kinds of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions of minerals. These hydrocarbons are mainly composed of C1-C4 saturated alkanes, while the contents of C2-C4 unsaturated alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are quite low, suggesting that the metallogenic processes have not been affected by magmatic activities. Chemical equilibrium studies show that these hydrocarbons may be a mixture of organic gases generated by microorganism activity and those by thermal cracking of type-II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, and the former may constitute more than two-thirds, implying that microorganism might have played an important role in the metallogenesis. The equilibrium temperature of the latter is about 300(C, which is much higher than the geothermal temperature at the estimated depth of metallogenesis. Thus, the light hydrocarbons generated by thermal cracking of kerogens probably originated in the deep part of the sedimentary basins and then migrated through a long distance to shallower horizons of the basin. Based on the composition of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Songxi deposit was formed in a continental rift. The analytical data presented in this paper support from one aspect the genetic model that the Songxi deposit may be a sedimentary hot brine transformed deposit instead of a submarine basic volcanic exhalation and low-medium temperature volcanic hydrothermal fluid filling deposit proposed by most previous researchers.

  9. One century of air deposition of hydrocarbons recorded in travertine in North Tibetan Plateau, China: Sources and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Li, Jing-Chao; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic distribution patterns of hydrocarbons have been used for fingerprinting to identify their sources. The historical air depositions of hydrocarbons recorded in natural media help to understand the evolution of the air environment. Travertine is a natural acceptor of air deposition that settles on the ground layer by layer. To reconstruct the historical air environment of hydrocarbons in the North Tibetan Plateau (NTP), a unique background region, twenty-seven travertine samples were collected systematically from a travertine column according to its precipitated year. For each sample, the precipitated year was dated while n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Based on source identification, the air environment of hydrocarbons in the past century was studied for the region of NTP. Before World War II, the anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbons showed little influence on the air environment. During World War II and China's War of Liberation, hydrocarbons increased significantly, mainly from the use of fossil fuels. Between 1954 and 1963, hydrocarbons in the air decreased significantly because the sources of petroleum combustion decreased. From the mid-1960s through the end of the 1990s, air hydrocarbons, which mainly originated from biomass burning, increased gradually because agriculture and animal husbandry were developing steadily in Tibet and China. From the late 1990s, hydrocarbons in the atmosphere increased rapidly due to the rapid increase of tourism activities, which might increase hydrocarbon emissions from traffic. The reconstruction of the historical air hydrocarbons in NTP clearly reflects the evolution of the region and global development.

  10. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkov Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (subunits contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III, locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC. TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  11. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    territories resemble a lot that of the territories of shale development in the USA. But we have to carry out a large complex of analytical studies in order to explore the geology and geochemistry of our shale series and then compare them to those already productive rocks from already developed productive shale plays In Tatarstan, oil seepage, as well as industrial oil accumulation in Semiluksky andRechitsky horizons were previously identified in the central part of South-Tatar arch and on its western, northeastern and northern slopes, as well as and on the southeastern slope of the North-Tatar arch. In particular, oil-bearing capacity of Semiluksky and Rechitskyhorizons was identified on some areas of Romashkinskoye deposit and within Ersubaykinskoye, Berezovskoye and some other fields. These deposits are confined to linear zones of increased fracturing and associated with complex collector constructions that have a system of cavities, pores and fractures, and they are likely to represent industrial clusters formed as a result of migration of moveable oil from the lower horizons. Shale oil is mainly light oil enclosed in rocks with very low porosity and permeability, which can be extracted with the help of a multistage water-fracturing technology. The term "shale oil" can also refer to lighter hydrocarbon fractions that can be obtained as a result of thermal effects produced on solid combustibleshaleswith a high content (50-70 %) of dispersed organic substance - kerogen.

  12. Role of volcanic dust in the atmospheric transport and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracquadanio, Milena; Dinelli, Enrico; Trombini, Claudio

    2003-12-01

    The role of volcanic ash as scavenger of atmospheric pollutants, in their transport and final deposition to the ground is examined. Attention is focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on particulate mercury (Hgp). The ash-fall deposits studied belong to the 2001 and 2002 eruptive activity of Mount Etna, Southern Italy, and were investigated at three (2001) and four (2002) sites downwind of the major tephra dispersal pattern. The dry deposition of mercury and PAHs was determined, and, in particular, a downward flux to the ground of PAHs (approximately 7.29 microg m(-2) per day) and mercury (750 ng m(-2) per day) was estimated in Catania from October 26 to October 28, 2002. Finally, evidence on the anthropogenic origin of PAHs scavenged from the troposphere by volcanic ash is supported by the analysis of PAH compositions in granulometrically homogeneous fractions.

  13. Metallization on FDM Parts Using the Chemical Deposition Technique

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    Azhar Equbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallization of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene parts has been studied on flat part surfaces. These parts are fabricated on an FDM (fused deposition modeling machine using the layer-wise deposition principle using ABS as a part material. Electroless copper deposition on ABS parts was performed using two different surface preparation processes, namely ABS parts prepared using chromic acid for etching and ABS parts prepared using a solution mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2SO4/H2O2 for etching. After surface preparations using these routes, copper (Cu is deposited electrolessly using four different acidic baths. The acidic baths used are 5 wt% CuSO4 (copper sulfate with 15 wt% of individual acids, namely HF (hydrofluoric acid, H2SO4 (sulphuric acid, H3PO4 (phosphoric acid and CH3COOH (acetic acid. Cu deposition under different acidic baths used for both the routes is presented and compared based on their electrical performance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The result shows that chromic acid etched samples show better electrical performance and Cu deposition in comparison to samples etched via H2SO4/H2O2.

  14. Deposition flux of aerosol particles and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Liu, Shuzhen; Zhao, Jingyu; Zuo, Qian; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined deposition fluxes of aerosol particles and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with the particles in the North China Plain. The annual mean deposition fluxes of aerosol particles and 15 PAHs were 0.69 ± 0.46 g/(m(2) ×d) and 8.5 ± 6.2 μg/(m(2) ×d), respectively. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene were the dominant PAHs bound to deposited aerosol particles throughout the year. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the deposited aerosol particles was the highest in winter but lowest in spring. The highest PAH concentration in the deposited aerosol particles in winter was because the heating processes highly increased the concentration in atmospheric aerosol particles. Low temperature and weak sunshine in winter reduced the degradation rate of deposited aerosol particle-bound PAHs, especially for those with low molecular weight. The lowest PAH concentration in deposited aerosol particles in spring resulted from the frequently occurring dust storms, which diluted PAH concentrations. The mean deposition flux of PAHs with aerosol particles in winter (16 μg/[m(2) ×d]) reached 3 times to 5 times that in other seasons (3.5-5.0 μg/[m(2) ×d]). The spatial variation of the deposition flux of PAHs with high molecular weight (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene) was consistent with their concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol particles, whereas such a phenomenon was not observed for those with low molecular weight (e.g., phenanthrene) because of their distinct hydrophobicity, Henry's law constant, and the spatially heterogeneous meteorological conditions.

  15. Surface hydrophobic modification of cellulose membranes by plasma-assisted deposition of hydrocarbon films

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    Mudtorlep Nisoa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification by plasma polymerization is an efficient method to change the surface properties of a membrane. Desirable functionality such as hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be obtained, depending on plasma chemistry of gas precursors and discharge conditions. In this work, RF magnetron plasma is produced using acetylene and nitrogen as precursor gases. Variations of RF power, particle flux, deposited time and pressure of the precursor gases have been made to observe coating effects on the cellulose membranes. When appropriated conditions are used, a thin brownish film of hydrocarbon was formed on the membrane, and the water contact angle increased from 35 to 130 degrees.

  16. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C-H films from admixtures of methane with H{sub 2} and He has been investigated by mass espectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanism of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the carburized metal. (Author)

  17. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. Shale hydrocarbon reservoirs: some influences of tectonics and paleogeography during deposition: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    Continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in shale reservoirs appear to be characterized by common paleotectonic and paleogeographic histories and are limited to specific intervals of geologic time. In addition, most North American self-sourced shale correlates with geologic time periods of calcitic seas and greenhouse conditions and with evolutionary turnover of marine metazoans. More knowledge about the relations among these controls on deposition is needed, but conceptual modeling suggests that integrating tectonic histories, paleogeographic reconstructions, and eustatic curves may be a useful means by which to better understand shale plays already in development stages and potentially identify new organic-carbon-rich shale targets suitable for continuous resource development.

  19. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 800 °C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is very likely that the oxygenshielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh through inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic ones at 550 °C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 °C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst. The last part of this work focuses on the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 ºC. Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO2-Al2O3 support due to fuel thermal cracking, the metal addition substantially mitigated the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Our results indicate that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts, and (II) the Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than the Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

  20. Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the West Korea Bay Basin in the northern part of the Yellow Sea, estimated by 3-D gravity forward modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungchan; Ryu, In-Chang; Götze, H.-J.; Chae, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Although an amount of hydrocarbon has been discovered in the West Korea Bay Basin (WKBB), located in the North Korean offshore area, geophysical investigations associated with these hydrocarbon reservoirs are not permitted because of the current geopolitical situation. Interpretation of satellite-derived potential field data can be alternatively used to image the 3-D density distribution in the sedimentary basin associated with hydrocarbon deposits. We interpreted the TRIDENT satellite-derived gravity field data to provide detailed insights into the spatial distribution of sedimentary density structures in the WKBB. We used 3-D forward density modelling for the interpretation that incorporated constraints from existing geological and geophysical information. The gravity data interpretation and the 3-D forward modelling showed that there are two modelled areas in the central subbasin that are characterized by very low density structures, with a maximum density of about 2000 kg m-3, indicating some type of hydrocarbon reservoir. One of the anticipated hydrocarbon reservoirs is located in the southern part of the central subbasin with a volume of about 250 km3 at a depth of about 3000 m in the Cretaceous/Jurassic layer. The other hydrocarbon reservoir should exist in the northern part of the central subbasin, with an average volume of about 300 km3 at a depth of about 2500 m.

  1. Thermal Evolution of Organic Matter and Secondary Hydrocarbon Generation from Upper Paleozoic Coal Deposits in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphism and hydrocarbon generation from the Upper Paleozoic coal-bearing strata in Northern China have been widely studied by Chinese geologists since the 1990s.Based on a large amount of data of Ro values, combined with geological background, we have systematically analyzed the thermal evolutionary characteristics of organic matter and the stages of hydrocarbon generation from the Permo-Carboniferous coal deposits and discussed the condition of secondary hydrocarbon generation.The distribution range of secondary hydrocarbon generation in Northern China is thus determined.It is shown that the coal ranks of the Upper Paleozoic coal deposits are higher in the southern and western belts than those in the northern and eastern belts.Really significant secondary hydrocarbon generation is mainly related to the thermal evolution of organic matter during the Himalayan Period.Profitable areas for secondary hydrocarbon generation should be buried at 3000-4000 m up to the present.Maturity of the Permo-Carboniferous source rocks is not very high.It is suggested that the Bohai Bay depression is favourable for secondary hydrocarbon generation and has good oil and gas prospects.

  2. Application of C5-C13 light hydrocarbons in depositional envlrOnment diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peirong Wang; Guanjun Xu; Tingrong Xiao; Dajiang Zhang; Bin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the geological background and Gammacerane/C31H(S+R)ratios,source rock depositional environments of the studied oil samples(194)from 13 oilfields were classified into three groups according to salinity:saline-lacustrine facies,fresh to brackish lacustrine facies(including linmetic facies),and semi-saline to saline facies(including marine facies of the Tarim Basin).C5-C13 compound groups in the crude oils were separated by GC,and about 286 compounds were qualitatively analyzed.The geochemical application of the C6-C13 compound groups and their ratios between each group with individual carbon number was investigated.Our studies show that(1)C6-C13 compound groups and their ratios in the crude oils could serve as new reliable parameters for oil-oil correlation because the C6-C13 light fractions are the major oil component,especially in light oil or condensate,in which they account for almost 90%of the whole oil;(2)the compound groups of C7 light hydrocarbons in oils derived from different depositional environments with different salinity have different characteristics;(3)C6-C13 compound groups and ratios may be affected by other factors such as maturity,but they are mainly controlled by salinity of depositional waters.

  3. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: A mass balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeety, Bruce D.; Hites, Ronald A.

    A mass balance model was developed to explain the movement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into and out of Siskiwit Lake, which is located on a wilderness island in northern Lake Superior. Because of its location, the PAH found in this lake must have originated exclusively from atmospheric sources. Using gas Chromatographie mass spectrometry, 11 PAH were quantified in rain, snow, air, lake water, sediment core and sediment trap samples. From the dry deposition fluxes, an aerosol deposition velocity of 0.99 ± 0.15 cm s -1 was calculated for indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene and benzo[ ghi]perylene, two high molecular weight PAH which are not found in the gas phase. The dry aerosol deposition was found to dominate the wet removal mechanism by an average ratio of 9:1. The dry gas flux was negative, indicating that surface volatilization was taking place; it accounted for 10-80 % of the total output flux depending on the volatility of the PAH. The remaining PAH were lost to sedimentation. From the dry gas flux, an overall mass transfer coefficient for PAH was calculated to be 0.18 ± 0.06 m d -1. In this case, the overall mass transfer is dominated by the liquid phase resistance.

  4. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHs (ΣPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  5. Different collector types for sampling deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons--comparison of measurement results and their uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladtke, Dieter; Bakker, Frits; Biaudet, Hugues; Brennfleck, Alexandra; Coleman, Peter; Creutznacher, Harald; Van Egmond, Ben F; Hafkenscheid, Theo; Hahne, Frank; Houtzager, Marc M; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Menichini, Edoardo; Olschewski, Anja; Remesch, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Different collector types, sample workup procedures and analysis methods to measure the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were tested and compared. Whilst sample workup and analysis methods did not influence the results of PAH deposition measurements, using different collector types changed the measured deposition rates of PAH significantly. The results obtained with a funnel-bottle collector showed the highest deposition rates and a low measurement uncertainty. The deposition rates obtained with the wet-only collectors were the lowest at industrial sites and under dry weather conditions. For the open-jar collectors the measurement uncertainty was high. Only at an industrial site with extremely high PAH deposition rates the results of open-jar collectors were comparable to those obtained with funnel-bottle collectors. Thus, if bulk deposition of PAH has to be measured, funnel-bottle combinations are proved to be the collectors of choice. These collectors were the only ones always fulfilling the requirements of European legislation.

  6. Origin of hydrocarbons in the Slovak part of the Danube Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milička Ján

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Basin is one of our largest Neogene basins in Slovakia with the highest volume of potential source rocks in active hydrocarbon generation zones. The source rocks, however, are quite poor with low hydrocarbon potential. In Blatné- and Rišňovce depressions at the northern part of the Danube Basin only early oil and oil generation window were reached below 2900 m during the Upper Miocene to Pliocene, due the lower temperature. In the southern Central Gabčíkovo Depression (CGD that is explored by drilling only to 2700 m, all generation zones up to dry gas zone have been reached according to modelling. While the oil generation zone was reached at approximately 2800 m, dry gas is expected below 4000 m. The natural gas molecular composition and methane carbon isotopes indicate small local natural hydrocarbon gas accumulations associated mostly with oil generation that migrated to present reservoirs and mixed with biogenic methane. The carbon dioxide and partly also nitrogen here are most likely related to volcanic activity. The gasoline hydrocarbon range indicates that non biodegraded gasoline oil from the FGČ1 Čilistov well in the CGD is thermally very mature, with its origin most likely in the deeper parts of the CGD below 3500 m. In contrast, the oil trace from Sereď5 (Se5 well is strongly biodegraded and according to the sterane correlations it could have originated in any examined Neogene source reaching the oil window.

  7. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone, Part 2: Downgradient transport of ethanol and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Doulatyari, Behnam; Molson, John W; Barker, James F

    2011-07-01

    In the event of a gasoline spill containing oxygenated compounds such as ethanol and MTBE, it is important to consider the impacts these compounds might have on subsurface contamination. One of the main concerns commonly associated with ethanol is that it might decrease the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, leading to an increase in the hydrocarbon dissolved plume lengths. The first part of this study (Part 1) showed that when gasoline containing ethanol infiltrates the unsaturated zone, ethanol is likely to partition to and be retained in the unsaturated zone pore water. In this study (Part 2), a controlled field test is combined with a two-dimensional laboratory test and three-dimensional numerical modelling to investigate how ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone affects the downgradient behaviour of ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Ethanol transport downgradient was extremely limited. The appearance of ethanol in downgradient wells was delayed and the concentrations were lower than would be expected based on equilibrium dissolution. Oscillations in the water table resulted in minor flushing of ethanol, but its effect could still be perceived as an increase in the groundwater concentrations downgradient from the source zone. Ethanol partitioning to the unsaturated zone pore water reduced its mass fraction within the NAPL thus reducing its anticipated impact on the fate of the hydrocarbon compounds. A conceptual numerical simulation indicated that the potential ethanol-induced increase in benzene plume length after 20 years could decrease from 136% to 40% when ethanol retention in the unsaturated zone is considered.

  8. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator

  9. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator Pilot-P

  10. Dry and wet deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and comparison with typical media in urban system of Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Liu, Min; Li, Ye; Liu, Yankun; Li, Shuwen; Ge, Rongrong

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in dry and wet deposition samples collected at urban and suburban sites of Shanghai, China from April 2014 to April 2015. Average wet deposition fluxes of PAHs were higher than dry deposition (62.6 ± 41.5 vs. 26.9 ± 14.4 μg/m2/day). However, dry deposition removed more PAHs than wet deposition (69% vs. 31%) due to much shorter durations of wet deposition. The highest dry and wet deposition fluxes were in fall and winter, respectively. The highest amount of dry deposition was in fall and the highest of wet deposition was in summer. The contribution of wet deposition to total deposited PAHs in Shanghai, East China was higher than that in northern China and lower than that in southern China. The difference can be explained by both precipitation amount and removal efficiency (washout ratio). Average dry deposition velocity and washout ratio of particle-associated PAHs were 5.2 cm/s and 5.8 × 104, respectively. Four sources of deposited PAHs were unraveled by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model: traffic, coal combustion, coking and volatilization, contributing 28.7%, 24.6%, 23.7% and 23.0%, respectively. More contribution of traffic and less coal combustion and volatilization were found at urban than at suburban site. As the connection between aerosol and surface soil, deposition had a different PAH composition from those in the two sides, containing more low MW PAHs. That arose the concern that dry deposition velocity and particle washout ratio could be overestimated if coarse particulate matter was excluded from the calculation. Although deposition has been considered as the predominant pathway of PAHs to urban surface system, the PAH composition in street dust differed drastically from that in deposition. This indicated that other sources (e.g. traffic) in urban system could have a greater contribution to PAHs than it had been identified in deposition samples.

  11. Morrowan stratigraphy, depositional systems, and hydrocarbon accumulation, Sorrento field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, D.M.; Kidwell, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Sorrento field, located on the western flank of the present-day Las Animas arch in western Cheyenne County, Colorado, has approximately 29 million bbl of oil and 12 bcf of gas in place in sandstones of the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow units. The sandstones were deposited in a fluvially dominated deltaic system, and the trap for the hydrocarbon accumulation is formed by pinch-out of this deltaic system onto regional dip. The primary reservoirs are point-bar deposits. At the Sorrento field, the basal Keyes limestone member of the Morrow formation rests unconformably on the Mississippian St. Louis Formation. Above the Keyes limestone, the Morrow shale is 180 to 214 ft (55 to 65 m) thick, and locally contains reservoir sands. Gas/oil and oil/water contacts are not uniform through the field owing to discontinuities between separate point bars. One such discontinuity is formed by an apparent mud plug of an abandoned channel separating two point bars on the southeastern end of the field. In a well 7000 ft (2100 m) from the edge of the meander belt, the regressive sequence is represented by a shoreline siltstone unit 8 ft (2 m) thick with flaser bedding, graded bedding, load structures, and rare wave-ripple cross-bedding overlain by 3 ft (1 m) of flood-plain mudstone and coal with no indication of proximity to a nearby sand system.

  12. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of lower oligocene deposits in the Maragh Trough, Se Sirt Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, R. [Wintershall Libya, Tripoli (Libya)

    2001-04-01

    The main phase of rifting the Sirt Basin (Libya) had ceased by the mid-Cretaceous but later Alpine-related tectonic pulses in the late Eocene resulted in northward tilting of the basin. In the Maragh Trough (SE Sirt basin), a regional unconformity consequently separates Eocene carbonates from the overlying Oligocene succession. The unconformity marks a change from Eocene fully-marine sedimentation to more mixed, shallow-marine type deposition in the Oligocene. A regional transgression re-established fully marine conditions in the Miocene. Deeply-buried (Triassic) source rocks in the Maragh Trough reached peak oil generation during the Oligocene. Two potential reservoir intervals have been identified: upper Eocene rudstones of the Augila Formation, and unconformably-overlying sandstones of the Lower Oligocene Arida Formation. Mid-Oligocene shales provide a regional seal. Facies distributions and reservoir properties are related to rift-related structural highs. Despite the absence of a nearby source kitchen, Upper Eocene carbonates have been found to be oil-bearing in the Maragh Trough at wells D1- and F1-96. This indicates that hydrocarbons have migrated along graben-bounding faults from deeply-buried source rocks to platform and sub-platform areas. Traps are of combined structural and stratigraphic type. (author)

  13. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Dongqi; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L-1 and were correlated with temperature (PPAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60-92.15 mg·L-1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m-2·d-1 and 4.06 mg·m-2·d-1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

  14. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part I. Method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2006-09-21

    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  15. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the different sewer deposits in the ‘Le Marais’ catchment (Paris, France): stocks, distributions and origins

    OpenAIRE

    Rocher, Vincent; Azimi, Sam; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The knowledge of the pollution stored in combined sewers is of prime importance in terms of management of wet weather flow pollution since sewer deposits play a significant role as source of pollution in combined sewer overflows. This work, which focused on the hydrocarbon (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) and metallic (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) pollution fixed to the different kinds of sewer deposits (gross bed sediment wGBSx, organic layer wOLx and biofilm), was per...

  16. Hydrocarbon oxidation over catalysts prepared by the molecular layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltsov, S.I.; Smirnov, V.M.; Postnov, V.N.; Postnova, A.M.; Aleskovskii, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    By depositing consecutive uniform monolayers of phosphorus pentoxide and vanadium pentoxide on a large-surface-area (240 sq m/g) silica gel, active and selective catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation were obtained. Thus, in piperylene oxidation by air at 330/sup 0/-430/sup 0/C and 2000-18,000/hr space velocity, a productive capacity of 220 g/l./hr with 41 mole % each maleic anhydride yield and selectivity was achieved over a SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5//P/sub 2/O/sub 5//V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalyst (120 sq cm/g surface area), compared with 80 g/l./hr for a P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalyst prepared by impregnation. In benzene oxidation, maleic anhydride yields of 52 and 60% and selectivities of 63 and 79% were achieved over SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5//V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5//P/sub 2/O/sub 5//P/sub 2/O/sub 5//V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalysts, respectively, compared with a 6% yield and very low selectivity over the impregnated P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalyst. The molecular-layer catalysts retained their total activity for 100 hr on stream and permitted to reduce the oxidation temperature by 50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/C.

  17. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  18. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  19. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  20. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  1. Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coscia, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Franz, Heather B.; Grotzinger, John P.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Martin, Mildred G.; McKay, Christopher; Ming, Douglas W.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Pavlov, Alexander; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2013-10-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of ~0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the Martian regolith.

  2. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coscia, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Franz, Heather B.; Grotzinger, John P.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Martin, Mildred G.; McKay, Christopher; Ming, Douglas W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pavlov, Alexander; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the

  3. Effect of recurrent sediment resuspension-deposition events on bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianwei; Xia, Xinghui; Wang, Minghu; Xie, Hui; Wen, Jiaojiao; Bao, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of recurrent sediment resuspension-deposition events (RSRDEs) on bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic environments, a modified device was used to simulate three resuspension-deposition events with the sediment collected from the Yellow River. The results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-water distribution coefficients of PAHs decreased with time during the first resuspension-deposition period. It indicates that some PAHs associated with organic carbon (OC) in suspended sediment (SPS) desorbed with the release of OC and became DOC-associated PAHs in the overlying water, then the PAHs desorbed from the DOC and became freely dissolved. After first 2-h suspension, only 1.90% of phenanthrene, 2.98% of pyrene, and 0.33% of chrysene in the overlying water came from pore-water; at least 61.6%, 89.6%, and 95.3% came from DOC-associated PAHs in SPS and the rests were released from the insoluble OC in SPS. The maximum desorption ratios in the original sediment were 20%, 12%, and 14% for phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene, respectively during the first resuspension-deposition event. The SPS concentration followed the sequence of the third > second > first resuspension event. This was because RSRDEs changed the SPS particle size and enhanced floc formation. There was no significant difference in the total dissolved PAH concentrations among the three resuspension events, while their freely dissolved concentrations followed the sequence of the third > second > first resuspension event. During deposition periods, more than half of the total/freely dissolved PAHs released during suspension still existed in the overlying water after 70-h deposition. This study suggests that the RSRDEs will increase the bioavailability of PAHs in aquatic environments, especially near the sediment-water interface, and the potential effects of PAHs during RSRDEs on fish/human in rivers and lakes should be considered in future

  4. Depositional Characteristics of Deltas and Their Relationship with Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the North Slope, Biyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jun-yi; ZHENG Jun-mao; WANG Guo-peng; LI Gui-lin; YU Gong-ming

    2006-01-01

    Tectonic movements in the North Slope of Biyang Depression are comparatively mild and stable, thus generating two categories of deltas. Elementary reasons for the coexistence of deltas are the existence of the palaeodrainage pattern and the effect of palaeotopography. The sedimentary facies is the most elementary factor controlling the physical property of reservoirs. The layout and spatial combination model of the sand body and faults are the major influential factors on the occurrence of hydrocarbons. Comparative study on Houzhang and Yanglou Braided Deltas as well as Zhangchang and Gucheng Meandering Deltas suggests that the hydrocarbons distribute primarily in the mouth bar subfacies and secondarily in the distal bar subfacies of the braided delta, while the oil-water and aqueous layers are mainly found in the subaquatic distributary channel. Although the sand body of the meandering delta has excellent stratification and high porosity, the thickness is far less than that of the braided delta. Therefore, the yield of hydrocarbon is relatively low. The mudstone of the delta front subfacies is a kind of source rock with a high content of organic matter. The conducting system for oil/gas migration in the North Slope is a composite one comprising faults and sandstone reservoirs. A large amount of oil/gas from the deep depression first migrated towards the slope along the sand body which stretches and connects with the source rocks, and then redistributed along the faults in the slope. After the movement reached a standstill, the faults formed the occlusion in the up-dip direction of the sand body, generating a great quantity of fault block hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Slope.

  5. Hydrocarbons and Air Pollution: An Annotated Bibliography. Part I., Categories A to E and Part II., Categories F to M and Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This two-part bibliography represents an effort to collect, condense, and organize the literature on the hydrocarbons in relation to air pollution. The approximately 2,300 documents abstracted are all included in the information storage and retrieval system of the National Air Pollution Control Administration's (NAPCA) Air Pollution Technical…

  6. Incised valley filling deposits: an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration——a case study of the Fulaerji Oilfield in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Liu Hao; Li Guifan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, incised valley filling deposits, which formed an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration, are discussed in detail based on core and logging data. The sequence SQy23 of the Cretaceous Yaojia Formation is the main hydrocarbon-beating layer in the Fulaerji Oilfield. The hydrocarbon source of the oilfield is the Qijia-Gulong Sag which is about 80 km away from the Fulaerji Oilfield. The transport layer of long-distance hydrocarbon migration is the overlapped sandstone complex which fills the incised valley. The incised valley developed during the depositional period from the late Qingshankou Formation to the early Yaojia Formation of Cretaceous (SQqn4-SQy1)was about 70 km long and 20 km wide, and extended in the NW-SE direction. The overlapped filling of the incised valley mainly occurred in the expanding system tract of the third-order sequence SQy23 (ESTy23). Towards the basin, incised valley filling deposits overlapped on the delta developed in the early period, and towards the basin margin, incised valley filling deposits were covered by the shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar developed in the maximum flooding period. All of the delta, the incised valley filling and the shore-shallow sandy beach bar are sandstone-rich, and have high porosity and permeability, and can form an effective hydrocarbon migration and accumulation system. Deltaic sand bodies collected and pumped hydrocarbon from the active source, incised valley filling depositional system completed the long-distance hydrocarbon migration, and lithological traps of shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar accumulated hydrocarbon. The incised valley filling sequences are multi-cycle: an integrated short- term filling cycle was developed on the erosion surface, and the sequences upward were mud-gravel stone, medium-fine sandstone containing terrigenous gravels and muddy pebbles with cross bedding, silty mudstone with ripple bedding, and mudstone. The incised valley

  7. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part II: Results from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-09-21

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  8. The effect of powder recycling in direct metal laser deposition on powder and manufactured part characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, P A; Pinkerton, A. J.; Allen, J.; Syed, W. U. H.; Sezer, H. K.; Brown, P.; Ng, G; Scudamore, R.; Li, L.

    2006-01-01

    A potential way of improving the material efficiency and cost effectiveness of the Direct Metal Laser Deposition (DMLD) process is to take powder that is not utilised in each deposition attempt and re-use it in subsequent attempts (powder recycling). Currently, this is not widely implemented for fear of a detrimental effect on part quality. This study examines how powder recycling, using simple normalisation techniques, affects the powder and the quality of the deposited part. Work was conduc...

  9. A special issue devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada: Part 2. Carlin-type Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Theodore, Ted G.

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two special issues of Economic Geology devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada. Readers interested in a general overview of these deposits, their economic significance, their context within the tectonic evolution of the region, and synoptic references on each gold deposit type are directed to the preface of the first special issue (John et al., 2003). Volume 98, issue 2, contains five papers that address regional aspects important to the genesis of gold deposits in northern Nevada and five papers that present detailed studies of epithermal deposits and districts. All of the regional papers are pertinent to Carlin-type gold deposits, because they address the age of mineralization (Arehart et al., 2003), origin and evolutionary history of the northwest-striking mineral belts that localize many deposits (Grauch et al., 2003), nature of the middle and lower crust below these mineral belts (Howard, 2003), district- to deposit-scale stream sediment and lithogeochemical anomalies (Theodore et al., 2003), and stratigraphy and structure of a district located along a northeast-striking lineament (Peters et al., 2003).

  10. Gold nanoparticles deposited capillaries for in-capillary microextraction capillary zone electrophoresis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Knobel, Gaston; Wilson, Walter B; Calimag-Williams, Korina; Campiglia, Andres D

    2011-03-01

    This article presents the first application of gold nanoparticles deposited capillaries as pre-concentration devices for in-capillary microextraction CZE and their use for the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in synthetic urine samples. The successful separation of 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHbap), 4-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 5-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene under a single set of electrophoretic conditions is demonstrated as well as the feasibility to obtain competitive ultraviolet absorption LOD with commercial instrumentation. Enrichment factors ranging from 87 (9-OHphe) to 100 (3-OHbap) made it possible to obtain LOD ranging from 9 ng/mL (9-OHphe and 3-OHbap) to 14 ng/mL (4-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene).

  11. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  12. Surface hydrophobic modification of cellulose membranes by plasma-assisted deposition of hydrocarbon films

    OpenAIRE

    Mudtorlep Nisoa; Pikul Wanichapichart

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification by plasma polymerization is an efficient method to change the surface properties of a membrane. Desirable functionality such as hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be obtained, depending on plasma chemistry of gas precursors and discharge conditions. In this work, RF magnetron plasma is produced using acetylene and nitrogen as precursor gases. Variations of RF power, particle flux, deposited time and pressure of the precursor gases have been made to observe coating effec...

  13. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.

    2008-12-01

    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  14. Underpotential Deposition of Silver on Pt(111). Part 1. Concentration Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 692 Underpotential Deposition of Silver on Pt(111): Part I. Concentration Dependence r T ~.J.F. Rodriguez, D.L. Taylor and H.D. Abruhla* EL...dependence of the underpotential deposition of silver on well-defined Pt(111) electrodes. Electrochemical as well as ultra high vacuum surface...silver are deposited at underpotentials but the stability of the second layer is a strong function of the silver ion concentration in solution. When

  15. Simulation of the propagation and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for a winter-time period in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Simulation der Ausbreitung und Deposition von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen fuer eine Winterepisode in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, K. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1997-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of environmentally hazardous substances because of their cancerogenous effect. They occur both as gases and in particulate form and are released by man into the atmosphere as combustion products. They play a role not only in the atmosphere but also in soil. An essential process permitting these substances to penetrate into the soil is by deposition from the atmosphere.- The study had the aim of assessing atmospheric PAH deposition to the soil. The outcome is used to simulate PAH behaviour in soil, a task which also forms part of the interlaboratory project `soil`. As PAHs are regularly measured only in a few places, PAH transfer from atmosphere to soil needs to be numerically modelled. That the model can do this was first of all to be demonstrated for a short period. The result is described in the paper. Subsequently, statements regarding long-term PAH transfer are attempted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Polycyklischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) gehoeren wegen ihrer kanzerogenen Wirkungen zu den umweltbelastenden Substanzen. Sie treten sowohl als Gase als auch als Partikel auf und werden antropogen als Verbrennungsprodukte in die Atmosphaere freigesetzt. Neben ihrer Wirkung in der Atmosphaere spielen sie im Boden eine Rolle. Ein wesentlicher Prozess, der diese Substanzen in den Boden gelangen laesst, ist die Deposition aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden. Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, den atmosphaerischen Eintrag der PAK in den Boden zu bestimmen. Dieser Eintrag dient der Simulation des Verhaltens der PAK im Boden, der ebenfalls Bestandteil des Verbundprojekts `Boden` war. Da es nur wenige Stellen gibt, an denen regelmaessig PAK`s gemessen werden, ist es notwendig, den PAK Eintrag aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden mittels Modellrechnungen abzuschaetzen. Dabei sollte zunaechst fuer eine kurze Episode gezeigt werden, dass das Modell in der Lage ist, dies zu leisten. Dieses Ergebnis wird im folgenden vorgestellt

  16. Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse.

  18. Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere: sorption mechanism and source contributions to respiratory deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Li, Xiang; Xu, Ting Ting; Cheng, Tian Tao; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jian Min; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    In order to better understand the particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source contribution to human respiratory system, size-resolved PAHs have been studied in ambient aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site during a 1-year period (2012-2013). The results showed the PAHs had a bimodal distribution with one mode peak in the fine-particle size range (0.4-2.1 µm) and another mode peak in the coarse-particle size range (3.3-9.0 µm). Along with the increase in ring number of PAHs, the intensity of the fine-mode peak increased, while the coarse-mode peak decreased. Plotting of log(PAH / PM) against log(Dp) showed that all slope values were above -1, suggesting that multiple mechanisms (adsorption and absorption) controlled the particle size distribution of PAHs. The total deposition flux of PAHs in the respiratory tract was calculated as being 8.8 ± 2.0 ng h-1. The highest lifetime cancer risk (LCR) was estimated at 1.5 × 10-6, which exceeded the unit risk of 10-6. The LCR values presented here were mainly influenced by accumulation mode PAHs which came from biomass burning (24 %), coal combustion (25 %), and vehicular emission (27 %). The present study provides us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system, which can help develop better source control strategies.

  19. Burial history and kinetic modeling for hydrocarbon generation, Part II: Applying the Galo model to Saharan basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhous, M.; Galushkin, Y. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lopatin, N. [Geosystems Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The GALO basin evolution model described in Makhous et al. is applied to evaluate hydrocarbon generation and migration histories in several Saharan basins. Three basins, the Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, and Illizi, are located in the central and eastern parts of the Saharan platform and are investigated in detail. The Ahnet, Mouydir, Timimoun, Reggane, and other basins located in the southern and western parts of the platform are also studied. The modeling results, combined with geochemical data, are used in a synthesis of the regional framework. The thermal gradients in the Ghadames and Illizi basins are greater than those in the Oued el-Mya basin. This difference is attributed to differences in sedimentation and subsidence rates, to less Hercynian erosion, and to fewer occurrences of evaporates in the Akfadou region of the Ghadames basin and in the Mereksen region of the Illizi basin. In the southern and western parts of the Illizi province, the major subsidence occurred before Hercynian uplift. Very moderate Hercynian uplift in the Ghadames and Illizi basins did not involve a significant decrease of temperatures, and organic matter maturation continued, but at slower rates. As a result, the realization of hydrocarbon potential appears to be higher than would be expected. Favorable traps are located near subsided areas where the source shales (particularly the Devonian) were not subjected to uplift and erosion. In this respect, the eastern Sahara including the Ghadames and Illizi basins is a favored province. Analysis of the distribution of present-day temperatures and paleotemperatures in the Paleozoic sediments of the Triassic province (Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, Trias, and north Illizi basins), combined with effective source rock occurrences, shows that favorable conditions for hydrocarbon generation during the Paleozoic occurred essentially in the southern and southwestern parts of the province.

  20. Coupling mechanism of mineralization and hydrocarbon-forming in hydrothermal convection system: An example from Longtoushan Sn-polymetal deposit, Dachang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; PENG Sheng-lin; YANG Mu; ZHANG Qi-zuan

    2005-01-01

    Longtoushan Sn-polymetal deposit is a large-scale deposit of high-tenor. The ore-bodies occur in reef limestone of middle Devonian. There is much anthraxolite in reef limestone and ore-bodies. The anthraxolite is the postmature result of oil-gas' thermal metamorphism. The close relationship of anthraxolite and Sn-polymetal deposit reveals the space-time relation between oil-gas evolution and Sn-polymetal mineralization. Sulfur isotope of Longtoushan deposit is close to oil's sulfur in Devonian, which indicates obvious relationship between the sulfur's source of deposit and oil-gas' activity. The forming of Longtoushan deposit relates to exhalative-sedimentary mineralization in Devonian. Because of the favorable hydrocarbon-forming condition of Longtoushan reef and surrounding basin facies' black shale and peat, coupling of ore-formation and hydrocarbon-forming occurs in seabed's hydrothermal convection. The distributing of ore-forming elements indicates the presence of hydrothermal convection system. The thermal fluid containing organic matters conduces to Sn-polymetal elements' activation and transfer, and provides catalyzing condition to the transforming from SO42- to S2-. The erosion action of brine containing organic acid to reef limestone induces the growing of crannies and karst's caverns, which provides advantageous space to Sn-polymetal mineralization. The heat source of mineralization provides thermocatalysis condition to hydrocarbon-forming. When the circulatory fluid containing oil-gas enters the high-temperature region(>150 ℃ ), the oil-gas is decomposed and anthraxolite comes into being.

  1. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography, and ......, and magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  2. Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric bulk deposition along a plain-mountain transect in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Zhang, Jiaquan; Chen, Wei; Wu, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua

    2016-08-01

    Ten atmospheric bulk deposition (the sum of wet and dry deposition) samplers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were deployed at a plain-mountain transect (namely PMT transect, from Daying to Qingping) in Chengdu Plain, West China from June 2007 to June 2008 in four consecutive seasons (about every three months). The bulk deposition fluxes of ∑15-PAHs ranged from 169.19 μg m-2 yr-1 to 978.58 μg m-2 yr-1 with geometric mean of 354.22 μg m-2 yr-1. The most prevalent PAHs were 4-ring (39.65%) and 3-ring (35.56%) PAHs. The flux values were comparable to those in rural areas. Higher fluxes of total PAHs were observed in the middle of PMT transect (SL, YX and JY, which were more urbanized than other sites). The seasonal deposition fluxes in the sampling profile indicated seasonality of the contaminant source was an important factor in controlling deposition fluxes. PAHs bulk deposition was negatively correlated with meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed, humidity, and precipitation). No significant correlations between soil concentrations and atmospheric deposition were found along this transect. PAHs in soil samples had combined sources of coal, wood and petroleum combustion, while a simple source of coal, wood and grass combustion for bulk deposition. There were significant positive correlation relationship (p region of China or farther regions via long-range transport.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, An [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  4. A COMPARISON OF THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTIC PARTS PRODUCED BY A FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Beniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Prototyping systems are nowadays increasingly used in many areas of industry, not only for producing design models but also for producing parts for final use. We need to know the properties of these parts. When we talk about the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and FDM devices, there are many possible settings for devices and models which could influence the properties of a final part. In addition, devices based on the same principle may use different operational software for calculating the tool path, and this may have a major impact. The aim of this paper is to show the tensile strength value for parts produced from different materials on the Fused Deposition Modeling device when the horizontal orientation of the specimens is changed.

  5. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh).

  6. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds.

  7. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography, and ...

  8. Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and estimation of the contribution of ultrafine particles to their lung deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Youhei; Tsuchiya, Yoshiteru; Yun, Sun-Ja; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2009-09-01

    This is the first estimation of the contribution of ultrafine particles to the lung deposition of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere. The size distributions of nine PAHs (4-6 rings) were measured at roadside and suburban sites in winter in Japan. Deposition efficiencies and fluxes of PAHs in ultrafine mode (2.1 microm) to the human respiratory tract were calculated using the LUDEP computer-based model. From 10%-15% and 4.2%-6.9% of target PAHs were distributed in the ultrafine mode in the roadside and suburban atmosphere, respectively. The model calculations showed that as much as 18%-19% and 16%-17% of inhaled PAHs are deposited in the alveolar region of the lung for the roadside and suburban atmosphere, respectively. Total deposition fluxes of target PAHs in the alveolar region were about 1.5-fold greater for the roadside atmosphere than for the suburban atmosphere. Importantly, ultrafine particles were shown to contribute as much as 23%-30% and 10%-16% to PAH deposition in the alveolar region for the roadside and suburban atmosphere, respectively, although the contributions of ultrafine particles to the total particulate matter masswere only 2.3% in the roadside atmosphere and 1.3% in the suburban atmosphere. These results indicated that ultrafine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of PAHs into the alveolar region of the lung.

  9. Part 2: Potencies and interactions of polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout early life stage mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenylethers (PBDPES) in aquatic environments may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. Following rainbow trout egg microinjection, the potencies of these polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using fish specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). TEFs are defined as the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to brominated congener LD{sub 50}. Sac fry stage specific TCDD like toxicity included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages and craniofacial malformations. TEFs of active congeners were: 2,3,7,8-TBDF = 0.23; 2,3,4,7,8-PBDF = 0.069; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD = 0.009. No signs of toxicity with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-TBDPE, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime}-PBDPE, or 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PBDPE occurred at egg concentrations up to 126,37 {mu}g/g. Since these congeners occur as complex mixtures, the potential for additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions must also be determined for accurate risk assessment. Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TBDD or 1,2,3,7,8-PBDD alone, or graded doses of fixed ratios of the two congeners were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Separate dose response curves were determined for each ratio and each individual congener. Isobolographic analysis supports the hypothesis that these congeners act additively.

  10. A multipoint (49 points) study of dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Erzurum, Turkey by using surrogated snow surface samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hanefi; Paloluoğlu, Cihan; Turalioğlu, Fatma S; Gaga, Eftade O

    2016-06-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components was investigated in the scope of the study by using surrogate snow samplers at 49 different sampling points in and around the city center of Erzurum, Turkey. Snow was sampled twice, the first of which was taken immediately after the first fresh snow cover and placed into aluminum trays to obtain dry deposition surface while the second sample was taken from the snow cover (accumulated snow) exposed to an 8-day dry deposition period and then analyzed and extracted. All the samples taken from the samplers were extracted using solid and liquid phase extraction and analyzed through GC-MS. It was observed that at the end of an 8-day dry period, snow samples enriched 5.5 times more in PAH components than the baseline. PAH deposition was determined to be influenced mainly by coal, mixed source, traffic, diesel fuel, and petrol fuel at 43, 27, 20, 8, and 2 % of sampling points, respectively. Local polluting sources were found to be effective on the spatial distribution of dry deposition of PAH components in urban area.

  11. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Novel triterpene-derived hydrocarbons of the arborane/fernane series in sediments: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Verena; Graff, Roland; Wehrung, Patrick; Trendel, Jean M.; Albrecht, Pierre; Riva, Angelo; Hopfgartner, Gerard; Gülaçar, Fazil O.; Buchs, Armand; Eakin, Paul A.

    1992-09-01

    Two ring-B aromatized triterpenes related to the arborane/fernane series were isolated from an Italian Triassic black shale ( 4 and 7) and a French Jurassic laminated bituminous limestone (7). They were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. These compounds, 25-norferna-5,7,9-triene 7 (C 29) and 22,25,29,30-tetranor-18β-ferna-5,7,9-triene 4 (C 26), in the case of the Italian sediment, belong to a family which extends to at least C 32 as shown by GC-MS. The presence of higher homologs and ring-A methylated structures in the Italian Triassic shale is analogous with the hopane series, which together with carbon isotopic data obtained by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), strongly support a bacterial origin for most of these compounds. This suggests that 4 and 7 may result from a yet unrecognized rearrangement of sedimentary hopenes which have subsequently undergone ring-B aromatization. As an alternative, the C 29 compound 7 could arise from C 30 precursors not necessarily of bacterial origin (fernenes?). This hypothesis would apply particularly to the case of the Jurassic limestone, which does not show any trace of 4 nor of compounds with an extended side chain or a methyl group on ring A. Related structures also bearing an isopropyl group could derive by microbiological transformations from the corresponding fernen-3β-ols or isoarborinol as can be deduced from the occurrence of ring-A degraded monoaromatic hydrocarbons 3 and 5.

  13. Impact of Hydrocarbon Control in Ultraviolet-Assisted Restoration Process for Extremely Porous Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition SiOCH Films with k = 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Dai; Nakano, Akinori; Kobayashi, Akiko; Matsushita, Kiyohiro; de Roest, David; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the effects of UV-assisted restoration on porous plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiOCH films with k = 2.0 and 2.3 having high porosities. By applying the UV-assisted restoration to O2-plasma-damaged films with k = 2.0 and 2.3, the recovery of the k-value was observed on the k = 2.3 film in proportion to -OH group reduction. However, the k = 2.0 film did not show recovery in spite of -OH group reduction. We found that hydrocarbon content in the k = 2.0 film was significantly increased by the UV-assisted restoration compared with the k = 2.3 film. According to these findings, we optimized the UV-assisted restoration to achieve improved controllability of the hydrocarbon uptake in the k = 2.0 film and confirmed the recovery of the k-value for O2-plasma-damaged film. Thus, adjusting the hydrocarbon uptake was crucial for restoring extremely porous SiOCH film.

  14. Strengthening of 3D printed fused deposition manufactured parts using the fill compositing technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Belter

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a technique for increasing the strength of thermoplastic fused deposition manufactured printed parts while retaining the benefits of the process such as ease, speed of implementation, and complex part geometries. By carefully placing voids in the printed parts and filling them with high-strength resins, we can improve the overall part strength and stiffness by up to 45% and 25%, respectively. We discuss the process parameters necessary to use this strengthening technique and the theoretically possible strength improvements to bending beam members. We then show three-point bend testing data comparing solid printed ABS samples with those strengthened through the fill compositing process, as well as examples of 3D printed parts used in real-world applications.

  15. Treatment of tunnel wash waters - experiments with organic sorbent materials. Part I: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nonpolar oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARUCH AdamM; ROSETH Roger

    2008-01-01

    Tunnel wash waters characterize all waters that run off after washing procedures of tunnels are performed. These waters represent a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic metals. Removal of such contaminants from water runoff was investigated using laboratory tests after washing procedure was performed on two road tunnels in eastern Norway (Hanekleiv and Bragernes). Due to diverse character of both, treatment media and treated wash waters, the whole investigation was divided into two separate laboratory experiments. The treatment efficiencies were established based on the levels of concentrations and reductions of the measured contaminants in the effluents released from the tested media. In the first part of the article, the contents of nonpolar oil (NPO), 16 individual PAHs, and total PAHs (∑PAH16) are described. This part revealed that the combination of two organic sorbent materials provided the highest treatment efficiency for wash waters released from the road tunnel and from electrostatic filters. The greatest reduction levels reached 97.6% for NPO, 97.2% for benzo[a]pyrene, and 96.5% for the total PAHs. In the second part of the article, the concentrations and the removal rates of toxic metals are reported

  16. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  17. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Vinay

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  18. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part II: A new modelling approach and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, Alexandre; Mailliat, Alain; Amielh, Muriel; Anselmet, Fabien

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the modelling of aerosol dry deposition on vegetation. It follows a companion article, in which a review of the current knowledge highlights the need for a better description of the aerosol behaviour within the canopy [Petroff, A., Mailliat, A., Amielh, M., Anselmet, F., 2008. Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part I: Review of present knowledge. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.043]. Concepts from multi-phase flow studies are used for describing the canopy medium and deriving a time and space-averaged aerosol balance equation and the associated deposition terms. The closure of the deposition terms follows an up-scaling procedure based on the statistical distribution of the collecting elements. This aerosol transport model is then applied in a stationary and mono-dimensional configuration and takes into account the properties of the vegetation, the aerosol and the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms are Brownian diffusion, interception, inertial and turbulent impactions, and gravitational settling. For each of them, a parameterisation of the particle collection is derived and the quality of their predictions is assessed by comparison with wind-tunnel deposition measurements on coniferous twigs [Belot, Y., Gauthier, D., 1975. Transport of micronic particles from atmosphere to foliar surfaces. In: De Vries, D.A., Afgan, N.H. (Eds.), Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere. Scripta Book, Washington, DC, pp. 583-591; Belot, Y., 1977. Etude de la captation des polluants atmosphériques par les végétaux. CEA, R-4786, Fontenay-aux-Roses; Belot, Y., Camus, H., Gauthier, D., Caput, C., 1994. Uptake of small particles by canopies. The Science of the Total Environment 157, 1-6]. Under a real canopy configuration, the predictions of the aerosol transport model compare reasonably well with detailed on-site deposition measurements of Aitken mode particles [Buzorius, G., Rannik, Ü., M

  19. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-10-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ROLE OF SOURCE MATRIX IN THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO DEPOSIT-FEEDING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic organisms is complicated by the variety of ways that they are introduced to coastal waters (dissolved, as nonaqueous phase liquids, and tightly bound to soot, coal, tire rubber, and eroded shale). In order ...

  1. Review of selected non-seismic methods for onshore hydrocarbon exploration in Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L.

    2012-09-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The starting point of the study was the need in Danish onshore areas for more knowledge on alternative methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration, as an alternative to seismic investigations. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The seven methods considered and reviewed are: 1: Surface geochemistry; 2: Gravimetric modelling; 3: Magnetotellurics (MT, AMT and ZTEM); 4: High-Moment Electromagnetics (HMEM); 5: High-Powered Spectral Induced Polarization (HPSIP); 6: Electron Para-magnetic Resonance (EPR); 7: Airborne Transient Pulse Surveys. Getting a test of one of the methods based on electromagnetic theory organised caused some difficulties. An experiment with a galvanic controlled source was considered to be the optimum choice. However, based on various contacts and failed attempts to organise a test, a contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the MT method. The test is to be carried out in August 2012 and will be reported in a separate report (ALTKUL Project Report Part 2). (LN)

  2. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing-Tianjin region, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wentao [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Administrative Center for China' s Agenda 21 (ACCA21), Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing, 100038 (China); Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Giri, Basant [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology and Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shen Huizhong; Shen Guofeng; Wang Rong; Cao Jun [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Shu, E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Bulk deposition samples were collected in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China in spring, summer, fall and winter from 2007 to 2008. The annually averaged PAHs concentration and deposition flux were 11.81 {+-} 4.61 {mu}g/g and 5.2 {+-} 3.89 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/day respectively. PHE and FLA had the highest deposition flux, accounting for 35.3% and 20.7% of total deposition flux, respectively. More exposure risk from deposition existed in the fall for the local inhabitants. In addition, the PAHs deposition flux in rural villages (3.91 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/day) and urban areas (8.28 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/day) was 3.8 and 9.1 times higher than in background area (0.82 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/day), respectively. This spatial variation of deposition fluxes of PAHs was related to the PAHs emission sources, local population density and air concentration of PAHs, and the PAHs emission sources alone can explain 36%, 49%, 21% and 30% of the spatial variation in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. - The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of PAHs deposition in Beijing-Tianjin region were studied and quantitatively related to PAHs emission density and ambient air concentration.

  3. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C. B.; Dill, L. H.; Kreider, K. L.; Young, G. W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S. I.

    2005-08-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  4. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci L. Massey; Giri, Basant; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Chen, Shejun; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China in spring, summer, fall and winter from 2007 to 2008. The annually averaged PAHs concentration and deposition flux were 11.81 ± 4.61 µg/g and 5.2 ± 3.89 µg/m2/day respectively. PHE and FLA had the highest deposition flux, accounting for 35.3% and 20.7% of total deposition flux, respectively. More exposure risk from deposition existed in the fall for the local inhabitants. In addition, the PAHs deposition flux in rural villages (3.91 µg/m2/day) and urban areas (8.28 µg/m2/day) was 3.8 and 9.1 times higher than in background area (0.82 µg/m2/day), respectively. This spatial variation of deposition fluxes of PAHs was related to the PAHs emission sources, local population density and air concentration of PAHs, and the PAHs emission sources alone can explain 36%, 49%, 21% and 30% of the spatial variation in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. PMID:20888097

  5. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  6. Mineral oil in human tissues, part II: characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Würger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2015-02-15

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GC×GC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons.

  7. In situ sensing of subsurface contamination--part I: near-infrared spectral characterization of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavarioti, Maria; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pourjabbar, Anahita; Ghandehari, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    There is an imperative need for a chemical sensor capable of remote, in situ, long-term monitoring of chemical species at sites containing toxic chemical spills, specifically at chemical waste dumps, landfills, and locations with underground storage tanks. In the current research, a series of experiments were conducted measuring the near-infrared optical absorption of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A spectral library was then developed to characterize the optical spectra of liquid hydrocarbons. Near-infrared analysis was chosen due to compatibility with optical fibers. The goal was to differentiate between classes of hydrocarbons and to also discriminate between compounds within a class of similar molecular structures. It was observed that unique absorption spectra can be obtained for each hydrocarbon, and this uniqueness can be used to discriminate between hydrocarbons from different families. Statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient (Spearman and Pearson methods), were attempted to match absorption spectra from an unknown hydrocarbon with the database with limited success. An algorithm was subsequently written to identify the characteristic peaks of each hydrocarbon that could be used to match data from an unknown chemical species with the database.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF PARTS MANUFACTURED USING FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental study – part of research of additive technology using thermoplastics as a build material, namely Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM. Aim of the study was to identify the relation between basic parameter of the FDM process – model orientation during manufacturing – and a dimensional accuracy and repeatability of obtained products. A set of samples was prepared – they were manufactured with variable process parameters and they were measured using 3D scanner. Significant differences in accuracy of products of the same geometry, but manufactured with different set of process parameters were observed.

  9. Regional anomalies of hydrocarbon fluid saturation as a new source of data on promising oil and gas deposits in the Caspian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenko, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes the ratio of local and regional anomalies of fluid saturation identified in the southern margins of the Eastern European Platform by remote fluid indexation. A characteristic feature of this area is the very low background values in the initial field, i.e., local anomalies reflecting the deposits. Regional anomalies are mainly related to oil and gas accumulation zones. In the Middle Caspian areas studied, the regional field of the fluid saturation index is the background for local anomalies. We made an attempt to justify the hydrocarbon migration and generation zones as anomaly-forming zones of the regional anomalies. The correlation of oil and gas accumulation zones with the regional field anomalies was noted.

  10. Genome sequence of obligate marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker Amoco Milford Haven, Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Enzo; Denaro, Renata; Crisafi, Francesca; Smedile, Francesco; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, Maria; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Russo, Daniela; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter; Yakimov, Michail M

    2016-02-01

    Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the sunken tanker “Amoco Milford Haven” (Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea, Italy) could effectively degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of up to five condensed rings. The genome of 78-ME was sequenced and analysed to gain insights into its remarkable degrading capacities. It comprises two circular replicons, the 2,613,078 bp chromosome and the plasmid of 42,347 bp, with 41.84% and 53.28% of the G + C content respectively. A total of 2585 protein-coding genes were obtained, and three large operons with more than fifteen enzymes belonging to four different classes of ring-cleavage dioxygenases were found.

  11. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  12. Using testate amoeba as potential biointegrators of atmospheric deposition of phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) on "moss/soil interface-testate amoeba community" microecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Desalme, Dorine; Bernard, Nadine; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Microecosystem models could allow understanding of the impacts of pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on ecosystem functioning. We studied the effects of atmospheric phenanthrene (PHE) deposition on the microecosystem "moss/soil interface-testate amoebae (TA) community" over a 1-month period under controlled conditions. We found that PHE had an impact on the microecosystem. PHE was accumulated by the moss/soil interface and was significantly negatively correlated (0.4 < r(2) < 0.7) with total TA abundance and the abundance of five species of TA (Arcella sp., Centropyxis sp., Nebela lageniformis, Nebela tincta and Phryganella sp.). Among sensitive species, species with a superior trophic level (determined by the test aperture size) were more sensitive than other TA species. This result suggests that links between microbial groups in the microecosystems are disrupted by PHE and that this pollutant had effects both direct (ingestion of the pollutant or direct contact with cell) and/or indirect (decrease of prey) on the TA community. The TA community seems to offer a potential integrative tool to understand mechanisms and processes by which the atmospheric PHE deposition affects the links between microbial communities.

  13. Characterization and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts Manufactured by the Fused Deposition Modelling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While fused deposition modelling (FDM is one of the most used additive manufacturing (AM techniques today due to its ability to manufacture very complex geometries, the major research issues have been to balance ability to produce aesthetically appealing looking products with functionality. In this study, five important process parameters such as layer thickness, part orientation, raster angle, raster width, and air gap have been considered to study their effects on tensile strength of test specimen, using design of experiment (DOE. Using group method of data handling (GMDH, mathematical models relating the response with the process parameters have been developed. Using differential evolution (DE, optimal process parameters have been found to achieve good strength simultaneously for the response. The optimization of the mathematical model realized results in maximized tensile strength. Consequently, the additive manufacturing part produced is improved by optimizing the process parameters. The predicted models obtained show good correlation with the measured values and can be used to generalize prediction for process conditions outside the current study. Results obtained are very promising and hence the approach presented in this paper has practical applications for design and manufacture of parts using additive manufacturing technologies.

  14. An analytical method of predicting Lee-Kesler-Ploecker binary interaction coefficients: Part 1, For non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.

  15. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  16. Low Temperature Pulsed Plasma Deposition. Part 3. A Method of Deposition of Aluminum and Tin at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-23

    aluminium oxide . 5 Similarly, the films of tin produced from continuous flows of TNT, argon, and hydrogen were brown, soft, and had no metallic lustre...deposition such that all the carbon in the film had reacted with moisture in the air to form aluminium oxide . The apparent silicon content is due to the

  17. Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine-fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotak, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Pereszlenyi, M. [VVNP Research Oil Company for Exploration and Production, Bratislava (Slovakia); Marschalko, R.; Starek, D. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Geological Institute; Milicka, J. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Geochemistry

    2001-01-01

    The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin accommodates a subsiding area of the destructive plate-margin. The basin history comprises marginal faulting and alluvial fan accumulation (E{sub 2}); transgressive onlap by shoreface sediments and carbonate platform deposits (E{sub 2}); glacio-eustatic regression induced by cooling (Terminal Eocene Event); forced regression, tectonic subsidence and growth-fault accumulation of basin-floor and slope fans (E{sub 3}); decelerating subsidence, aggradation and sea-level rising during the mud-rich deposition (O{sub 1}); high-magnitude drop in sea-level (Mid-Oligocene Event), retroarc backstep of depocenters and lowstand accumulation of sand-rich fans and suprafans (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}); subduction-related shortening and basin inversion along the northern margins affected by backthrusting and transpressional deformation (O{sub 2}-M{sub 1}). The basin-fill sequence has poor (TOC {<=} 0.5%) to fair (TOC < 1.0%) quality of source rocks. Maturity of OM ranges from initial to relic stage of HC generation. Paleogene rock-extracts display a good correlation with scarce trapped oils. 'The presence of solid bitumens and HC-rich fluid inclusions indicates overpressure conditions during HC generation and migration. Potential HC reservoirs can be expected in porous lithologies (scarp breccias), in basement highs and traps related to backthrusting, fault-propagation folding and strike-slip tectonics. (author)

  18. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  19. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 1. Measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. Since ash deposit thermal conductivity is thought to be strongly dependent on deposit microstructure, the technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. Traditional techniques for measuring deposit thermal conductivity generally do not preserve the sample microstructure. Experiments are described that demonstrate the technique, quantify experimental uncertainty, and determine the thermal conductivity of highly porous, unsintered deposits. The average measured conductivity of loose, unsintered deposits is 0.14 {+-} 0.03 W/(m K), approximately midway between rational theoretical limits for deposit thermal conductivity.

  20. Characterization of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and its deposition in Populus tomentosa leaves in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hailong; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Chao; Guo, Huihong; Yin, Weilun; Xia, Xinli

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous constituents of air particulate matter and can be taken up by plants from the atmosphere. However, the purification of particulate-bound PAHs in the atmosphere by greening tree species has not been reported. In this study, we assess the concentrations, distribution, and sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs at three representative sites of Beijing in April, July, and November (non-heating period) and analyze the correlation between PAHs in Populus tomentosa leaves and in atmospheric PM2.5. The total PAH concentrations in PM2.5 were in the range of 19.85 ± 13.59-42.01 ± 37.17 ng/m(3) with mean value of 31.35 ng/m(3) at the three sites, and the PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations in the two suburban sites (YF and YQ) were significantly higher than that in urban site (XZM) in November (autumn). At the three sites, the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs in PM2.5 were dominant, accounting for 54.09-64.90% of total PAHs and the concentration of HMW PAHs was, on average, 9.1 times higher than that of low molecular weight (LWM) PAHs. Principal component analysis combined with diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicle emission, wood combustion, and industrial processes were the main sources for PM2.5-bound PAHs in the non-heating period of Beijing. However, the LMW PAHs were dominant in P. tomentosa leaves. The concentrations of HMW PAHs (BbF, BkF, BaP, IcdP, and BghiP) in P. tomentosa leaves reached 26.11 ± 2.39, 41.42 ± 7.77, and 55.70 ± 12.33 ng/g at YQ, XZM, and YF in autumn, respectively, and were, on average, 2.1 times higher than those in April (spring) at the three sites. The ∑5PAHs concentration in P. tomentosa leaves accumulatively increased from spring to autumn, which was not related to the temporal variation of PM2.5-bound PAHs. Nevertheless, the ∑5PAHs mean concentrations followed the order of YF > XZM > YQ. This trend was consistent with spatial distribution of atmosphere PM2.5, indicating

  1. Investigating the influence of infill percentage on the mechanical properties of fused deposition modelled ABS parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Álvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a manufacturing process that is usually used for modeling and prototyping. One of the most popular printing techniques is fused deposition modeling (FDM, which is based on adding melted material layer by layer. Although FDM has several advantages with respect to other manufacturing materials, there are several problems that have to be faced. When setting the printing options, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as temperature, speed, infill percentage, etc. Selecting these parameters is often a great challenge for the user, and is generally solved by experience without considering the influence of variations in the parameters on the mechanical properties of the printed parts.This article analyzes the influence of the infill percentage on the mechanical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene printed parts. In order to characterize this influence, test specimens for tensile strength and Charpy tests were printed with a Makerbot Replicator 2X printer, in which the infill percentage was varied but the rest of the printing parameters were kept constant. Three different results were analyzed for these tests: tensile strength, impact resistance, and effective printing time. Results showed that the maximum tensile force (1438N and tensile stress (34,57MPa were obtained by using 100% infill. The maximum impact resistance, 1,55J, was also obtained with 100% infill. In terms of effective printing time, results showed that printing with an infill range between 50% and 98% is not recommended, since the effective printing time is higher than with a 100% infill and the tensile strength and impact resistance are smaller. In addition, in comparing the results of our analysis with results from other authors, it can be concluded that the printer type and plastic roll significantly influence the mechanical properties of ABS parts.

  2. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part I. Model description, results and uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Deposition of base cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) in Europe was mapped for 1989 with a spatial resolution of 10 x 20 km using the so-called inferential modeling technique. Deposition fields resembled the geographic variability of sources, land-use and climate. Dry deposition constituted on average 45

  3. Geochemical characterization of lower Toarcian source rocks from NW Germany: interpretation of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons in relation to depositional environment and maturation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G. [Institut fuer Erdol und Organische Geochemie, Juelich (Germany); Vriend, S.P. [University of Utrecht (Netherlands). Institute of Earth Sciences

    2001-07-01

    The characterization of crude oils in terms of source rock facies and depositional environment, as well as their maturity and alteration stage, is a crucial element in exploration studies. The present contribution has implications for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations. In the past, numerous parameters have been used for this purpose most of which are based on the analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (including sulphur aromatics) and also on stable isotope signatures and elemental compositions. Recently, molecular indicators based on dibenzothiophene (DBT), phenanthrene (PHE) and their methyl derivatives methyldlbenzothiophene (MDBT) an methylphenanthrene, as well as pristane (PRI) and phytane (PHY), have also been proposed (Hughes et al, 1995). These studies have attempted to infer a crude oil's source rock facies and lithology, and to classify the source rock's depositional environment. In the present study, the above compounds have been quantified by solvent extraction, liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography in 98 core samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale Formation, a source rock in NW Germany. Most samples cored between depths of 7m and 70 m, came from the Hils Half-Graben in the Lower Saxony Basin. With a few exceptions from on borehole, the samples were unweathered maris or calcareous shales. The rocks contained mainly marine organic matter (Type 1 kerogen), the thermal maturity of which ranged from early mature to postmature (corresponding to 0.48-1.44% mean vitrinite reflectance), therefore encompassing the range over which effective petroleum generation had occurred. We found that the influence of organic matter type and maturity on the molecular distributions of the above compounds were not obvious when interpreted in term of a DBT/PHE vs PRI/PHY diagram. However, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of our data-set showed that alkylphenanthren concentrations are strongly controlled by maturity, while the

  4. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated part behavior under tensile stress, thermal cycling, and fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shojib

    Material extrusion based additive manufacturing (AM) technology, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), is gaining popularity with the numerous 3D printers available worldwide. FDM technology is advancing from exclusively prototype construction to achieving production-grade quality. Today, FDM-fabricated parts are widely used in the aerospace industries, biomedical applications, and other industries that may require custom fabricated, low volume parts. These applications are and were possible because of the different production grade material options (e.g., acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate (PC), polyphenylsulfone (PPSF), etc.) available to use in FDM systems. Recent researchers are exploring other material options including polycaprolactone (PCL), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), composites containing ceramic, glass and metal fillers, and even metals which depict the diversified materials and possibility of new material options using FDM technology. The understanding of the behavior and mechanical properties of the finished FDM-fabricated parts is of utmost importance in the advancement of this technology. The processing parameters, e.g., build orientation, raster width (RW), contour width (CW), raster angle (RA), and raster to raster air gap (RRAG) are important factors in determining the mechanical properties of FDM fabricated parts. The work presented here focused on the mechanical properties improvement by modifying those build parameters. The main concentration is on how modifying those parameters can improve ultimate tensile stress (UTS), Young's modulus, and tensile strain of the final product. In this research, PC parts were fabricated using three build methods: 1) default method, 2) Insight revision method, and 3) visual feedback method. By modifying build parameters, the highest average UTS obtained for PC was 63.96 MPa which was 7% higher than that of 59.73 MPa obtained using the default build parameters. The parameter modification

  5. HP-SPME of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated on a steel fiber through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoudi, S.; Noroozian, E. [Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method using a stainless steel wire electrophoretically coated with dodecylsulfate modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes was used for the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Electrophoretic deposition was easily carried out from an aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate medium. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of SPME process, such as extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, desorption time, and desorption temperature were studied. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the various PAHs studied varied from 0.03 to 0.07 ng mL{sup -1}. The inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations at a 10 ng mL{sup -1} concentration level (n = 7) using a single-fiber were from 5.5 to 9.7 and 4.1 to 8.5 %, respectively. The fiber-to-fiber RSD% (n = 3) was between 7.3 and 11.1 %. The linear ranges were between 0.1 and 100 ng mL{sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a real sample with the recoveries from 88 to 105 % for 5 ng mL{sup -1} and 89 to 101 % for 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} samples. (orig.)

  6. Effects of build parameters on linear wear loss in plastic part produced by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2017-07-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the prominent additive manufacturing technologies for producing polymer products. FDM is a complex additive manufacturing process that can be influenced by many process conditions. The industrial demands required from the FDM process are increasing with higher level product functionality and properties. The functionality and performance of FDM manufactured parts are greatly influenced by the combination of many various FDM process parameters. Designers and researchers always pay attention to study the effects of FDM process parameters on different product functionalities and properties such as mechanical strength, surface quality, dimensional accuracy, build time and material consumption. However, very limited studies have been carried out to investigate and optimize the effect of FDM build parameters on wear performance. This study focuses on the effect of different build parameters on micro-structural and wear performance of FDM specimens using definitive screening design based quadratic model. This would reduce the cost and effort of additive manufacturing engineer to have a systematic approachto make decision among the manufacturing parameters to achieve the desired product quality.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal water, surface sediment and mullet Liza klunzingeri from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Afkhami, Majid; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Kazaali, Aida; Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Haghparast, Sarah; Soltani, Farzaneh; Zanjani, Seyed Asal; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Pourzare, Roya

    2013-11-15

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in mullet (Liza klunzingeri), water and sediment from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). The concentration levels of total PAHs in L. klunzingeri, water and sediment were 133.99-268.57 ng g(-1)dry weight, 3.12-5.88 ng l(-1) and 42.29-228.9 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Based on isomer ratios, analysis of the PAHs source in the sediment demonstrated that the PAHs come from pyrogenic and petrogenic origin. Risk assessment showed PAHs threshold concentrations to occasionally be exceeded in the study area.

  8. Positron emission tomography in pebble beds. Part 1: Liquid particle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T., E-mail: t.barth@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ludwig, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Franke, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy (IRP), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lippmann-Pipke, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Particle deposition in a pebble bed was recorded by positron emission tomography. • The particles were radioactively labelled and their spatial distribution was recorded. • Particle deposition was mainly driven by particle inertia and turbulent dispersion. • Particle deposits form hot spots on the upstream face of the single pebbles. - Abstract: Accidental scenarios such as the depressurisation of the primary circuit of high temperature gas cooled pebble bed reactors may lead to the release of fission products via the discharge of radioactive graphite dust. For a detailed source term assessment in such accident scenarios knowledge of the flow mechanics of dust transport in complex coolant circuit components, like pebble beds, recuperator structures and pipe systems is necessary. In this article an experimental study of aerosol deposition in a pebble bed is described. We investigated the deposition of radiolabelled liquid aerosol particles in a scaled pebble bed in an air-driven small-scale aerosol flow test facility under isothermal ambient conditions. The aerosol particles were generated by means of a condensational aerosol generator with potassium-fluoride (KF) condensation nuclei. Particle concentration measurements upstream and downstream of the pebble bed were performed by isokinetic sampling and particle counting. The results agree with typical deposition curves for turbulent and inertia driven particle deposition. Furthermore, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to visualize and measure particle deposition distributions in the pebble bed. Results of a selected deposition experiment with moderately large particles (d{sub aero} = 3.5 μm, Re{sup ′}{sub pb}=2200) show that the deposited particles are located in the vicinity of the upstream stagnation points of the pebbles. These findings support the thesis that inertia driven particle deposition is predominating.

  9. Quality assurance of commercial beeswax. Part I. Gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry of hydrocarbons and monoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; Aumente, S; del Nozal, Ma J; Martín, Ma T; Bernal, J

    2004-01-23

    The use of low-temperature capillary gas chromatography coupled to electron impact mass spectrometry for the characterization of crude beeswaxes yielded by Apis mellifera is described. The system allows the identification of a great number of compounds, some of them not reported till now in beeswax, such as a family of ethyl esters, tetracosyl oleate, and several saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The information acquired makes possible the differentiation between pure beeswax and some foundation beeswax samples where mixture of pure beeswax with another substances is suspected.

  10. Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP). Part 2. Determination of metal ion speciation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Town, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP) generates curves that are fundamentally different in form from classical polarographic waves. Still, despite their steeper slope and non-linear log plot, the shift in the SSCP half-wave deposition potential can be interpreted in a

  11. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  12. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Chung; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Slee, Danny; Stevenson, Gavin; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. PAHs were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight PAHs with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight PAHs were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all PAHs compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight PAHs significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All PAHs (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic PAHs demonstrated that the primary source of PAHs in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of PAHs calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS.

  14. Bi-cycles petrographic association in middle part of East Pana PGE layers deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Veksler, Ilya; Gorbunov, Artem

    2016-04-01

    The PGE mineralization in the East Pana layered gabbroic intrusion forms three discrete layers at different stratigraphic levels, which are traditionally labeled as zones A, B and C. In order to investigate possible relationships of mineralization with magmatic layering we sampled a 120 m long drill core section across zone B in the middle part of the intrusion and carried out detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the samples. The ore zone is located in medial part of the of East's Pana deposite. The samples represent mainly from a layered sequence of gabbro and gabbro-norite. This zone is composed of interlayers of gabbroic sequences and gabbro-norite of various color, with different structures and different relationship of rock-forming minerals of Ol-Opx-Cpx-Pl. We studied one of key's drill-hole section of ore zone, in which is located two ore horizons. Fundamental feature layered intrusions are presence in cross-section cycles includes of stable petrographic association. In section of ore zone it is possible to select two most contrast petrographic types. Whole-rock analyses and petrographic observations reveal two units of modal layering comprising, from bottom to top, melanocratic gabbro grading upwards into mesocratic gabbro and gabbro-norite overlain by pegmatoidal, gabbroic rock with has sharp footwall and hanging wall contacts.There is also an olivine-bearing gabbro at the bottom of the lower unit. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type rock. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type part. The second upper ore zone located in more differential species types. There is the common trend of system evolution of well distinguished on triangle of Ol-Pl-Di, Ol-Pl-Q and other. However composition of the rocks in the two parts of our section show us similar, but independent trends. For example on diagram differentiation of rocks composition, with normative content of anorthite on the X axis, trends of

  15. Hydrocarbons in waters and bottom sediments of coastal areas in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments are presented. The data were compared to the distribution of the total organic carbon, particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya bays, as well as in the Greater Sochi area. The intense transformation processes of organic compounds within the water mass and water-bottom interface have resulted in the prevalence of natural components in the alkane composition of the bottom sediments in the areas of the Black Sea considered. The riverine and marine water mixing zone acts as a geochemical barrier preventing the supply of the bulk of river-transferred pollutants to the open sea areas.

  16. Lotus corniculatus Crop Growth in Crude Oil Polluted Soil. Part1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Reduction of Polluted and Cultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of power plant fly ash, by its physical-chemical properties, can significantly change the characteristics of soils polluted with oil (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, TPH, in their rehabilitation process, if combined with biodegradable organic materials, wastes such as sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Maintaining vegetation on soils polluted with 80.5 ± 3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. of TPH under perennial regime specific to bird’s foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, demonstrates the tolerance of the plant to the created conditions by the treatment of polluted soil with adequate amounts of fertilizer and fly ash from burning coal in power stations. The addition of 50-500 g fly ash per vegetation pot equipped with crude oil polluted soil mixed with 250 g sewage sludge per pot has reduced the oil content in the soil, in two ways: on the one hand influenced by the state of development of plants and on the other hand by weather conditions (alternation of seasons. The amount of TPH lost during the 16 months of vegetation in soils polluted with 80.5±3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. was 73.3-77.5 g·kg-1 D.M.

  17. Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP). Part 5. Features of multi-metal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the mutual effects of metals on each other in scanned deposition potential stripping chronopotentiometry measurements (SSCP) on multi-metal systems. As compared to stripping voltammetry, depletive SSCP displays a certain resistance to the impact of intermetallic compounds, while

  18. Direct Deposition of Metal (DDM) as a Repair Process for Metallic Military Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-20

    properties such as, better corrosion resistance , increased strength, increased toughness and finer microstructure. DDM also has improved ductility...Figure 12: Samples after 168 hours salt spray corrosion test UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 15 Stellite 6 Deposit Mechanical Tests • Specimen...less than 1% elongation (from www.matweb.com) • Corrosion test – Stellite material was not subjected to corrosion testing. Figure 13

  19. The Upper Devonian deposits in the northern part of Leon (Cantabrian Mountains, Northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.; Raven, J.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    During the Late Devonian, deposition in the Cantabrian Mountains was largely controlled by movements along faults. By way of intermitting subsidence of the area south of the Sabero-Gordón line and the connected progradation of the coast during the Frasnian and early Famennian, three regressive seque

  20. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 2: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unknown fraction of mercury that is deposited onto snowpacks is revolatilized to the atmosphere. Determining the revolatilized fraction is important since mercury that enters the snowpack meltwater may be converted to highly toxic bioaccumulating methylmercury. In this study, we present a new dynamic physically-based snowpack/meltwater model for mercury that is suitable for large-scale atmospheric models for mercury. It represents the primary physical and chemical processes that determine the fate of mercury deposited onto snowpacks. The snowpack/meltwater model was implemented in Environment Canada's atmospheric mercury model GRAHM. For the first time, observed snowpack-related mercury concentrations are used to evaluate and constrain an atmospheric mercury model. We find that simulated concentrations of mercury in both snowpacks and the atmosphere's surface layer agree closely with observations. The simulated concentration of mercury in both in the top 30 cm and the top 150 cm of the snowpack, averaged over 2005–2009, is predominantly below 6 ng l−1 over land south of 66.5° N but exceeds 18 ng l−1 over sea ice in extensive areas of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. The average simulated concentration of mercury in snowpack meltwater runoff tends to be higher on the Russian/European side (>20 ng l−1 of the Arctic Ocean than on the Canadian side (<10 ng l−1. The correlation coefficient between observed and simulated monthly mean atmospheric surface-level GEM concentrations increased significantly with the inclusion of the new snowpack/meltwater model at two of the three stations (midlatitude, subarctic studied and remained constant at the third (arctic. Oceanic emissions are postulated to produce the observed summertime maximum in concentrations of surface-level atmospheric GEM at Alert in the Canadian Arctic and to generate the summertime volatility observed in these concentrations at

  1. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 2: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An unknown fraction of mercury that is deposited onto snowpacks is revolatilized to the atmosphere. Determining the revolatilized fraction is important since mercury that enters the snowpack meltwater may be converted to highly toxic bioaccumulating methylmercury. In this study, we present a new dynamic physically-based snowpack/meltwater model for mercury that is suitable for large-scale atmospheric models for mercury. It represents the primary physical and chemical processes that determine the fate of mercury deposited onto snowpacks. The snowpack/meltwater model was implemented in Environment Canada's atmospheric mercury model GRAHM. For the first time, observed snowpack-related mercury concentrations are used to evaluate and constrain an atmospheric mercury model. We find that simulated concentrations of mercury in both snowpacks and the atmosphere's surface layer agree closely with observations. The simulated concentration of mercury in both in the top 30 cm and the top 150 cm of the snowpack, averaged over 2005–2009, is predominantly below 6 ng L−1 over land south of 66.5° N but exceeds 18 ng L−1 over sea ice in extensive areas of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. The average simulated concentration of mercury in snowpack meltwater runoff tends to be higher on the Russian/European side (>20 ng L−1 of the Arctic Ocean than on the Canadian side (<10 ng L−1. The correlation coefficient between observed and simulated monthly mean atmospheric surface-level gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations increased significantly with the inclusion of the new snowpack/meltwater model at two of the three stations (midlatitude, subarctic studied and remained constant at the third (arctic. Oceanic emissions are postulated to produce the observed summertime maximum in concentrations of surface-level atmospheric GEM at Alert in the Canadian Arctic and to generate the summertime volatility observed in

  2. Small scale analogs of the Cayley Formation and Descarts Mountains in impact associated deposits, part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The exploration of the Cayley Formation and material of the Descartes Mountains and an understanding of the origin and evolution of these units were primary objectives of the Apollo 16 lunar mission. This section examines several areas associated with impact crater deposits that show small-scale features similar in morphology to the regional characteristics of the Cayley and Descartes units shown in the Apollo 16 photography.

  3. Indicative function of aromatic hydrocarbon in crude oil on depositional environment%原油芳烃的沉积环境指示作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟江辉; 刘洛夫; 张敏; 王英

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the indicative function of aromatic hydrocarbon in crude oil on the depositional environment,31 crude oil samples from Tazhong marine crude oil,Qaidam salt-lake facies crude oil,Jizhong Sag freshwater-lake facies crude oil and Turpan coal-derived oil basins were chosen for analysis by GC-MS.The results show that the abundances of cadalene and retene in aromatic diterpenoids indicateed the input degree of higher plants for the marine and salt-lake facies crude oils,a lower than 0.24% mass fraction of cadalene in naphthaline series and a lower than 1.21% mass fraction of retene in phenanthrene series.However,these two values are in the range of 0.12%-8.65% and 0.71%-20.03% in the freshwater-lake facies and coal-derived oils,respectively.Dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran may be derived from the same precursor compound,but fluorenes have different genesis,and the value of dibenzothiophene/dibenzofuran ratio can reflect redox condition,whch is generally higher than 0.7 in the marine and salt-lake facies crude oils,0.48 in the freshwater-lake facies crude oil and lower than 0.14 in the coal-derived oil.The ratio of dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene is the most effective parameter to distinguish between marine(0.25) and terrestrial(0.2) crude oils.The salt-lake facies crude oil is characterized by high abundance of triaromatic steroid(triaromatic steroid series/aromatic hydrocarbon ratio 12%) and C26/C28(20S) triaromatic steroid ratio(0.45).The coal-derived oil contains whole benzohopane series typically.%为了研究原油芳烃在沉积环境方面的指示作用,采用色谱-质谱仪对塔中地区海相原油、柴达木盆地咸水湖相原油、冀中坳陷淡水湖相原油以及吐哈盆地煤成油等31个原油样品进行了全油GC-MS分析.研究结果表明:芳构化二萜类的卡达烯和惹烯的丰度指示着高等植物输入强度,海相和咸水湖相原油卡达烯在萘系列中的质量分数小于0.24%,惹烯

  4. SFR inverse modelling Part 2. Uncertainty factors of predicted flow in deposition tunnels and uncertainty in distribution of flow paths from deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan (Golder Associates, Uppsala (SE))

    2007-10-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is operating the SFR repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. An update of the safety analysis of SFR was carried out by SKB as the SAFE project (Safety Assessment of Final Disposal of Operational Radioactive Waste). The aim of the project was to update the safety analysis and to produce a safety report. The safety report has been submitted to the Swedish authorities. This study is a continuation of the SAFE project, and concerns the hydrogeological modelling of the SFR repository, which was carried out as part of the SAFE project, it describes the uncertainty in the tunnel flow and distributions of flow paths from the storage tunnels. Uncertainty factors are produced for two different flow situations, corresponding to 2,000 AD (the sea covers the repository) and 4,000 AD (the sea has retreated form the repository area). Uncertainty factors are produced for the different deposition tunnels. The uncertainty factors are discussed in Chapter 2 and two lists (matrix) of uncertainty factors have been delivered as a part of this study. Flow paths are produced for two different flow situations, corresponding to 2,000 AD (the sea covers the repository) and 5,000 AD (the sea has retreated form the repository area). Flow paths from the different deposition tunnels have been simulated, considering the above discussed base case and the 60 realisation that passed all tests of this base case. The flow paths are presented and discussed in Chapter 3 and files presenting the results of the flow path analyses have been delivered as part of this study. The uncertainty factors (see Chapter 2) are not independent from the flow path data (see Chapter 3). When stochastic calculations are performed by use of a transport model and the data presented in this study is used as input to such calculations, the corresponding uncertainty factors and flow path data should be used. This study also includes a brief discussion of

  5. Ceramic clays from the western part of the Tamnava Tertiary Basin, Serbia: Deposits and clay types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geological, mineralogical, physical, chemical and technological investigations in the Tamnava Tertiary Basin near Šabac town (western Serbia, deposits of ceramic clays were studied. These ceramic clays are composed of kaolin-illite with a variable content of quartz, feldspars, mica, iron oxides and hydroxides, and organic matter. Four main types of commercial clays were identified: i red-yellow sandy-gravely (brick clays; ii grey-white poor sandy (ceramic clays; iii dark-carbonaceous (ceramic clays; and iv lamellar (“interspersed” fatty, poor sandy (highly aluminous and ferrous clays. Ceramic clays are defined as medium to high plastic with different ranges of sintering temperatures, which makes them suitable for the production of various kinds of materials in the ceramic industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176016

  6. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 1 – Parametric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-16

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated.

  7. The adsorption of nickelocene. Part 2: decomposition and selective area deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welipitiya, D.; Waldfried, C.; Borca, C. N.; Dowben, P. A.; Boag, N. M.; Jiang, H.; Gobulukoglu, I.; Robertson, B. W.

    1998-12-01

    We have studied the photofragmentation of nickelocene by photoemission and laser-induced photodesorption. The ultraviolet photolytic decomposition leads to relatively clean metal-to-ligand cleavage and photoinduced desorption of the cyclopentadienyl ligand fragments. This photolytic decomposition process is mechanistically different from the pyrolytic decomposition process, which results in the formation of C 3H 3 and C 2H 2 that desorbs both as free ligands and bound to nickel. The laser- and electron-induced fragmentation of nickelocene leads to the deposition of nickel containing features with considerable spatial resolution. Lines as fine as 10 nm across have been fabricated with electron beams. The photolytic decomposition of nickelocene can be used to fabricate micron-scale ferromagnetic nickel features in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.

  8. Flow under standing waves Part 2. Scour and deposition in front of breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D general purpose Navier-Stokes solver was used to calculate the 2-D flow in front of the breakwater. The k-omega, SST (shear-stress transport) model was selected as the turbulence model. The morphologic model of the present code couples the flow solution with a sediment transport description...... and routines for, updating the computational mesh based on the mass balance of sediment. Laboratory experiments of scour also were conducted in a wave flume to obtain data for model verification. Both in the numerical simulations and in the laboratory experiment, two kinds of breakwaters were used: A vertical......-wall breakwater; and a sloping-wall breakwater (Slope: 1:1.5). Numerically obtained scour-deposition profiles were compared with the experiments. The numerical results show that the equilibrium scour depth normalized by the wave height decreases with increasing water-depth-to-wave-length ratio. Although...

  9. Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir Formation, Talchir Basin, India – depositional history revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta; Rishiraj Sahoo

    2007-02-01

    The lowest unit of the Talchir Formation of Talchir Basin, Orissa, was described by pioneer workers as the 'basal oulder bed'. In an attempt to explain the co-existence of gravel and clay, materials of contrasting hydraulic properties, a probable situation resembling the effects of the action of ground-ice enabled boulders to be carried down by sluggish currents resulting in an intermixture of large boulders and fine mud was conceived. Misinterpretation of this conclusion led to a general tendency to describe the 'basal boulder bed' as 'glacial tillite'. However, the unit described as 'basal boulder bed is actually represented by a matrix rich conglomerate with pockets of normally graded silty clay. The present study reveals that the depositional imprints preserved in this part of the sedimentary succession indicate emplacement of successive debris flows generated through remobilization of pre-existing unconsolidated sediments. Small pockets of fine-grained turbidites presumably deposited from the entrained turbidity currents associated with the debris flows suggest the composite character of the debris flow deposit.

  10. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  11. Selecting the induction heating for normalization of deposited surfaces of cylindrical parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Валеріївна Бережна

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The machine parts recovered by electric contact surfacing with metal strip are characterized by high loading of the surface layer, which has a significant impact on their performance. Therefore, the improvement of the operational stability of fast-wearing machine parts through the use of combined treatment technologies is required. Not all the work-piece but just the worn zones are subjected to recovery with electric contact surfacing; the tape thickness and depth of the heat affected zone being not more than a few millimeters. Therefore, the most optimal in this case is the use of a local surface heating method of high frequency currents. This method has economical benefits because there is no need to heat the entire work-piece. The induction heating mode at a constant power density has been proposed and analytically investigated. The ratios that make it possible to determine the main heating parameters ensuring calculation of the inductor for the normalization of the reconstructed surface of cylindrical parts have been given. These parameters are: specific power, frequency and warm-up time. The proposed induction heating mode is intermediate between the quenching and cross-cutting heating and makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the required temperatures at the surface and at the predetermined depth of the heated layer of cylindrical parts with the normalization of their surfaces restored with electric contact surfacing

  12. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  13. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  14. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  15. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  16. Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits in the Northern Part of the San Juan Basin in Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Glenn R.; Moore, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Unconsolidated late Cenozoic deposits in the northern part of the San Juan Basin range in age from late Pliocene to Holocene. Most of the deposits are alluvial gravel composed of resistant quartzite, sandstone, and igneous, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks derived from the uplifted central core of the San Juan Mountains 20-50 miles (32-80 kilometers) north of the basin. Alluvial deposits are most voluminous in the Animas Valley, but deposits of gravel of the same general age are present in the La Plata, Florida, Los Pinos, and Piedra River valleys as well. Alluvial gravel forms tabular deposits, generally about 20 feet (6 meters) thick, that are exposed beneath a sequence of terraces at many levels above the rivers. Gravel layers 360 feet (110 meters) or less above the Animas River are glacial outwash. The gravel layers begin at the south toes of end moraines and extend discontinuously downvalley at least 10-20 miles (16-32 kilometers). Farther south, distinction between outwash and nonglacial alluvium is problematical. Alluvial gravel beneath higher terraces does not grade to end moraines. Glacial till forms a series of end moraines at the north edge of the town of Durango. The oldest moraines are farthest downvalley, are higher above the river, and have more mature surficial soils than do moraines farther north. The two youngest moraines, the Animas City moraines, are interpreted to be Pinedale in age. They have narrow, ridgelike crests and form nearly unbroken arcs across the valley floor. Small segments of still more weathered moraines, the Spring Creek moraines, are 170-230 feet (52-70 meters) above the river and are 660-990 feet (200-300 meters) farther downvalley. The oldest moraines, the Durango moraines, are on the north end of the unnamed mesa on which Fort Lewis College is located. The base is about 180 feet (55 meters) above the river. These oldest moraines may be of Bull Lake age. Alluvial fans, pediment gravel, and landslides are scattered at several

  17. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  18. Light Hydrocarbon Composition of Fluid Inclusions and Its Constraints on Ore Genesis:A Case Study of the Songxi Ag(Sb) Deposit,Eastern Guangong%流体包裹体轻烃有机气体组成及对矿床成因的制约——以嵩溪大型银(锑)矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Songxi is a newly-discovered large-size Ag(Sb) deposit.Using a suite of high vacuum quardrupole gas mass spectrometer systems,the authors recognized many kinds of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions of minerals.These hydrocarbons are mainly composed of C1-C4 saturated alkanes,while the contents of C2-C4 unsaturated alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are quite low,suggesting that the metallogenic processes seem not to have been affected by magmatic activities.Chemical equilibrium studies show that these hydrocarbons may be mixture of organic gases generated by microorganism activity and thermal cracking of Type Ⅱ kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks,and the former may constitute more than two-thirds,implying that microorganism might have played an important role in the metallogenesis.The equilibrium temperature of the latter is about 300℃,which is much higher than the geothermal temperature at the estimated depth of metallogenesis.Thus,the hight hydrocarbons generated by thermal cracking of kerogens probably originated in the deep part of the sedimentary basins and then migrated through a long distance to the shallow position of the basin.The analystical data presented in this paper support from ore aspect the genetic model that Songxi may be a sedimentary hot brine transformed deposit instead of being a submarine basic volcanic exhalation and low-medium temperature volcanic hydrothermal fluid filling deposit proposed by most previous researchers.%嵩溪银(锑)矿是一个新发现的大型独立银矿。矿物流体包裹体超高真空四极气相质谱系统测定显示,该矿成矿流体中存在多种轻烃有机气体,主要由C1-C4饱和烷烃组成,仅含微量C2-C4不饱和烯烃和芳烃,说明成矿过程基本未受到高温岩浆作用的影响。化学平衡研究表明,这些轻烃气体为微生物成因和沉积岩围岩中Ⅱ类干酪根热解成因的混合气体,其中前者占2/3以上,说明成矿中微生物活

  19. Part I: C2sbnd C4 hydrocarbons separation addressed via molecular cluster models carved out from periodic MOF-74-Mg/Zn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaga, Gemechis D.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2016-09-01

    Selective sorption of hydrocarbons by tunable sorbents such as metal-organic frameworks is the most promising alternative to traditional cryogenic distillation. Here, density functional theory is used to investigate the selective sorption of C2sbnd C4 hydrocarbons by MOF-74-Mg/Zn via periodic and molecular cluster calculations. Both methods agree in showing significant differences in binding energies between olefins and paraffins at the open metal sites of the MOF. The binding energies found using molecular cluster models, however, are significantly smaller than those obtained from the periodic approach, exemplifying the importance of fully accounting for the chemical environment experienced by the adsorbed hydrocarbons.

  20. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  1. Outlook for prospecting for lithological traps of nonanticlinal type of hydrocarbons in the lower-middle Jurassic deposits of central West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasovich, G.S.; Myasnikova, G.P.; Sidorenkov, A.I.; Zmanovskaya, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of the laws governing the arrangement and conditions of the formation of large and regional zones of formation of lithological traps of hydrocarbons. It made it possible to reveal four basic types of genetic roots of these tasks developed within the examined region. An analysis is made from these viewpoints of the features of the lower-middle Jurassic sedimentation and the potentialities for forming traps of the nonanyiclinal type on the territory of the main structural elements of the region. Considerations are expressed for the possible development of nonanticlinal traps of a certain type within the boundaries of these structural elements.

  2. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne Conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part II: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion pose a serious thread to public health and impose the need for an improved monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a major class of persistent organic pollutants. For this purpose, utilization of evergreen conifers offers significant biomonitoring potential. In part I of this series we inspected the load of combustion derived magnetic particles in pine needles from 43 locations of the Cologne Conurbation, Germany; we here report the corresponding PAH concentrations and distribution patterns. Concentrations (dry weight) of summed 3-6-ring PAH range between 51 and 410 ng g -1 with a median of 123.8 ng g -1; thus being in agreement with other urban studies. Phenanthrene was the dominating PAH with median concentrations of 47 ng g -1 followed by fluoranthene and pyrene at 22 and 13 ng g -1, respectively. The major proportion of PAH was attributed to traffic sources, with minor contribution from power plant, domestic heating, industrial, and vegetation burn emissions. Significant differences between major and minor roads were not observed indicating a thorough mixing of PAH-loaded air masses in the Cologne Conurbation. Needles in inner city parks gave much higher PAH concentrations than those in suburban green areas. Although distribution patterns of PAH were variable a PAH source reconciliation based on isomer compositions is difficult, due to thorough mixing of air masses and associated loss of source specificity. Ambient air monitoring in urban areas based on persistent organic pollutant load of vegetation is a feasible and cost effective way of controlling environmental quality.

  3. The improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of polyamide 12 3D printed parts by fused deposition modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. A. T. Rahim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the utilisation of fused deposition modelling (FDM technology using polyamide 12, incorporated with bioceramic fillers (i.e. zirconia and hydroxyapatite as a candidate for biomedical applications. The entire production process of printed PA12 is described, starting with compounding, filament wire fabrication and finally, FDM printing. The potential to process PA12 using this technique and mechanical, thermal and morphological properties were also examined. Commonly, a reduction of mechanical properties of printed parts would occur in comparison with injection moulded parts despite using the same material. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the samples prepared by injection moulding were also measured and applied as a benchmark to examine the effect of different processing methods. The results indicated that the addition of fillers improved or maintained the strength and stiffness of neat PA12, at the expense of reduced toughness and flexibility. Melting behaviours of PA12 were virtually insensitive to the processing techniques and were dependent on additional fillers and the cooling rate. Incorporation of fillers slightly lowered the melting temperature, however improved the thermal stability. In summary, PA12 composites were found to perform well with FDM technique and enabling the production of medical implants with acceptable mechanical performances for non-load bearing applications.

  4. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  5. Pyroclastic deposits:an important reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation%火山碎屑沉积物是油气的重要储层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥; 郎建军; 杨清福

    2011-01-01

    Pyroclastic deposits are important reservoirs and can be divided into fallout tephradeposits, pyroclastic flow deposits, lahar deposits and base surge deposits by their genesis. The four kinds of pyroclastic deposits have different reservoir characteristics and potential. The identification and interpretation of the pyroclastic deposits can significantly influence the exploration methods of volcaniclastic sequences and the prediction of reservoir geometry and quality. The Lower Jurassic Wrightson Formation in Arizona is a multi-crater complex. Its pyroclastic deposits and lavas with various genesis can be divided into crater, proximal, middle and distal facies. The influences of these facies on reservoir quality are discussed. Volcanic clasts are mostly composed of chemically active and unstable minerals that can change rapidly and extensively during burial diagenesis. The occurrence of volcanic clasts may contribute to the development of dissolution porosity which can enhance reservoir quality.%火山碎屑沉积物是重要的油气储层.火山碎屑沉积按成因划分为火山喷发空中降落堆积物、火山碎屑流状堆积物、火山泥流堆积物和火山基浪堆积物等.它们的特征和储层潜能是不同的.火山碎屑沉积物的识别和解释能够极大的影响火山碎屑层序的勘探方法、储油层几何形态和性能的预测.美国亚利桑那洲早侏罗世怀特申组是一个多喷发火山口复合体,把不同成因类型的火山碎屑堆积物和熔岩分为4个相:火口相、近火口相、中间相和远端相.讨论了这些相对储层性能的影响.火山碎屑大部分由化学性活泼的和不稳定矿物组成,在埋藏成岩期间具有迅速和广泛的变化.火山碎屑的赋存,有助于溶解孔隙的发育,能够增强储油层性能.

  6. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. Influences of deposition strategies and oblique angle on properties of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled part by direct laser fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlin; Deng, Dewei; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-06-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) developed from laser cladding and rapid prototyping technique has been widely used to fabricate thin-walled parts exhibiting more functions without expending weight and size. Oblique thin-walled parts accompanied with inhomogeneous mechanical properties are common in application. In the present study, a series of AISI316L stainless steel oblique thin-walled parts are successfully produced by DLF, in addition, deposition strategies, microstructure, and mechanical property of the oblique thin-walled parts are investigated. The results show that parallel deposition way is more valuable to fabricate oblique thin-walled part than oblique deposition way, because of the more remarkable properties. The hardness of high side initially increases until the distance to the substrate reaches about 25 mm, and then decreases with the increase of the deposition height. Oblique angle has a positive effect on the tensile property but a negative effect on microstructure, hardness and elongation due to the more tempering time. The maximum average ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are presented 744.3 MPa and 13.5% when the angle between tensile loading direction and horizontal direction is 45° and 90°, respectively.

  8. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part I. distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Huggins, D.; Welker, G.; Dias, J.R.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Murowchick, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 ??g/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 ?? 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 ?? 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historical-use organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted

  9. Catalytic carbon deposition-oxidation over Ni, Fe and Co catalysts: a new indirect route to store and transport gas hydrocarbon fuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Patrícia E. F.; Ribeiro, Leandro Passos; Rosmaninho, Marcelo Gonçalves; Ardisson, José Domingos; Dias, Anderson; Oliveira,Luiz Carlos Alves; Lago, Rochel Montero

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new two-step route to store and transport associated natural gas, promoted by Ni, Fe and Co supported catalyst was presented. Initially, CH4 is converted into carbon deposits (M/C composite), being Fe catalyst the most active catalyst. In Step 2, M/C composite reacts with H2O producing H2, CO and CH4. TPO experiments showed that efficiency and selectivity of oxidation depends on the metal. Ni catalyst produced mainly H2 and CO, while Fe system was more selective to convert car...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents...

  11. Depositional Characteristics of Lake-Floor Fan of Cretaceous Lower Yaojia Formation in Western Part of Central Depression Region,Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Li Guifan; Feng Zhiqiang; Liang Jiangping; Lin Changsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the integrated subsurface data,including those of over 600 m drilled cores,more than 30 drilled wells and 600 km2 three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data of the study area, the characteristics of the lake-floor fan of lower Yaojia(姚家) Formation have been clarified.An evident lacustrine slope break and a steep slope belt developed in the west of Songliao(松辽)basin during depositional period of Qingshankou(青山口)-Yaojia formations(K2).The slope gradient was about 15 m/km.During the depositional period of lower Yaojia Formation,the lake shrank and the shore line of the western Songliao basin shifted to the lacustrine slope-break.The wedge-shaped sediment body,which is interpreted as the lowstand system tract of SQy1 (LSTy1),developed in the area below the slope-break.The LSTyl is pinched out in the west of the study area.As to the thickness of LSTyl,ft is thicker in the east with SO m in its thickness than in the west The LSTyl,rich in sandstone,can be divided into lower part LSTylL and upper part LSTy1u based on two onlap seismic reflection phases,and core and logging data clearly.The various sediments' gravity flow deposits developed and the complex of lake-floor fan formed in the LSTyl under the slope-break in the western part of the central depression region.The lake-floor fan consists of various sediments' gravity flow deposits,including: (1) turbidity deposits with characteristics of Bouma sequences; (2) sand-bearing muddy debrite dominated by mud and mixed by sand; (3) mud-bearing sandy debrites characterized by dominated sand and mixed by mud; (4) sandy debris laminar flow deposits with massive or inclined bedding,and (5) sandy slump deposits developed as deforma tional sedimentary structure.During the lower lake-level period (LSTy1L),the western clinoform region was erosion or sediment pass-by area; the terrigenous clastic was directly transported to deep-water area,converted to channelized sandy debris flow,and combined with slump

  12. 济阳坳陷古近系红层沉积成藏主控因素与勘探潜力%Main controlling factors of deposition, hydrocarbon accumulation and exploration potential of Paleogene red beds in Jiyang depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传虎; 韩宏伟

    2012-01-01

    The deposition of continental red beds is widely developed from the lower sub-member of the 4th member in Shahejie Formation (lower Es4) to Kongdian Formation (Ek) of Paleogene in Jiyang depression. So far, the hydrocarbon reservoirs which take the red beds as the reservoirs have been found in Dongying, Huimin, and Bonan regions, and put partially into the development. Studies have shown that the red beds of lower Es4-Ek in Jiyang depression belong to the flooded lake sediments in arid climatic conditions. The reservoirs are mainly fine sandstones and siltstones deposited in the flood channels, middle-fan braided channels and sand flat of flooded lake. 5 reservoir pore belts that transit from primary pore dominant to secondary pore dominant are developed from top to bottom, with characteristics of allochthonous accumulation. The main hydrocarbon source rocks are the upper sub-member of 4th member in Shahejie Formation (upper Es4) and the lower sub-member of 3rd member in Shahejie Formation (lower Es3). Also the lower Es4-Ek Formation has larger hydrocarbon generation potential. Some findings have indicated that the main types of reservoir are fault block trap, structure-lithology compound. It can be initially divided into four accumulation modes with faults and sand bodies as the major oil and gas transport layer. With the favorable exploration area of more than 1. 2×104km2 , red beds of lower Es4-Ek Formation in Jiyang depression has broad exploration prospects.%济阳坳陷古近系沙河街组四段下亚段(简称沙四下段)至孔店组广泛发育陆相红层沉积.迄今已经在东营、惠民、渤南等地区发现了该套红层作为储层的油气藏并部分投入开发.研究表明,济阳坳陷沙四下段—孔店组红层属干旱气候条件下的洪水漫湖沉积,其储层主要为洪水沟道、扇中辫状河道及漫湖砂坪沉积的细砂岩、粉砂岩,自上而下发育了以原生孔隙为主至次生孔隙为主的5个储层孔隙

  13. Hydrocarbons on the Icy Satellites of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Cassini Spacecraft has obtained spectral reflectance maps of the satellites of Saturn in the wavelength region 0.4-5.1 micrometers since its insertion into Saturn orbit in late 2004. We have detected the spectral signature of the C-H stretching molecular mode of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the low albedo material covering parts of several of Saturn's satellites, notably Iapetus and Phoebe (Cruikshank et al. 2008). The distribution of this material is complex, and in the case of Iapetus we are seeking to determine if it is related to the native grey-colored materials left as lag deposits upon evaporation of the ices, or represents in-fall from an external source, notably the newly discovered large dust ring originating at Phoebe. This report covers our latest exploration of the nature and source of this organic material.

  14. Part II: Quantum mechanical prediction of heats of adsorption for C2-C4 hydrocarbons in MOF-74-Mg/Zn periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaga, Gemechis D.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2017-08-01

    Periodic boundary condition models are used to investigate the interaction of small hydrocarbons (C2-C4) with MOF-74-Mg/Zn. In contrast to other studies where molecular cluster approaches are used, the complete chemical environment of the framework is included. This allows correcting the binding energies for basis-set superposition error, molecular lateral interaction, zero-point energy, and thermal contributions. As such, the presented results are directly comparable to experimental calorimetric values. This work discusses, for the first time, the origin of the fictitious agreement between binding energies obtained with molecular clusters and experimental heats of adsorption, identifying its origin as due to compensation of errors.

  15. Pleistocene terrace deposition related to tectonically controlled surface uplift: An example of the Kyrenia Range lineament in the northern part of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamakumbura, Romesh N.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider how surface uplift of a narrow mountain range has interacted with glacial-related sea-level cyclicity and climatic change to produce a series of marine and non-marine terrace systems. The terrace deposits of the Kyrenia Range record rapid surface uplift of a long-lived tectonic lineament during the early Pleistocene, followed by continued surface uplift at a reduced rate during mid-late Pleistocene. Six terrace depositional systems are distinguished and correlated along the northern and southern flanks of the range, termed K0 to K5. The oldest and highest (K0 terrace system) is present only within the central part of the range. The K2-K5 terrace systems formed later, at sequentially lower levels away from the range. The earliest stage of surface uplift (K0 terrace system) comprises lacustrine carbonates interbedded with mass-flow facies (early Pleistocene?). The subsequent terrace system (K1) is made up of colluvial conglomerate and aeolian dune facies on both flanks of the range. The later terrace systems (K2 to K5) each begin with a basal marine deposit, interpreted as a marine transgression. Deltaic conglomerates prograded during inferred global interglacial stages. Overlying aeolian dune facies represent marine regressions, probably related to global glacial stages. Each terrace depositional system was uplifted and preserved, followed by subsequent deposits at progressively lower topographic levels. Climatic variation during interglacial-glacial cycles and autocyclic processes also exerted an influence on deposition, particularly on short-period fluvial and aeolian deposition.

  16. Stratigraphic sections, depositional environments, and metal content of the upper part of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, Northern Sangre De Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.F.; Walz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calcareous upper part of the 2,000-meter-thick Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation (Lindsey and others, 1985) in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range is a key stratigraphic interval for correlating rocks and mapping the structure of the range. The stratigraphy of this complex and heretofore poorly known interval is reported here in order to provide a basis for correlation among the structural blocks in the range. Inferred depositional environments of the upper part of the Minturn Formation are described briefly.

  17. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  18. Analytical Modelling and Optimization of the Temperature-Dependent Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Fabricated Parts Made of PC-ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs. The process parameters considered for optimization and investigation are slice thickness, raster to raster air gap, deposition angle, part print direction, bead width, and number of perimeters. Storage compliance and loss compliance were considered as response variables. The effect of each process parameter was investigated using developed regression models and multiple regression analysis. The surface characteristics are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Furthermore, performance of optimum conditions was determined and validated by conducting confirmation experiment. The comparison between the experimental values and the predicted values by IV-Optimal RSM and MFNN was conducted for each experimental run and results indicate that the MFNN provides better predictions than IV-Optimal RSM.

  19. Analytical Modelling and Optimization of the Temperature-Dependent Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Fabricated Parts Made of PC-ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2016-11-04

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs). The process parameters considered for optimization and investigation are slice thickness, raster to raster air gap, deposition angle, part print direction, bead width, and number of perimeters. Storage compliance and loss compliance were considered as response variables. The effect of each process parameter was investigated using developed regression models and multiple regression analysis. The surface characteristics are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, performance of optimum conditions was determined and validated by conducting confirmation experiment. The comparison between the experimental values and the predicted values by IV-Optimal RSM and MFNN was conducted for each experimental run and results indicate that the MFNN provides better predictions than IV-Optimal RSM.

  20. Parmelia sulcata lichen transplants positioning towards wind direction (Part I): precipitation volumes, total element deposition and lichen element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, A.P.; Freitas, M.C.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Verburg, T.

    2009-01-01

    Parmelia sulcata transplants were used in three different exposure systems, focused on three different influxes: free influx, horizontal influx and vertical influx. The total element deposition and the precipitation volumes were found to be positively correlated for Fe and Ni only. The element conte

  1. 10Be in last deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM – Part 1: Climatological influences on 10Be deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Heikkilä

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of solar irradiance has only been possible for the Holocene so far. During the last deglaciation two solar proxies (10Be and 14C deviate strongly, both of them being influenced by climatic changes in a different way. This work addresses the climate influence on 10Be deposition by means of ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model simulations, forced by sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent created by the coupled climate system model CSIRO Mk3L. Three time slice simulations were performed during the last deglaciation: 10 000 BP ("10k", 11 000 BP ("11k" and 12 000 BP ("12k", each 30 yr long. The same 10Be production rate was used in each simulation to isolate the impact of climate on 10Be deposition. The changes are found to follow roughly the reduction in the greenhouse gas concentrations within the simulations. The 10k and 11k simulations produce a surface cooling which is symmetrically amplified in the 12k simulation. The precipitation rate is only slightly reduced at high latitudes, but there is a northward shift in the polar jet in the Northern Hemisphere and the stratospheric westerly winds are significantly weakened. These changes occur where the sea ice change is largest in the deglaciation simulations. This leads to a longer residence time of 10Be in the stratosphere by 30 (10k and 11k to 80 (12k days, heavily increasing the atmospheric concentrations. Furthermore the shift of westerlies in the troposphere leads to an increase of tropospheric 10Be concentrations, especially at high latitudes. The contribution of dry deposition generally increases, but decreases where sea ice changes are largest. In total, the 10Be deposition rate changes by no more than 20% at mid- to high latitudes, but by up to 50% in the tropics. We conclude that on "long" time scales (a year to a few years, climatic influences on 10Be deposition remain small even though atmospheric concentrations can vary significantly. Averaged over a longer

  2. Topographic and depositional signature of old anthropic lakes in northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai; Nemeth, Alexandra; Cristea, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    The role of humans and theirs social activities in reshaping earth surface is obvious in many places of the world. Anthropic fingerprints on Earth's surface morphology are recognizable by theirs topographic and depositional signatures that can cause considerable changes in geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes. Anthropic dams and their associated sediments represent recent archives that record environmental changes. They can provide substantial data to reconstruct general models in geomorphic evolution of hydrologic catchments and the identification of extreme meteorological events and sediment fluxes. Also, geochemical tracers provide us relevant indicators about climatic patterns and local condition of sedimentation processes. Until quite recently, the identification and counting the old lakes have been carried out mostly by studying different old maps and less by analyzing their fingerprints on the Earth surface. Considered a real revolution in geomorphology, the high-resolution LiDAR data allow us nowadays a more precise recognition of minor landforms, their extent and cross-relationships, as well as to discover surface features that have escaped the attention before. Furthermore, by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques, the 3D extension of the sediments can be revealed. Anthropic lakes are one of the most particular hydrological anthropic features of the landscape in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (Eastern Carpathian lowland). The need for water supply, have forced the inhabitants to build dams of various sizes along the entire river network. Over the time, many dams were abandoned, while others have been relocated with an impressive dynamic at historical time scale. For more than 3000 sq km we have carried out an accurate inventory of abandoned dams using LIDAR imagery. Taking into consideration the last appearance of the lakes on the old maps, they were classified: pre

  3. Aminostratigraphy of Middle and Late Pleistocene deposits in The Netherlands and the southern part of the North Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, T.; Cleveringa, P.

    2009-09-01

    A review of all available amino acid racemization D (alloisoleucine)/L (isoleucine) data from the whole shell of four molluscan species from Late and late Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Netherlands is presented. The data allow the distinction of 5 aminostratigraphical units, NAZ (Netherlands Amino Zone) A-E, each representing a temperate stage. The zones are correlated with marine isotope stages 1, 5e, 7, 9, and 11 respectively. Apart from NAZ-D (MIS 9), in all aminozones the marine transgression reached the present-day onshore area of the Netherlands. The transgression during NAZ-C (Oostermeer Interglacial: MIS 7) seems to be at least as widespread as its counterpart during NAZ-B (Eemian: MIS 5e) in the southern bight of the North Sea Basin. The stratigraphic position of the Oostermeer Interglacial is just below deposits of the Drente phase of the Saalian and because of this position the interglacial marine deposits have formerly erroneously considered to be of Holsteinian age. Neede, the 'classic' Dutch Holsteinian site, is dated in NAZ-E (MIS 11), like Noordbergum. Although the validity of these zones has been checked with independent data, some overlap between succeeding zones may occur. The relation between amino acid data from elsewhere in the North Sea Basin and the Netherlands amino zonation is discussed. The deposits at the Holsteinian stratotype Hummelsbüttel in North West Germany are dated in NAZ-D. This interglacial correlates with MIS 9. The Belvédère Interglacial, which is of importance for its archaeology, is in NAZ-D (MIS 9) and therefore of Holsteinian age as well. The lacustroglacial 'pottery clays' in the Noordbergum area are deposits from two glacial stages, which can be correlated with MIS 8 and 10 (the Elsterian). The pottery clay that is considered equivalent to the German 'Lauenburger Ton' correlates with MIS 10.

  4. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years.

  5. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of Queen Charlotte basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWhae, J.R.

    1988-02-01

    The structural and depositional history of the Queen Charlotte basin, a complex Tertiary rift basin with extensive coeval volcanics, involves regional geology from the Pacific plate west of the Queen Charlotte transform fault to east of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane, based on geophysics (including newly released seismic lines), revised stratigraphy, and well data. Eight offshore wells were drilled prior to 1970 and nine shallow onshore wells were drilled in or beyond the northwestern margin of the basin. The wells provide data on porosity, seal, maturation (geothermal and vitrinite reflectance data), and oil stains in sidewall cores of the Sockeye B-10 well in the Skonun formation, here 4500 m thick. The Skonun ranges from early Miocene (17 Ma) to latest Pliocene (2 Ma) in age and the lower part is regarded as the primary hydrocarbon objective, especially in the more southern part of the basin where more favorable depositional porosities occur in paralic and shelf sandstones. Higher-than-average geothermal temperatures, locally in the southwest corner of the basin related to oblique subduction of very young oceanic crust, may reach the hydrocarbon-generating threshold in the lower Skonun marine shales. The middle Cretaceous Haida subarkose appears to be a secondary reservoir - the thickest and cleanest of the post-collision volcaniclastics. Highly organic Lower Jurassic shales provide a second, probably oil-prone, source.

  6. Electrical and well log study of the Plio-Quaternary deposits of the southern part of the Rharb Basin, northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouhaddioui, Mohamed; Mridekh, Abdelaziz; Kili, Malika; El Mansouri, Bouabid; El Gasmi, El Houssine; Magrane, Bouchaib

    2016-11-01

    The Rharb Basin is located in the NW of Morocco. It is the onshore extension of a lager offshore basin between Kenitra and Moulay Bousselham. The Rharb plain (properly called) extends over an area of 4200 Km2 between two very different structural entities: the unstable Rif domain in the NE and the East and the ''relatively stable'' Meseta domain in the south. The distribution of Pliocene-Quaternary deposits under this plain is complex and was controlled by both tectonics and climatic factors. The main objective of the present work is to define the spatiotemporal evolution of these deposits in the onshore part of the basin and to make a comparison with a sequence analysis defined, for equivalent deposits in the offshore basin, by a previous work. The proposed model allows thus to characterize the geometry of these deposits in the extension of continental shelf under the present day onshore basin, and to explain there is genesis in terms of interactions between eustatic sea level fluctuations, tectonics and sedimentary rates at the mouths of paleo-rivers that had drained the Rharb plain during Pliocene to Quaternary Times.

  7. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Cook, Kary M.

    2013-09-12

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.

  8. Evaluation of (241)Am deposited in different parts of the leg bones and skeleton to justify in vivo measurements of the knee for estimating total skeletal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Majid; Brey, Richard R; Derryberry, DeWayne

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of Am deposited in different parts of leg bones relative to the total leg activity was calculated from radiochemical analysis results from six whole body donors participating in the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In five of these six USTUR cases, the percentage of Am deposited in the knee region as well as in the entire leg was separately calculated relative to total skeletal activity. The purpose of this study is to find a region in the leg that is both suitable for in vivo measurement of Am deposited in the bones and has a good correlation with the total skeletal Am burden. In all analyzed cases, the femur was the bone with the highest percentage of Am deposited in the leg (48.8%). In the five cases that have complete whole skeletal analysis, the percentage of Am activity in the knee relative to entire skeletal activity was 4.8%, and the average value of its coefficient of variation was 10.6%. The percentage of Am in the leg relative to total skeletal activity was 20% with an average coefficient of variation of 13.63%. The Am activity in the knee as well as in the leg was strongly correlated (R = 99.5% and R = 99.1%, respectively) with the amount of Am activity in the entire skeleton using a simple linear relationship. The highest correlation was found between the amount of Am deposited in the knee and the amount of Am deposited in the entire skeleton. This correlation is important because it might enable an accurate assessment of the total skeletal Am burden to be performed from in vivo monitoring of the knee region. In all analyzed cases, an excellent correlation (R = 99.9%) was found between the amount of Am activity in the knee and the amount of Am activity in the entire leg. The results of this study suggest three simple models: two models to predict the total skeletal activity based on either leg or knee activity, and the third model to predict the total leg activity based on knee activity. The results also suggest that the

  9. Influences of pulse laser parameters on properties of AISI316L stainless steel thin-walled part by laser material deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlin; Deng, Dewei; Yi, Hongli; Xu, Haiyan; Yang, Shuhua; Zhang, Hongchao

    2017-07-01

    Laser material deposition (LMD) which combines laser cladding and rapid prototyping technique has been widely used to build full density metal parts directly without using modules or tools. There are many parameters affecting the quality and properties of the LMD parts through changing the energy distribution. Pulse laser provides the user an added degree of controlling over the energy distribution which seriously affects the solidification of molten pool and eventual part formation. In the present study, a series of AISI316L stainless steel thin-walled parts are successfully produced by LMD with different pulse laser parameters to investigate the effects of energy distribution on characteristics (microstructure, hardness, residual stress and tensile properties). The results show that the characteristics of LMD parts are obviously influenced by laser mode (pulse or continuous wave laser) and pulse laser parameters (T_pulse and T_pause). The microstructure of parts presents various grain sizes with the different pulse laser parameters. The different value (D-value) between the hardness of edge and central region varies considerably with the pulse laser parameters. The maximum D-value of hardness is presented in the part deposited by continuous wave laser. The maximum hardness is presented in item 4 (T_pulse=10 ms, T_pause=10 ms) and the minimum hardness is presented in part fabricated by continuous wave laser where the residual stress on Z-component presents tensile stress at the edge region and compress stress at the central region but opposite trend happens to the residual stress on Y-component. Tensile stress on Z-component at the edge region increases even presents compress tensile with the decrease of T_pulse. The stress on Y-component presents a periodic variation between tensile stress and compress stress in the Y-direction of the part fabricated by pulse laser. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the part fabricated using pulse laser is higher than the

  10. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  11. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  12. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  13. On the development mechanism of the lacustrine high-grade hydrocarbon source rocks of Chang 91 member in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As revealed from recent drilling and organic geochemical testing and research, a series of lacustrine high-grade hydrocarbon source rocks was discovered in the upper section of the Chang 9 oil reservoir member of upper Triassic in Ordos Basin. The hydrocarbon source rocks show average TOC content as high as 5.03%, average bitumen "A" content as high as 0.8603%, and good quality organic precursors, which are of the sapropelic type mainly derived from lower aquatic plants and have reached the thermal evolution stage featured by oil-producing climax. Generally the lacustrine high-grade hydrocarbon source rocks were developed in local depressions of a lake basin, and the Chang 91 member was particularly formed in a depositional environment characterized by fresh water to weakly saline water, weakly oxidizing to weakly reducing setting and semi-deep lake facies, as was demonstrated by a variety of organic to inorganic geochemical parameters. As a result, high productivity constitutes the principal controlling force for generation of this series of high-grade hydrocarbon source rocks. Deposition of thinly-bedded and laminated tuffs as well as positive Eu anomaly corroborate the possible occurrence of anoxic geological event closely related to contemporaneous volcanic eruption, which would play a key part in development of the Chang 91 member of high-grade hydrocarbon source rocks.

  14. Sub-parts-per-billion determination of nitro-substituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter and soil by electron capture-Tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, M; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E; Fontana, M; De Maria, R

    1996-12-01

    A procedure for the determination of nitro-substiruted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) on crude air-particulate and soil extracts is introduced. Elimination of purification and fractionation procedures was made possible by the use of both a selective ionization method, such as electron-capture chemical ionization, and a specific fragmentation process, in an experiment of tandem mass spectrometry (gas chromatography-electron capture tandem mass spectrometry). Different mass spectrometric procedures were compared. The best performance was observed when the nitro-PAH molecular ions [M](-) were mass-selected by the first analyzer under multiple reaction monitoring conditions and then fragmented to NO 2 (-) (m/z 46). Detection limits were on the order of hundreds of femtograms, as determined in extracts of real environmental samples. This corresponds approximately to 5-15 pg of nitro-PAH per cubic meter of air sampled. Calibration curves were linear over 3 orders of magnitude. Applications to contamination from motor vehicle combustion and the iron industry are briefly discussed.

  15. Sandy inland braidplain deposition with local aeolian sedimentation in the lower and middle parts of the buntsandstein and sandy coastal braidplain deposition in the topmost zechstein in the sudetes (Lower Silesia, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Jerzy; Mader, Detlef

    The lower and middle parts of the Buntsandstein between Röt and Zechstein in the Sudetes (Lower Silesia, Poland) crop out in the marginal seams of the North Sudetic Trough and the Intra Sudetic Trough. The continental red beds originate in predominantly sandy braided river systems of an extensive inland alluvial plain in almost arid climate. The sediments are laid down in channels and floodplains of a moderately- to highly-braided, sandy to pebbly stream complex consisting of narrowly- to moderately-spaced low-sinuosity watercourses and narrow to wide overbank plains between the channels. Rapid aggradation and abandonment, quick lateral migration or high avulsion rates of the considerably mobile streams result in effective combing of the interchannel areas. Persistent high-energy overspilling of watercourse banks and invasion of bed-load-saturated flood surges into the overbank areas often lead to primary restriction or even suppression of formation of topstratum suspension fines. Secondarily, the silty-clayey and fine sandy overbank sediments which could occasionally originate in remote or sheltered lakes and ponds are frequently completely reworked by considerable lateral and vertical erosion during sidewards displacement of the rivers. As a result of both primary-depositional restriction and secondary-erosional removal of floodplain fines, the channel sediments are commonly stacked upon each other to multistorey stream sand complexes. Emergence and desiccation of parts of the alluvial plain sometimes give rise to aeolian deflation and accumulation of the winnowed sand to small dunelets and wind ripple trains. The aeolian depositional environment representing a more peripheral erg facies with sheet sand interdune milieu could not be fully ascertained due to poor outcrop conditions, but is likely to occur locally in view of comparative interpretation with other mixed dune and river sand sequences in the Mid-European Buntsandstein. Variations of fluvial style are

  16. Causes of toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a stormwater management facility receiving highway runoff and snowmelt. Part I: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, A J; Rochfort, Q; Brown, L R; Marsalek, J

    2012-01-01

    The Terraview-Willowfield Stormwater Management Facility (TWSMF) receives inputs of multiple contaminants, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), road salt, and nutrients, via highway and residential runoff. Contaminant concentrations in runoff are seasonally dependent, and are typically high in early spring, coinciding with the snowmelt. In order to investigate the seasonal fluctuations of contaminant loading and related changes in toxicity to benthic invertebrates, overlying water and sediment samples were collected in the fall and spring, reflecting low and high contaminant loading, respectively, and four-week sediment toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca. The effects of metals and PAHs are discussed here; the effects of salts, nutrients, and water quality are discussed in a companion paper. Survival and growth of Hyalella after exposure to fall samples were variable: survival was significantly reduced (64-74% of controls) at three out of four sites, but there were no significant growth effects. More dramatic effects were observed after Hyalella were exposed to spring samples: survival was significantly reduced at the two sites furthest downstream (0-75% of controls), and growth was significantly lower in four out of five sites when comparing Hyalella exposed to site sediment with overlying site water versus site sediment with overlying control water. These seasonal changes in toxicity were not related to metals or PAHs: 1. levels of bioavailable metals were below those expected to cause toxicity, and 2. levels of PAHs in sediment were lowest at sites with the greatest toxicity and highest in water and sediment at sites with no toxicity. Although not associated with toxicity, some metals and PAHs exceeded probable and severe effect levels, and could be a cause for concern if contaminant bioavailability changes. Toxicity in the TWSMF appeared to be primarily associated with water-borne contaminants. The cause(s) of these effects

  17. Physicochemical characterization of Au/CeO{sub 2} solid. Part 1: The deposition-precipitation preparation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaies, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, E.A. 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Aouad, Samer [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, E.A. 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Department of Chemistry, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Tripoli (Lebanon); El-Ayadi, Houda [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, E.A. 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Skaf, Mira [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, E.A. 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Department of Chemistry, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Tripoli (Lebanon); Labaki, Madona; Cousin, Renaud; Abi-Aad, Edmond [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, E.A. 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France)

    2012-11-15

    Au/CeO{sub 2} (4 wt.% gold) solid was prepared using the deposition-precipitation method. The deposition of gold on ceria did not affect its specific surface area (122 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}/400 Degree-Sign C). The average diameter of gold particles obtained was estimated to be equal to 3.9 nm. Moreover, 60% of the gold was in the form of nanoparticles with a size ranging between 3 and 4 nm. 80% of the gold in the nanoparticles was in the metallic form Au{sup 0} and 20% was present as Au{sup +}. These latter cations interact directly with the O{sup 2-} anions of CeO{sub 2}. When evacuated at 400 Degree-Sign C for 1 h, the cations were reduced into Au{sup 0}. All the adsorptions were performed on solids treated under vacuum at 400 Degree-Sign C for 1 h. The adsorption of O{sub 2} at room temperature led to the formation of O{sub 2}{sup -} species. The adsorption of {sup 17}O-enriched molecular oxygen demonstrated that the two oxygen atoms in O{sub 2}{sup -} are equivalent. When CO was introduced, it reacted with the O{sub 2}{sup -} of the support to give CO{sub 2}{sup -}. When NO{sub 2}, NO or N{sub 2}O were added at room temperature, they decomposed to form adsorbed O{sub 2}{sup -} species at the surface of the solid. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au/CeO{sub 2} solid prepared by the deposition-precipitation method presents highly dispersed Au nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption on Au/CeO{sub 2} of NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} leads to the formation of O{sub 2}{sup -}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of CO on Au/CeO{sub 2} leads to the formation of CO{sub 2}{sup -}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of {sup 17}O{sub 2} on Au/CeO{sub 2} shows that the two adsorbed oxygen are equivalent.

  18. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? - Part 1: A statistical study on the impact of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnford, D. A.; Dastoor, A. P.; Steen, A. O.; Berg, T.; Ryzhkov, A.; Figueras-Nieto, D.; Hole, L. R.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Hung, H.

    2012-01-01

    A portion of the highly toxic methylmercury that bioaccumulates in aquatic life is created from mercury entering bodies of water with snowpack meltwater. To determine the importance of meltwater as a source of aquatic mercury, it is necessary to understand the environmental processes that govern the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. In this study we investigate relationships among 5 types of snowpack-related mercury observations and 20 model environmental variables. The observation types are the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow, and the concentrations of mercury in surface snow, seasonal snowpacks, the snowpack meltwater's ionic pulse, and long-term snowpack-related records. The model environmental variables include those related to atmospheric mercury, insolation, wind, atmospheric stability, snowpack physical characteristics, atmospheric pressure, and solid precipitation. Correlation coefficients and multiple linear regressions were calculated twice: once with all observations, and once with observations from locations presumably affected by oxidizing and stabilizing snowpack-related halogens excluded. We find that the presence of snowpack-related halogens has a significant impact on the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. Physically, snowpack-related mercury observations are most strongly controlled by the dry and wet depositions of oxidized mercury. The burial of mercury by fresh snowfalls and the wind driven ventilation of snowpacks are important processes. Indeed, in the absence of snowpack-related halogens, the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow is fully controlled by mercury deposition and surface-level atmospheric wind speed, stability, and surface pressure. The concentration of mercury in long-term records is affected by latitude, ventilation and surface pressure.

  19. Wetting and superhydrophobic properties of PECVD grown hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, M. [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Wetting characteristics of micro-nanorough substrates of aluminum and smooth silicon substrates have been studied and compared by depositing hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique using a mixture of Ar, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} gases. The water contact angles on the hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings deposited on silicon substrates were found to be 72 deg. and 105 deg., respectively. However, the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates demonstrated superhydrophobic properties upon coatings with fluorinated-hydrocarbon providing a water contact angle of {approx}165 deg. and contact angle hysteresis below 2 deg. with water drops rolling off from those surfaces while the same substrates showed contact angle of 135 deg. with water drops sticking on those surfaces. The superhydrophobic properties is due to the high fluorine content in the fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings of {approx}36 at.%, as investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by lowering the surface energy of the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates.

  20. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  1. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of t...

  2. Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital core analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-scale mineral dissolution and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H

    2016-09-01

    The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ core sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different scales, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate cores with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive core flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-scale, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-scale changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel

  3. Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital core analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-scale mineral dissolution and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H.

    2016-09-01

    The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ core sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different scales, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate cores with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive core flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-scale, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-scale changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel

  4. Basical characteristics of fluid geologic process of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-typeuranium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; BoLin; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the physicochemical properties such as component, formulation, genesis, tem- perature, pH, Eh, salinity and pressure of all main alteration fluid of interlayer oxidation zone sand- stone-type uranium deposits after studying the geologic process and geochemistry of internal typical sandstone-type uranium deposits such as Shihongtan deposit in the Turpan-Hami basin, 512 deposit in the Yili basin, Dongsheng deposit in the Ordos basin. The composition of fluid can be divided into two parts based on the analysis of inclusion: one can be affirmed as atmospheric water with ordinary temperature epigenesist according to the character of hydrogen and oxygen isotope of inclusion, the other is natural gas containing gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4, and CO2 as well as a little H2S, CO, H2, N2 and so on, it always contains a small quantity of hydrocarbon liquid in petroliferous basins. The fluid property of oxidation alteration zone is always oxidation alkaline, and neutrality or weak acid-weak alkaline and reducibility during the metallizing process, but at secondary reduction or deoxidization zone it becomes strong reduction alkaline. Oxygenic groundwater in the fluid is the activate and mig- ratory medium of uranium element, but the gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4 as well as H2, H2S, CO from natural gas is the important sedimentary reducer of uranium mineral; the transformation of pH,Eh in fluid environment is the main reason for the formation of uranium metallization.

  5. The results of development of oil and gas deposits using pumping of carbon dioxide into a stratum in the southwestern part of Hungary (VNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The development of oil and gas formations using carbon dioxide pumping has been successfully conducted since 1972 in the southwestern part of Hungary at the Budafa and Lovasi deposits. Gas from the gas formation is high pressure which contains CO2 and is pumped without a compressor into the oil formations which is a lower pressure stratum. At the stratum temperature of the collector and the implemented pumping conditions, the CO2 is only partially mixed with the stratum oil. After pumping the gas is rigidly displaced by water. During the water pumping gas and water are cyclically pumped into individual sectors of the formations depending on the coverage of the carbon dioxide. The development technology used is presented, along with the results of operations achieved over the last ten years.

  6. Wire-based laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing of TiAl6V4: basic investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties from build up parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Klingbeil, Nils; Schulz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The wire-based laser metal deposition (LMD-W) is a new technology which enables to produce complex parts made of titanium for the aerospace and automotive industry. For establishing the LMD-W as a new production process it has to be proven that the properties are comparable or superior to conventional produced parts. The mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of microstructure and tensile test. Therefore, specimens were generated using a 4.5 kW diode laser cladding system integrated in a 5-Axis-machining center. The structural mechanical properties are mainly influence by crystal structure and thereby the thermal history of the work piece. Especially the high affinity to oxide, distortion and dual phase microstructure make titanium grade 5 (TiAl6V4) one of the most challenging material for additive manufacturing. By using a proper local multi-nozzle shielding gas concept the negative influence of oxide in the process could be eliminated. The distortion being marginal at a single bead, accumulated to a macroscopic effect on the work piece. The third critical point for additive processing of titanium, the bimodal microstructure, could not be cleared by the laser process alone. All metallurgical probes showed α-martensitic-structure. Therefore, a thermal treatment became a necessary production step in the additive production chain. After the thermal treatment the microstructure as well as the distortion was analyzed and compared with the status before. Although not all technical issues could be solved, the investigation show that LMD-W of titanium grade 5 is a promising alternative to other additive techniques as electronic beam melting or plasma deposition welding.

  7. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Wesley D. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry; Schaefer, III, Henry F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry

    2015-11-14

    This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.

  8. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...

  9. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  10. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to their province scale similarities, the different giant gold deposit styles show contrasting critical controls at the district to deposit scale. For orogenic gold deposits, the giants appear to have formed by conjunction of a greater number of parameters to those that control smaller deposits, with resultant geometrical and lithostratigraphic complexity as a guide to their location. There are few giant IRGS due to their inferior fluid-flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hydrocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All unequivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  11. Sources and pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons into the natural dump Arkona Basin (southern Baltic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Emeis, K.C. [Institut fuer Ostseeforschung an der Universitaet Rostock, Warnemuende (Germany). Sektion Marine Geologie

    2000-06-01

    Surface sediments, suspended particulate matter and fluffy-layer material, collected in the Arkona Basin and the Pomeranian Bay during 1995-1997, as well as air particulate matter, collected on the island of Ruegen during August 1995, were analysed for total organic carbon content, saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The resulting concentrations and distributions of these compounds and molecular PAH ratios are discussed in terms of matrix, origin of the organic matter and seasonal variations. The data show that the Oder river can be identified as a major source for PAH transported into the southern part of the Arkona Basin. A strong atmospheric input of PAH is noted for the central and northern part of the basin. In general, anthropogenic and bacterially degraded hydrocarbons bound to organic carbon-rich and small particles are mainly deposited in the basin center, whereas their natural counterparts accumulate mainly on the basin flanks covered by coarser grained sediments. (orig.)

  12. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  13. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension Firing. Part 1: Model Verification by Use of Entrained Flow Reactor Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Two models for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass have been developed. Both models describe deposit buildup by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermophoresis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles, and reaction. The models...... used to describe the deposit formation rates and deposit chemistry observed in a series of entrained flow reactor (EFR) experiments using straw and wood as fuels. It was found that model #1 was not able to describe the observed influence of temperature on the deposit buildup rates, predicting a much...

  14. Method of depositing a high-emissivity layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Charles E.; Foster, Ellis L.

    1983-01-01

    A method of depositing a high-emissivity layer on a substrate comprising RF sputter deposition of a carbide-containing target in an atmosphere of a hydrocarbon gas and a noble gas. As the carbide is deposited on the substrate the hydrocarbon gas decomposes to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon deposits on the target and substrate causing a carbide/carbon composition gradient to form on the substrate. At a sufficiently high partial pressure of hydrocarbon gas, a film of high-emissivity pure carbon will eventually form over the substrate.

  15. Certain features of the formation of accumulations of hydrocarbons in the Mesozoic sediments of teh Nadym-Tazovsk interfluve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysev, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The role is shown of migration processes in the formation and disposition of accumulations of hydrocarbons relative to the facial-lithological features of the section. Special attention is focused on the process of formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in shelf strata. Certain recommendations are given in regards to the exploration for new hydrocarbon deposits.

  16. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  17. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  18. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  19. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  20. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition of organic carbon in coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, V. V.; Soier, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on new data focusing on organic carbon contained in aeolian material and precipitation falling on coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov. Atmospheric deposition was sampled in 2006-2014. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 4 to 27% in aeolian dust samples. The concentration of the organic carbon dissolved in rainwater was from 1.6 to 4.3 mg C/L, and from 0.9 to 16.6 mg C/L in snow. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 2 to 43% in snow. Intensity of aeolian dust settling decreased from 178 to 33 mg/m2 per day with distance from a source of dust; in contrast, the relative content of organic matter increased. In a spring-summer season the aeolian organic carbon fluxes varied from 12 to 18 mg C/m2 per day in Rostov-on-Don, from 28 to 48 mg C/m2 per day on the Gulf of Taganrog coast, and from 20 to 80 mg C/m2 per day in the water area of the Gulf of Taganrog.

  1. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    of a palaeotopography previously invoked as the primary driver for this anoxia is allied to a complex configuration of palaeo-ice stream pathways, "underfilled" tunnel valley incisions, glaciotectonic deformation structures and re-activation of older crustal structures during rebound. A putative link with the development of Silurian glaciation in northern Chad is suggested. Silurian glaciation appears to have been restricted to the southern Al Kufrah Basin in the eastern part of North Africa, and was associated with the deposition of boulder beds. Equivalent deposits are lacking in shallow marine deposits in neighbouring outcrop belts. Evidence for Carboniferous-Permian glaciation is tentative in the eastern Sahara (SW Egypt) but well established on the Arabian Peninsula in Oman and more recently in Saudi Arabia. Pennsylvanian-Sakmarian times saw repeated glaciation-deglaciation cycles affecting the region, over a timeframe of about 20 Myr. Repeated phases of deglaciation produced a complex stratigraphy consisting, in part, of structureless sandstone intervals up to 50 m thick. Some of these sandstone intervals are major hydrocarbon intervals in the Omani salt basins. Whilst studies of the Hirnantian glaciation can provide lessons on the causes of large-scale variability within Carboniferous-Permian glaciogenic reservoirs, additional factors also influenced their geometry. These include the effects of topography produced during Hercynian orogenesis and the mobilisation and dissolution of the Precambrian Ara Salt. Deglacial or interglacial lacustrine shale, with abundant palynomorphs, is also important. Whilst both Cryogenian intervals and the Hirnantian-Rhuddanian deglaciation resulted in the deposition of glaciomarine deposits, Carboniferous-Permian deglaciation likely occurred within a lacustrine setting. Hence, compared to shales of other glacial epochs, the source rock potential of Carboniferous-Permian deglacial deposits is minimal.

  2. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  3. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  4. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALS CERCELE). PART 2. THRESHOLD MECHANICAL ENERGIES FOR RESUSPENSION PARTICLE FLUXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass see...

  5. Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchee, R.E.; Kittel, J.A. [eds.] [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Reisinger, H.J. [ed.] [Integrated Science and Technology, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. The papers in this volume focus on petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation, with an emphasis on pilot-scale and field-scale applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  6. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers. Part 2: Model Verification by Use of Full Scale Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    describes particle sticking or rebound by a combination of the description of (visco)elsatic particles impacting a solid surface and particle capture by a viscous surface. The model is used to predict deposit formation rates measured during tests conducted with probes in full-scale suspension-fired biomass...... of some physical parameters related to the description of surface capture are suggested. Based on these examinations of the model ability to describe observed deposit formation rates, the proposed model can be regarded as a promising tool for description of deposit formation in full-scale biomass......A model for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass has been developed. The model describes deposit build-up by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermoforesis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles and reaction. The model...

  7. The geology and hydrocarbon possibilities of the Triassic-Jurassic Fundy Basin, eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.; Fensome, R.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre; Brown, D.E. [Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The development of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins beneath the waters of the eastern coast of North America was discussed. These basins have been linked to the rifting of the central part of Pangaea during Mid and Late Triassic time that ended in the formation of a series of grabens extending from Florida to The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, one of them being the Bay of Fundy Basin which is about 16,500 square kilometres in size. Onshore and offshore geologic mapping and seismic interpretations have shown their age range to be from the Mid Triassic Anisian or Ladinian to Mid Jurassic. Up to 12 km of Mesozoic rocks were deposited in the basin with up to 9 km still present. The depositional history of the area was described. The two areas with greatest hydrocarbon potential are the Bay of Fundy and the Chignecto subbasins.

  8. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  9. Reconstruction of floral changes during deposition of the Miocene Embalut coal from Kutai Basin, Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia by use of aromatic hydrocarbon composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, S.; Bechtel, A.; Anggayana, K.; Puttmann, W. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons and stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in a series of nine Miocene Embalut coal samples obtained from nine coal seams of Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia were studied. The rank of the Embalut coals ranged from lignites to low rank sub-bituminous coals (0.36-0.50% Rr), based on measurements of huminite reflectance. The aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of all coal samples were dominated by cadalene in the lower boiling point range and picene derivatives in the higher boiling point range of the gas chromatograms. Cadalene can be attributed to the contribution of Dipterocarpaceae and various hydrated picenes to the contribution of additional angiosperms to the coal forming vegetation. The picenes originate from {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin. However, in some coal samples minor amounts of simonellite and retene were also detected which argues for an additional contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) to coal forming vegetation preferentially in the Middle Miocene and at the beginning of the Late Miocene. The results of stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C in most of the coal samples are consistent with their origin from angiosperms {delta}{sup 13}C between -27.09, and -28.0%). During the Miocene the climate of Mahakam Delta was not uniformly moist and cooler than the present day climate. This would have been favourable for the growth of conifers, especially in the montane forests. The contribution of conifers to the Embalut coals might be a result of the cool Middle/Late Miocene climate during peat accumulation in the Kutai Basin.

  10. Phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Patricia J; Campanella, Bruno F; Castro, Paula M L; Harms, Hans; Lichtfouse, Eric; Schäffner, Anton R; Smrcek, Stanislav; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies based on the combined action of plants and the microbial communities that they support within the rhizosphere hold promise in the remediation of land and waterways contaminated with hydrocarbons but they have not yet been adopted in large-scale remediation strategies. In this review plant and microbial degradative capacities, viewed as a continuum, have been dissected in order to identify where bottle-necks and limitations exist. Phenols, anilines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as the target classes of molecule for consideration, in part because of their common patterns of distribution, but also because of the urgent need to develop techniques to overcome their toxicity to human health. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the pollutant, the emerging picture suggests that plants will draw pollutants including PAHs into the plant rhizosphere to varying extents via the transpiration stream. Mycorrhizosphere-bacteria and -fungi may play a crucial role in establishing plants in degraded ecosystems. Within the rhizosphere, microbial degradative activities prevail in order to extract energy and carbon skeletons from the pollutants for microbial cell growth. There has been little systematic analysis of the changing dynamics of pollutant degradation within the rhizosphere; however, the importance of plants in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the rhizosphere via fine roots, and of the beneficial effect of microorganisms on plant root growth is stressed. In addition to their role in supporting rhizospheric degradative activities, plants may possess a limited capacity to transport some of the more mobile pollutants into roots and shoots via fine roots. In those situations where uptake does occur (i.e. only limited microbial activity in the rhizosphere) there is good evidence that the pollutant may be metabolised. However, plant uptake is frequently associated with the inhibition of plant growth and an

  11. Effect of flue gas composition on deposit induced high temperature corrosion under laboratory conditions mimicking biomass firing. Part I: Exposures in oxidizing and chlorinating atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kiamehr, Saeed; Montgomery, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    bothoxidizing and oxidizing-chlorinating atmospheres, and the resulting corrosionproducts were comprehensively studied with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD)techniques. The results show that deposit-free samples suffer grain boundaryattack...... only in an oxidizing-chlorinating atmosphere, otherwise corrosionresults in formation of a duplex oxide. Corrosion attack on deposit-coatedsamples was higher than on deposit-free samples irrespective of the gaseousatmosphere. Specifically, severe volatilization of alloying elements occurred ondeposit...

  12. Cyclic transgressive and regressive sequences and their association with hydrocarbons, Sirte Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abushagar, S.A.

    1988-08-01

    The Sirte basin was developed in north Africa between the Tethys Sea and the Saharan shield during Late Cretaceous time and was the site of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate deposition throughout the Tertiary. A series of bioclastic limestones and shales was deposited around the basin rim. Shales were confined to the low-energy zones in the basin, whereas carbonates were deposited on the shelf areas. The Farrud Formation (equivalent to the Beda Formation in the central part) is the main reservoir for oil found in the western portion of the basin. The faunal assemblages and lithologies recognized in this formation apparently reflect a very shallow marine depositional environment. Source rocks are developed in organic-rich, transgressive shales (Dahra and Hagfa). Moldic, fenestral, and intraparticle porosities are the most common types recognized in the carbonate reservoirs of the Farrud Formation. Permeability is developed in part by processes such as dolomitization, leaching, and fracturing in the two progradational, regressive carbonate cycles, resulting in the exceptional Ghani field reservoirs. Hydrocarbons were trapped in these reservoirs due to the presence of a supratidal anhydrite cap rock.

  13. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro......The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future...... is electrolysis followed by conversion into synthetic hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers. Several types of electrolysers exist. The various types are listed together with a short description of principle and status. It is argued that electrolysis will at least become part of large sustainable energy systems...

  14. Soot Deposit Properties in Practical Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, Ignacio [University of Utah; Eddings, Eric G. [University of Utah; Sarofim, Adel F. [University of Utah; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Soot deposition from hydrocarbon flames was investigated in order to evaluate the evolution of the deposits during the transient process of heating an object that starts with a cold metal surface that is exposed to a flame. The study focused on the fire/metal surface interface and the critical issues associated with the specification of the thermal boundaries at this interface, which include the deposition of soot on the metal surface, the chemical and physical properties of the soot deposits and their subsequent effect on heat transfer to the metal surface. A laboratory-scale device (metallic plates attached to a water-cooled sampling probe) was designed for studying soot deposition in a laminar ethylene-air premixed flame. The metallic plates facilitate the evaluation of the deposition rates and deposit characteristics such as deposit thickness, bulk density, PAH content, deposit morphology, and thermal properties, under both water-cooled and uncooled conditions. Additionally, a non-intrusive Laser Flash Technique (in which the morphology of the deposit is not modified) was used to estimate experimental thermal conductivity values for soot deposits as a function of deposition temperature (water-cooled and uncooled experiments), location within the flame and chemical characteristics of the deposits. Important differences between water-cooled and uncooled surfaces were observed. Thermophoresis dominated the soot deposition process and enhanced higher deposition rates for the water-cooled experiments. Cooler surface temperatures resulted in the inclusion of increased amounts of condensable hydrocarbons in the soot deposit. The greater presence of condensable material promoted decreased deposit thicknesses, larger deposit densities, different deposit morphologies, and higher thermal conductivities.

  15. Organic Gases in Fluid Inclusions of Ore Minerals and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis: A Case Study of the Changkeng Au-Ag Deposit, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The newly discovered Changkeng Au-Ag deposit is a new type of sediment-hosted precious metal deposit. Most of the previous researchers believed that the deposit was formed by meteoric water convection. By using a high vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometric system, nine light hydrocarbons have been recognized in the fluid inclusions in ore minerals collected from the Changkeng deposit. The hydrocarbons are composed mainly of saturated alkanes C1-4 and unsaturated alkenes C2-4 and aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the alkanes are predominant, while the contents of alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are very low. The Σalka/Σalke ratio of most samples is higher than 100, suggesting that those hydrocarbons are mainly generated by pyrolysis of kerogens in sedimentary rocks caused by water-rock interactions at medium-low temperatures, and the metallogenic processes might have not been affected by magmatic activity. A thermodynamic calculation shows that the light hydrocarbons have reached chemical equilibrium at temperatures higher than 200?C, and they may have been generated in the deep part of sedimentary basins (e.g., the Sanzhou basin) and then be transported by ore-forming fluids to a shallow position of the basin via a long distance. Most of the organic gases are generated by pyrolysis of the type II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, only a few by microorganism activity. The compositions and various parameters of light hydrocarbons in gold ores are quite similar to those in silver ores, suggesting that the gold and silver ores may have similar metallogenic processes. Based on the compositions of organic gases in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Changkeng deposit may be of a tectonic setting of continental rift. The results of this study support from one aspect the authors' opinion that the Changkeng deposit is not formed by meteoric water convection, and that its genesis has a close relationship with the evolution of the Sanzhou basin, so

  16. Sedimentary facies and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Third member of Shahejie Formation in Beijing-Tianjin Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X.; Zhang, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The exploration practice in the Beijing-Tianjin area shows that the key point of improving seismic interpretation level in a complex district lies in the high accuracy of seismic work, extraction of available seismic information and the use of the comprehensive interpretation method basing on both structure interpretation and seismic stratigraphy. This paper presents the geological interpretation results of analyzing the Third member of Shahejie Formation in Beijing-Tianjin Depression by using the method stated above. It describes the seismic facies, sedimentary facies as well as the generation, accumulation and distribution of hydrocarbons, and points out that the lower part of the member is a subaqueous fan and point bar deposit, while the middle part is a fan-delta deposit. According to the thermo-evolution-profile and TTI estimated, it is assumed that the lower part of the member is source rock with sandstone development and is also a very good reservoir rock because of having two sets of source rock reservoir and seal rock. Having structures such as Jiuzhou anticline and its down dip and Liuquan fault structure, it is favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. 4 figures.

  17. A study of the initial stages of the electrochemical deposition of thallium on copper, Part IV. The potential step results: Underpotential deposition on (111), (110) and (100) oriented copper single c

    OpenAIRE

    Jovićević Jovan N.; Bewick Alan

    2005-01-01

    The underpotential deposition and dissolution of thallium onto carefully chemically polished single crystal copper (111), (110) and (100) electrode surfaces from acetate, sulphate and perchlorate solutions have been investigated using single and double potential step techniques. It appeared that the different anions used did not change the current-time response characteristics significantly. Current-time responses to the potential steps applied strongly resemble those observed in the case of ...

  18. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  19. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  20. Geochemistry of hydrocarbons of the Terek-Caspian trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Terek-Caspian oil and gas bearing basin of the Eastern Ciscaucasia, oil deposits occur in a wide stratigraphic range of rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section, from the Jurassic, at depths from 5800 to 200 m. In the sedimentary section, carbonate and terrigenous Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Miocene oil-mother rocks are distinguished. Organic matter from them have different geochemical characteristics and different maturity to realize the generation potential. The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of potential petroleum-bearing rocks and hydrocarbon fluids from the Terek-Sunzha folded zone of the Terek-Caspian Trough, including lithological, chemical-bituminological, pyrolytic, chromatographic and chromatographic-mass spectrometry investigations. A detailed description of hydrocarbon fluids at the molecular level and genetic correlations of oil-oil and oil-organic matter are given. Specific features of the oil deposits of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section are noted. Among the studied bitumens, the chromatographic characteristics of the extractable organic matter from the Khadum carbonate-clayey deposits and oils from the Cretaceous and Neogene reservoirs are most similar. The composition of a complex natural mixture of hydrocarbons from various sources, with different maturation during the geological history of the region, does not allow making unambiguous conclusions about the source or sources of hydrocarbons for the deposits of the Terek-Caspian Trough.

  1. Hydrocarbon charge history of the Paleogene reservoir in the northern Dongpu Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lu Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hydrocarbon charge history of the Paleogene in the northern Dongpu Depression was analyzed in detail based on a comprehensive analysis of the generation and expulsion history of the major hydrocarbon source rocks, fluorescence microscopic features and fluid inclusion petrography. There were two main stages of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of oil from the major hydrocarbon source rocks. The first stage was the main hydrocarbon expulsion stage. The fluorescence microscopic features also indicated two stages of hydrocarbon accumulation. Carbonaceous bitumen, asphaltene bitumen and colloidal bitumen reflected an early hydrocarbon charge, whereas the oil bitumen reflected a second hydrocarbon charge. Hydrocarbon inclusions also indicate two distinct charges according to the diagenetic evolution sequence, inclusion petrography features combined with the homogenization temperature and reservoir burial history analysis. According to these comprehensive analysis results, the hydrocarbon charge history of the Paleogene reservoir in the northern Dongpu Depression was divided into two phases. The first phase was from the late Dongying depositional period of the Oligocene to the early uplift stages of the late Paleogene. The second phase was from the late Minghuazhen period of the Pliocene to the Quaternary. Reservoirs formed during the first period were widely distributed covering the entire area. In contrast, reservoirs formed during the second period were mainly distributed near the hydrocarbon generation sags. Vertically, it was characterized by a single phase in the upper layers and two phases in the lower layers of the Paleogene.

  2. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  3. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALE CERCELE). PART I. RELATIVE PARTICLE FLUX RATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension re...

  4. Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides (MODERN) - Part 1: A new conversion model to derive soil redistribution rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRN) has become one of the most commonly used tools to quantify sediment erosion or depositional processes. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRN, land uses and soil redistribution processes. The new model MODERN (Modelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of any FRN at the reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance in converting different FRN inventories is discussed for a theoretical case as well as for two already published case studies i.e. a (137)Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and a (210)Pbex study on a ploughed area located in the Transylvanian Plain (Romania). The tests highlight a highly significant correspondence (i.e. correlation factor of 0.91) between the results of MODERN and the published results of other models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The development and the cost free accessibility of MODERN (see modern.umweltgeo.unibas.ch) will ensure the promotion of wider application of FRNs for tracing soil erosion and sedimentation.

  5. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 1: A statistical study on the impact of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pfaffhuber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A portion of the highly toxic methylmercury that bioaccumulates in aquatic life is created from mercury entering bodies of water with snowpack meltwater. To determine the importance of meltwater as a source of aquatic mercury, it is necessary to understand the environmental processes that govern the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. In this study we investigate relationships among 5 types of snowpack-related mercury observations and 20 model environmental variables. The observation types are the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow, and the concentrations of mercury in surface snow, seasonal snowpacks, the snowpack meltwater's ionic pulse, and long-term snowpack-related records. The model environmental variables include those related to atmospheric mercury, insolation, wind, atmospheric stability, snowpack physical characteristics, atmospheric pressure, and solid precipitation. Bivariate and multiple linear regressions were performed twice for each mercury observation type: once with all observations, and once excluding observations from locations where the snowpack's burden of oxidizing and stabilizing halogens is known or presumed to affect snowpack mercury. Since no observations from long-term snowpack-related records were considered affected by halogens, this group of observations was included with the sets of uninfluenced observations and was not discussed with the complete, original sets of observations. When all observations are included, only 37% of their variability can be explained, on average, with significance confidence levels averaging 81%; a separate regression model predicts each mercury observation type. Without the influence of halogens, the regression models are able to explain an average of 79% of the observations' variability with significance confidence levels averaging 97%. The snowpack-related mercury observations are most strongly controlled by the dry and wet depositions of oxidized mercury, and by

  6. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? - Part 1: A statistical study on~the~impact of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnford, D. A.; Dastoor, A. P.; Steen, A. O.; Berg, T.; Ryzhkov, A.; Figueras-Nieto, D.; Hole, L. R.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Hung, H.

    2012-10-01

    A portion of the highly toxic methylmercury that bioaccumulates in aquatic life is created from mercury entering bodies of water with snowpack meltwater. To determine the importance of meltwater as a source of aquatic mercury, it is necessary to understand the environmental processes that govern the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. In this study we investigate relationships among 5 types of snowpack-related mercury observations and 20 model environmental variables. The observation types are the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow, and the concentrations of mercury in surface snow, seasonal snowpacks, the snowpack meltwater's ionic pulse, and long-term snowpack-related records. The model environmental variables include those related to atmospheric mercury, insolation, wind, atmospheric stability, snowpack physical characteristics, atmospheric pressure, and solid precipitation. Bivariate and multiple linear regressions were performed twice for each mercury observation type: once with all observations, and once excluding observations from locations where the snowpack's burden of oxidizing and stabilizing halogens is known or presumed to affect snowpack mercury. Since no observations from long-term snowpack-related records were considered affected by halogens, this group of observations was included with the sets of uninfluenced observations and was not discussed with the complete, original sets of observations. When all observations are included, only 37% of their variability can be explained, on average, with significance confidence levels averaging 81%; a separate regression model predicts each mercury observation type. Without the influence of halogens, the regression models are able to explain an average of 79% of the observations' variability with significance confidence levels averaging 97%. The snowpack-related mercury observations are most strongly controlled by the dry and wet depositions of oxidized mercury, and by precipitation. Mercury

  7. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  9. Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Vieira, Frederico

    2001-07-01

    Orogenic, gold deposits are hosted by rocks of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the major gold provinces in the world. The gold deposits occur at the base of the mafic-ultramafic succession, with the most important orebodies controlled by E-W-striking, strike-slip faults. The main mineralization styles are (1) structurally controlled, sulfide replacement zones in banded iron formation (BIF); (2) disseminated sulfide minerals and gold in hydrothermally altered rocks along shear zones; and (3) auriferous quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins and veinlets in mafic, ultramafic, and felsic volcanic rocks, and also in clastic sedimentary rocks. The most common host rocks for ore are metamorphosed oxide- and carbonate-facies banded iron (± iron-rich metachert) formations (e.g., the Cuiabá, São Bento and Raposos deposits) and the lapa seca unit, which is a local term for intensely carbonatized rock (e.g., the giant Morro Velho mine with >450 t of contained gold). Metabasalts host most of the remaining gold deposits. Mineralogical characteristics and fluid inclusion studies suggest variations in the H2O/CO2 ratio of a low-salinity, near-neutral, reducing, sulfur-bearing, ore fluid. The presence of abundant CH4-rich inclusions is related to reduction of the original H2O-CO2 fluid via interaction with carbonaceous matter in the wallrocks. Oxygen fugacity was close to that of graphite saturation, with variations likely to have been influenced by reaction with the carbonaceous matter. Carbon-rich phyllites and schists, which commonly bound ore-bearing horizons, seem to have played both a physical and chemical role in localizing hydrothermal mineral deposition. Microtextural studies indicate that gold deposition was mainly related to desulfidation reactions, and was paragenetically coeval with precipitation of arsenic-rich iron sulfide minerals. Carbon isotope data are compatible with dissolution of

  10. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  11. A "test of concept" comparison of aerodynamic and mechanical resuspension mechanisms for particles deposited on field rye grass ( Secale cercele). Part 1. Relative particle flux rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

    Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 10 μm. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following for our test of concept experiment: Resuspension particle flux increases when mechanical impacts occur. Mechanical resuspension dominated for 2 μm particles over purely aerodynamic resuspension, but for larger particles aerodynamic mechanisms were roughly equally effective in resuspending particles.

  12. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  13. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  14. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  16. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Well V-7 Wetzel County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J.

    1979-08-15

    This program was initiated in September 1976, with the objective and scope of determining the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, and thereby provide a sound basis for (1) assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits, and (2) guiding research, development and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. Included in the scope of the program are a number of elemental tasks as a part of the Resource Inventory and Shale Characterization subprojects of DOE's Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to provide large quantities of support data for current and possibly future needs of the Project.

  17. Sedimentary Characteristics and Reservoir Prediction of Paleogene in the East Part of Kuqa Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Detian; Wang Hua; Wang Jiahao; Wang Qingchen

    2006-01-01

    Most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic large-scale hydrocarbon-bearing basins in western China were formed in a similar foreland setting. Hydrocarbon exploration of the Kuqa foreland basin requires research into the sedimentary characteristics and filling evolution of the depositional sequences and their response to the basin process. Based on an analysis of outcrops, well logs and high resolution seismic data, the sedimentary system types and distribution characteristics of the Paleogene in the east part of Kuqa foreland basin were systematically studied. The results show that: ( 1 ) Three types of sedimentary systems are developed in the area: an oxidative salty wide shallow lacustrine system, a fan delta system and an evaporitic bordersea system. (2) The configuration and evolution of the depositional systems of the Paleogene in the Kuqa foreland basin were predominantly determined by foreland tectonism. Vertically, the Paleogene sedimentary sequence can be divided into three parts: the lower, middle and upper depositional system tracts. The lower and upper tracts commonly consist of progradational or aggradational sequences, while the middle part is usually comprised of a set of aggradational to transgressive third-order sequences. Laterally, the sedimentary systems in the east part of the Kuqa foreland basin spread from east to west as a whole, and the sedimentary facies obviously vary from south to north. The sand bodies of the delta front facies are excellent gas reservoirs, characterized by rather thick, extensive and continuous distribution, high porosity and permeability, and just a few barrier beds.

  18. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  19. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  20. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  1. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 1: A statistical study on the impact of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Durnford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A portion of the highly toxic methylmercury that bioaccumulates in aquatic life is created from mercury entering bodies of water with snowpack meltwater. To determine the importance of meltwater as a source of aquatic mercury, it is necessary to understand the environmental processes that govern the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. In this study we investigate relationships among 5 types of snowpack-related mercury observations and 20 model environmental variables. The observation types are the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow, and the concentrations of mercury in surface snow, seasonal snowpacks, the snowpack meltwater's ionic pulse, and long-term snowpack-related records. The model environmental variables include those related to atmospheric mercury, insolation, wind, atmospheric stability, snowpack physical characteristics, atmospheric pressure, and solid precipitation. Correlation coefficients and multiple linear regressions were calculated twice: once with all observations, and once with observations from locations presumably affected by oxidizing and stabilizing snowpack-related halogens excluded. We find that the presence of snowpack-related halogens has a significant impact on the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. Physically, snowpack-related mercury observations are most strongly controlled by the dry and wet depositions of oxidized mercury. The burial of mercury by fresh snowfalls and the wind driven ventilation of snowpacks are important processes. Indeed, in the absence of snowpack-related halogens, the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow is fully controlled by mercury deposition and surface-level atmospheric wind speed, stability, and surface pressure. The concentration of mercury in long-term records is affected by latitude, ventilation and surface pressure.

  2. Main controlling factors for hydrocarbon reservoir formation and petroleum distribution in Cratonic Area of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Cratonic Area of the Tarim Basin is located in the central part of the basin, developing primarily with Cambrian marine source rocks and secondly Middle to Upper Ordovician marine and Carboniferous-Permian transitional facies source rocks. The source rocks were matured in the changeable period and space, forming multiple hydrocarbon generating centers during the periods. The Cratonic Area experienced multiple tectonic orogenies, forming several palaeouplifts. The matching condition between effective hydrocarbon generating centers and the palaeouplifts in various periods is the main control factor for the formation and distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The palaeouplifts have experienced multiple hydrocarbon-filling phases, several periods of modifications and even breakdown. The palaeouplifts and the adjacent slopes around the effective hydrocarbon generating center compose the most favorable places for hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon phase is related with the evolution of the hydrocarbon generating center. In the Tarim Basin's Cratonic Area, reservoirs were mostly formed during late Hercynian. The originally formed hydrocarbon reservoirs which are adjacent to source kitchens and in the good preservation condition are the most favorable prospecting targets. Hydrocarbon is richly accumulated under the regional caprock, surrounding the faulted trends, and over and below the unconformity surfaces. Reservoirs in the Carboniferous sandstone, Ordovician karstic weathered crust and carbonate rock inside the buried hill compose the main intervals for hydrocarbon accumulation. Carboniferous and Silurian sandstone pinchout reservoirs and carbonate lithologic reservoirs with rich fractures and pores are the main targets for further prospecting.

  3. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  4. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east

  5. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  6. Organic geochemistry of the Vindhyan sediments: Implications for hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, A. M.; Mani, Devleena; Madhavi, T.; Kavitha, S.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Sharma, Mukund

    2014-09-01

    The organic geochemical methods of hydrocarbon prospecting involve the characterization of sedimentary organic matter in terms of its abundance, source and thermal maturity, which are essential prerequisites for a hydrocarbon source rock. In the present study, evaluation of organic matter in the outcrop shale samples from the Semri and Kaimur Groups of Vindhyan basin was carried out using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Also, the adsorbed low molecular weight hydrocarbons, methane, ethane, propane and butane, were investigated in the near surface soils to infer the generation of hydrocarbons in the Vindhyan basin. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in shales ranges between 0.04% and 1.43%. The S1 (thermally liberated free hydrocarbons) values range between 0.01-0.09 mgHC/gRock (milligram hydrocarbon per gram of rock sample), whereas the S2 (hydrocarbons from cracking of kerogen) show the values between 0.01 and 0.14 mgHC/gRock. Based on the Tmax (temperature at highest yield of S2) and the hydrogen index (HI) correlations, the organic matter is characterized by Type III kerogen. The adsorbed soil gas, CH4 (C1), C2H6 (C2), C3H8 (C3) and nC4H10, (nC4), concentrations measured in the soil samples from the eastern part of Vindhyan basin (Son Valley) vary from 0 to 186 ppb, 0 to 4 ppb, 0 to 5 ppb, and 0 to 1 ppb, respectively. The stable carbon isotope values for the desorbed methane (δ13C1) and ethane (δ13C2) range between -45.7‰ to -25.2‰ and -35.3‰ to -20.19‰ (VPDB), respectively suggesting a thermogenic source for these hydrocarbons. High concentrations of thermogenic hydrocarbons are characteristic of areas around Sagar, Narsinghpur, Katni and Satna in the Son Valley. The light hydrocarbon concentrations (C1-C4) in near surface soils of the western Vindhyan basin around Chambal Valley have been reported to vary between 1-2547 ppb, 1-558 ppb, 1-181 ppb, 1-37 ppb and 1-32 ppb, respectively with high concentrations around Baran-Jhalawar-Bhanpur-Garot regions (Kumar

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  8. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  9. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  10. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  11. High atmosphere-ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Méjanelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piña, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 102-103 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr-1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake.

  12. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  13. Pilot fluidized bed combustor system applied to thermal energy production from light hydrocarbons - part I: description and hydrodynamics analysis; Sistema combustor piloto a leito fluidizado para producao de energia termica a partir de hidrocarbonetos leves. Parte I: descricao e analise hidrodinamica do sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro P. de; Souza Junior, Francisco de Assis; Alves, Stella M.A.; Estevao, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lucena, Sergio; Souza, Phillipi R. de O. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Controle e Otimizacao de Processos; Santos, Douglas A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, the employment of light hydrocarbons in combustion systems for power generation has been announced by Brazilian Government's like a great bet for diversification the energetic matrix in spite of the provisional crisis. As consequence, high demand and growing R and D investments caused immediate reflexes in all economical and industrial sectors of the Natural Gas chain, mainly considering the gas from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo offshore fields offered to the market. Regarding this, Northeast Region of Brazil shows itself to be attentive to the energy market tendencies and to environmental sector, creating conditions for developing new technologies and applications for the gas consumption. Among the possible applications of the gas consumption, the fluidized bed combustion systems are highlighted, like a real alternative for energy applying of the hydrocarbons produced, considering a good safety range to effective environmental demands. Thereby, the present work aimed to perform the description of a pilot fluidized bed combustor system with sand using light hydrocarbons - specifically, natural gas and LPG. Thereby, said pilot fluidized bed combustor operates isothermically without developing flames and/or hot spots. Besides the exposed, a hydrodynamic analysis of the system was made, identifying variables and parameters onto fluidized bed combustion process. (author.

  14. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  15. Hydrocarbon-mediated gold and uranium concentration in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Williams-Jones, Anthony; Schumann, Dirk; Couillard, Martin; Murray, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The Witwatersrand deposits in South Africa represent the largest repository of gold in the World and a major resource of uranium. The genesis of the gold and uranium ores in the quartz-pebble conglomerates (reefs), however, is still a matter of considerable discussion. Opinion has been divided over whether they represent paleo-placers that have been partly remobilised by hydrothermal fluids or if the mineralisation is entirely hydrothermal in origin. In addition, recently published models have proposed a syngenetic origin for the gold involving bacterially-mediated precipitation from meteoric water and shallow seawater. An important feature of the gold and uranium mineralisation in the reefs is the strong spatial association with organic matter. In some reefs, up to 70% of the gold and almost the entire uranium resource is spatially associated with pyrobitumen seams, suggesting a genetic relationship of the gold-uranium mineralisation with hydrocarbons. Here we report results of a study of the Carbon Leader Reef, using high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM / TEM) and LA-ICP-MS that provide new insights into the role of hydrocarbons in the concentration of the gold and uranium. A detailed examination revealed gold monocrystals containing numerous rounded or elliptical inclusions filled with pyrobitumen. We interpret these inclusions to record the crystallisation of the gold around droplets of a hydrocarbon liquid that migrated through the Witwatersrand basin, and was converted to pyrobitumen by being heated. We propose that the gold was transported in a hydrothermal fluid as a bisulphide complex and that this fluid mixed with the hydrocarbon liquid to form a water-oil emulsion. The interaction between the two fluids caused a sharp reduction in fO2 at the water-oil interface, which destabilised the gold-bisulphide complexes, causing gold monocrystals to precipitate around the oil droplets. In contrast to the gold, uraninite, the principal

  16. Origin and character of gaseous hydrocarbons in the hydrate and non-hydrate charged sediments on the Norway - Svalbard margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaular, Espen Nesheim

    2011-05-15

    Gas incubated in clathrate water-structures, stabilizes the hydrogen bonded substance termed gas hydrate. In the marine environment vast amount of carbon is stored as gas hydrates within the temperature and pressure zone these ice-like structures are stable. Natural gas hydrate mapping and characterization is important basic research that brings about critical knowledge concerning various topics. Natural gas hydrates is a vital part of the carbon cycle, it is a potential energy resource (and thereby a potential climate agent) and it is a potential geo-hazard. One of the goals the GANS initiative aimed at exploring, was the hydrate bearing sediment of the Norway -Svalbard margins, to investigate the character and expansion of natural gas hydrates. Part of the investigation was to define how the gas in the hydrated sediment was produced and where it came from. As a result this thesis addresses the matter of light hydrocarbon characterization and origin in two Norwegian hydrate deposits. On cruises to Vestnesa on the Svalbard margin and to Nyegga in the mid-Norwegian margin, samples of hydrate charged and non-hydrate charged sediments were obtained and analyzed. Through compositional and isotopic analyses the origin of the hydrate bound gas in the fluid escape feature G11 at Nyegga was determined. The hydrate incubated methane is microbial produced as well as parts of the hydrate bound ethane. The compositional analysis in both the Nyegga area and at the Vestnesa Ridge points at thermogenic contributions in the sediment interstitials and pore water. The two hydrate bearing margins show large differences in hydrocarbon content and microbial activity in the pockmarks investigated. The gravity cores from the penetrated pockmark at Vestnesa showed low hydrocarbon content and thus suggest ceased or periodic venting. The fluid flow escape features at Nyegga show large variety of flux rates based on ROV monitoring and headspace analysis of the sediment and pore water. The

  17. Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans l'environnement. Première partie. Propriété, origines, devenir Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment. Part One. Properties, Origins, Fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchez M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP sont des contaminants produits notamment dans les processus de combustion. Leur caractère ubiquiste et leur génotoxicité sont à l'origine d'une activité de recherche importante. Après avoir présenté les structures chimiques et les propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques principales de ces composés, on résume les connaissances actuelles concernant leur présence dans l'environnement. Les critères géochimiques de leurs différentes origines pyrolytique, diagénétique ou pétrolière, sont exposés. On examine la contribution des différentes sources d'émission, le transport et la diffusion dans l'environnement de ces composés, ainsi que les modifications qu'ils subissent et leur sort ultime. La distribution qualitative et quantitative des HAP de combustion dans les sols d'environnements variés est présentée. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are environmental contaminants produced in particular in combustion processes. As a consequence of their genotoxicity and ubiquity, they are the subject of an important research activity. After a presentation of the chemical structures and of the main physico-chemical and biological properties of these compounds, the current knowledge regarding their presence in the environment is summarized. The geochernical criteria of the different,origins, pyrolytic, diagenetic and petroleum of PAH are presented. The respective contributions of their various emission sources are discussed , as well as the transfer and diffusion in the environment, the modifications undergone and the ultimate fate of these compounds. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of combustion PAH in soils in different environmental situations is presented.

  18. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 21 280-290...

  19. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Sarmatian sediments in the NW part of the Vienna Basin: Moravian Central Depression, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslava Sopková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the development of the Sarmatian sedimentary record in the NW Vienna Basin, Moravian Central Depression. To identify key surfaces, the principles of sequence stratigraphy and electrosequence analysis were used together with the well logs and well cores data as well as data obtained from final reports. The identified sequence boundaries (SB and surfaces (ts, mfs divide the Sarmatian sediments into sequences of the relative base level change of the third and fourth order. Except the third order cycle related to Haq's TB 2.6 cycle, which includes the whole Sarmatian stage, two individual cycles of higher order were revealed in the sedimentary record for the Moravian Central Depression. Their occurrence was also proved in Austrian as well as in Slovak part of the Vienna Basin, what points to their interregional character.

  20. An apparatus for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-03-23

    The installation for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv) with the formation of a mixture of H2 and C02 is a catalyst chamber (KK) filled with longitudinally disposed thin pipes (with thin walls) or with pipe units made of dolomite, MgO or potassium aluminate. These pipes have a multilayered coating (Pk) on their internal and external surfaces (Pv), which contain catalytically active components. Such pipes or pipe units form a honeycombed structure with through longitudinal channels. The catalyst chamber itself is made of a ceramic material and has a heating winding outside for heating the catalyst. To save fuel and to increase the efficiency (KPD) of the heating device, the catalyst chamber is in turn enclosed by two additional shells filled with heat conducting packings which are easily penetrated by the gases being processed. The hydrocarbon vapors or gaseous fuel from the natural gas or methane and the steam are fed through the above cited heat exchange layers with packings into the facial part of the catalytic chamber, in which the conversion of the hydrocarbons occurs with the production of H2 and C02. From the catalyzer layer the mixture of gases and steam goes through a refrigerator into a trap for the steam excess and when it is necessary, into a C02 absorber and then, pure H2 is discharged from the latter. Such a catalytic installation is convenient to use for producing pure H2 from natural gas, methane, propane or kerosene.

  1. Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations in the deepwater of the northwestern South China Sea-with focus on natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenfeng; SUN Zhipeng; ZHANG Daojun; ZHU Jitian; LI Xushen; HUANG Baojia; GUO Minggang; JIANG Rufeng

    2015-01-01

    The deepwater of the northwestern South China Sea is located in the central to southern parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin (QDN Basin), which is a key site for hydrocarbon exploration in recent years. In this study, the authors did a comprehensive analysis of gravity-magnetic data, extensive 3D seismic survey, cores and cuttings, paleontology and geochemical indexes, proposed the mechanism of natural gas origin, identified different oil and gas systems, and established the model of hydrocarbon accumulations in the deep-water region. Our basin tectonic simulation indicates that the evolution of QDN Basin was controlled by multiple-phased tectonic movements, such as Indochina-Eurasian Plate collision, Tibetan Uplift, Red River faulting and the expansion of the South China Sea which is characterized by Paleogene rifting, Neogene depression, and Eocene intensive faulting and lacustrine deposits. The drilling results show that this region is dominated by marine-terrestrial transitional and neritic-bathyal facies from the early Oligocene. The Yacheng Formation of the early Oligocene is rich in organic matter and a main gas-source rock. According to the geological-geochemical data from the latest drilling wells, Lingshui, Baodao, Changchang Sags have good hydrocarbon-generating potentials, where two plays from the Paleogene and Neogene reservoirs were developed. Those reservoirs occur in central canyon structural-lithologic trap zone, Changchang marginal trap zone and southern fault terrace of Baodao Sag. Among them, the central canyon trap zone has a great potential for exploration because the various reservoir-forming elements are well developed, i.e., good coal-measure source rocks, sufficient reservoirs from the Neogene turbidity sandstone and submarine fan, faults connecting source rock and reservoirs, effective vertical migration, late stage aggregation and favorable structural–lithological composite trapping. These study results provide an important scientific basis

  2. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Westgate, T. D.; Ward, J. A.; Slater, G. F.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2002-04-01

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons.

  3. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons in oil shales from the Aleksinac deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.; Tesic, Z.; Vitorovic, D.

    1983-01-01

    It is established that the basic components of the fraction of branched and cyclic alkanes, isolated from shale bitumens, are aliphatic and polycyclic isoprenoid compounds. All members of the homological C15 to C20 series are identified among the aliphatic compounds, except for C17; C27 to C29 stearines and methyl to C29 styrene are discovered among the polycyclic compounds and C27 to C29 triterpenes and bicyclic tetraterpenes are identified among the pentacyclic compounds.

  4. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z. Z. T.; Sum, C. W.; Ghosh, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further.

  5. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  6. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  7. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  8. A "test of concept" comparison of aerodynamic and mechanical resuspension mechanisms for particles deposited on field rye grass ( Secale cercele).—Part 2. Threshold mechanical energies for resuspension particle fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass seed pod in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to measure resuspension from aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms compared to that from mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 8.1 μm. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following: Threshold mechanical energy input rates increased from 0.04 to 0.2 μJ s -1 for resuspension of spherical polystyrene latex particles from 2 to 8.1 μm diameter. Kinetic energy flux generated by mechanical impact of the wind-driven oscillating grass was found to be highly sensitive to slightly different placements and grass morphology. The kinetic energy input by impaction of the grass against a stationary cylinder is roughly proportional to the kinetic energy flux of the wind.

  9. Detection of materials and deposits as a basis for innovative operations management systems employed as part of opencast mine process optimizations; Material- und Lagerstaettenerkennung als Basis innovativer Betriebsfuehrungsysteme im Rahmen der Tagebauprozessoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H. [RWE Power AG, Frechen (DE). Sparte Tagebau, Technikzentrum Tagebaue/HW, Elektrotechnik Betriebsfuehrungssyteme (PBZ-EB)

    2007-05-15

    Innovative, process-oriented operations management systems will play an increasingly important part in the future development of opencast mine technology, with crucial factors being the integration into existing extensive corporate-planning systems on the one hand and automation systems on the other. But horizontal, interdisciplinary dovetailing of planning, operations management, and control/automation processes is also gaining in importance. Improved and rapid provision of information on the material to be extracted is one key to successfully optimizing opencast mine processes and automating equipment. The reason for this is that material properties have multiple effects on deployment scheduling, extraction, transportation, dumping, quality control, and the operation and condition of conveyor systems. Even now, ongoing projects are dealing with digital modelling and the simulation of production processes serving as a basis for further optimizations. In the future, the main focus with respect to material and deposit detection will lie on the advancement of sensor technologies used for automated near real-time material and deposit detection in rock and on conveyor systems. These include multisensors used in georadar and geoelectric systems, spectrometers, acoustic systems, scanners and optical cameras installed on bucket wheels, above conveyor belts or even on unmanned flying systems. (orig.)

  10. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  11. An integrated workflow to assess the remaining potential of mature hydrocarbon basins: a case study from Northwest Germany (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Björn; Aigner, Thomas; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Irmen, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Mature hydrocarbon provinces require a high level of geological understanding in order to extend the lives of producing fields, to replace reserves through smaller targets and to reduce the risks of exploring for more and more subtle hydrocarbon traps. Despite a large number of existing wells in the area studied in this paper, the depositional environments and the stratigraphic architecture were still poorly known. In order to improve the geological understanding, we propose a workflow to assess the remaining reservoir potential of mature hydrocarbon areas, integrating cores, cuttings, well-logs, biostratigraphy and seismic data. This workflow was developed for and is exemplified with the northwest of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB), a mature hydrocarbon province in northwest Germany, but can be applied in a similar fashion to other areas. Systematic integration of lithofacies analysis, chrono- and sequence stratigraphy, combined with electrofacies analysis and modern digital methods like neural network-based lithology determination and 3D facies modelling provides a high-resolution understanding of the spatial facies and reservoir architecture in the study area. Despite widely correlatable litho-units in the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the LSB, complex heterogeneous sedimentary systems can be found in the basin's marginal parts. Two new play types were determined in the study area, showing a remaining potential for stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. The results of this exploration scale study also provide the basis for re-evaluations on a field development scale. On a basin scale, this study may encourage further data acquisition and re-evaluations to discover previously unknown reservoirs.

  12. An integrated workflow to assess the remaining potential of mature hydrocarbon basins: a case study from Northwest Germany (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Björn; Aigner, Thomas; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Irmen, Anton

    2016-06-01

    Mature hydrocarbon provinces require a high level of geological understanding in order to extend the lives of producing fields, to replace reserves through smaller targets and to reduce the risks of exploring for more and more subtle hydrocarbon traps. Despite a large number of existing wells in the area studied in this paper, the depositional environments and the stratigraphic architecture were still poorly known. In order to improve the geological understanding, we propose a workflow to assess the remaining reservoir potential of mature hydrocarbon areas, integrating cores, cuttings, well-logs, biostratigraphy and seismic data. This workflow was developed for and is exemplified with the northwest of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB), a mature hydrocarbon province in northwest Germany, but can be applied in a similar fashion to other areas. Systematic integration of lithofacies analysis, chrono- and sequence stratigraphy, combined with electrofacies analysis and modern digital methods like neural network-based lithology determination and 3D facies modelling provides a high-resolution understanding of the spatial facies and reservoir architecture in the study area. Despite widely correlatable litho-units in the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the LSB, complex heterogeneous sedimentary systems can be found in the basin's marginal parts. Two new play types were determined in the study area, showing a remaining potential for stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. The results of this exploration scale study also provide the basis for re-evaluations on a field development scale. On a basin scale, this study may encourage further data acquisition and re-evaluations to discover previously unknown reservoirs.

  13. Membranous nephropathy following exposure to volatile hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenreich, T.; Yunis, S.L.; Churg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solvents has long been known to cause renal tubular disease in man. Recently, the occurrence of glomerular disease such as Goodpasture's syndrome with proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis has been related to hydrocarbon exposure. This report concerns four patients with membranous nephropathy who had a history of prolonged exposure to a number of volatile hydrocarbons. Membranous nephropathy is a chronic renal disease involving glomeruli and occurring principally in adults. Its clinical onset is insidious and is manifested by proteinuria or edema. Proteinuria is the hallmark of the disease and may be present for many years without symptoms. It is often a slowly progressive disease. About one-fourth of the patients improve clinically and lose their proteinuria, while up to one-fourth develop renal failure. The glomerular capillary wall lesions are distinctive, contain deposits of immunoglobulin and complement considered to represent immune-complexes, and show a morphological progression from early Stage I to late Stage IV. While in most cases there is no known etiology, in some patients the disease has been deemed to be secondary to specific diseases or agents such as infections, neoplasms, or chemicals. The four cases described fall into this last category.

  14. Petrography, geochemistry and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are present for nearly 35 km along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. Each coal zone contains carbonaceous shales, thin ({lt}0.75 m) impure coal beds, and thin ({lt}0.85 m) but commercially significant nonbanded coal beds. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. Discontinuities within the San Pedro coal zone are attributed mainly to the influence of contemporaneous deposition of distributary mouth-bar sand bodies. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. A highly degraded groundmass composed of eugelinite is the main petrographic component (approximately 71%, mineral-matter-free basis). An enriched liptinite fraction (approximately 23%) probably accounts for unusually high calorific values. There is negligible inertinite. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications, which also occur in clastic rocks of the coal-bearing intervals. Such algal material cannot be identified or quantified by conventional coal petrographic techniques that utilize particle pellets or by palynological analyses that include acid preparation. 63 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Poly-phase salt tectonics and hydrocarbon accumulation in Tarim superimposed basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; JIN Zhijun; JlA Chengzao; PI Xuejun; CHEN Suping

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the poly-phase salt tectonics and its relation to the hydrocarbon accumulation of the Tarim superimposed basin. Several salt sequences are developed in the Tarim basin, they are: (1) the Mid-Early Cambrian salt sequence, mainly distributed in the west part of the north Tarim uplift and Keping uplift; (2) the Early Carboniferous salt sequence, mainly distributed in the south slope of the north Tarim uplift; (3) the Paleogene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the mid-west part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt and north Tarim uplift; and (4) the Miocene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the east part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt sequences deposited in the tectonically calm scenario, while the salt layers deformed during the period of intense tectonism. Although the salt sequences are characteristic of plastic flow, the differences of salt deformation styles exist in the different salt sequences because of the different deformation mechanism. It is attractive that the distribution of the large oil-gas fields or pools has a bearing upon the salt sequences and salt structures, such as the Tahe oilfield related to the Lower Carboniferous salt sequence and laterally facies changed mudstone, the Kela No.2 gas field to the Paleogene salt structures, and the Dina gas field to the Miocene salt structures. It is indicated that the large-scale hydrocarbon accumulation is controlled by the poly-phase salt sequences and structures. The deep analysis of the poly-phase salt tectonics is helpful to understanding the characteristics of the structural deformation and oil-gas accumulation of the Tarim basin.

  16. Bedded Barite Deposits from Sonora (nw Mexico): a Paleozoic Analog for Modern Cold Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, C.; Anadón, P.; González-Partida, E.; Alfonso, P.; Rajabi, A.; Pérez-Segura, E.; Alba-Aldave, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Mazatán barite deposits represent an outstanding example of Paleozoic bedded barite, a poorly understood type of mineral deposit of major economic interest. The largest barite bodies of Mazatán are hosted within an Upper Carboniferous flysch succession, which formed part of an accretionary wedge related to the subduction of the Rheic Ocean beneath Gondwana. As well, a few barite occurrences are hosted in Upper Devonian, pre-orogenic turbidites. A variety of mineralized structures is displayed by barite, including: septaria nodules, enterolitic structures, rosettes and debris-flow conglomerates. Barite is accompanied by chalcedony, pyrite (framboids) and berthierine. Gas-rich fluid inclusions in barite were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and methane was identified, suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the environment within which barite precipitated. 13C-depleted carbonates (δ13C: -24.3 to -18.8‰) were found in the barite deposits; they formed through anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction, and yield negative δ18O values (-11.9 to -5.2‰) reflecting the isotopic composition of Devonian-Carboniferous seawater. Methane-derived carbonates occur in modern hydrocarbon seeps and have been reported from Mesozoic and Cenozoic seep sediments, but they have never before been described in Paleozoic bedded barite deposits. δ34S of barite varies from +17.6 to +64.1‰, with the lowest values overlapping the range for coeval seawater sulfate; this distribution indicates a process of sulfate reduction. Barite precipitation can be explained by mixing of methane- and barium-rich fluids with pore-water (seawater) containing sulfate residual from microbial reduction. Two analyses from barite gave an 87Sr/86Sr within and slightly above the range for seawater at the time of deposition, with 0.708130 and 0.708588, which would preclude the involvement of hydrothermal fluids in the mineralization process.

  17. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  18. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  19. Spatial correlation of mantle heterogeneities beneath the south-western part of the East-European platform with oil-gas deposits and basic-ultrabasic magmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlyanska, L.

    2009-04-01

    Velocity model of mantle beneath the south-western margin of the East-European platform demonstrates its heterogeneous structure. Accordingly to the crustal structures above mantle heterogeneities were defined as: Volyno-Podolian, Ros-Bug, Ingulo-Middlednieper, Periasov, Volyno-Podolian plate, Peridnister, Peri-Blacksea, Chernigov, Dnieper, Donetsk, Eastern-Blacksea, Crimea, Western-Blacksea. These blocks are defined as regions differing in the depth of the bottom of the velocity layers that characterize velocity structure of the mantle and in the velocity characteristics of these layers. Layer boundaries are defined as intersection with 1-d reference model. Areas with residuals >0.0 km/s are considered as high-velocity while areas with residuals Donetsk) that situated beneath the Dnieper-Donetsk depression display spatial correlation with crust-seated oil-gas provinces - Crimean, Volyno-Podolian, Pericarpathian, and Dnieper-Donetsk, correspondingly. Oil-gas field have a propensity for boundaries of mentioned above mantle blocks. Those mantle blocks (Volyno-Podolian, Ros-Bug, Ingulo-Middlednieper, Periasov) that located under the Ukrainian shield display spatial correlation with basic-ultrabasic magmatism that confined to the blocks boundaries. Age of this magmatism varies from Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic. Velocity model of the south-western part of the East-European platform obtained by the method of seismic tomography employing methodology of the Taylor's approximation of the solution of the task of seismic tomography of the times of arrivals of P-waves developed by V.S. Geyko [1]. Solution is represented as a series of horizontal and vertical sections. Vertical (latitudinal and longitudinal) sections represented to the 850 km depths with 1 step as residuals relative reference 1-D model that was obtained due to solution of the seismotomographic task for Eurasia. Horizontal sections are imagined as true velocities at depths from 50 to 850 km with step 25

  20. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  1. Hydrocarbon- Generating Model of the Area Covered With Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhanqian; Zhang Yuwei

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Oil & gas fields shows their close relationship with the most active tectonic regions. This is not a coincidence but having a scientific reasons. The crustal active regions, refer to the places where the active natural earthquake, volcanic activities, underground water happened, and the areas of the leaking off of natural gas to the surface of the crust. The magma of volcanic activities brings the organic "kitchen range body" hydrocarbon- generating model and inorganic genetic hydrocarbon to the regions covered by volcanic rock. Underground water brings a catalytic hydrocarbongenerating model for organic matter, and the leaking- off of H2 and CO2 contributes a synthetic hydrocarbon - generating model. Volcanic activities bring the assemblage of Source, Reservoir and Seal formed by the sediments and magma the sedimentary basins, and the hydrocarbon - generating system with a "water - volcano" binary structure is formed. All these conditions are favorable and excellent for the formation of oil & gas fields. The distribution of American oil & gas fields have very close relationship with the mines of Fe, Mn, Ct, Mo, W and V, deposits of Zn, Cu, V, Pb, Al and Hg, and the deposits of fluorite, sulfur, potassium salt, phosphate and halite, and the distribution of sulfate- chloride of river water. The reason why few oil & gas fields discovered in the regions covered by volcanic rock in western America maybe because of the view of "inconsistency between petroleum and volcano". Further more, It's very difficult to carry out a geophysical exploration in such kinds of regions.This paper examined a few hydrocarbon-generating models (systems) mentioned above and came up with some fresh ideas on the exploration in the areas covered with volcanic rocks.

  2. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  3. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  4. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  5. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  6. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  7. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  8. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  9. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  10. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  11. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  12. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  13. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  14. Evolution of deepwater sedimentary environments and its implication for hydrocarbon exploration in Qiongdongnan Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenfeng; JIANG Tao; ZHANG Daojun; WANG Yahui; ZUO Qianmei; HE Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, a number of hydrocarbon reservoirs have been discovered in the deepwater area of Qiongdongnan Basin, northwestern South China Sea. These oil/gas fields demonstrate that the evolution of the deepwater sedimentary environment are controlling the formation and distribution of large-scale clastic reservoirs. Integration between seismic and borehole data were necessary to best clarify the distribution and quality of these deepwater reservoirs. Geochemical and paleobiological evidence from discrete samples was also applied to document specific information regarding the sedimentary environment. Results show that the Qiongdongnan Basin has existed as a thriving marine environment since Oligocene, when several rifting depressions developed throughout the entire Qiongdongnan Basin. Triggered by the faults activities, several distinct provenances supplied the coarse sediments, transporting and depositing them in deep parts of the rifting depressions. A fan delta system then formed nearby the source in the deeper area of these rifting depressions. The sedimentary environment of Qiongdongnan gradiationally became deepwater since early Miocene. Consequently, abundances of sediments were transported from Hainan Island and Southern Uplift, and then sunk into the basin center. The submarine fans revealed by many boreholes in this area verified them as good reservoir. Because the area reached its lowest sea level at late Miocene and the Southern Uplift subsidenced under sea level, not providing any sediment, so that the carbonate mesa and biorhythms characteristic of this area also developed during this period. In the west part of Qiongdongnan Basin, sediments transported from Vietnam increased in response to the Tibetan Uplift. Consequently, a central canyon developed along the center of Qiongdongnan Basin, which has been confirmed by several boreholes as a favorable hydrocarbon reservoir. The clarification of the deepwater sedimentary environment

  15. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  16. Source identification of hydrocarbons following spill events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Centre of Excellence (Canada)], email: eib.birkholz@alsglobal.com

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with revealing the sources of hydrocarbon contamination as a part of the forensic effort in reclamation and remediation. The goal is to show the importance of such information for assessing oil contamination levels and cleanup costs. This study deals with three particular cases where hydrocarbon levels were exceeded in soil samples. As part of the investigation process, a report on the source, age, and nature of the contamination was generated. The chemical investigation consisted of many steps, including mixing and equilibrating the samples with other chemicals, and scanning for oil biomarkers. After the analysis was finished, it was concluded that the fuels in the soil samples were from 14.7 to 15.6 years old, with a 2 year margin of error; however, a different methodology yielded a higher range, 20 to 24 years. Regarding the type of fuel, due to traces of alkylated benzenes and sesquiterpanes that were found, it was believed that the source of the oil was western Canada.

  17. Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans l'environnement. Deuxième partie : La dégradation par voie microbienne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment. Part Two: Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchez M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La microbiologie de la dégradation des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP est un domaine de recherche en plein développement. C'est à la fois le devenir dans l'environnement de ces composés ubiquistes et génotoxiques et l'utilisation de procédés microbiologiques de dépollution des sols industriels contaminés par ces produits qui motivent cet intérêt. On présente ici une synthèse des connaissances actuelles dans ce domaine. Les organismes dégradeurs sont essentiellement les bactéries et les champignons. Le processus de dégradation, aérobie, est initié par des oxygénases. Les bactéries utilisent les HAP de deux à quatre cycles comme substrats de croissance, ce qui conduit à leur minéralisation. Les champignons, lignolytiques et non lignolytiques, attaquent les HAP par cométabolisme, ce que font également les bactéries. L'ensemble des micro-organismes dégradant les HAP, et les voies métaboliques impliquées, sont présentés. Le mode d'accession des micro-organismes à leurs substrats très peu solubles est un point important. Les études menées avec les bactéries ont montré l'existence de deux mécanismes, le transfert par solubilisation dans la phase aqueuse et l'accession interfaciale directe. Un autre aspect présenté est le devenir des HAP, en termes de bilans carbone, lors de la dégradation bactérienne de HAP individuels et de mélanges de HAP. Des taux de minéralisation élevés peuvent être obtenus. Dans le cas des mélanges, ces taux élevés impliquent la mise en oeuvre de microflores complexes où le cométabolisme joue un rôle important. Les progrès accomplis ces dernières années conduisent à ne plus considérer les HAP comme des composés intrinsèquement récalcitrants à la biodégradation. Dans l'environnement, un facteur important limitant la dégradation des HAP est leur accessibilité aux micro-organismes. The microbiology of the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  18. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  19. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  1. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons; Manejo de los residuos solidos en proyectos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  3. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade.

  4. The hydrocarbon potential of the conjugating continental shelves of Argentina and Namibia/South Africa; Das Kohlenwasserstoff-Potential der konjugierenden Kontinentalraender von Argentinien und Namibia/Suedafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, S.; Gerling, P.; Cramer, B.; Neben, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The hydrocarbon potential of volcanic continental shelves was long assumed to be low, but with the discovery of the Kudu natural gas field off the Namibian coast and the advance of hydrocarbon exploration into deeper water, information on the structure, stratigraphy and genesis of this type of continental shelf is getting increasingly important. This interdisciplinary study investigated the hydrocarbon potential of the conjugating continental shelves of the southern part of the South Atlantic. The investigations involved geochemical studies of deposit contents, surface sediments and potential bedrock as well as petroleum-geological modelling. [German] Das Kohlenwasserstoff(KW)-Potenzial von vulkanisch gepraegten Kontinentraendern wurde lange Zeit als gering eingestuft. Mit der Entdeckung des Erdgasfeldes Kudu vor der Kueste Namibias und dem Fortschreiten der KW-Exploration in immer groessere Wassertiefen wird das Verstaendnis der Struktur, Stratigraphie und Entstehung diese Kontinentrandtyps jedoch zunehmend wichtiger. Im Rahmen einer transdiziplinaeren Studie wird das KW-Potential der konjugierenden Kontinentraendern des suedlichen Suedatlantiks mittels geochemischer Untersuchungen an Lagerstaetteninhalten, Oberflaechensedimenten und potentiellen Muttergesteinen sowie mit petroleumgeologischen Modellierungen evaluiert. (orig.)

  5. Characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈平

    1995-01-01

    Light hydrocarbons named in the present paper refer to the natural gas-associated light oil and condensate 46 light oil and condensate samples from 11 oil-bearing basins of China were collected and their carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions were analysed in terms of their total hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons and a part of aromatic fractions, and gas-source materials and their sedimentary environments were discussed based on the above-mentioned data and the geological background of each area. From the view of carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of total hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbons, it is revealed that the condensate related to coal-bearing strata is enriched in 13C and D while that related to the source material of type I-II is enriched in 12C. In general, the isotopic composition of carbon is mainly attributed to the inheriting effect of their source materials, whereas that of hydrogen principally reflects the correlationship between hydrogen isotopes and the sedimentary envi

  6. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)

  7. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  8. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  9. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  10. Enhancement of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) is widely considered as one of the most significant enablers of the successful exploitation of hydrocarbons in North America. Massive usage of HF is currently adopted to increase the permeability in shale and tight-sand deep reservoirs, despite the economical downturn. The exploitation success is less due to the subsurface geology, but in technology that improves exploration, production, and decision-making. This includes monitoring of the reservoir, which is vital. Indeed, the general mindset in the industry is to keep enhancing seismic monitoring. It allows understanding and tracking processes in hydrocarbon reservoirs, which serves two purposes, a) to optimize recovery, and b) to help minimize environmental impact. This raises the question of how monitoring, and especially seismic techniques could be more efficient. There is a pressing demand from seismic service industry to evolve quickly and to meet the oil-gas industry's changing needs. Nonetheless, the innovative monitoring techniques, to achieve the purpose, must enhance the characterization or the visualization of a superior-quality images of the reservoir. We discuss recent applications of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs, detailing potential enhancement and eventual limitations. The aim is to test the validity of these seismic monitoring techniques, qualitatively discuss their potential application to energy fields that are not only limited to HF. Outcomes from our investigation may benefit operators and regulators in case of future massive HF applications in Europe, as well. This work is part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu), funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, whose aims is to help minimize the environmental footprint of the shale-gas exploration and exploitation.

  11. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  12. PEEK熔融沉积成形温度对零件拉伸性能的影响%Effect of PEEK Fused Deposition Modeling Temperature on Tensile Properties of Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 李涤尘; 靳忠民; 曹毅; 石长全

    2015-01-01

    作为一种高性能聚合物,聚醚醚酮(PEEK)具有耐高温、耐化学腐蚀、高强度等优点,但由于材料熔点高,采用传统制造方法难以实现复杂结构功能零件的低成本快速制造。针对该问题,利用高温型熔融沉积成形(FDM)设备开展了以PEEK为研究对象的FDM工艺实验研究。结果表明:通过合理控制打印机喷嘴温度、底板温度及成形室温度,可改善单层的线间搭接及层间的融合状态,从而使PEEK零件的最高拉伸强度达到77 MPa,接近传统注塑成形的力学性能指标,为难加工材料复杂结构成形过程中的控形与控性提供了新的解决方法。%As a kind of high -performance thermoplastic ,polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has outstanding advantageous properties such as high temperature resistance ,chemical corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical strength. However ,considering the cost and cycle of the production ,it is not an effective method to manufacture functional parts with complex structure by conventional way due to the high melting point of the PEEK. Therefore ,the aim of this study was to show that PEEK components can be produced in an economic manufacturing method by the fused deposition modelling (FDM) methodology. The result shows that rational controlling the temperature of the nozzle ,the plate and the printing room can improve the overlapping condition among the printing lines and fusion degree between interfacing layers. The maximum tensile strength of the PEEK parts reached up to around 77 MPa,which was close to the value of the parts made from injection method. This study provides a better solution for manufacturing parts with complex structure using hard processing materials.

  13. Spectroscopic study of low pressure, low temperature H2-CH4-CO2 microwave plasmas used for large area deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films. Part II: on plasma chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Baudrillart, B.; Hamann, S.; Bénédic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a distributed antenna array (DAA) reactor, microwave H2 plasmas with admixtures of 2.5% CH4 and 1% CO2 used for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films have been studied by infrared laser absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and pressure at relatively low pressures, up to 0.55 mbar, and power values, up to 3 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, of five stable molecules, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H6, and of vibrationally excited CO in the first and second hot band was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and an external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. OES was applied simultaneously to obtain complementary information about the degree of dissociation of the H2 precursor and of its gas temperature. The experimental results are presented in two separate parts. In Part I, the first paper in a two-part series, the measurement of the gas (T gas), rotational (T rot) and vibrational (T vib) temperatures of the various species in the complex plasma was the main focus of interest. Depending on the different plasma zones the gas temperature was found to range between about 360 and 1000 K inside the DAA reactor (Nave et al 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 065002). In Part II, the present paper, taking into account the temperatures determined in the first paper, the concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in a range between 1011 and 1015 cm-3, are the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power and pressure on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the carbon precursor gases including their fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products has been

  14. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  15. Production of synthetic hydrocarbons from coal through its underground gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kreynin Efim Vulfovich

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the high-level processing of coal into synthetic motor fuels assumes worldwide actual meaning nowadays.Thereat,it is important especially for countries and regions which possess extensive coal resources and are forced to be guided by the import of liquid and gas hydrocarbons.However,a greater emphasis is paid to the given issue in Russia-The development of the federal program for highlevel processing of coal into synthetic motor fuels was initiated.This article describes options of underground coal gasification (UCG) use for the generation of hydrocarbons from UCG gas in the process of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS).The technical and economic analysis of the integrated UCG-FTS powerchemical factories has detected their investment attractiveness and practicability of experimental-industrial testing at coal deposits of the Russian Federation.

  16. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  17. Modelling the hydrocarbon generation and migration in the West Netherlands Basin, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Bergen, F. van; Leeuw, C. de; Pagnier, H.; Simmelink, H.; Wees, J.D. van; Verweij, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The hydrocarbon systems of the Mesozoic, inverted West Netherlands Basin have been analyzed using 2-D forward modelling. Three source rocks are considered in the modelling: Lower Jurassic oil-prone shales, Westphalian gas-prone coal deposits, and Lower Namurian oil-prone shales. The Lower Namurian h

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lake sediments from the High Tatras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend L. van, E-mail: barend.vandrooge@idaea.csic.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lopez, Jordi; Fernandez, Pilar; Grimalt, Joan O. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Stuchlik, Evzen [Department of Hydrology, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 12044 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    European alpine lake systems are used as indicators of air quality over the continent. Preliminary data showed high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) loads in the High Tatras (Eastern Europe) in comparison to other mountain regions. Here, insight on the spatial distribution of PAH is provided from analysis of top-core sediments of 27 alpine lakes distributed along the High Tatras. Top-core sediment concentrations were higher than those in deep-cores, and they were higher than those observed in other European high mountain regions. The PAH profiles were uniform and comparable to those observed in aerosols and snow, indicating that atmospheric deposition was the predominant PAH input pathway to the lakes. Good agreement between estimated atmospheric deposition and sedimentation fluxes was observed. However, in several lakes in the western range higher sediment fluxes may correspond to higher PAH depositions levels. The higher concentrations may also reflect inputs from potential emission source areas. - Highlights: > Sedimentary PAH loads in alpine lakes from High Tatras (Eastern Europe) were higher than in other European mountain regions. > Sediments PAH profiles comparable to aerosol and snow deposition profiles. > Positive correlation between PAH atmospheric deposition and sedimentary fluxes. - High sedimentary PAH loads were observed in alpine lakes in the High Tatras (Eastern Europe) which are related to high PAH atmospheric deposition fluxes.

  19. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  20. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  1. Recent developments in hydrocarbon separator interface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertaker, Bjorn T.; Johansen, Geir A.; Jackson, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Level monitoring instrumentation is an essential part of hydrocarbon processing facilities, and has together with separator technology been widely addressed over the last decade. Key issues are production capacity, product enhancement and well-flow control. The reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation, and its ability to monitor the thickness of the foam and the oil-water emulsion, are particularly important when considering the level instrumentation as the main sensing element in the automatic control of the separation vessel. Lately industry focus has been placed on optimal automatic control to improve the quality of the production output, and to minimize the use of expensive and environmentally undesirable separation enhancing chemicals. Recent developments in hydrocarbon production includes subsea separation stations, where the constraints placed on the reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation are especially severe. This paper discuss the most common existing level monitoring technologies, and present some recent level monitoring developments for three-phase separators. In order to clarify the issue of cross sectional metering the notion tomometry is introduced in this paper. Tomometry denotes multipoint cross sectional metering aiming to acquire cross sectional information on the distribution of the substances in the process vessel for control purposes, not mainly to create a cross sectional reconstructed image of the process in question.

  2. Comprehensive management of hydrocarbon storage tanks ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesueur, V.; Riethmuller, M.; Chauveau, D. [IS Services, Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Corrosion generates considerable material losses in industry and can result in irreversible damages to the environment and some times in losses in human lives. Hydrocarbon storage tanks are subject to various corrosion types like generalised corrosion resulting in large areas thickness reduction, or potentially dangerous local damage (pitting, crevice or craters). To keep safe storage conditions and save service life, it is essential: - to identify the risks by taking into account the stored products, the storage type, the environmental factors, the type of coating and the storage history, - to select the most appropriate NDT technique (acoustic emission, thickness ultrasonic measurement, TOFD, ACFM, visual inspection, remote UT..) depending on the part to be inspected and on the expected type of damage, - to propose the best solution for storage tank restoration (repair, improved protection..) - to modify the operating conditions - to define the NDT periodicity and the appropriate technique to apply according to the type of risks, to the former inspection results and to the regulation context, - to determine the remaining life of storage tank. This approach is named Comprehensive Management of hydrocarbon storage tank ageing. IS Services has developed a software called ''AGIR'' aiming at providing guidance and support to apply this approach. (orig.)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  4. Contribution of offshore petroleum deposits to marine food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum production out of offshore petroleum deposits often coincides with abundant fisheries in the world. Superposition of marine microorganism concentration distribution and offshore petroleum field distribution from various data in the literature provides to prove this coincidence. Sakhalin Island coastal regions, North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, etc. are chosen for the superpositions. Significant conformity is observed between the plankton concentration distribution and the offshore petroleum deposit distribution in all those regions. Also, most studies on the consequence of oil spills to marine eco-systems have focused mainly on hazardous marine pollution caused by spilled petroleum at high concentration in marine environment. However, some of those data clearly indicate stimulation of plankton population in properly low concentration levels of dissolved hydrocarbons and dissolved petroleum compositions. Further, increase of hydrocarbon concentration leads to its inhibition from its stimulation conditions upon crossing over a critical concentration level—a plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration (SITC) of hydrocarbons. The SITC varies depending on hydrocarbon compounds, petroleum compositions, and microorganisms such as planktons. Further, petroleum composition diffusing through subterranean layers from petroleum deposits reacts with dissolved oxygen to be consumed at the ocean floor to precipitate the agglomerate suspension of hydrocarbons, leaving the sea water in a condition of oxygen depletion on the ocean floor. Such incidents are also briefly discussed.Plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration of petroleum fractions

  5. Spectroscopic study of low pressure, low temperature H2-CH4-CO2 microwave plasmas used for large area deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films. Part I: on temperature determination and energetic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Baudrillart, B.; Hamann, S.; Bénédic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a distributed antenna array (DAA) reactor, microwave H2 plasmas with admixtures of 2.5% CH4 and 1% CO2 used for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films have been studied by infrared absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and pressure at relatively low pressures, up to 0.55 mbar, and power values, up to 3 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of five stable molecules, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H6, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. OES was applied simultaneously to obtain complementary information about the degree of dissociation of the H2 precursor gas and of its gas temperature. The experimental results are presented in two separate parts. In Part I, the present paper, the measurement of the gas (T gas), rotational (T rot) and vibrational (T vib) temperatures of the various species in the complex plasma was the main focus of interest. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the plasma hot zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, five different methods based on the emission and absorption spectroscopy data of H2, CH4, CH3 and CO have been used. In these, line profile analysis has been combined with Boltzmann plot methods. Based on the wide tuning range of the EC-QCL, a variety of CO lines in the ground and three excited states was measured enabling extensive temperature analysis providing new insight into the energetic aspects of this multi-component plasma. Depending on the different plasma zones the gas temperature was found to range between about 360 and 1000 K inside the DAA reactor

  6. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Schwing, Patrick T; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A; Hastings, David W; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  7. The Role of Innovative Development in Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploitation in the Context of the Shale Gas Revolution in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent drop in oil prices, there is a strong interest in the influence of the shale revolution on the global supply and demand of hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, the attention of many economists and industry analysts is drawn to the technological, institutional and regulatory aspects of hydrocarbon production from shale deposits in the USA. The authors analyze factors facilitating the shale gas revolution in the USA, and find that in addition to the obvious factors, such as high p...

  8. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Romero

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC, aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs, and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1 sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material, and 2 advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  9. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Schwing, Patrick T.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hastings, David W.; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000 – 1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. PMID:26020923

  10. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  11. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  12. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  13. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  14. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  15. Conversion of natural gas to C2 hydrocarbons through dielectric-barrier discharge plasma catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保伟; 许根慧

    2002-01-01

    The experiments are carried out in the system of continuous flow reactors with dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) for studies on the conversion of natural gas to C2 hydrocarbons through plasma catalysis under the atmosphere pressure and room temperature. The influence of discharge frequency, structure of electrode, discharge voltage, number of electrode, ratio of H2/CH4, flow rate and catalyst on conversion of methane and selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons are investigated. At the same time, the reaction process is investigated. Higher conversion of methane and selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons are achieved and deposited carbons are eliminated by proper choice of parameters. The appropriate operation parameters in dielectric-barrier discharge plasma field are that the supply voltage is 20-40 kV (8.4-40 W), the frequency of power supply is 20 kHz, the structure of (b) electrode is suitable, and the flow of methane is 20-60 mL@min?1. The conversion of methane can reach 45%, the selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons is 76%, and the total selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons and C3 hydrocarbons is nearly 100%. The conversion of methane increases with the increase of voltage and decreases with the flow of methane increase; the selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons decreases with the increase of voltage and increases with the flow of methane increase. The selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons is improved with catalyst for conversion of natural gas to C2 hydrocarbons in plasma field. Methane molecule collision with radicals is mainly responsible for product formation.

  16. Plasma-deposited a-C(N) H films

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, D E

    2000-01-01

    The growth behaviour, film structure and mechanical properties of plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films are shortly reviewed. The effect of nitrogen-containing gas addition to the deposition to the hydrocarbon atmospheres used is discussed, considering the modifications observed in the chemical composition growth kinetics, carbon atom hybridisation and chemical bonding arrangements of a-C(N):H films. The overall structure behaviour is correlated to the variation of the mechanical properties.

  17. The Qishn Formation, Yemen: lithofacies and hydrocarbon habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beydoun, Z.R. (American Univ., Beirut (Lebanon)); Bamahmoud, M.O.; Nani, A.S.O. (Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Sana' a (Yemen, Republic of). Petroleum Exploration and Production Board)

    1993-08-01

    The Barremian-Aptian Qishn Formation of Yemen is broadly described in the context of its role as the lowest widespread transgressive unit of the Cretaceous system in the country and of the two laterally equivalent lithofacies groups that reflect the advance of the Cretaceous sea from east to west. This is undertaken against the background to the tectonic events that preceded its deposition and those that followed it during the remainder of the Cretaceous, so as to better understand its hydrocarbon habitat. (Author)

  18. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  20. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  1. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  3. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  4. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  5. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  7. Using variances in hydrocarbon concentration and carbon stable isotope to determine the important influence of irrigated water on petroleum accumulation in surface soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Yang, Juncheng; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiaoming; Dai, Jiulan

    2013-05-01

    Hunpu is a wastewater-irrigated area southwest of Shenyang. To evaluate petroleum contamination and identify its sources at the area, the aliphatic hydrocarbons and compound-specific carbon stable isotopes of n-alkanes in the soil, irrigation water, and atmospheric deposition were analyzed. The analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that the water is moderately contaminated by degraded heavy oil. According to the isotope analysis, inputs of modern C3 plants and degraded petroleum are present in the water, air, and soil. The similarities and dissimilarities among the water, air, and soil samples were determined by concentration, isotope, and multivariate statistical analyses. Hydrocarbons from various sources, as well as the water/atmospheric deposition samples, are more effectively differentiated through principal component analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) relative to hydrocarbon concentrations. Redundancy analysis indicates that 57.1 % of the variance in the δ(13)C of the soil can be explained by the δ(13)C of both the water and air, and 35.5 % of the variance in the hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil can be explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of both the water and the air. The δ(13)C in the atmospheric deposition accounts for 28.2 % of the δ(13)C variance in the soil, which is considerably higher than the variance in hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of the atmospheric deposition (7.7 %). In contrast to δ(13)C analysis, the analysis of hydrocarbon concentrations underestimates the effect of petroleum contamination in the irrigated water and air on the surface soil. Overall, the irrigated water exerts a larger effect on the surface soil than does the atmospheric deposition.

  8. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  9. MIDDLE MIOCENE DEPOSITIONAL MODEL IN THE DRAVA DEPRESSION DESCRIBED BY GEOSTATISTICAL POROSITY AND THICKNESS MAPS (CASE STUDY: STARI GRADAC-BARCS NYUGAT FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Malvić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neogene depositional environments in the Drava depression can be classified in two groups. One group is of local alluvial fans, which were active during the period of Middle Miocene (Badenian extension through the entire Pannonian Basin. The second group is represented by continuous Pannonian and Pontian sedimentation starting with lacustrine environment of partly deep water and partly prodelta (turbidity fans and terminating at the delta plain sedimentation. The coarse-grained sediments of alluvial fans have the great hydrocarbon potential, because they often comprise reservoir rocks. Reservoir deposits are mostly overlain (as result of fan migration by pelitic seal deposits and sometimes including organic rich source facies. That Badenian sequences are often characterised by complete petroleum systems, what is confirmed by large number of oil and gas discoveries in such sediments in the Drava and other Croatian depressions. Alluvial environments are characterised by frequent changes of petrophysical properties, due to local character of depositional mechanism and material sources. In the presented paper, Stari Gradac-Barcs Nyugat field is selected as a case study for demonstrating the above mentioned heterogenic features of the Badenian sequences. Structural solutions are compared by maps of parameters related to depositional environment, i.e. porosity and thickness maps. Geostatistics were used for spatial extension of input dataset. The spatial variability of porosity values, i.e. reservoir quality, is interpreted by transition among different sub-environments (facies in the alluvial fan system.

  10. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  11. Compound depositions from the BOPEC fires on Bonaire : Measurements and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Bodar CWM; Boshuis ME; de Groot AC; de Zwart D; Hoffer SM; Janssen PJCM; Mooij M; de Groot GM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verbruggen EMJ; IMG; SEC; LER; mev

    2011-01-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some perfluorinated fire fighting foam constituents (especially perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) were found in deposited soot and in water on Bonaire due to the BOPEC oil depot fires in September 2010. The soot deposition did not result in elevated co

  12. Concerning the petroleum hydrocarbons migration in the permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, I. V.; Panova, E.; Grinko, A.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms controlling methane emissions in the Laptev Sea it is extremely important to know the distribution patterns of subsea permafrost in the coastal zone. One possible solution to this problem is to analyze the hydrocarbon fluids in the bottom sediments. The object of our study was the core sample from Ivashkinskaya lagoon (Lena Delta, Sakha Republic). Pyrolytic studies were performed for this core sample (ROCK- EVAL 6 TURBO). According to the pyrolysis results there were 5 samples from the upper section in the range 0.36-5.58m selected for the further studies. The common feature of these samples is high content level of the pelitic component. They contain more than 1.0% of TOC and are composed of volatile organic compounds. Extracts obtained from the core sample were analyzed by GC-MS («Hewlett Packard» 6890/5973). Analyzed extracts demonstrated different classes of organic compounds in their composition with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and acids dominating. Here are the histograms of n-alkanes in function of the carbon atoms number in the molecule (Figure). Considering our work experience with the Black Sea sediments we suggest that the samples with a high degree of even n-alkanes are confined to zones of petroleum hydrocarbons migration coming from the deep oil deposits. Figure. Typical n-alkanes distribution in the extracts (horizontal axis - the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, vertical axis - relative abundance)

  13. Size Distribution of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Nakano, Takeshi; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The particle size distribution of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) in particulate matter (PM) in Japan is examined for the first time. PM was collected using a PM0.1 air sampler with a six-stage filter. PM was collected in October 2014 and January 2015 to observe potential seasonal variation in the atmospheric behavior and size of PM, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ClPAHs. We found that the concentration of PAHs and ClPAHs between 0.5-1.0 μm and 1.0-2.5 μm markedly increase in January (i.e., the winter season). Among the ClPAHs, 1-ClPyrene and 6-ClBenzo[a]Pyrene were the most commonly occurring compounds; further, approximately 15% of ClPAHs were in the nanoparticle phase (<0.1 μm). The relatively high presence of nanoparticles is a potential human health concern because these particles can easily be deposited in the lung periphery. Lastly, we evaluated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand activity of PM extracts in each size fraction. The result indicates that PM < 2.5 μm has the strong AhR ligand activity.

  14. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  15. Late Yanshan-Himalayan hydrocarbon reservoir adjustment and hydrotherrnal fluid activity in the central Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs in marine formations is an important feature of the oil pools in the Tarim Basin. Large-scale hydrocarbon adjustment is related to the strong regional tectonic movements, which is always accompanied by extensive migration of basin fluids including diagenetic and mineralizing fluids. Organic fluid inclusions are well developed in hydrothermal minerals, such as fluorite, which have been found in the dissolution-enlarged fractures or karstification caves in the Ordovician in the central Tarim Basin. Proved by well drilling, the fluorite deposit is good reservoir for oil and gas. So the peculiar accompanied or superimposed relationship between fluorite hydrothermal fluid mineralization and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation exists in the Ordovician in the central Tarim Basin. Considering regional tectonic setting and mineralization condition,through different kinds of analytic methods including electron spin resonance dating, fluid inclusion laser Raman and colonial inclusions hydrocarbon fossil analysis, we proposed that extensive mineralizing fluids and hydrocarbon migration occurred in late Yanshan-Himalayan (110.4-30.8 Ma) period, and Himalayan, especially, is an important period for hydrocarbon accumulation from 34.3 Ma to present.

  16. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  17. Estimation of the minimum and maximum substrate temperatures for diamond growth from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Fangqing; Chen, Guanghua

    1994-12-01

    It is proposed in this paper that the minimum substrate temperature for diamond growth from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures be determined by the packing arrangements of hydrocarbon fragments at the surface, and the maximum substrate temperature be limited by the diamond growth surface reconstruction, which can be prevented by saturating the surface dangling bonds with atomic hydrogen. Theoretical calculations have been done by a formula proposed by Dryburgh [J. Crystal Growth 130 (1993) 305], and the results show that diamond can be deposited at the substrate temperatures ranging from ≈ 400 to ≈ 1200°C by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. This is consistent with experimental observations.

  18. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to complex mixtures with aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied to phase equilibria of mixtures containing alcohols, glycols, water, and aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. Previously, CPA has been successfully used for mixtures containing various associating compounds (alcohols, glycols, amines......, organic acids, and water) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show in this work that the model can be satisfactorily extended to complex vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria with aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. The solvation between aromatics/olefinics and polar compounds is accounted for. This is particularly...... of the model (the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state) can be obtained from mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. For mixtures of glycols with aromatic hydrocarbons, two parameters have been fitted to experimental data, one in the physical (SRK) part and one in the association part of the model...

  19. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  20. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  1. Effect of hydrocarbon to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging in tight sandstone reservoirs and method for hydrocarbon correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2017-04-01

    , 100ms, 300ms and 1000ms are first used to separate the T2 distributions of the residual oil saturation as 8 parts, and 8 pore components percentage compositions are calculated, second, an optimal T2 cutoff is determined to cut the T2 spectra of fully brine saturated conditions into two parts, the left parts (with short T2 time) represent to the irreducible water, and they do not need to be corrected, only the shape for the right parts of the T2 spectra needed to be corrected. Third the relationships among the amplitudes corresponding to the T2 times large than the optimal T2 cut off and 8 pore components percentage compositions are established, and they are used to predict corrected T2 amplitudes from NMR logging under residual oil saturation. Finally, the amplitudes corresponding to the left parts and the estimated amplitudes are spliced as the corrected NMR amplitudes, and a corrected T2 spectrum can be obtained. The reliability of this method is verified by comparing the corrected results and the experimental measurements. This method is extended to field application, fully water saturated T2 distributions are extracted from field NMR logging, and they are used to precisely evaluate hydrocarbon-bearing formations pore structure.

  2. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta; Roberto Núñez Moreira; Yoelvis Castro Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In tu...

  4. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  5. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  6. Nonmethane hydrocarbon and oxy hydrocarbon measurements during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldan, Paul D.; Kuster, William C.; Williams, Eric; Murphy, Paul C.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Meagher, James

    2004-11-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and oxy hydrocarbons (oxy HCs) were measured aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the New England Air Quality Study from 13 July to 10 August 2002 by an online dual gas chromatographic instrument with two separate analytical columns equipped, respectively, with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors. Measurements, taken each half hour, included C2 to C10 alkanes, C2 to C5 alkenes, alcohols and ketones, C6 to C9 aromatics, and biogenic volatile compounds including six monoterpenes, isoprene and its immediate oxidation products methacrolein and methylvinylketone. All compounds have been categorized by their contribution to the OH loss rate calculated for 298K and 1 atm. Large temporal variability was observed for all compounds. Airflow from the Providence, Rhode Island/Boston, Massachusetts, urban corridor northeast to the New Hampshire coast was usually heavily laden with NMHCs and oxy HCs of anthropogenic origin. Comparison of specific compound ratios with automotive tunnel studies suggested that these were predominantly mobile source emissions. When such flow occurred during daylight hours, these urban plumes were accompanied by increases in ozone in the 80 to 120 ppbv range. About equally as often, much less chemically mature NMHC plumes were encountered near the New Hampshire coast. Ozone was titrated out of these latter plumes, and the unusually high mixing ratios of C4 and C5 alkenes suggested that their source was partly gasoline vapor release rather than mobile source emissions. In the New England coastal region explored, in spite of the large anthropogenic NMHC input during periods of offshore flow, OH loss with hydrocarbons was frequently dominated by compounds of biogenic origin. During periods of cleaner marine air inflow the OH loss rate was dominated by reaction with methane and with oxy HCs, predominantly acetone, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  7. The composition and the source of hydrocarbons in sediments taken from the tectonically active Andaman Backarc Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Rao, P.S.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    or hydrothermal organic matter. Anthropogenic sources in region studied are of minor importance. From the results obtained, it may be deduced that the hydrocarbons in the sediments of the tectonically active part of the Andaman Basin are mainly due...

  8. Micro-textures and in situ sulfur isotopic analysis of spheroidal and zonal sulfides in the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China: Implications for biogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunji; Chi, Guoxiang; Fayek, Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    The Jinding deposit in Yunnan, southwest China, is the largest sandstone- and conglomerate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the world. In this paper, we report various micro-textures of spheroidal and zonal sulfides, such as pellet-shaped and colloform aggregates of pyrite and sphalerite, from the deposit and interpret them to be possibly related to micro-colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria, probably supporting an in situ BSR hypothesis. Micro-scale sulfur isotope analysis in different parts of the spheroidal and zonal sulfide aggregates, using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), revealed δ34S (VCDT) values as low as -48.4‰ for sulfides formed in the early-main stage disseminated ores in the western part of the deposit, possibly suggesting maximum sulfur isotopic fractionation through BSR. Relatively elevated δ34S (VCDT) values (-7.7‰ to -34.8‰, mainly from -10‰ to -20‰) for the late-stage, cavity-filling ores in the eastern part of the deposit, are interpreted to be possibly related to elevated temperatures close to the hydrothermal conduit and elevated δ34S values of the remaining sulfates resulting from the preceding BSR processes. The apparent discrepancy between the low temperatures required for BSR and the high temperatures indicated by fluid inclusions (>120 °C) may be reconciled through invoking episodic influx of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids into a shallow, relatively cool environment. It is proposed that the host rocks of the Jinding deposit have not been buried to great depths (⩽1 km), which, combined with the availability of hydrocarbons in the Jinding dome (a paleo-oil and gas reservoir), provides an ideal environment for BSR. Episodic influx of metal-carrying hydrothermal fluids temporarily and locally suppressed BSR and promoted thermo-chemical sulfate reduction (TSR), resulting in deposit- and micro-scale variations of δ34S.

  9. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  10. Rapid desiccation hardening changes the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Sové, Richard J; Rundle, Howard D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    The success of insects in terrestrial environments is due in large part to their ability to resist desiccation stress. Since the majority of water is lost across the cuticle, a relatively water-impermeable cuticle is a major component of insect desiccation resistance. Cuticular permeability is affected by the properties and mixing effects of component hydrocarbons, and changes in cuticular hydrocarbons can affect desiccation tolerance. A pre-exposure to a mild desiccation stress increases duration of desiccation survival in adult female Drosophila melanogaster, via a decrease in cuticular permeability. To test whether this acute response to desiccation stress is due to a change in cuticular hydrocarbons, we treated male and female D. melanogaster to a rapid desiccation hardening (RDH) treatment and used gas chromatography to examine the effects on cuticular hydrocarbon composition. RDH led to reduced proportions of unsaturated and methylated hydrocarbons compared to controls in females, but although RDH modified the cuticular hydrocarbon profile in males, there was no coordinated pattern. These data suggest that the phenomenon of RDH leading to reduced cuticular water loss occurs via an acute change in cuticular hydrocarbons that enhances desiccation tolerance in female, but not male, D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  12. Waxes in asphaltenes of crude oils and wax deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M. Ganeeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Composition and molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes in asphaltenes of crude oils of different ages and in wax deposits formed in the borehole equipment were studied. In asphaltenes, n-alkanes from C12 to C60 were detected. The high molecular weight paraffins in asphaltenes would form a crystalline phase with a melting point of 80–90 °C. The peculiarities of the redistribution of high molecular paraffin hydrocarbons between oil and the corresponding wax deposit were detected. In the oils, the high molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons C50–C60 were found, which were not practically detected in the corresponding wax deposits.

  13. Methane seepage in a Cretaceous greenhouse world as evidenced by a peculiar carbonate deposit in the Tarfaya Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrzka, Daniel; Zwicker, Jennifer; Kolonic, Sadat; Birgel, Daniel; Little, Crispin; Marzouk, Akmal; Hassane Chellai, El; Wagner, Thomas; Peckmann, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous was characterized by major episodes of oceanic anoxic conditions and the large scale deposition of marine black shales rich in organic carbon. Several oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) have been documented during the Cretaceous including the Cenomanian to Turonian OAE 2, which is among the best studied examples to date. This study reports on a large limestone body that occurs within a black shale succession exposed in a coastal section of the Tarfaya Basin, Morocco. The black shales were deposited in the aftermath of OAE 2 in a shallow continental sea. To decipher the mode and causes of carbonate growth in black shales, we use a combination of element geochemistry, palaeontology, thin section petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and lipid biomarker patterns. 13C-depleted biphytanic diacids reveal that the carbonate deposit resulted, at least in part, from microbially-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in the shallow subseafloor at a hydrocarbon seep. The lowest obtained δ13C carbonate values of -23.5‰ are not low enough to exclude other carbon sources than methane apart from admixed marine carbonate, indicating a potential contribution from in situ remineralization of organic matter contained in the black shales. Nannofossil and trace metal inventories of the black shales and the macrofaunal assemblage of the carbonate body reveal that environmental conditions became less reducing during the deposition of the background shales that enclose the carbonate body, but the palaeoenvironment was overall mostly characterized by high productivity and episodically euxinic bottom waters. This study provides an insight into the evolution of a hydrocarbon seep that was situated within a shallow continental sea in the aftermath of OAE 2, and sheds light on how these environmental factors influenced carbonate formation and the ecology at the seep site.

  14. Geological classification of coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretsnaidr, P.

    1985-02-01

    A new classification of coal deposits developed by the author is evaluated. The classification considers only selected factors which characterize a coal deposit. Each factor is described by a number of points ranging from 0 to 10. Geologic structure (deposits with one or more seams or with seam groups) is described using from 1 to 10 points. Secondary deformation of a coal deposit (e.g. tectonics) and hydrogeology (aquifers, filtration properties, etc.) are described using a 10 point scale. Coal seam structure (with or without partings) is characterized using 1 to 5 points. Coal seam thickness and its stability (4 thickness classes from 0.4 to 1.0 m, 1 to 3 m, 3 to 10 m and above 10 m) is described using 0 to 5 points. Coal seam quality (ash content, calorific value and coking properties) is described using 0 to 5 points. Other factors are characterized using a 10 point scale. Use of this deposit classification is explained using four examples: the Merkur surface mine (uncomplicated conditions), the Nosek surface mine (relatively complicated conditions), the Slany deposit (with complicated conditions) and the Jan Sverma deposit (with extremely complicated conditions).

  15. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  16. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1978-08-08

    Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.

  17. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  18. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  19. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  20. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.121-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The hydrocarbon... FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzers shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response....

  1. 40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 91....316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer as described... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  2. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon...

  3. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David I. Groves; Richard J. Goldfarb; M. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    -flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hy-drocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All un-equivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  4. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  5. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  6. Saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in oils of Late Precambrian age from Eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.G.; Douglas, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Large quantities of petroleum derived from source rocks of Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian age have been discovered in the Lena-Tunguska region of Eastern Siberia over the last twenty-five years. The authors have examined three oils, with presumed Late-Precambrian (Vendian) source rocks, from this region for C/sub 15/ + saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show these oils to have many characteristics in common with other oils of similar age from Eastern Siberia and Oman. Amongst the compounds detected in the three oils analyzed were: (1) n-alkanes which show a marine-derived distribution, (2) centrally branched monomethyl alkanes, (3) acyclic isoprenoids (pr/ph < 1), (4) tricyclic and tetracyclic terpanes, (5) hopanes, (6) C/sub 29/ unrearranged steranes, and (7) C/sub 30/ nuclear methylated steranes. All of these compounds with the exception of the 4-methylsteranes (which on current biochemical knowledge are unexpected in oils of this age), can be assigned a prokaryotic source. This and other evidence such as the lack of diasteranes suggest microorganisms were the major contributors to organic matter deposited as part of a carbonate source rock.

  7. Fabrication of PECVD-grown fluorinated hydrocarbon nanoparticles and circular nanoring arrays using nanosphere lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K. [Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) at Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Farzaneh, M. [Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) at Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-04-30

    Nanosphere lithography (NSL) masks were created by spin-coating of polystyrene particles onto silicon surfaces. Fluorinated hydrocarbon films were coated on the nanosphere lithography masks using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to obtain ordered arrays of fluorinated hydrocarbon. Atomic force microscope images show hexagonally ordered nanodots of dimension 225 {+-} 11 nm with a height of 23 {+-} 4 nm. Every hexagon encloses a circular ring of diameter 540 {+-} 24 nm having a height and width of 13.5 {+-} 0.6 nm and 203 {+-} 16 nm, respectively. FTIR analysis shows two distinct zones of atomic bonding of CH{sub x} and CF{sub x} in the plasma coated ordered fluorinated hydrocarbon films.

  8. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  9. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  11. 12 CFR 19.170 - Discovery depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hearing. (b) Notice. A party desiring to take a deposition shall give reasonable notice in writing to the... proceeding instituted under or subject to the provisions of subpart A of this part, a party may take the... take depositions at any time after the commencement of the proceeding, but no later than ten...

  12. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  13. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  14. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  15. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  16. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  17. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  18. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  19. Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Ordovician Carbonate in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiming; WU Guanghui; PANG Xiongqi; PAN Wenqin; LUO Chunshu; WANG Chenglin; LI Xinsheng; ZHOU Bo

    2010-01-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of reservoir-forming conditions,the diversity of reservoir and the difference of multistage hydrocarbon charge are the key factors for the carbonate hydrocarbon accumulation of the Ordovician in the Tarim Basin.Undergone four major deposition-tectonic cycles,the Ordovician carbonate formed a stable structural framework with huge uplifts,in which are developed reservoirs of the reef-bank type and unconformity type,and resulted in multistage hydrocarbon charge and accumulation during the Caledonian,Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan.With low matrix porosity and permeability of the Ordovician carbonate,the secondary solution pores and caverns serve as the main reservoir space.The polyphase tectonic movements formed unconformity reservoirs widely distributed around the paleo-uplifts; and the reef-bank reservoir is controlled by two kinds of sedimentary facies belts,namely the steep slope and gentle slope.The unconventional carbonate pool is characterized by extensive distribution,no obvious edge water or bottom water,complicated oil/gas/water relations and severe heterogeneity controlled by reservoirs.The low porosity and low permeability reservoir together with multi-period hydrocarbon accumulation resulted in the difference and complex of the distribution and production of oil/gas/water.The distribution of hydrocarbon is controlled by the temporal-spatial relation between revolution of source rocks and paleo-uplifts.The heterogenetic carbonate reservoir and late-stage gas charge are the main factors making the oil/gas phase complicated.The slope areas of the paleo-uplifts formed in the Paleozoic are the main carbonate exploration directions based on comprehensive evaluation.The Ordovician of the northern slope of the Tazhong uplift,Lunnan and its periphery areas are practical exploration fields.The Yengimahalla-Hanikatam and Markit slopes are the important replacement targets for carbonate exploration.Gucheng,Tadong,the deep layers of

  20. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  1. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  2. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  3. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  4. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  5. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M. [Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock).

  6. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS) is an emerging technique for spectroscopic analysis and sensing. A transmission diffraction grating is placed in contact with the sample to be analyzed, and an incident light beam is directed onto the grating. At certain angles of incidence, some of the diffracted orders are transformed from traveling waves to evanescent waves. This occurs at a specific wavelength that is a function of the grating period and the complex index of refraction of the sample. The intensities of diffracted orders are also dependent on the sample's complex index of refraction. The authors describe the use of GLRS, in combination with electrochemical modulation of the grating, for the detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffraction grating consisted of chromium lines on a fused silica substrate. The depth of the grating lines was 1 {micro}m, the grating period was 1 {micro}m, and the duty cycle was 50%. Since chromium was not suitable for electrochemical modulation of the analyte concentration, a 200 nm gold layer was deposited over the entire grating. This gold layer slightly degraded the transmission of the grating, but provided satisfactory optical transparency for the spectroelectrochemical experiments. The grating was configured as the working electrode in an electrochemical cell containing water plus trace amounts of the aromatic hydrocarbon analytes. The grating was then electrochemically modulated via cyclic voltammetry waveforms, and the normalized intensity of the zero order reflection was simultaneously measured. The authors discuss the lower limits of detection (LLD) for two analytes, 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine (Meldola's Blue dye) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), probed with an incident HeNe laser beam ({lambda} = 543.5 nm) at an incident angle of 52.5{degree}. The LLD for 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine is approximately 50 parts per billion (ppb), while the LLD for TNT is approximately

  7. Hydrocarbon potential of the Early Oligocene Menilite shales in the Eastern Outer Carpathians (Tarcău and Vrancea Nappes, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorff, Małgorzata; Rospondek, Mariusz; Kluska, Bartosz; Marynowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    During Oligocene to early Miocene time an extensive accumulation of organic-rich sedimentary rocks occurred in entire Paratethyan Basin, including its central part, i.e. the Carpathian Foredeep basin. Rocks of so-called Menilite facies formed there, burying significant amounts of organic matter (OM). These Menilite shales are now widely considered as a source of hydrocarbons throughout the Carpathian region. For the purpose of presented study, rock samples of the Menilite facies (mainly of the Lower Menilite and Bituminous Marl Members) were collected from two sections located in the different tectonic units (the Tarcău and Vrancea Nappes, Romania) of the Outer Carpathians. The main goal of the study was to assess and compare their hydrocarbon potential by examination of bulk geochemistry (total organic carbon content, pyrolysis Rock-Eval), vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and application of lipid biomarker parameters. The data show high variability in OM quantity and quality. Total organic carbon (TOC) content reaches peak values in the siliceous facies of the Lower Menilite Member (up to 8.6 wt% TOC), which contains type II kerogen represented by mainly marine OM type. Such results are confirmed by the presence of short-chain n-alkanes and hopanes. Mixed type II/III kerogen gains importance together with increasing contribution of turbiditic sedimentation. Terrigenous input is marked by occurrence of conifer aromatic biomarkers (such as simonellite, retene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroretene) and odd over even long chain n-alkanes predominance, characteristic for epicuticular leaf waxes. The analysed source rocks can be classified as oil-prone and subordinately mixed oil/gas-prone. OM in the inner tectonic unit (Tarcău Nappe; Tmax 430° C, Ro 0.5%) reaches onset of hydrocarbon generation, while in the outer unit (Vrancea Nappe) OM is immature (Tmax 425° C, Ro 0.4%). This maturity trend may be an effect of different burial histories of these units, as well as variation in

  8. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; O. Djordjevic

    2003-03-20

    The ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342) began September 1, 2002. During this second quarter: A Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) symposium was held at UH; Current DHI methods were presented and forecasts made on future techniques; Dr. Han moved his laboratory from HARC to the University of Houston; Subcontracts were re-initiated with UH and TAMU; Theoretical and numerical modeling work began at TAMU; Geophysical Development Corp. agreed to provide petrophysical data; Negotiations were begun with Veritas GDC to obtain limited seismic data; Software licensing and training schedules were arranged with Paradigm; and Data selection and acquisition continues. The broad industry symposium on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators was held at the University of Houston as part of this project. This meeting was well attended and well received. A large amount of information was presented, not only on application of the current state of the art, but also on expected future trends. Although acquisition of appropriate seismic data was expected to be a significant problem, progress has been made. A 3-D seismic data set from the shelf has been installed at Texas A&M University and analysis begun. Veritas GDC has expressed a willingness to provide data in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Data may also be available from TGS.

  9. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. [Pertamina Exploration and Production, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  12. Method for producing diene hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.

    1980-04-28

    A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.

  13. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases.

  14. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  15. A Deposit Contract Method to Deliver Abstinence Reinforcement for Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Glenn, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    Eight smokers were randomly assigned to a deposit contract ($50.00) or to a no-deposit group. Using a reversal design, participants could recoup their deposit (deposit group) or earn vouchers (no-deposit group) for smoking reductions and abstinence (breath carbon monoxide [CO] less than or equal to 4 parts per million) during treatment phases.…

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. (Sonatrach Division Exploration, Algiers (Algeria))

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  18. Organic geochemistry and hydrocarbon potential contrasts among lithologically different source rocks in the Qingxi Sag, Jiuquan Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Zhilong; Gao, Gang; Yin, Yue; Li, Tianjun

    2017-04-01

    Jiuquan Basin, located in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor, is a medium- to small-sized superimposed basin in northwest China. Situated in the southwest of the basin is the Qingxi sag, in which the development of large sets of argillaceous dolomite dominate (lithological assemblage named as LSA) and dolomitic mudstone (LSB), partially being mudstone. From electronical and seismic profile features, the Lower Cretaceous can be divided into the Chijinpu Formation, Xiagou Formation, and Zhonggou Formation in the Qingxi Sag. Moreover, the Xiagou Formation can be divided into four members, represented as K1g0, K1g1, K1g2, and K1g3. The given lithological assemblages and occurrence of particular mineralogical combinations indicate that it is the product of hydrothermal deposition. Lithologically, the argillaceous dolomite and dolomitic mudstone are diametrically different in both mineral contents and types. The integration of field outcrop observation and sampling with laboratory analyses, including solvent extract, Rock-Eval (S1, S2, and Tmax), organic petrography (lithological identification, cement, grain, mineral, and maceral observation), and laboratory modeling of hydrocarbon generation, show that both LSA and LSB contains good hydrocarbon potentials but rather different mineralogical compositions. The concurrence of LSA and LSB indicates the alternate interaction between the hydrothermal deposition and normal lacustrine deposits. The LSA mainly contains Type I kerogen and much lower Pr/Ph ratio, indicating parental material sourced from lacustrine algae and bacteria and much stronger reduction depostional environment. However, the LSB mainly contains Type III kerogen, containing parental material mainly sourced from terrestrial higher plant. And in the mudstone, there is almost no Type I kerogen, indicating no substantial input of lacustrine phytoplankton. The LSA contains TOC value of 1.2-3.2% (wt), averaging 2.1% (wt); while the LSB contains 0.8-2.4% (wt) with

  19. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  20. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mazumder; Blecy Tep; K K S Pangtey; K K Das; D S Mitra

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous–Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner–Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  1. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  2. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  3. Emulsification of hydrocarbons by subsurface bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Thomas, J.M.; Raymond, R.L.; Ward, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been the dominant factor which selected for and encouraged growth of emulsifiers; exposure to hydrocarbon was also important. Biostimulated microorganisms were better emulsifiers of aviation fuel (the contaminant hydrocarbon) than of heavier hydrocarbon to which they were not previously exposed. By measuring surface tension changes of culture broths, 11 out of 41 emulsifiers tested were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reductions indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production.Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been

  4. Anionic clusters in dusty hydrocarbon and silane plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenstein, C.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Courteille, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Sansonnens, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1995-10-01

    Measurements of anions and cations are reported for hydrocarbon and silane rf capacitive glow discharges. Series of anions were observed by quadrupole mass spectrometry using power-modulated plasmas and their structures are interpreted from the form of the mass spectra. Various experiments in silane plasmas show that anion confinement results in particles and conversely, anion de-trapping can inhibit particle formation. In contrast, the polymerized neutral flux magnitudes, mass spectra and dynamics are independent of the powder formation. Powder is known to form readily in deposition plasmas containing electronegative free radicals, and the general role of anions in particle formation is discussed in the light of these experiments. (author) 6 figs., 21 refs.

  5. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  6. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  7. Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C

    2015-10-20

    Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.

  8. Comparison of different experimental techniques used for wax deposition testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, Stephen; Johnston, Angela [Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines and pipelines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on five separate crude oils by using a varying protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments were carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  9. Characterization of wax deposition by different experimental techniques - a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeman, Olga; Allenson, Steve

    2006-03-15

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on multiple crude oils using various testing protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments was carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. A new test design designated ''cold tube'' is proposed. (Author) (tk)

  10. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  11. 40 CFR 92.119 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 92... Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and... into service and at least annually thereafter, the HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Procedures § 86.1321-94 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the... into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  14. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by...

  15. Geology and potential hydrocarbon play system of Lower Karoo Group in the Maamba Coalfield Basin, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Cryton; Wang, Pujun; Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa

    2016-06-01

    expulsion possibly gases and gas condensates. Sandstones are moderate to poor sorted sublitharenites. Total porosity in sandstones range between 0 and 6.3%, averaging 2.5%, and is mainly secondary porosity resulting from dissolution of labile minerals and fracture. Deposition and diagenetic related controls influenced much of the reservoir quality in sandstones. Lacustrine mudstones are the potential seal rocks. The major Structural traps are faults (e.g. normal and reverse faults) and the stratigraphic traps are sandstones. In this study, our area of focus is in the north and central part of Maamba Coalfield Basin where coal mining and exploration activities are currently taking place. The southernmost part of the basin is under developed such that the hydrocarbon play system potential is still unknown. However, recent coal exploration drilling has revealed the presence of source rocks at depth overlain by extensive overburden seal rocks. Based on the play concept analysis, it is possible to find more encouraging results from this area.

  16. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Thickness raster surface for surficial deposits, clipped

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  17. The enhanced dissolution of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rainwater collected in Yokohama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Igawa, Manabu

    By simultaneous sequential sampling of gas and rainwater from 1999 to 2000 in the campus of Kanagawa University in Yokohama, Japan, we investigated the wet-scavenging process of volatile organic compounds, some chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), via rain droplets. Their volume-weighted mean concentrations in 125 rainwater were 4.98 nM for dichloromethane, 3.71 nM for toluene, 2.00 nM for benzene, 0.93 nM for 1,2-dichloroethane, 0.62 nM for o-xylene, 0.57 nM for m, p-xylene, 0.51 nM for p-dichlorobenzene, and 0.35 nM for trichloromethylene. Their rainwater concentrations did not depend on the rainfall intensity, and the temporal variation of their concentrations was similar to that of gas-phase concentrations. The dissolution of CHs and MAHs into rainwater, however, was larger than expected from their gas-phase concentrations at the ground and their temperature-corrected Henry's law constants. A simple below-cloud scavenging model, which was developed by Levine and Schwartz (Atmos. Environ. 16 (1982) 1725) could explain the independence of the rainfall intensity but not explain their enhanced dissolution in rainwater. The results of this study indicate the estimated concentrations, which were based on the Henry's law equilibrium, considerably underestimate the wet-deposition fluxes of CHs and MAHs onto the ground.

  18. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Satish Kumar; A.M. Dayal; V. Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) were used as surface indicators of pe-troleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1-C4) and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 =518 ppb) and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (∑C2+=977 ppb) were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from -22.5‰ to -30.2‰PDB, -18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰e-32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentra-tions were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area, which probably acts as channel for the

  19. OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

    2004-03-01

    This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the

  20. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  1. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  2. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  3. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  4. Gas phase adiabatic electron affinities of cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, P.D.; Koper, C.; van Lenthe, J.H.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2008-01-01

    The B3LYP/DZP++ adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of nine (non)-alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported and discussed. Calculations became feasible for molecules this size by projecting out the near-linearly dependent part of the one-electron basis. Non-alternant PAH consisting of an

  5. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Energies from the PMO Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Details a procedure for accurately calculating the quantum mechanical energies of hydrocarbons using the perturbational molecular orbital (PMO) method, which does not require the use of a computer. (BT)

  6. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was reduced by 17% in the .... Identification of bacterial isolates was done by biochemical tests. Atagana 1517 ..... control the prolonged thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill.

  7. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  8. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from ... of the genomic DNA extracted from each bacterial isolate was amplified with ... that16S rRNA-gene-based techniques be used when studying the bacterial ...

  9. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  10. Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate ... compounds from the heavily industrialized Vaal Triangle region. ... benzene ring as cluster, linear or angular (Maliszewska-.

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  12. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  14. Macroporous polymer foams by hydrocarbon templating

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Venkatram Prasad; Martin, Ivan; Langer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Porous polymeric media (polymer foams) are utilized in a wide range of applications, such as thermal and mechanical insulators, solid supports for catalysis, and medical devices. A process for the production of polymer foams has been developed. This process, which is applicable to a wide range of polymers, uses a hydrocarbon particulate phase as a template for the precipitation of the polymer phase and subsequent pore formation. The use of a hydrocarbon template allows for enhanced control ov...

  15. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  16. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  17. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  18. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  19. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  20. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  1. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  2. Organic geochemical study of domanik deposits, Tatarstan Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, F. F.; Pronin, N. V.

    2010-05-01

    High-bituminous argillo-siliceous carbonate deposits of domanik formation (DF) occurring within pale depressions and down warps in the east of the Russian platform are treated by many investigators as a main source of oil and gas in the Volga-Ural province. In this study a special attention was turned to organic-rich rocks DF witch outcrop in the central part (Uratminskaya area 792, 806 boreholes) and in the west part (Sviyagskaya, 423) of the Tatarstan Republic. The aim of the present paper is to characterize the organic matter: origin, depositional environments, thermal maturity and biodegradation-weathering effects. Nowadays the most informative geochemical parameters are some biomarkers which qualitatively and are quantitatively defined from distributions of n-alkanes and branched alkanes. Biomarkers - it's original fingerprints of biomass of organic matter, that reflect molecular hydrocarbonic structure. The bulk, molecular composition of oil is initially a function of the type and maturity of the source rock from which it has been expelled, while the source rock type reflects both the nature of precursor organisms and the conditions of its deposition. Methodology used in this study included sampling, bitumen extraction, liquid-column chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. The bitumen was fractionated by column chromatography on silica gel. Non-aromatic or alifatics, aromatics and polar compounds were obtained. Alifatic were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Percin Elmer. The hydrocarbons present in the sediments of DF and have a carbon numbers ranging from 12 through 38. The samples contain variably inputs from both terrigenous and non-terrigenous (probably marine algal) organic matter as evident in bimodal GC fingerprints of some samples. Pristane and phytane, also, occur in very high concentration in sample extracts. The relatively low Pr/Ph ratios, CPI and OEPbiomarkers distribution of the domanic samples generally

  3. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  4. Production of liquid hydrocarbons using nuclear energy; Erzeugung von fluessigen Kohlenwasserstoffen unter Einsatz von Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppe, N.; Tragsdorf, I.M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik; Kugeler, K. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik; Kugeler, E.

    2006-10-15

    In the future, the global demand on liquid hydrocarbons especially for the traffic sector will still increase. To supply the world market with adequate volumes will necessitate the application of alternatively generated fuels in a few decades already. Besides conventional generation processes, where the necessary process heat comes from the combustion of part of the products, the use of nuclear heat is possible to cover the process energy demand. This heat is required in form of steam, electricity and high-temperature heat. Using these techniques the following processes can be attractive: steam flooding of oil deposits, the oil recovery from oil sands and oil shales, the methanol production from natural gas, the coal hydrogenation as well as the production of methanol from biomass. Normally, the volume of recoverable light hydrocarbons can be doubled by applying nuclear energy. The CO{sub 2} emissions during the production process can be avoided and the production costs can be decreased compared to current oil prices. The necessary conversion technologies are well-known and proven in industrial use, some of them for a long-time. The modular high-temperature reactor can be used as a nuclear heat source. This kind of heat source will be sized around 200 MW{sub th}, if a cylindrical core is used. Under these conditions even for a complete loss of the core cooling neither improper overheating of the fuel elements nor a core melt-down can occur. Therefore the retention of radioactive material in the reactor system is assured even for severe accidents. Using an annular core the power can be increased up to 400 MW{sub th} while the system maintains the mentioned safety properties. The nuclear heat is integrated into the process by steam generator, helium heated steam reformer for the steam reforming reaction and by helium-helium heat exchangers. The high-temperature heat exchangers are tested in permanent operation for helium temperatures of 950 C and for powers of 10 MW

  5. Structural Architecturing of the Western Khisor Range, North of Saiyiduwali: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospects, KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western Khisor Range segment of the Trans-Indus ranges is a south-vergent, east-west trending foldthrust belt that protrudes southward into Himalayan foreland deep. The frontal flanks of range are characterized by east-west trending parallel to enechelon, plunging local anticlines and synclines structures. General structural style of folds was observed asymmetric to overturn and dominantly south vergent. The frontal outskirts of the study area is demarcated by a youngest partly emergent thrust fault named as Khisor Thrust. Outcrops projection to subsurface of the structural features suggests a thin-skinned tectonic mechanism for growth of the western Khisor Range where gliding surface for the frontal thrust sheet being located within the Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group at a maximum depth of 4km. The structural evolution of the western Khisor Range is generally ascribed to southward directed thrust transferral system along the basal décollement being observed at base of the Cambrian Khewra Sandstone. Along this detachment horizon the Khewra Sandstone emplaced over the Recent alluvium and boulder bed deposits. The Khisor Thrust fault bulldozed the fore limb of the Saiyiduwali Anticline and demarcates the north-western proximity of the Punjab Foredeep. The Khisor Thrust sheet is predominantly comprised of the shallow marine rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic, laterally extended along the range. The stratigraphic framework of the western Khisor Range is considerably related and correlative to the eastern Trans-Indus and Salt ranges. Cambrian strata of the western Khisor Range comprise of Jhelum Group where its apex is underlain by the Permian Nilawahan and Zaluch groups rocks, consists of the Sardhai and Amb formations. The Sardhai Formation was observed 50m thick and consists of dark gray to blackish gray and black carbonaceous shale while the lower constituents of the Amb Formation contains dark gray carbonaceous and calcareous shale up to 30m thick

  6. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2007-07-01

    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)newspapernewspapernewspaper newspapernewspaper

  7. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  8. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  9. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  10. Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xue, Yong; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2008-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake. Microbial degradation represents the major mechanism responsible for the ecological recovery of PAH-contaminated sites. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of microbial PAH catabolism. In the past decade, the genetic regulation of the pathway involved in naphthalene degradation by different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was studied in great detail. Based on both genomic and proteomic data, a deeper understanding of some high-molecular-weight PAH degradation pathways in bacteria was provided. The ability of nonligninolytic and ligninolytic fungi to transform or metabolize PAH pollutants has received considerable attention, and the biochemical principles underlying the degradation of PAHs were examined. In addition, this review summarizes the information known about the biochemical processes that determine the fate of the individual components of PAH mixtures in polluted ecosystems. A deeper understanding of the microorganism-mediated mechanisms of catalysis of PAHs will facilitate the development of new methods to enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  11. Negative feedback in ants: crowding results in less trail pheromone deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-04-06

    Crowding in human transport networks reduces efficiency. Efficiency can be increased by appropriate control mechanisms, which are often imposed externally. Ant colonies also have distribution networks to feeding sites outside the nest and can experience crowding. However, ants do not have external controllers or leaders. Here, we report a self-organized negative feedback mechanism, based on local information, which downregulates the production of recruitment signals in crowded parts of a network by Lasius niger ants. We controlled crowding by manipulating trail width and the number of ants on a trail, and observed a 5.6-fold reduction in the number of ants depositing trail pheromone from least to most crowded conditions. We also simulated crowding by placing glass beads covered in nest-mate cuticular hydrocarbons on the trail. After 10 bead encounters over 20 cm, forager ants were 45 per cent less likely to deposit pheromone. The mechanism of negative feedback reported here is unusual in that it acts by downregulating the production of a positive feedback signal, rather than by direct inhibition or the production of an inhibitory signal.

  12. Negative feedback in ants: crowding results in less trail pheromone deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Grüter, Christoph; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Crowding in human transport networks reduces efficiency. Efficiency can be increased by appropriate control mechanisms, which are often imposed externally. Ant colonies also have distribution networks to feeding sites outside the nest and can experience crowding. However, ants do not have external controllers or leaders. Here, we report a self-organized negative feedback mechanism, based on local information, which downregulates the production of recruitment signals in crowded parts of a network by Lasius niger ants. We controlled crowding by manipulating trail width and the number of ants on a trail, and observed a 5.6-fold reduction in the number of ants depositing trail pheromone from least to most crowded conditions. We also simulated crowding by placing glass beads covered in nest-mate cuticular hydrocarbons on the trail. After 10 bead encounters over 20 cm, forager ants were 45 per cent less likely to deposit pheromone. The mechanism of negative feedback reported here is unusual in that it acts by downregulating the production of a positive feedback signal, rather than by direct inhibition or the production of an inhibitory signal. PMID:23365196

  13. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time.

  14. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  15. Hydrocarbon Generating Potential of Mineral—Bituminous Matrix in Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩

    1998-01-01

    Mineral-bituminous matrix(MBM) makes up a major part of source rocks,but its potential in hydrocarbon generation is uncertain,Mineral and organic (Maceral and kerogen) compositions,organic maturity and fluorescence of MBM are studied based on source rock samples from eastern Jiuquan(Jiudong)Basin.The results show that MBM is dominated by inorganic minerals and among the small percentage of organic components those of secondary origins are predominant over the primary species.This strongly indicates that the significance of MBM in hydrocarbon generation is limited.

  16. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  17. Substrate marking by an invasive ladybeetle: seasonal changes in hydrocarbon composition and behavioral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Durieux

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals use hydrocarbon markings deposited on surfaces by conspecifics to orient toward aggregation sites. In the current study, monthly GC-MS analyses revealed seasonal modifications in the chemical profile of substrate markings deposited by moving individuals. The markings of overwintering ladybeetles contained larger proportions of heptacosadiene, nonacosadiene, hentriacontadienes, and methyl-nonacosanes, along with a lower proportion of heptacosene and nonacosene. This finding suggests the importance of the unsaturated and/or branched hydrocarbons in the H. axyridis aggregation process. Subsequently, we conducted behavioral assays to test whether (1 there is seasonal variation in the behavioral response of H. axyridis individuals toward substrate markings deposited by conspecifics in the same physiological state and (2 the observed behavioral modification is due to a change in ladybeetle sensitivity and/or a change in the chemical composition of the substrate marking. The results indicate that overwintering individuals exhibit a stronger "following" response toward conspecific substrate markings. This behavior is linked to both the physiological state of ladybeetles and the specific chemical profile of the marking biomolecules deposited under overwintering conditions.

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential, Task 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vicinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area in southern Nevada. In order to reconstruct the Paleozoic stratigraphy, we are also studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS. A thorough understanding of the structure will also be essential to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We are now provisionally limiting the name {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} to the rocks that make up the Eleana Range - i.e., the rocks that we have been calling {open_quotes}western Eleana{close_quotes}. The mudstone section (which we have until now called {open_quotes}eastern Eleana{close_quotes}) we are provisionally calling the {open_quotes}Chainman Shale{close_quotes}, in keeping with regional lithostratigraphic nomenclature. We continue to work out the internal stratigraphies and basin histories of both units; XRD (r-ray diffraction) determinations of clay mineralogy are an addition to our understanding of the Chainman. The basin histories place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. This year we have hired a consulting petroleum geologist for two jobs: (1) to review drillhole data from southern Nevada on file at NBMG and make recommendations about more detailed study of any interesting drillholes; and (2) to log the UE17e core (in the Chainman) and evaluate source rock potential. The results of these studies have been incorporated into this report, and the consultant`s reports.

  19. Effect of layer thickness setting on deposition characteristics in direct energy deposition (DED) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Do-Sik; Baek, Gyeong-Yun; Seo, Jin-Seon; Shin, Gwang-Yong; Kim, Kee-Poong; Lee, Ki-Yong

    2016-12-01

    Direct energy deposition is an additive manufacturing technique that involves the melting of metal powder with a high-powered laser beam and is used to build a variety of components. In laser-assisted metal deposition, the mechanical and metallurgical properties achieved are influenced by many factors. This paper addresses methods for selecting an appropriate layer thickness setting, which is an important parameter in layer-by-layer deposition manufacturing. A new procedure is proposed for determining the layer thickness setting for use in slicing of a part based on the single-layer height for a given depositing condition. This procedure was compared with a conventional method that uses an empirically determined layer thickness and with a feedback control method. The micro-hardness distribution, location of the melting pool, and microstructures of the deposited layers after deposition of a simple target shape were investigated for each procedure. The experimental results show that even though the feedback control method is the most effective method for obtaining the desired geometry, the deposited region was characterized by inhomogeneity of micro-hardness due to the time-variable depositing conditions involved. The largest dimensional error was associated with the conventional deposition procedure, which produced a rise in the melting zone due to over-deposition with respect to the slicing thickness, especially at the high laser power level considered. In contrast, the proposed procedure produced a stable melting zone position during deposition, which resulted in the deposited part having reasonable dimensional accuracy and uniform micro-hardness throughout the deposited region.

  20. Use of the Complex Conductivity Method to Monitor Hydrocarbon Degradation in Brackish Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Beaver, C. L.; Kimak, C.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of the subsurface is a global environmental problem. The size, location and recurrence rate of contamination very often inhibits active remediation strategies. When there is no direct threat to humans, and direct/invasive remediation methods are prohibited, monitored natural attenuation is often the remediation method of choice. Consequently, long-term monitoring of hydrocarbon degradation is needed to validate remediation. Geophysical methods, frequently utilized to characterize subsurface contamination, have the potential to be adopted for long term monitoring of contaminant degradation. Over the last decade, the complex conductivity method has shown promise as a method for monitoring hydrocarbon degradation processes in freshwater environments. We investigated the sensitivity of complex conductivity to natural attenuation of oil in a brackish setting, being more representative of the conditions where most oil spills occur such as in coastal environments. We performed a series of laboratory hydrocarbon biodegradation experiments whilst continuously monitoring complex conductivity. Sediments from a beach impacted by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill were used to provide the hydrocarbon degraders, while fluids with three different salinities, ranging from fresh water to brackish water, were used as the supporting media. All experimental columns, including two abiotic controls, were run in duplicate. Early results show a dependence of the complex conductivity parameters (both electrolytic and interfacial) on biodegradation processes. Despite the small signals relative to freshwater conditions, the imaginary part of the complex conductivity appears to be sensitive to biodegradation processes. The columns with highest salinity fluids - similar to the salinites for the site where the sediments were collected - showed distinctive complex conductivity responses similar to microbial growth curves. Geochemical monitoring confirmed elevated rates

  1. Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration (PHOTOX). Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology (KOVOX). Final report of Part 2; Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX). Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX). Abschlussbericht zum Teil 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, G.; Fabian, P. [eds.

    1997-04-01

    The air-chemical components ozone and PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate), their precursors NO and NO{sub 2} and the meteorological parameters air temperature, humidity, global radiation, wind direction and wind velocity were measured in the framework of a research project (PHOTOX - Measurement of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology in an urban agglomeration) carried out by the Department of Bioclimatology and Pollution Research. Further, a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons, which are important groups of precursors of photooxidants and potential pollution factors, were measured in the framework of another research project (KOVOX - Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology). (orig/SR) [Deutsch] Die Messung der luftchemischen Komponenten Ozon und PAN (Peroxiacetylnitrat), deren Vorlaeufersubstanzen Stickstoffmonoxid (NO) und Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) sowie deren meteorologischen Parameter Lufttemperatur, Luftfeuchtigkeit, Globalstrahlung, Windrichtung und Windgeschwindigkeit wurde im Rahmen des am Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immisionsforschung laufenden Forschungsvorhabens ``Erfassung von human-biometeorologisch relevanten Photooxidantien in einem Ballungsraum (PHOTOX)`` durchgefuehrt. Des weiteren erfolgte die Messung einer breiten Palette anthropogener und biogener Kohlenwasserstoffe als wichtige Gruppen der Vorlaeufersubstanzen zur Photooxidantienbildung und moeglicher Wirkfaktoren, im Rahmen des Projektes ``Erfassung verschiedener Kohlenwasserstoffe als Vorlaeufersubstanzen fuer human-biometeorologisch relevante Photooxidantien (KOVOX)``. (orig./BW)

  2. Assessment of the advanced oxidation process , photo-fenton, on the degradation of polyaromatics hydrocarbons contained on the aqueous part of oil in superficial sea water; Avaliacao do processo oxidativo avancado, foto-fenton, na degradacao dos hidrocarbonetos poliaromaticos contidos na fracao soluvel do petroleo em agua superficial salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita C.R. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Paim, Ana Paula Silveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rocha, Otidene R.S. da; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pollution for oil has been one of the main ambient problems of the last decades. It exists an increasing interest in the study of the destination and forms of disappearance of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil aiming at the development of more efficient methods of removal of the same ones of the environment. With objective to evaluate the process photo-fenton, in the treatment of the contaminated saline superficial water with polyaromatics hydrocarbons (HPAs) contained in the crude oil, mounted an experiment using reactor of black light, the hydrogen peroxide as oxidant agent. After the degradation the samples had been submitted to the analysis in the GC-MS, and for the 31 specters it was observed that the best ones resulted had been gotten when mmol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 8 was used h of exposition to the irradiation and with pH of the equal system the 4. In the specter of this assay the characteristic peaks of the HPAs disappear completely or appear in a lowly intensities, proving that it had rupture of aromatical rings consequently and the degradation of the same ones or that its concentrations meet below of the limit of detention of the equipment. Soon, with the gotten results it can be concluded that the POAs, in special the process photo-fenton, is presented as a viable alternative in the contaminated saline superficial water treatment with the HPAs contained in the rude oil. (author)

  3. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  4. Sequential biodegradation of complex naphtha hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in two different oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shahimin, Mohd Faidz; Siddique, Tariq

    2017-02-01

    Methane emissions in oil sands tailings ponds are sustained by anaerobic biodegradation of unrecovered hydrocarbons. Naphtha (primarily C6-C10; n- iso- and cycloalkanes) is commonly used as a solvent during bitumen extraction process and its residue escapes to tailings ponds during tailings deposition. To investigate biodegradability of hydrocarbons in naphtha, mature fine tailings (MFT) collected from Albian and CNRL tailings ponds were amended with CNRL naphtha at ∼0.2 wt% (∼2000 mg L(-1)) and incubated under methanogenic conditions for ∼1600 d. Microbial communities in both MFTs started metabolizing naphtha after a lag phase of ∼100 d. Complete biodegradation/biotransformation of all n-alkanes (except partial biodegradation of n-octane in CNRL MFT) followed by major iso-alkanes (2-methylpentane, 3-methylhexane, 2- and 4-methylheptane, iso-nonanes and 2-methylnonane) and a few cycloalkanes (derivatives of cyclopentane and cyclohexane) was observed during the incubation. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed dominance of Peptococcaceae and Anaerolineaceae in Albian MFT and Anaerolineaceae and Syntrophaceae in CNRL MFT bacterial communities with co-domination of Methanosaetaceae and "Candidatus Methanoregula" in archaeal populations during active biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The findings extend the known range of hydrocarbons susceptible to methanogenic biodegradation in petroleum-impacted anaerobic environments and help refine existing kinetic model to predict greenhouse gas emissions from tailings ponds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conversion of natural gas to C2 hydrocarbons through dielectric-barrier discharge plasma catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保伟; 许根慧

    2002-01-01

    The experiments are carried out in the system of continuous flow reactors with dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) for studies on the conversion of natural gas to C2 hydrocarbons through plasma catalysis under the atmosphere pressure and room temperature. The influence of discharge frequency, structure of electrode, discharge voltage, number of electrode, ratio of H2/CH4, flow rate and catalyst on conversion of methane and selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons are investigated. At the same time, the reaction process is investigated. Higher conversion of methane and selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons are achieved and deposited carbons are eliminated by proper choice of parameters. The appropriate operation parameters in dielectric-barrier discharge plasma field are that the supply voltage is 20-40 kV (8.4-40 W), the frequency of power supply is 20 kHz, the structure of (b) electrode is suitable, and the flow of methane is 20-60 ml · min-1. The conversion of methane can reach 45%, the selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons i

  6. Sources of hydrocarbons in urban road dust: Identification, quantification and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummullage, Sandya; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    Among urban stormwater pollutants, hydrocarbons are a significant environmental concern due to their toxicity and relatively stable chemical structure. This study focused on the identification of hydrocarbon contributing sources to urban road dust and approaches for the quantification of pollutant loads to enhance the design of source control measures. The study confirmed the validity of the use of mathematical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for source identification and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model for pollutant load quantification. Study outcomes identified non-combusted lubrication oils, non-combusted diesel fuels and tyre and asphalt wear as the three most critical urban hydrocarbon sources. The site specific variabilities of contributions from sources were replicated using three mathematical models. The models employed predictor variables of daily traffic volume (DTV), road surface texture depth (TD), slope of the road section (SLP), effective population (EPOP) and effective impervious fraction (EIF), which can be considered as the five governing parameters of pollutant generation, deposition and redistribution. Models were developed such that they can be applicable in determining hydrocarbon contributions from urban sites enabling effective design of source control measures.

  7. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  8. 深部热流体对油气成藏的影响%Influences of Deeply Sourced Thermal Fluid on the Formation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波; 陶明信; 王万春

    2001-01-01

    Deeply sourced thermal fluid is a kind of supercritical fluidcomposed of several constituents. Rising upward, it can transmit energy and material, and regulate and redistribute them in the inner Earth. For the formation of oil and gas, hypogene hydrothermal fluid can increase the paleotemperature of depositional basin, accelerate the evolution history of source rocks and enlarge the volume of effective source rocks. It can also extract and enrich dispersive organic matter in sediments because of its higher dissolving and diffusing capacity, and obviously contribute hydrogen to hydrocarbon generation. So the deeply sourced thermal fluid provides part of material resources for hydrocarbon generation. In addition, the reaction between thermal fluid and surrounding rocks can improve their porosity and permeability. This is favorable for the migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. Moreover, that the higher pressure and water content of thermal fluid can significantly retard the thermal destruction of hydrocarbon is advantageous to the preservation of oil and gas.%深部热流体是一种由多元组分构成的超临界流体,其上升活动可使地球内部的物质与能量发生调整或再分配。对油气而言,深部热流体携带的高热能可使沉积盆地的古地温升高,加快烃源岩的热演化进程,增加有效烃源岩的体积,促进烃类的生成;在上升过程中,因其具很强的溶解和扩散能力,故可萃取、富集沉积物中的分散有机质,同时又对生烃产生显著的加氢作用,从而为油气的形成补充物源。此外,热流体与围岩储层发生化学反应,可改善储层的孔渗条件,有利于油气的聚集成藏,而且因其具有较高的压力和含水量,可抑制烃类的热裂解而有利于油气的保存。

  9. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  10. Biomarkers in fluid inclusions: A new tool in constraining source regimes and its implications for the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Hashem; Hoffmann, Christopher F.

    1989-01-01

    Biomarkers in fluid inclusions can constrain source regimes for hydrocarbons associated with Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have been detected in fluid inclusions in sphalerite and dolomite intimately associated with Pb-Zn sulfides in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. The hydrocarbons are more mature than those in the host rocks to the ore and are therefore derived from an external source. Furthermore, there are differences between the biomarker components of hydrocarbons in inclusions in Pb-Zn prospects, but they are all different from hydrocarbons in organic-rich strata and also in oils from the Canning Basin. Yet, the hydrocarbons are mature and oil-like, suggesting that mature organic-rich strata deeper in the basin, which are less significant as potential source rocks for petroleum generation in the Canning Basin, have contributed to the ore-forming fluids.

  11. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be

  12. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls...

  13. Massive asphalt deposits, oil seepage, and gas venting support abundant chemosynthetic communities at the Campeche Knolls, southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sahling, Heiko; Borowski, Christian; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Hsu, Chieh-Wei; Loher, Markus; MacDonald, Ian; Marcon, Yann; Pape, Thomas; Römer, Miriam; Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Schubotz, Florence; Smrzka, Daniel; Wegener, Gunter; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is a widespread process at the continental margins of the Gulf of Mexico. We used a multidisciplinary approach, including multibeam mapping and visual seafloor observations with different underwater vehicles to study the extent and character of complex hydrocarbon seepage in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico. Our observations showed that seafloor asphalt deposits previously only known from the Chapopote Knoll also occur at numerous other knolls and ridges in wat...

  14. Preliminary design of axial flow hydrocarbon turbine/generator set for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B.; Samurin, N.A.; Shields, J.R.

    1979-05-01

    This report outlines the design of a 65 MW (e) gross turbine generator set in which a hydrocarbon gas mixture is used as the motive fluid. The turbine generator set is part of a geothermal binary cycle electric power plant proposed for the Heber site in the Imperial Valley, California. Aerodynamic design considerations and estimated unit performance for three hydrocarbon gas mixtures are presented. Real gas properties and equations of state are reviewed as they affect the turbine design and the thermodynamic cycle. The mechanical designs for the casing, rotor dynamics, shaft sealing and unit construction are detailed. Support systems such as the lube and seal supply system, turbine controls, etc., are reviewed. An extensive hydrocarbon turbine general specification is also included.

  15. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  16. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...... of particles of the potentially problematic sizes. An experimental programme has shown the deposition velocities on skin of particles in the ca. 0.5-5 mu m AMAD range to be high and generally associated with great variations. A series of investigations have been made to identify some of the factors that lead...... to this variation. Part of the variation was found to be caused by differences between individuals, whereas another part was found to be related to environmental factors, The identification of major influences on skin contaminant deposition is important in estimating health effects as well as in identifying means...

  17. Geochemical monitoring of the bottom sediments of the Barents Sea - exogenous and endogenous sources of polyaromatic