WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon contaminated site

  1. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  2. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  3. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  4. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  8. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  9. Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, C.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Duris, J. W.; Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ownby, C.; Rossbach, S.

    2007-05-01

    Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity. However, a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the processes and sources resulting in the measured electrical response remains uncertain. The recent discovery of bacterial nanowires and their electron transport capabilities suggest that if bacterial nanowires permeate the subsurface, they may in part be responsible for the anomalous conductivity response. In this study we investigated the microbial population structure, the presence of nanowires, and microbial-induced alterations of a hydrocarbon contaminated environment and relate them to the sediments' geoelectrical response. Our results show that microbial communities varied substantially along the vertical gradient and at depths where hydrocarbons saturated the sediments, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed signatures of microbial communities adapted to hydrocarbon impact. In contrast, RISA profiles from a background location showed little community variations with depth. While all sites showed evidence of microbial activity, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of sediment from the contaminated location showed pervasive development of "nanowire-like structures" with morphologies consistent with nanowires from laboratory experiments. SEM analysis suggests extensive alteration of the sediments by microbial Activity. We conclude that, excess organic carbon (electron donor) but limited electron acceptors in these environments cause microorganisms to produce nanowires to shuttle the electrons as they seek for

  10. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (soil) observed in the aquifer also indicate that the iron reduction and methanogenesis are not the dominant biodegradation patterns in the contaminant plume. Results from the microcosm study reveal that preliminary laboratory study is required to determine the appropriate substrates and oxidation-reduction conditions to enhance the biodegradation of MTBE. Results suggest that in situ or on-site aerobic bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would

  12. Geoelectrical characterization of a site with hydrocarbon contamination caused by pipeline leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Shevnin, Vladimir; Ochoa-Valdes, Jesus [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is used extensively in environmental impact studies including hydrocarbon contamination. In this work, the results of the geoelectrical characterization of a contaminated site caused by pipeline leakage are presented. Geoelectrical study was performed with multi-electrode technology and 2D profile data interpretation. VES results from six parallel profiles were presented in resistivity sections and maps. Layered model of the site was found including aquifer and aquitard layers. Although the contamination grade of the site is low, we found two contaminated zones into sandy aquifer. Aquifer and aquitard were characterized by its resistivity, clay content, porosity and cation exchange capacity values. Recalculation of resistivity data into petrophysical sections and maps was performed by an inversion algorithm taking into account pore water salinity. Petrophysical parameters for uncontaminated areas estimated from resistivity are close to real values; meanwhile, in contaminated zones petrophysical parameters have anomalous values. Similar effects of contamination influence on petrophysical parameters were found in laboratory by resistivity measurements made at clean and contaminated sand samplers. [Spanish] El metodo Sondeo Electrico Vertical (SEV) es ampliamente utilizado en estudios de impacto ambiental incluyendo el caso de contaminacion por hidrocarburos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion geoelectrica de un sitio contaminado por hidrocarburos relacionado con una fuga en linea de ducto. El estudio geoelectrico fue realizado utilizando el metodo SEV en la variante de tomografia, realizandose una interpretacion 2D de los datos observados. Seis perfiles paralelos de SEV fueron medidos y presentados sus resultados en secciones y mapas. Se determino un modelo estratificado que incluye acuitardo y acuifero. Aunque el grado de contaminacion en este sitio es bajo fue posible localizar dos zonas

  13. Field—Based Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Hydrocarbons at Industrially Contaminated Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Rigou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.

  14. Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuvmani Patowary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1 and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and Bacillus cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH after five weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar contaminated soil at manufactured gas plant sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.

    1998-04-01

    One of EPRI's goals regarding the environmental behavior of organic substances consists of developing information and predictive tools to estimate the release potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils at manufactured gas (MGP) plant sites. A proper assessment of the distribution of contaminants under equilibrium conditions and the potential for mass-transfer constraints is essential in evaluating the environmental risks of contaminants in the subsurface at MGP sites and for selecting remediation options. The results of this research provide insights into estimating maximum release concentrations of PAHs from MGP soils that have been contaminated by direct contact with the tar or through years of contact with contaminated groundwater. Attention is also given to evaluating the use of water-miscible cosolvents for estimating aqueous phase concentrations, and assessing the role of mass-transfer constraints in the release of PAHs from MGP site soils

  17. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  18. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day −1 in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day −1 in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were

  19. Endophytic root bacteria associated with the natural vegetation growing at the hydrocarbon-contaminated Bitumount Provincial Historic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Natalie P; Helgason, Bobbi L; Germida, James J

    2017-06-01

    The Bitumount Provincial Historic site is the location of 2 of the world's first oil-extracting and -refining operations. Despite hydrocarbon levels ranging from 330 to 24 700 mg·(kg soil) -1 , plants have been able to recolonize the site through means of natural revegetation. This study was designed to achieve a better understanding of the plant-root-associated bacterial partnerships occurring within naturally revegetated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Root endophytic bacterial communities were characterized from representative plant species throughout the site by both high-throughput sequencing and culturing techniques. Population abundance of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria was significantly influenced (p hydrocarbon-degrading genes (CYP153 and alkB) were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the interaction of plant species and sampling location. Our findings suggest that some of the bacterial communities detected are known to exhibit plant growth promotion characteristics.

  20. Characterization of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an alpine former military site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    We characterized the culturable, heterotrophic bacterial community in soil collected from a former alpine military site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiologically active eubacterial community, as revealed by fluorescence-in situ-hybridization, accounted for 14.9 % of the total (DAPI-stained) bacterial community. 4.0 and 1.2 % of the DAPI-stained cells could be attributed to culturable, heterotrophic bacteria able to grow at 20 and 10 °C, respectively. The majority of culturable bacterial isolates (23/28 strains) belonged to the Proteobacteria with a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. The remaining isolates were affiliated with the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Five strains could be identified as representatives of novel species. Characterization of the 28 strains demonstrated their adaptation to the temperature and nutrient conditions prevailing in the studied soil. One-third of the strains was able to grow at subzero temperatures (-5 °C). Studies on the effect of temperature on growth and lipase production with two selected strains demonstrated their low-temperature adaptation.

  1. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution characterisation. By the

  2. Procedure manual: protocol for regulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in water under the special waste and contaminated sites regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.; Partridge, E.

    2002-05-01

    This document details the regulation governing numerical standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in water under the special waste and contaminated sites regulations of British Columbia. Groundwater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes in excess of the leachate standards is exempted from the regulatory regime of the Special Waste Regulation. The document contains a description of the conditions that apply to the management of petroleum hydrocarbons in water at contaminated sites. Some definitions are included, followed by an overview of the regulation. The third section deals with authorization and mandatory conditions, while additional requirements that might apply are enumerated in section four. This protocol directly affects the Environmental Management, and the Environmental Protection Regional Operations organizations. 1 tab

  3. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  5. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants.

  6. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S.; Lal, B.

    2004-01-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  10. CFG-7-P3 : potential of aggregate-associated biodegradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon fractions in crude-oil contaminated soils from a northern Canadian site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Snelgrove, J.; Akbari, A.; Ghoshal, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2010-07-01

    Soil aggregation can limit aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation rates due to the slower intra-pore diffusion of nutrients, oxygen and hydrocarbons. This study investigated the influence of soil aggregation at a pilot-scale biopile of crude oil-contaminated soil shipped from a site in the Northwest Territories. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria through soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a tank maintained at 15 degrees C. Results showed that nutrient amendment significantly enhanced aggregation. After 60 days, approximately 50 per cent of the initial total hydrocarbon productivity (TPH) was reduced in both the treated and untreated biopile. However, a TPH analysis of soil aggregate levels showed that the biodegradation of high weight hydrocarbon fractions in macroaggregates was more significantly reduced in the nutrient-amended soils. Results suggested that the soil particles in the macroaggregates were more loosely clustered, and may have supported enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  11. Insights into microbial communities mediating the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2018-05-01

    The study of microbial communities involved in soil bioremediation is important to identify the specific microbial characteristics that determine improved decontamination rates. Here, we characterized bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in terms of (i) abundance (using quantitative PCR) and (ii) taxonomic diversity and structure (using Illumina amplicon sequencing) during the bioremediation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site during 15 weeks comparing biostimulation (inorganic NPK fertilization) vs. natural attenuation and considering the effect of temperature (10 vs. 20 °C). Although a considerable amount of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) loss could be attributed to natural attenuation, significantly higher TPH removal rates were obtained with NPK fertilization and at increased temperature, which were related to the stimulation of the activities of indigenous soil microorganisms. Changing structures of bacterial and fungal communities significantly explained shifts in TPH contents in both natural attenuation and biostimulation treatments at 10 and 20 °C. However, archaeal communities, in general, and changing abundances and diversities in bacterial and fungal communities did not play a decisive role on the effectiveness of soil bioremediation. Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidia classes, within bacterial community, and undescribed/novel groups, within fungal community, proved to be actively involved in TPH removal in natural attenuation and biostimulation at both temperatures.

  12. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  13. Resistivity and Induced Polarization Imaging at a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Site in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustra, A.; Elis, V.; Hiodo, F.; Bondioli, A.; Miura, G.

    2012-12-01

    An area contaminated by accidental BTEX spills was investigated with resistivity and induced polarization methods. The main objective in this study was to relate the geophysical signature of the area with zones that were possibly undergoing microbial degradation of the contaminants. The spills took place over a decade ago; however, the exact location of these spills is unknown, as well as the amount of contaminant that was released into the subsurface. DC-resistivity identified a high contrast between the background (rho up to 2000 ohm.m) and a relatively conductive zone (rho 30 mV/V). Normalized chargeability is enhanced in this anomaly zone (mn > 0.1). Soil samples collected in the area were submitted to direct bacterial count, clay content estimation, X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The electrical properties of each samples was also measured. The samples collected from the "background" (high resistivity zone) presented total bacterial amounts much smaller (dozens of colony forming units) than the samples from the conductive zone (millions of colony forming units). This observation could lead us to interpret that the zone of higher bacteria amount is undergoing biodegradation that would explain the increased conductivity at that portion of the subsurface. However, the geophysical properties observed at this zone could also be related to the clay content distribution throughout the surveyed area (concentrations up to 30%). Moreover, despite the fact that more microbes were found in the area, SEM images did not find any biodegradation typical feature of the grains, which are for example, mineral corrosion and dissolution or even biomineralization. This study is still undergoing and we are searching for more evidence of biodegradation in the samples. This study shows the limitation of the use of geophysical methods to access contaminant presence and/or biodegradation zones when the exact location of the contamination is unknown.

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  15. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  17. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  1. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  2. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  3. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    -gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site......This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...

  4. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  5. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  6. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  7. Current developments in the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: Analysis, interpretation, and use of the TPH parameter for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Surette, M.; Maynard, P.; Lamie, P.O.; Kaslick, C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP) estimated that petroleum-only cases comprised approximately one-half of the state's hazardous waste sites currently under investigation and/or remediation. Because of this significant percentage, it became clear that assessing petroleum sites more efficiently in terms of risk and cleanup alternatives was necessary. One of these key MDEP policies describes an alternative risk assessment approach enabling the quantitative characterization of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-related health risks. The approach relies on the use of an analytical technique by which the mass of petroleum hydrocarbons within specified carbon ranges is quantified. MDEP's TPH risk assessment approach was successfully employed at a residential site contaminated with No. 2 fuel oil. The combined use of MDEP's suggested analytical methods, alternative reference compounds and toxicity values, as well as chromatograms, standard dose equations, and an EPA-approved box model, facilitated the performance of a more realistic and cost-effective assessment of risk. Such assessment provided key management information to regulatory agencies, and project managers, as well as property owners concerned with potential property value loss

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  9. Biological detoxification of a hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, F.; Lucchese, G.; Nardella, A.

    2005-01-01

    The soil quality of an industrial site chronically contaminated by 39000 mg/kg of oil was detrimentally affected. Soil treatments by bio-pile and land-farming resulted in a reduction of the level of contamination exceeding 90% of the original values, but without reaching regulatory limits. However, the bio-remediation treatments dramatically reduced the mobility of the contaminants and, accordingly, microbial tests clearly indicate that the soil quality improved to acceptable levels, similar to those typically observed in unaltered soils. Hydrocarbon mobility was estimated by the use of water and mild extractants (methanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate) to leach the contaminants from the soil; soil quality was evaluated by comparing the values of selected microbial and enzymatic parameters of the treated soil samples to reference values determined for natural soils. Microbial assessments included: measurement of the nitrification potential, dehydrogenase activity, measures of respiration and lipase activity, microbial counts (MPN on rich media) and Microtox TM assays of the water elutriate. Dermal absorption potential was evaluated using absorption on C 18 disks

  10. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles ( 200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0–20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: ► PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. ► The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. ► Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important factor to dominate the distribution of PAHs in this study site.

  11. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  12. Regulatory approaches to hydrocarbon contamination from underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Action or lack of action by the appropriate regulatory agency is often the most important factor in determining remedial action or closure requirements for hydrocarbon contaminated sites. This paper reports that the diversity of regulatory criteria is well known statewide and well documented nationally. In California, the diversity of approaches is due to: that very lack of a clear understanding of the true impact of hydrocarbon contamination: lack of state or federal standards for soil cleanup, and state water quality objectives that are not always achievable; vagueness in the underground storage tank law; and the number and diversity of agencies enforcing the underground storage tank regulations

  13. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical parameters were investigated in Ochani Stream site in Ejamah Ebubu, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State. The results show that a major crude oil spillage occurred at Ejamah Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria approximately 30 ...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Zeng, Fangang [School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Xue, Nandong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: ligulax@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (< 2 {mu}m clay, 2-20 {mu}m silt, 20-200 {mu}m fine sand, and > 200 {mu}m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 {mu}g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 {mu}g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil organic

  15. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  16. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  17. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  18. Exploration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria on Soils Contaminated by Crude Oil From South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon, A; Probowati, D S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3) sites of contaminated soil and treated using SB...

  19. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Soil Science, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  2. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  3. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  4. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  6. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  7. Microbial and molecular techniques to evaluate and to implement in-situ biodegradation potential and activity at sites contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karg, F.; Henkler, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic bio-remediation harnesses the ability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade contaminants that are present in soil and groundwater. Over the past decade many environmental regulatory agencies especially in Europe have come to recognize the importance of these natural processes in contaminant attenuation. In order to use in-situ bio-remediation to clean up a site successfully it is necessary to investigate the indigenous microbial population and its potential activity to degrade the contaminants of concern (COCs). The evaluation of naturally-occurring degradative activity in initial screening of soil and groundwater samples using recently developed molecular and microbial methods may allow for the implementation of a contaminant reduction and management program without the need for fully engineered remediation intervention. Limited engineering approaches (nutrient delivery etc.) can be implemented to support naturally-occurring bio-restoration processes to achieve a controlled, dynamic attenuation of COCs. Techniques for monitoring pollutant-degrading microorganisms were previously limited to standard culturing techniques. More recently, techniques based upon detection of genetic elements and metabolic activities have been developed in collaboration with university partners Europe, especially in France. The modern techniques are more sensitive for monitoring microbial populations, metabolic activity and the genetic potential to degrade the COCs, and avoid the need for cultivation of microbes under artificial conditions in the laboratory. Especially the application of PCR-Tests (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are able to quantify the Genetic Potential of Pollutant Microbiological Degradation on a contaminated site. This enables to use very economic in-situ site rehabilitation strategies as for example (Dynamic Natural Attenuation). For this modern application of these new strategies PLANREAL created with HPC Envirotec and together with a French University

  8. Geophysical Responses of Hydrocarbon-impacted Zones at the Various Contamination Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Ko, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    One controlled experiment and two field surveys were conducted to investigate the geoelectrical responses of hydrocarbon-contaminated zones, so called smeared zone, on the geophysical data at the hydrocarbon- contaminated sites with various conditions. One controlled physical model experiment with GPR using fresh gasoline and two different 3-D electrical resistivity investigations at the aged sites. One field site (former military facilities for arms maintenance) was mainly contaminated with lubricating oils and the other (former gas station) was contaminated with gasoline and diesel, respectively. The results from the physical model experiment show that GPR signals were enhanced when LNAPL was present as a residual saturation in the water-saturated system due to less attenuation of the electromagnetic energy through the soil medium of the hydrocarbon-impacted zone (no biodegradation), compared to when the medium was saturated with only water (no hydrocarbon impaction). In the former gas station site, 3-D resistivity results demonstrate that the highly contaminated zones were imaged with low resistivity anomalies since the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has been undergone for many years, causing the drastic increase in the TDS at the hydrocarbon-impacted zones. Finally, 3-D resistivity data obtained from the former military maintenance site show that the hydrocarbon-contaminated zones show high resistivity anomalies since the hydrocarbons such as lubricating oils at the contaminated soils were not greatly influenced by microbial degradation and has relatively well kept their original physical properties of high electrical resistivity. The results of the study illustrated that the hydrocarbon-impacted zones under various contamination conditions yielded various geophysical responses which include (1) enhanced GPR amplitudes at the fresh LNAPL (Gasoline to middle distillates) spill sites, (2) low electrical resistivity anomalies due to biodegradation at the

  9. Characterization of the vadose zone above a shallow aquifer contaminated with gas condensate hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, K.; Duncan, K.; Thoma, G.; Todd, T.

    2002-01-01

    A gas production site in the Denver Basin near Ft. Lupton, Colorado has leaked gas condensate hydrocarbons from an underground concrete tank used to store produced water. The leak has contaminated a shallow aquifer. Although the source of pollution has been removed, a plume of hydrocarbon contamination still remains for nearly 46 m from the original source. An extensive monitoring program was conducted in 1993 of the groundwater and saturated sediments. The objective was to determine if intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurred at the site at a rate that would support remediation. Geochemical indicators of hydrogen biodegradation by microorganisms in the saturated zone included oxygen depletion, increased alkalinity, sulfate depletion, methane production and Fe2+ production associated with hydrogen contamination. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens was also much higher in the contaminated sediments. Degraded hydrocarbon metabolites were found in contaminated groundwater. An extensive characterization of the vadose zone was conducted in which the vadose zone was sample in increments of 15 cm from the surface to the water table at contaminated and non contaminated sites. The samples were tested for individual C3+ hydrocarbons, methane, CO2, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The vadose zone consisted of an active and aerobic bioreactor fueled by condensate hydrocarbons transported into the unsaturated zone by evaporation of hydrocarbons at the water table. It was concluded that the unsaturated zone makes an important contribution to the natural attenuation of gas condensate hydrocarbons in the area. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  10. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Zesen; Wen, Jingya; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  11. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zesen [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wen, Jingya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Institute of Hydropower and Environment Research, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  12. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norzila Othman; Mohd Irwan Juki; Norhana Hussain; Suhaimi Abdul Talib

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compou...

  13. Unique problems of hydrocarbon contamination for ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, port facilities in the United States have been involved in the import and export of petroleum products. The WORLDPORT L.A. is a 7,000 acre land and water area that is administered by the Department of The City of Los Angeles under a tidelands grant from the State of California for the purposes of commerce, navigation, and fisheries. Over half of the oil-refining of California lies within 20 miles of WORLDPORT L.A. It is therefore not surprising that the port is a major hub for the handling of crude oil and petroleum products, including gasoline, aviation gas/jet fuel, and marine fuels. This paper reports that it is also not surprising that port facilities, given their long history of handling petroleum products, contain areas where soils and groundwater are contaminated with hydrocarbons. This contamination is localized but can be extensive. Petroleum and petrochemical products are handled at terminal facilities that are leased to oil companies

  14. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using plants adapted to western Canadian climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation relies on the use of plants for in-situ treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. It is based on relationships between plants, microorganisms and the environment. The advantages of the process are its low cost and minimal soil disturbance. Phytoremediation has not been widely implemented in Canada because only a few native or non-native plant species have been tested for hydrocarbon tolerance or degradation ability. More studies are needed to fully understand why some plants are more tolerant of hydrocarbons than others, and whether tolerant species increase hydrocarbon degradation. In this study, several field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to examine hydrocarbon tolerance in plants. Hydrocarbon contaminated field plots had higher soil pH, carbon to nitrogen ratio and bare ground, lower total nitrogen, available phosphorous and litter cover. The mean diversity at the uncontaminated sites was 0.52. It was 0.45 at the contaminated sites. Mean species similarity between contaminated and uncontaminated sites was 31.1 per cent and cover similarity was 22.2 per cent. The common plants in the contaminated field included kochia, wild barley, salt grass, bluegrass, and wheatgrass. The plants that formed most plant cover on contaminated plots were non-mycorrhizal, self-pollinating, and large seeded. The species with the highest survival after 5 weeks in hydrocarbon contaminated soils included one native and 4 non-native grasses, 2 native and 3 non-native legumes and 2 native forbs. All plants (with the exception of Indian breadroot) grown in hydrocarbon contaminated potting soil had lower total biomass and lower growth rates compared to the control

  15. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using plants adapted to western Canadian climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, D.B.

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation relies on the use of plants for in-situ treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. It is based on relationships between plants, microorganisms and the environment. The advantages of the process are its low cost and minimal soil disturbance. Phytoremediation has not been widely implemented in Canada because only a few native or non-native plant species have been tested for hydrocarbon tolerance or degradation ability. More studies are needed to fully understand why some plants are more tolerant of hydrocarbons than others, and whether tolerant species increase hydrocarbon degradation. In this study, several field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to examine hydrocarbon tolerance in plants. Hydrocarbon contaminated field plots had higher soil pH, carbon to nitrogen ratio and bare ground, lower total nitrogen, available phosphorous and litter cover. The mean diversity at the uncontaminated sites was 0.52. It was 0.45 at the contaminated sites. Mean species similarity between contaminated and uncontaminated sites was 31.1 per cent and cover similarity was 22.2 per cent. The common plants in the contaminated field included kochia, wild barley, salt grass, bluegrass, and wheatgrass. The plants that formed most plant cover on contaminated plots were non-mycorrhizal, self-pollinating, and large seeded. The species with the highest survival after 5 weeks in hydrocarbon contaminated soils included one native and 4 non-native grasses, 2 native and 3 non-native legumes and 2 native forbs. All plants (with the exception of Indian breadroot) grown in hydrocarbon contaminated potting soil had lower total biomass and lower growth rates compared to the control.

  16. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  17. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  19. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and .... potential conduits for oil and water migrating from the ... by Gas Chromatography: Soil / sediment / sludge ..... fractions contained in the dump pits) which have.

  20. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  1. Profiling of plants at petroleum contaminated site for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Raymond Oriebe; Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2018-03-21

    The paucity of information in the literature on the characteristics of plants that could be used for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC)-contaminated sites was the principal reason for this study. The aim of the study was to identify indigenous plants growing in PHC-impacted soil in Umuahia in eastern-Nigeria that have the ability to phytoremediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons under tropical monsoon climate conditions. A total of 28 native plant species from different families growing in and around hydrocarbon-impacted soil in the vicinity of vandalized pipelines carrying petroleum products were collected and studied for their ability to grow in a hydrocarbon-impacted soil and remove the PHC from the impacted soil. Some of the plants demonstrated the ability to grow in soil with high levels of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which shows that they may be tolerant to hydrocarbons in soil and could potentially phytoremediate a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana, Chloris barbata, Pasparlum vaginatum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cosmos bipinnatus, Eragrostis atrovirens, Cyperus rotundus, and Uvaria chamae showed tendencies to phytoremediate contaminated soil. By using bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as a measure of phytoremediation, results showed that C. odorata, A. africana, and U. chamae demonstrated the highest potentials to phytodegrade hydrocarbons in soil.

  2. Interpretative approaches to identifying sources of hydrocarbons in complex contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical instrumental hardware and software have permitted the use of more sophisticated approaches in identifying or fingerprinting sources of hydrocarbons in complex matrix environments. In natural resource damage assessments and contaminated site investigations of both terrestrial and aquatic environments, chemical fingerprinting has become an important interpretative tool. The alkyl homologues of the major polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., phenanthrenes/anthracenes, dibenzothiophenes, chrysenes) have been found to the most valuable hydrocarbons in differentiating hydrocarbon sources, but there are other hydrocarbon analytes, such as the chemical biomarkers steranes and triterpanes, and alkyl homologues of benzene, and chemical methodologies, such as scanning UV fluorescence, that have been found to be useful in certain environments. This presentation will focus on recent data interpretative approaches for hydrocarbon source identification assessments. Selection of appropriate targets analytes and data quality requirements will be discussed and example cases including the Arabian Gulf War oil spill results will be presented

  3. Phytoremediation mechanisms for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removing from contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagić Slađana Č.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from soil aims to degrade them into less toxic/non toxic compounds and limit their further movement by sequestration and accumulation into the vacuoles. Lipophilic organic compounds such as PAHs are bound strongly to the epidermis of the root tissue and are rarely translocated within plant. There are no reports in the literature data of PAHs being completely mineralized by plants. There is little evidence to suggest that PAHs accumulate to significant degree in plants, but there still is a lot of evidences on the ability of various plant species (most often grasses and legumes, to degrade and dissipate these dangerous contaminants. The primary mechanism controlling the dissipation of PAHs is rhizosphere microbial degradation where microbes use PAHs molecules as carbon substrates for growth, which in final, leads to the breakdown or total mineralization of the contaminants. The process is usually augmented by the excretion of root exudates (e.g., sugars, alcohols, acids, enzymes, and the build-up of organic carbon in the soil, so the proper selection of particular plant species represents a critical management decision for PAHs phytoremediation. These facts favor the rhyzoremediation as the best solution for sites contaminated with PAHs.

  4. Study of remobilization polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkessam, L.; Vessigaud, S.; Laboudigue, A.; Vessigaud, S.; Perrin-Ganier, C.; Schiavon, M.; Denys, S.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from many pyrolysis processes. They are widespread environmental pollutants because some of them present toxic and genotoxic properties. In coal pyrolysis sites such as former manufactured gas plants and coke production plants, coal tar is a major source of PAHs. The management of such sites requires better understanding of the mechanisms that control release of PAHs to the biosphere. Determining total PAH concentrations is not sufficient since it does not inform about the pollutants availability to environmental processes. The fate and transport of PAHs in soil are governed by sorption and microbial processes which are well documented. Globally, enhancing retention of the compounds by a solid matrix reduces the risk of pollutant dispersion, but decreases their accessibility to microbial microflora. Conversely, the remobilization of organics from contaminated solid matrices represents a potential hazard since these pollutants can reach groundwater resources. However the available data are often obtained from laboratory experiments in which many field parameters can not be taken into account (long term, temperature, co-pollution, ageing phenomenon, heterogenous distribution of pollution). The present work focuses on the influence assessment and understanding of some of these parameters on PAHs remobilization from heavily polluted matrices in near-field conditions (industrial contaminated matrices, high contact time, ..). Results concerning effects of temperature and physical state of pollution (dispersed among the soil or condensed in small clusters or in coal tar) are presented. (authors)

  5. Field-scale assessment of phytotreatment of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.R.T.; Koskinen, P.E.P.; Tuhkanen, T.A.; Puhakka, J.A. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere Univ. of Tech., Tampere (Finland); Pichtel, J. [Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States); Vaajasaari, K. [Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, Tampere (Finland); Joutti, A. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Background, Aims, and Scope. Phytoremediation is remediation method which uses plants to remove, contain or detoxify environmental contaminants. Phytoremediation has successfully been applied for the removal of fresh hydrocarbon contamination, but removal of aged hydrocarbons has proven more difficult. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface can be enhanced by the presence of plant roots, i.e. the rhizosphere effect. Phytostabilization reduces heavy metal availability via immobilization in the rhizosphere. Soils contaminated by both hydrocarbons and heavy metals are abundant and may be difficult to treat. Heavy metal toxicity can inhibit the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading micro-organisms and decrease the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria. In this experiment, weathered hydrocarbon- and heavy metal-contaminated soil was treated using phytoremediation in a 39-month field study in attempts to achieve both hydrocarbon removal and heavy metal stabilization. Methods. A combination of hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal stabilization was evaluated in a field-scale phytoremediation study of weathered contaminants. Soil had been contaminated over several years with hydrocarbons (11,400{+-}4,300 mg kg dry soil){sup -1} and heavy metals from bus maintenance activities and was geologically characterized as till. Concentrations of soil copper, lead and zinc were 170{+-}50 mgkg{sup -1}, 1,100{+-}1,500 mg kg{sup -1} and 390{+-} 340 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The effect of contaminants, plant species and soil amendment (NPK fertilizer or biowaste compost) on metabolic activity of soil microbiota was determined. Phytostabilization performance was investigated by analyses of metal concentrations in plants, soil and site leachate as well as acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri and Enchtraeus albidus. Results. Over 39 months hydrocarbon concentrations did not decrease significantly (P=0.05) in non-amended soil, although 30% of initial hydrocarbon concentrations were

  6. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  7. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  8. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  9. Natural attenuation of diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Antonio; Gallego, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A diesel fuel spill at a concentration of 1 L m -2 soil was simulated on a 12 m 2 plot of agricultural land, and natural attenuation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was monitored over a period of 400 days following the spill after which the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be below the legal contamination threshold for soil. The main fraction of these compounds (95%) remained at the surface layer (0-10 cm). Shortly after the spill (viz. between days 0 and 18), evaporation was the main origin of the dramatic decrease in pollutant concentrations in the soil. Thereafter, soil microorganisms used aliphatic hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy, as confirmed by the degradation ratios found. Soil quality indicators, soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity, regained their original levels about 200 days after the spill. - The effect of aliphatic hydrocarbons contamination on soil quality was monitored over a period of 400 days after a Diesel fuel spill

  10. Enhanced thermal conduction -- An alternative solution for removing a broad range of hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of Enhanced Thermal Conduction (ETC), an ex-situ soil remediation process. A review of a practical demonstration of this process which was conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants to determine the capability of the technology for remediating soils from gasworks sites that have been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyanide is also presented in this paper. Projections for using this process to treat soils contaminated with other hazardous materials such as TCE PCE and PCB's are discussed as well.

  11. Analyzing geophysical signature of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using geoelectrical surveys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koroma, Sylvester; Arrato, A.; Godio, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2015), s. 2937-2948 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : electrical conductivity * induced polarization * hydrocarbon-contaminated site * biodegradation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12665-015-4326-6

  12. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Sung, K.; Corapcioglu, M.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual Ryegrass) in the phytoremediation of the soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and to determine the main mechanisms of target contaminant dissipation. The preliminary tests and laboratory scale tests were conducted to identify the main mechanisms for phytoremediation of the target contaminants, and to apply the technique in green house application under field conditions. The results of microcosm and bioreactor experiments showed that volatilization can be the dominant pathway of the target contaminant mass losses in soils. Toxicity tests, conducted in nutrient solution in the growth room, and in the greenhouse, showed that both Eastern gamagrass and Annual ryegrass could grow without harmful effects at up to 400 ppm each of all three contaminants together. Preliminary greenhouse experimentw were conducted with the 1.5 m long and 0.3 m diameter PVC columns. Soil gas concentrations monitored and microbial biomass in bulk and rhizosphere soil, root properties, and contaminant concentration in soil after 100 days were analyzed. The results showed that the soil gas concentration of contaminants has rapidly decreased especially in the upper soil and the contaminant concentraitons in soil were also significantly decreased to 0.024, 0.228, and 0.002 of C/Co for TCE, PCE and TCA, respectively. Significant plant effects were not found however showed contaminant loss through volatilization and plant contamination by air.

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieg, L.M.; McInerney; Tanner, R.S.; Harris, S.H. Jr.; Sublette, K.L.; Suflita, J.M.; Kolhatkar, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    A study was designed to determine if the intrinsic bioremediation of gas condensate hydrocarbons represented an important fate process in a shallow aquifer underlying a natural gas production site. For over 4 yr, changes in the groundwater, sediment, and vadose zone chemistry in the contaminated portion of the aquifer were interpreted relative to a background zone. Changes included decreased dissolved oxygen and sulfate levels and increased alkalinity, Fe(II), and methane concentrations in the contaminated groundwater, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic respiration depleted oxygen reserves leaving anaerobic conditions in the hydrocarbon-impacted subsurface. Dissolved hydrogen levels in the contaminated groundwater indicated that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were predominant biological processes, corroborating the geochemical findings. Furthermore, 10--1000-fold higher numbers of sulfate reducers and methanogens were enumerated in the contaminated sediment relative to background. Putative metabolites were also detected in the contaminated groundwater, including methylbenzylsuccinic acid, a signature intermediate of anaerobic xylene decay. Laboratory incubations showed that benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and each of the xylene isomers were biodegraded under sulfate-reducing conditions as was toluene under methanogenic conditions. These results coupled with a decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations in contaminated sediment confirm that intrinsic bioremediation contributes to the attenuation of hydrocarbons in this aquifer

  14. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  15. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  16. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Hoeppel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14 CO 2 ) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  17. Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Clemens, R.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, several laboratory methods have been developed for the prediction of contaminant bioavailability. So far, none of these methods has been extensively tested for petroleum hydrocarbons. In the present study we investigated solid-phase extraction and persulfate oxidation for the prediction of

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  19. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg -1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm -1 . Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  20. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional hydrocarbon contaminated soil recycling facility standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to protect the environment from uncontrolled releases of petroleum products, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute member companies have initiated environmental upgrading programs for their underground fuel storage systems in British Columbia. These programs have been restricted in recent years as a result of environmental regulations targeting contaminated soil, which is generated when underground storage tanks are upgraded to current standards. The soil requiring treatment is typically sand backfill containing a nominal value of petroleum product. These soils can be treated in an engineered basin using bioremediation technology to reduce the level of contamination. Depending on the degree of treatment, the soil can be recycled as backfill or reused as landfill cover. An overview is presented of the basin treatment process and design. Natural bioremediation is enhanced with nutrients, water and oxygen addition. 4 figs

  3. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Mineralisation of target hydrocarbons in three contaminated soils from former refinery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Marcie G; Bellarby, Jessica; Paton, Graeme I; Coulon, Frédéric; Pollard, Simon J T; Semple, Kirk T

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the microbial degradation of (14)C-labelled hexadecane, octacosane, phenanthrene and pyrene and considered how degradation might be optimised in three genuinely hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from former petroleum refinery sites. Hydrocarbon mineralisation by the indigenous microbial community was monitored over 23 d. Hydrocarbon mineralisation enhancement by nutrient amendment (biostimulation), hydrocarbon degrader addition (bioaugmentation) and combined nutrient and degrader amendment, was also explored. The ability of indigenous soil microflora to mineralise (14)C-target hydrocarbons was appreciable; ≥ 16% mineralised in all soils. Generally, addition of nutrients or degraders increased the rates and extents of mineralisation of (14)C-hydrocarbons. However, the addition of nutrients and degraders in combination had a negative effect upon (14)C-octacosane mineralisation and resulted in lower extents of mineralisation in the three soils. In general, the rates and extents of mineralisation will be dependent upon treatment type, nature of the contamination and adaptation of the ingenious microbial community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  7. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination of coastal sediments from the Sfax area (Tunisia), Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, A; Elleuch, B; Kallel, M; Saliot, A; Dagaut, J; Oudot, J

    2001-06-01

    The coastal area off the city of Sfax (730,000 inhabitants), well-known for fisheries and industrial activities, receives high inputs of organic matter mostly anthropogenic. Eighteen stations were selected in the vicinity of the direct discharge of industrial sewage effluents in the sea in order to study the spatial distribution of the organic contamination. Surface sediments sampled in the shallow shelf were analysed for hydrocarbons by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total hydrocarbon distributions revealed high contamination as compared to other coastal Mediterranean sites, with an average concentration of 1865 ppm/dry weight sediment. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns, values of unresolved mixture/n-alkane ratio and distributions of steranes and hopanes confirmed a petroleum contamination of the Arabian light crude oil type. Biogenic compounds were also identified with a series of short-chain carbon-numbered n-alkenes in the carbon range 16-24.

  9. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  10. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  12. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  13. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  14. Improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquin, J. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons. The presentation provided information on the background for the investigation such as: difficulty for biotreatment in soil to deal with heavy weathered hydrocarbons and fine grained soils; the involvement of the Montreal Centre of Excellence for Brownfield Remediation (MCEBR) to develop state of the art environmental solutions; and, the selection of Sanexen as the organization with the best price and best performance warranty to perform the required decontamination. The objectives of the study were to improve the performance of biotreatment of soil contaminated with heavy petroleum hydrocarbons; reduce soil biotreatment costs by 30 per cent; improve knowledge and understanding for this type of treatment; and, better identify constraints and optimal strategies in view of these constraints. Specific objectives that were discussed included: improving the microbial flora, attaining a favorable soil temperature at a low cost, identifying the best amendments for bulking of soil, increasing bio-availability of the contaminants, and identifying optimal mechanical handling of the soil. The presentation discussed soils treated; research and development carried out; standard method of biotreatment; alternative methods tested; initial investigation by the MCEBR; pilot test carried out by Sanexen; and, results of the pilot test. As part of the research program with MCEBR, soils that received different amendments were tested at the Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI) of the National Research Council for their ability to degrade added hexadecane and naphthalene. Soil at various stages of the treatment was also sampled and tested by the (BRI). It was concluded that the biotreatment of heavy hydrocarbons in fine grained soils is feasible and that the techniques used reduced biotreatment costs by approximately 25 per cent.

  15. Prospects for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to assist in phytoremediation of soil hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtor, Monika; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualistic associations with the roots of 80-90% of vascular plant species and may constitute up to 50% of the total soil microbial biomass. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants. The paper presents and evaluates the role and significance of AMF in phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We focused on (1) an impact of hydrocarbons on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, (2) a potential of AMF to enhance phytoremediation, (3) determinants that influence effectiveness of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated soils. This knowledge may be useful for selection of proper plant and fungal symbionts and crucial to optimize environmental conditions for effective AMF-mediated phytoremediation. It has been concluded that three-component phytoremediation systems based on synergistic interactions between plant roots, AMF and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms demonstrated high effectiveness in dissipation of organic pollutants in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  17. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  18. Pilot-scale feasibility of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    An environmental project was conducted to evaluate in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Results of laboratory column studies determined that nutrient loadings stimulated biodegradation rates and that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at Kwajalein was possible using indigenous microbes. The column studies were followed by an ∼10-month on-site demonstration at Kwajalein to further evaluate in situ bioremediation and to determine design and operating conditions necessary to optimize the process. The demonstration site contained low levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) in the soil near the ground surface, with concentrations increasing to ∼10,000 mg/kg in the soil near the groundwater. The demonstration utilized 12 in situ plots to evaluate the effects of various combinations of water, air, and nutrient additions on both the microbial population and the hydrocarbon concentration within the treatment plots as a function of depth from the ground surface

  19. Metabolic and phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities during phytoremediation of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, Marja R T; Koskinen, Perttu E P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Münster, Uwe; Pichtel, John; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2007-12-01

    In the current study, the microbial ecology of weathered hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil undergoing phytoremediation was studied. The relationship of functional diversity, measured as carbon source utilisation in Biolog plates and extracellular enzymatic activities, and genetic diversity of bacteria was evaluated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used for community analyses at the species level. Bulk soil and rhizosphere soil from pine and poplar plantations were analysed separately to determine if the plant rhizosphere impacted hydrocarbon degradation. Prevailing microbial communities in the field site were both genetically and metabolically diverse. Furthermore, both tree rhizosphere and fertilisation affected the compositions of these communities and increased activities of extracellular aminopeptidases. In addition, the abundance of alkane hydroxylase and naphthalene dioxygenase genes in the communities was low, but the prevalence of these genes was increased by the addition of bioavailable hydrocarbons. Tree rhizosphere communities had greater hydrocarbon degradation potential than those of bulk soil. Hydrocarbon utilising communities were dominated generally by the species Ralstonia eutropha and bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia. Despite the presence of viable hydrocarbon-degrading microbiota, decomposition of hydrocarbons from weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil over four years, regardless of the presence of vegetation, was low in unfertilised soil. Compost addition enhanced the removal of hydrocarbons.

  20. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  1. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  2. In situ vadose zone bioremediation of soil contaminated with nonvolatile hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.S.; Burden, R.J.; Riddell, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In situ bioremediation has been successfully carried out on petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a decommissioned bulk storage terminal in New Zealand. The site soils were contaminated mainly with diesel fuel and spent oil at concentrations ranging up to 95,000 mg/kg of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons. The in situ remediation system combines an enhanced bioremediation with vapor extraction and is installed almost entirely below grade, thereby allowing above ground activities to continue unimpeded. Laboratory-scale feasibility testing indicated that although appreciable volatilization of low molecular weight components would occur initially, biodegradation would be the primary mechanism by which contaminated soil would be remediated. During the remedial design phase, preliminary field testing was conducted to evaluate the optimum spacing for extraction wells and inlet vents. A pilot-scale system was installed in a 15-m by 35-m area of the site in June 1989 and operated for approximately 1 year. Soil monitoring performed approximately every 3 months indicated an overall reduction in soil petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of 87% for the period from June 1989 to May 1991

  3. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  4. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  5. Predicting the distribution of contamination from a chlorinated hydrocarbon release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.J. [K.W. Brown Environmental Services, College Station, TX (United States); Moridis, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The T2VOC model with the T2CG1 conjugate gradient package was used to simulate the motion of a dense chlorinated hydrocarbon plume released from an industrial plant. The release involved thousands of kilograms of trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals that were disposed of onsite over a period of nearly twenty years. After the disposal practice ceased, an elongated plume was discovered. Because much of the plume underlies a developed area, it was of interest to study the migration history of the plume to determine the distribution of the contamination.

  6. Contaminated sites: memory loss experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of 50 years, the district of Zurich has financed four projects to catalogue contaminated sites. One lesson is that as soon as there is a new register, the older one fades, so any data that did not get transferred is lost. Several concrete case studies were also presented: - The Glattbrug case, where heavy contamination was discovered to be caused by a carbolineum plant that had been registered at the wrong place and was completely forgotten only 40 years after its closure. - A case where contaminated municipal waste slag was used as compost by wine-growers, and where it was impossible afterwards to find any reliable data concerning the amount or location of compost deliveries. - The Toessegg remediation case, where a number of steel barrels filled with acidic tar were buried above an important aquifer and below grassland. It took the combination of the local level delivering knowledge and the higher political level delivering power to come to action. - The Harwald case, which shows a gap between risk assessment on the one hand and the implementation of results of such risk assessments on the other hand. All of these cases reveal power game between state officials, representatives of the industry, technical experts, politics and the common man. Information may be out there, but not in the right place or not with the right people. It was thus pointed out that RK and M preservation is not only a scientific or a technical problem, but at least as much a social, political, economic, issue. Differences in institutional interests, rivalry, politics and power imbalances play a major role. An important lesson was thus that one may improve the process of archiving, but one also needs to improve the distribution of information and its correct use. The principle of subsidiarity, which delegates power to the lowest competent authority, was judged to be helpful in potentially solving some of these problems, since the international and national level may be too

  7. Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Viramontes-Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were grown in liquid medium, and surface tension and emulsification index were determined in cell-free supernantant and cell suspension. A total of 324 bacterial strains were tested, and 17 were positive for the drop-collapse and hydrocarbon-layer agar methods. Most of the strains were Pseudomonas, except for three strains (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus. Surface tension was similar in cell-free and cell suspension measurements, with values in the range of 58 to 26 (mN/m, and all formed stable emulsions with motor oil (76-93% E24. Considering the variety of molecular structures among microbial biosurfactants, they have different chemical properties that can be exploited commercially, for applications as diverse as bioremediation or degradable detergents.

  8. Studies estimating the dermal bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured plant tar-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, T.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.; Goldstein, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed with contaminated soils or organic extracts of contaminated soils collected at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The MGP tar contaminated soils were found to contain a group of targeted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at levels ranging from 10 to 2400 mg/kg. The soil extracts contained target PAH at levels ranging from 12 000 - 34 000 mg/kg. Dermal penetration rates of target PAH from the MGP tar-contaminated soils/soil extracts were determined experimentally through human skin using 3 H-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a surrogate. Results from three MGP sites showed reductions of 2-3 orders of magnitude in PAH absorption through human skin from the most contaminated soils in comparison to the soil extracts. Reduction in PAH penetration can be attributed to PAH concentration and (soil) matrix properties. PAH dermal flux values are used to determine site-specific dermally absorbed dose (DAD) and chronic daily intake (CDI) which are essential terms required to estimate risk associated with human exposure to MGP tar and MGP tar-contaminated soils. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils using soil vapor extraction: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Peterson, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are being remediated in situ at a site in Lakewood, New Jersey by bioremediation in conjunction with soil vapor extractions (SVE) and nutrient addition. The contaminants were from hydraulic oils which leaked from subsurface hydraulic lifts, waste oil from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs), an aboveground storage tank, and motor oil from a leaking UST. The oils contaminated subsurface soils at the site to a depth of 25 feet. Approximately 900 cubic yards of soil were contaminated. Soil sample analyses showed total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 31,500 ppm. The design of the remedial system utilized the results of a treatability study which showed that TPH degrading microorganisms, when supplied with oxygen and nutrients, affected a 14% reduction in TPH in 30 days. A SVE system was installed which used three wells, each installed to a depth of 25 feet below grade. The SVE system was operated to achieve an extracted air flow of approximately 20 to 30 scfm from each well. Bioremediation of the TPH was monitored by measuring CO 2 and O 2 concentrations at the wellheads and vapor monitoring probes. After four months of remediation, CO 2 concentrations were at a minimum, at which point the subsurface soils were sampled and analyzed for TPH. The soil analyses showed a removal of TPH by biodegradation of up to 99.8% after four months of remediation

  10. Evaluation of Biostimulation (Nutrients) in hydrocarbons contaminated soils by respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Erika; Roldan, Fabio; Garzon, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF) (N: P: K 28:12:7) and simple inorganic salts (SIS) (NH 4 NO 3 and K 2 HPO 4 ). The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40.000 MgTPH/Kgdw). The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH 2173b and OXITOP PF 600) during thirteen days (n=3). Two treatments (ICF and SIS) and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients) were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH) and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms) were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each assay. Higher respiration rates were recorded in sis and without nutrient control. Results were 802.28 and 850.72- 1 d-1, MgO 2 kgps - 1d i n HACH, while in OXITOP were 936.65 and 502.05 MgO 2 Kgps respectively. These data indicate that amendment of nutrients stimulated microbial metabolism. ICF had lower respiration rates (188.18 and 139.87 MgO 2 kgps - 1d - 1 i n HACH and OXITOP, respectively) as well as counts; this could be attributed to ammonia toxicity.

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) of microorganisms in hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Karolin; Zeder, Michael; Klug, Rebecca; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schattenhofer, Martha; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are the most important sources of drinking water worldwide but they are threatened by contamination and overexploitation. Petroleum spills account for the most common source of contamination and the high carbon load results in anoxia and steep geochemical gradients. Microbes play a major role in the transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons into less toxic substances. To investigate microbial populations at the single cell level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now a well-established technique. Recently, however, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH has been introduced for the detection of microbes from oligotrophic environments. Nevertheless, petroleum contaminated aquifers present a worst case scenario for FISH techniques due to the combination of high background fluorescence of hydrocarbons and the presence of small microbial cells caused by the low turnover rates characteristic of groundwater ecosystems. It is therefore not surprising that studies of microorganisms from such sites are mostly based on cultivation techniques, fingerprinting, and amplicon sequencing. However, to reveal the population dynamics and interspecies relationships of the key participants of contaminant degradation, FISH is an indispensable tool. In this study, a protocol for FISH was developed in combination with cell quantification using an automated counting microscope. The protocol includes the separation and purification of microbial cells from sediment particles, cell permeabilization and, finally, CARD-FISH in a microwave oven. As a proof of principle, the distribution of Archaea and Bacteria was shown in 60 sediment samples taken across the contaminant plume of an aquifer (Leuna, Germany), which has been heavily contaminated with several ten-thousand tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons since World War II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  13. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive

  14. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive.

  15. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  16. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  17. Comparison of plants with C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways for remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, Anithadevi Kenday; Logeshwaran, Panneerselvan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R.; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-01-01

    The phytoremediation technique has been demonstrated to be a viable option for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential applicability of plants with C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways for the phytoremediation of recalcitrant high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs contaminated soil. A 60 and 120-day greenhouse study was conducted which showed higher degradation of HMW PAHs in soil grown with C4 plants when compared to C3 plants...

  18. Biodegradation of dicyclopentadiene by a mini-consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Stehmeier, L.; Voordouw, G.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five bacterial species were isolated from soil contaminated by low molecular weight hydrocarbons (C5+). All species were identified by gene sequencing. The isolated genomic DNAs from these bacteria were spotted on a master filter in denatured form. They were then hybridized with total community DNAs isolated from soil exposed to dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) in order to determine the effect of DCPD on the soil microbial community by comparison with an untreated control group. Incubation of soil with DCPD enriched a Sphingomonas sp. while incubation with DCPD in the absence of soil gave enrichment of a Pseudomonas sp. These results indicate that identification of bacterial isolates with DCPD degrading potential is possible and that such organisms can be isolated from C5+ contaminated sites. However, the possibility of removing DCPD contamination in soil by bioremediation is not yet proven.10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  20. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. Application of compound specific 13C isotope investigations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osenbrueck, K.; Heidinger, M.; Voropaev, A.; Ertl, S.; Eichinger, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Chlorinated hydrocarbons are one of the most common pollutants found in groundwater. Due to complex contamination situations with overlapping contamination plumes the assessment of the organic contaminants requires the installation of expensive observation wells and high analytical effort. Here the determination of the stable isotope ratio 13 C/ 12 C of the organic compounds offers a promising and efficient tool to investigate the origin and the biodegradation characteristics of the chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater. The application of the method is based on characteristic isotope fingerprints, differing in chlorinated solvents. This isotope fingerprint is derived from different production pathways and is not influenced by transport or by retardation processes in the underground. Due to the fact, that two different contaminations can easily be distinguished by isotope ratios, an improved distinction of spatially and temporally different contamination plumes might be possible. In course of biologically mediated degradation processes a shift of the isotope ratios between the precursor and the product can frequently be observed, such as with denitrification or sulfate reduction processes. The isotope fractionation is due to a preferential reaction of the bonds formed by the lighter isotopes and leads to a progressive enrichment of the heavy isotopes in the precursor while the product becomes depleted in the heavy isotopes. Biological degradation of the highly chlorinated hydrocarbons is due to a co-metabolic dechlorinisation. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) for example degrades under anoxic conditions via trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE). Subsequent degradation to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene may appear under aerobic as well as reducing environments depending on the site specific conditions. In several laboratory studies it has been shown, that biodegradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is accompanied by an isotope fractionation of

  2. Ecotoxicological and analytical assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and application to ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saterbak, A.; Toy, R.J.; Wong, D.C.L.; McMain, B.J.; Williams, M.P.; Dorn, P.B.; Brzuzy, L.P.; Chai, E.Y.; Salanitro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated soil aim to understand the effect of introduced chemicals on the soil flora and fauna. Ecotoxicity test methods were developed and conducted on hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and on adjacent uncontaminated control soils from eight field locations. Tests included 7-d, 14-d, and chronic survival tests and reproduction assays for the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and seed germination, root length, and plant growth assays for corn, lettuce, mustard, and wheat. Species-specific responses were observed with no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from <1 to 100% contaminated soil. The 14-d earthworm survival NOEC was equal to or greater than the reproduction NOEC values for numbers of cocoons and juveniles, which were similar to one another. Cocoon and juvenile production varied among the control soils. Germination and root length NOECs for mustard and lettuce were less than NOECs for corn and wheat. Root length NOECs were similar to or less than seed germination NOECs. Statistically significant correlations for earthworm survival and seed germination as a function of hydrocarbon measurements were found. The 14-d earthworm survival and the seed germination tests are recommended for use in the context of a risk-based framework for the ecological assessment of contaminated sites.

  3. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  4. Technology selection for remediation of lead and hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.E.; Sparks, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of a technology for remediation of 70,000 tons of lead and hydrocarbon impacted soil resulting from an excavation at the Mobil Torrance Refinery. This methodology resulted from over two years of extensive research and technology evaluation. Twelve technologies and combination of technologies were evaluated, which often included bench scale testing, to determine the most cost effective and technically feasible remediation option. The results of the studies for each technology are discussed and presented in tabular form. The technologies investigated include: fixation/stabilization, soil washing, solvent washing, heap leach extraction, froth flotation, bioremediation, thermal desorption, electrokinetic extraction, asphalt incorporation, vitrification, off-site treatment, and off-site disposal. The associated costs and technical feasibility of each of the remediation options evaluated are presented. Laboratory analyses of the excavated soil indicate hydrocarbons range from non-detect to 11,000 ppm with an average of 2,600 ppm, soluble lead (CA test-not TCLP) range from 1.4 ppm to 100 ppm with an average of 29 ppm, and low levels of organic lead are present. Average grain size of the soil ranges from number-sign 200 to number-sign 120 mesh, and permeability averages 10--4 cm/sec. Significant odors, likely caused by hydrogen sulfide and thiophenes, were detected when the soil was excavated and control of odors during the remediation phase is a critical concern

  5. Process for the restoration of solids contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.; Jackson, J.D.; McMillin, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Processes have been developed for the restoration of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organics. The intended product is a field deployable materials handling system and phase separation process ranging in size from 1 yd 3 /hr to 50 yd 3 /hr for commercial application to environmental problems associated with the exploration, production, refining and transport of petroleum, petroleum products and organic chemicals. Effluents from contaminated sites will be clean solids (classified by size if appropriate), and the concentrated contaminant. The technology is based on biochemical solvation, liquid/liquid and liquid/solid extractions, materials classification, mechanical and hydraulic scrubbing, and phase separation of organic and aqueous phases. Fluid use is minimized through utilization of closed-loop (recycle) systems. Contaminants that are removed from the solid materials may be destroyed, disposed of using existing technologies, or used on-site for cogeneration of /power for plant operations. Additionally, if the contaminant is a valued product, the material may be recovered for application or sale. Clean solid material is not sterilized and may be returned to normal agricultural, commercial, residential or recreational use in most instances

  6. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  7. Application of persulfate to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: feasibility and comparison with common oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Liang, Shu-Hao; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2011-02-28

    In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil remediation using persulfate oxidation. Various controlling factors including different persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations, different oxidants (persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, and permanganate), and different contaminants (diesel and fuel oil) were considered. Results show that persulfate oxidation is capable of treating diesel and fuel oil contaminated soil. Higher persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations resulted in higher diesel degrading rates within the applied persulfate/ferrous ion molar ratios. A two-stage diesel degradation was observed in the batch experiments. In addition, treatment of diesel-contaminated soil using in situ metal mineral activation under ambient temperature (e.g., 25°C) may be a feasible option for site remediation. Results also reveal that persulfate anions could persist in the system for more than five months. Thus, sequential injections of ferrous ion to generate sulfate free radicals might be a feasible way to enhance contaminant oxidation. Diesel oxidation efficiency and rates by the three oxidants followed the sequence of hydrogen peroxide>permanganate>persulfate in the limited timeframes. Results of this study indicate that the application of persulfate oxidation is a feasible method to treat soil contaminated by diesel and fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P.; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC–FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. - Highlights: ► Weathered hydrocarbon contamination and soil quality on landfarm site were studied. ► Silica fractionation of hydrocarbons separated aliphatics, aromatics and polars. ► Polar hydrocarbon metabolites had accumulated in the surface soil. ► Total hydrocarbons and TPH correlated with soil quality changes better than polars. ► Toxic response of soil microbial biomass and activity were seen at low TPH (<0.5%). - Polar metabolites constitute the largest fraction of crude oil-derived contaminants in a landfarming site, but TPH better explains soil microbial and ecotoxicological responses.

  9. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  10. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  11. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: Bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One of the important issues is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These site areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltenes, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost-effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico

  12. A New Global Open Source Marine Hydrocarbon Emission Site Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, E., Jr.; Wood, W. T.; Barnard, A.; Dada, T.; Qazzaz, M.; Lee, T. R.; Herrera, E.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrocarbon emission sites (e.g. seeps) discharge large volumes of fluids and gases into the oceans that are not only important for biogeochemical budgets, but also support abundant chemosynthetic communities. Documenting the locations of modern emissions is a first step towards understanding and monitoring how they affect the global state of the seafloor and oceans. Currently, no global open source (i.e. non-proprietry) detailed maps of emissions sites are available. As a solution, we have created a database that is housed within an Excel spreadsheet and use the latest versions of Earthpoint and Google Earth for position coordinate conversions and data mapping, respectively. To date, approximately 1,000 data points have been collected from referenceable sources across the globe, and we are continualy expanding the dataset. Due to the variety of spatial extents encountered, to identify each site we used two different methods: 1) point (x, y, z) locations for individual sites and; 2) delineation of areas where sites are clustered. Certain well-known areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, have a greater abundance of information; whereas significantly less information is available in other regions due to the absence of emission sites, lack of data, or because the existing data is proprietary. Although the geographical extent of the data is currently restricted to regions where the most data is publicly available, as the database matures, we expect to have more complete coverage of the world's oceans. This database is an information resource that consolidates and organizes the existing literature on hydrocarbons released into the marine environment, thereby providing a comprehensive reference for future work. We expect that the availability of seafloor hydrocarbon emission maps will benefit scientific understanding of hydrocarbon rich areas as well as potentially aiding hydrocarbon exploration and environmental impact assessements.

  13. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  14. Vadose zone characterisation at industrial contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Dahan, Ofer; Dassargues, Alain; Vanclooster, Marnik; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. To overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in ...

  15. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  16. Quebec's new contaminated sites policy : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Quebec's new contaminated site policy sets out a broad new set of requirements with which industry will have to comply. The new policy entitled 'Politique de protection des sols et de rehabilitation des terrains contamines' is much more comprehensive and detailed than its 1988 predecessor and contains many new elements. The policy seeks to maintain soil and groundwater quality criteria and focuses on the protection of clean commercial and industrial sites through pollution prevention actions. It also takes into account progress which has been made since the inventory of contaminated sites across Quebec. It considers the characteristics of each site and the problems posed by ongoing disposal of contaminated soils in landfills and advances in treatment technologies. The issue of who is responsible for contaminated sites is addressed and the requirements for responsible parties are described in detail. Risk assessment was also introduced as a tool for remediation planning in some cases. The new policy stresses prevention, and attempts to clearly outline site characterization and remediation duties for new and existing industries that pose potential risk of soil and groundwater contamination. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  18. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  19. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  1. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  2. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  3. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  4. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  5. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  6. Biochemical and Physical Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Contamination of soil was investigated in this study from the Tehran Oil refining Co. of Iran. Fifteen soil samples were collected at several points in the Azimabad, 15 km south of Tehran City, Iran. Samples were collected at depths of 0–30 cm. Control sampleswere prepared to determinebackgroundlevels ofsoil contaminationwithpetroleumhydrocarbonsfor comparison with contaminatedsites. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH concentrations varied from 101334.0–101367.1 and 25321.1–25876.6 mg kg-1 respectively. The results elevated levels of TPH and PAH contents when compared with the control sample. Soil acidity (low pH of 5.3–5.9 and low electrical conductivity provided evidence of reduced metabolic activities on the affected site.Microbialgrowthrates for bacteria and fungi expressed as colony forming units were 2.62×109 and 4.14×106CFU/g soil, respectively for the contaminated and 5.76×109 and 6.83×106CFU/g soil, for the control treatments respectively. These drastic changes can have impact on the nutrient cycle and prevents the absorption of nutrients by plant root sand lead to a reduction in yield. 

  7. In situ phytoremediation of a soil historically contaminated by metals, hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Arenella, M; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2012-05-01

    In the past several years, industrial and agricultural activities have led to serious environmental pollution, resulting in a large number of contaminated sites. As a result, much recent research activity has focused on the application of bioremediation technologies as an environmentally friendly and economically feasible means for decontamination of polluted soil. In this study horse manure and Populus nigra (var. italica) (HM + P treatment) have been used, at real scale level, as an approach for bioremediation of a soil historically contaminated by metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni) and organic contaminants, such as polychlorobiphenyls and petroleum hydrocarbon. After one year, the HM + P phytotreatment was effective in the reclamation of the polluted soil from both organic and inorganic contaminants. A reduction of about 80% in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and 60% in polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and total metals was observed in the HM + P treatment. In contrast, in the horse manure (HM) treatment, used as control, a reduction of only about 30% of TPH was obtained. In order to assess both effectiveness and evolution of the remediation system to a biologically active soil ecosystem, together with the pollution parameters, the parameters describing the evolution of the soil functionality (enzymatic activities and protein SDS-PAGE pattern) were investigated. A stimulation of the metabolic soil processes (increase in dehydrogenase activity) was observed in the HM + P compared to the HM treatment. Finally, preliminary protein SDS-PAGE results have permitted the identification of proteins that have been recovered in the HM + P soil with respect to the HM; this may become a basic tool for improving the biogeochemical status of soil during the decontamination through the identification of microbial populations that are active in soil decontamination.

  8. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  9. Mutagenic hazards of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, C.L.; Lambert, A.B.; Lundstedt, S.; Tysklind, M.; White, P.A. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Safe Environment Program

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into nonpolar and semipolar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and nontargeted methods of hazard prediction routinely overestimated mutagenic activities for the nonpolar soil fractions, suggesting nonadditive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates regarding soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. Significant underestimations of total risk, however, will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the nondietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity generally underestimates the risk associated with the nonpolar soil fractions (in comparison to bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that also are found at these contaminated sites and that rarely are included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

  10. Large scale treatment of total petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Gregory; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Mok, Puah Chum; Ball, Andrew S

    2018-05-15

    Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L -1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L -1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment. Metagenomic analysis indicated that there was a shift in the microbial community when compared to the beginning of the treatment. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from day 0 to day 32, although differences at the genus level were observed. The predominant genera at the beginning of the treatment (day 0 just after inoculation) were Cloacibacterium, Sediminibacterium and Brevundimonas while at the end of the treatment members of Flavobacterium dominated, reaching almost half the population (41%), followed by Pseudomonas (6%) and Limnobacter (5.8%). To the author's knowledge, this is among the first studies to report the successful large scale biodegradation of TPH-contaminated groundwater (18,000 L per treatment session) at an offshore petrochemical facility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters in a shallow sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun; Lee, Seok-Young; Lee, Min-Hyo

    2001-07-01

    The distributions of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters were investigated in a shallow sand aquifer highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons leaked from solvent storage tanks. For these purposes, a variety of field investigations and studies were performed, which included installation of over 100 groundwater monitoring wells and piezometers at various depths, soil logging and analyses during well and piezometer installation, chemical analysis of groundwater, pump tests, and slug tests. Continuous water level monitoring at three selected wells using automatic data-logger and manual measuring at other wells were also conducted. Based on analyses of the various investigations and tests, a number of factors were identified to explain the distribution of the hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters. These factors include indigenous biodegradation, hydrostratigraphy, preliminary pump-and-treat remedy, recharge by rainfall, and subsequent water level fluctuation. The permeable sandy layer, in which the mean water table elevation is maintained, provided a dominant pathway for contaminant transport. The preliminary pump-and-treat action accelerated the movement of the hydrocarbon contaminants and affected the redox evolution pattern. Seasonal recharge by rain, together with indigenous biodegradation, played an important role in the natural attenuation of the petroleum hydrocarbons via mixing/dilution and biodegradation. The water level fluctuations redistributed the hydrocarbon contaminants by partitioning them into the soil and groundwater. The identified factors are not independent but closely inter-correlated.

  12. Avoidance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments by the freshwater invertebrates Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Sperber, V.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of sediments is a serious problem in most industrialized areas. Sediments are often contaminated with trace metals and organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Bioassays are often used to determine the effect of

  13. Intrinsic Anaerobic Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Subsurface Plumes and Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanny, M. A.; Nanny, M. A.; Suflita, J. M.; Suflita, J. M.; Davidova, I.; Kropp, K.; Caldwell, M.; Philp, R.; Gieg, L.; Rios-Hernandez, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminating subsurface and marine environments have been found susceptible to anaerobic biodegradation using novel mechanisms entirely distinct from aerobic metabolic pathways. For example, the anaerobic decay of toluene can be initiated by the addition of the aryl methyl group to the double bond of fumarate, resulting in a benzylsuccinic acid metabolite. Our work has shown that an analogous mechanism also occurs with ethylbenzene and the xylene isomers, yielding 3-phenyl-1,2-butane dicarboxylic acid and methylbenzylsuccinic acid, respectively. Moreover, these metabolites have been detected in contaminated environments. Most recently, we have identified metabolites resulting from the initial attack of H26- or D26-n-dodecane during degradation by a sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. Using GC-MS, these metabolites were identified as fatty acids that result from C-H or C-D addition across the double bond of fumarate to give dodecylsuccinic acids in which all 26 protons or deuteriums of the parent alkane were retained. Further, when this enrichment culture was challenged with hexane or decane, hexylsuccinic acid or decylsuccinic acid were identified as resulting metabolites. Similarly, the study of an ethylcyclopentane-degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment produced a metabolite, which is consistent with the addition of fumarate to the parent substrate. These novel anaerobic addition products are characterized by similar, distinctive mass spectral (MS) features (ions specific to the succinic acid portion of the molecule) that can potentially be used to probe contaminated environments for evidence of intrinsic remediation of hydrocarbons. Indeed, analyses of water extracts from two gas condensate-contaminated sites resulted in the tentative detection of alkyl- and cycloalkylsuccinic acids ranging from C3 to C9, including ethylcyclopentyl-succinic acid. In water extracts collected from an area underlying a

  14. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gibson, T.

    1996-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well

  15. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  16. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Jörgens, H.; Lenschow, A.; Liefferink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  17. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  18. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  19. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L.; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and

  20. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition

  1. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  2. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for Σ DDTs and Σ PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing Σ PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas Σ DDTs levels have little changed during that period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  4. In situ electro-osmotic cleanup of tar contaminated soil—Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-12-01

    An in situ electro-osmosis experiment was set up in a tar contaminated clay soil in Olst, the Netherlands, at the site of a former asphalt factory. The main goal of this experiment was to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the contaminated clay layer by applying an electric gradient of 12 V m-1 across the soil over an electrode distance of 1 m. With the movement of water by electro-osmosis and the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80), the non-polar PAHs were dragged along by convection and removed from the fine soil fraction. Soil samples were taken at the start and after 159 days at the end of the experiment. Water at the electrode wells was sampled regularly during the course of the experiment. The results reflect the heterogeneity of the soil characteristics and show the PAH concentrations within the experimental set up. After first having been released into the anolyte solution due to extraction by Tween 80 and subsequent diffusion, PAH concentrations increased significantly in the electrode reservoirs at the cathode side after 90 days of experiment. Although more detailed statistical analysis is necessary to quantify the efficiency of the remediation, it can be concluded that the use of electro-osmosis together with a non-ionic surfactant is a feasible technique to mobilize non-polar organic contaminants in clayey soils. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakia D. Parrish; M. Katherine Banks; A. Paul Schwab [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Soil and Water

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  6. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Zakia D. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Banks, M. Katherine [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States)]. E-mail: kbanks@ecn.purdue.edu; Schwab, A. Paul [Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  7. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Zakia D.; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil

  8. Diatom, cyanobacterial and microbial mats as indicators of hydrocarbon contaminated Arctic streams and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.; Adeney, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nelson, J.A. [J.B. Services, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Murdock, E. [Nunavut Power, Iqaluit (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An environmental assessment conducted at Repulse Bay, Nunavut in the summer of 2001 revealed a recent diesel spill flowing from the groundwater into a creek. The spill had not been reported. When Arctic surface waters mix with hydrocarbon impacted groundwater and sediments, distinctive mats of diatom, cyanobacteria and other bacteria are formed. These mats have the potential for phytoremediation of hydrocarbons. This paper explained the apparent dominance of mats in contaminated Arctic waters and why they promote biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater are generally anaerobic. The higher dissolved carbon dioxide in polluted soils and groundwater can benefit photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatom found in oligotrophic, lower alkalinity Arctic waters. The anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can potentially take advantage of the hydrogen substrate and the nitrogen fixing abilities of the cyanobacteria. Zooplankton predators may be killed off by the toxicity of the polluted groundwater. The paper provides examples where a microbial mat reduced the sulfate content of a hydrocarbon-impacted Arctic stream by 100 ppm, and where a pond covered in a benthic microbial mat showed no evidence of hydrocarbons in the water overlying sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons at concentrations measured at 30,000 ppm. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. A tiered analytical protocol for the characterization of heavy oil residues at petroleum-contaminated hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Kenefick, S.L.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Holloway, L.R.; Rawluk, M.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from abandoned refinery sites in Alberta, Canada is used to illustrate a tiered analytical approach to the characterization of complex hydrocarbon wastes. Soil extracts isolated from heavy oil- and creosote-contaminated sites were characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), ultraviolet fluorescence, simulated distillation (GC-SIMDIS) and chemical ionization GC-MS analysis. The combined screening and detailed analytical methods provided information essential to remedial technology selection including the extent of contamination, the class composition of soil extracts, the distillation profile of component classes and the distribution of individual class components within various waste fractions. Residual contamination was characteristic of heavy, degraded oils, consistent with documented site operations and length of hydrocarbon exposure at the soil surface

  10. Magnetic Parameter Changes in Soil and Sediments in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M. L.; Ameen, N. N.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic proxies were successfully used for fast and non-destructive detection of fly ash related heavy metal pollution. Correlations of magnetic signals with organic contaminants in soils and sediments were also reported; however, their significance is unclear because of co-existing heavy metal pollution. At a hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated former military airbase (Hradcany, Czech Rep.), where heavy metal contents are insignificant, we detected clearly higher magnetic concentrations at the top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. Frequent GWF by up to ca. one meter was caused through remediation by air sparging. In this study and all previous ones magnetite was identified as the dominant phase for higher magnetic concentrations. To determine the importance of microbial activity and soil parameters on changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) laboratory batch experiments with different microbially active and sterile soils without carbon addition and with gasoline amendment were setup. MS of these microcosms was followed weekly. Depending on the soil MS either increased or decreased by up to ~7% and remained constant afterwards. The main findings were that MS changes were mainly microbially driven and influenced by the bioavailable Fe content, the initial MS and the organic carbon content of the soils. Moreover, we tested magnetic changes in laboratory columns, filled with sand from the field site Hradcany, by simulating water level changes. The observed changes were small and hardly statistically significant. Our laboratory studies revealed that different factors influence changes in magnetic properties of soil/sediments after HC contamination, with much smaller effects than expected from anomalies observed at field sites. With the present results, the ambitious goal of using magnetic monitoring for detecting HC contaminations by oil spills seem far from practical application.

  11. Identification of anthraquinone-degrading bacteria in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A; Zhang, Zhenfa; Adrion, Alden C; Gold, Avram; Aitken, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    Quinones and other oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are toxic and/or genotoxic compounds observed to be cocontaminants at PAH-contaminated sites, but their formation and fate in contaminated environmental systems have not been well studied. Anthracene-9,10-dione (anthraquinone) has been found in most PAH-contaminated soils and sediments that have been analyzed for oxy-PAHs. However, little is known about the biodegradation of oxy-PAHs, and no bacterial isolates have been described that are capable of growing on or degrading anthraquinone. PAH-degrading Mycobacterium spp. are the only organisms that have been investigated to date for metabolism of a PAH quinone, 4,5-pyrenequinone. We utilized DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) with [U-(13)C]anthraquinone to identify bacteria associated with anthraquinone degradation in PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site both before and after treatment in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. SIP with [U-(13)C]anthracene was also performed to assess whether bacteria capable of growing on anthracene are the same as those identified to grow on anthraquinone. Organisms closely related to Sphingomonas were the most predominant among the organisms associated with anthraquinone degradation in bioreactor-treated soil, while organisms in the genus Phenylobacterium comprised the majority of anthraquinone degraders in the untreated soil. Bacteria associated with anthracene degradation differed from those responsible for anthraquinone degradation. These results suggest that Sphingomonas and Phenylobacterium species are associated with anthraquinone degradation and that anthracene-degrading organisms may not possess mechanisms to grow on anthraquinone. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  13. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil: part II, fluxes from coal tar contaminated soils residing below the soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soil, placed below a 5 cm deep layer of uncontaminated soil, were measured in the laboratory over a period of 53 days. The contaminated soil originated from a former gasworks site and contained concentrations of 11 selected aromatic hydrocarbons between 50 to 840 μg/cm 3 . Where the microbial activity was inhibited, the fluxes stabilized on a semi-steady-state level for the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene after a period of 10-20 days. Fluxes of acenaphthene and fluorene were only measurable in an experiment that utilized a cover soil with a low organic content. The fluxes were predicted by a numerical model assuming that the compounds acted independently of each other and that local equilibrium between the air, water, and sorbed phases existed. The model overestimated the fluxes for all the detected aromatic hydrocarbons by a factor of 1.3 to 12. When the cover soil was adapted to degrade naphthalene, the fluxes of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene approached the detection limit after 5 to 8 days. Thereafter the fluxes of these two compounds were less than predicted by the model employing half-life values of 0.5 and 1 day for naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene respectively. 10 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Wet Oxidation of Fine Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons: A Way towards a Remediation Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Collivignarelli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental study was to assess the feasibility of using a wet oxidation (WO process for treating fine soil with a high level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs. Two samples of soil were spiked with two different contaminants (motor oil, and motor oil + diesel. The samples were subjected to a WO bench plant test, where the effect of the main process parameters (i.e., temperature and reaction time on the removal of TPHs was investigated. Results show that the WO process is effective for the decontamination of hydrocarbons, and a strong reduction (>85% can be obtained with the typical working conditions of a full-scale plant (temperature = 250 °C, reaction time = 30 min. The solid residue resulting from the WO process was characterized in order to evaluate the recovery options. In terms of chemical characterization, the contents of the pollutants comply with the Italian regulations for commercial and industrial site use. Moreover, the results of the leaching test suggested that these residues could be reused for ceramic and brick manufacturing processes.

  15. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  16. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  17. Carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by bacteria isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated tropical African soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, L B; Ilori, M O; Amund, O O; Numata, M; Horisaki, T; Nojiri, H

    2014-01-01

    Four bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria, displayed extensive degradation abilities on carbazole, an N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Physicochemical analyses of the sampling sites (ACPP, MWO, NESU) indicate gross pollution of the soils with a high hydrocarbon content (157,067.9 mg/kg) and presence of heavy metals. Phylogenetic analysis of the four strains indicated that they were identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4, Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain BA. The rates of degradation of carbazole by the four isolates during 30 days of incubation were 0.057, 0.062, 0.036, and 0.050 mg L(-1) h(-1) for strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of residual carbazole after 30 days of incubation revealed that 81.3, 85, 64.4, and 76 % of 50 mg l(-1) carbazole were degraded by strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA, respectively. GC-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of the extracts from the growing and resting cells of strains SL1, SL4, and SL6 cultured on carbazole showed detection of anthranilic acid and catechol while these metabolites were not detected in strain BA under the same conditions. This study has established for the first time carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by isolates from African environment.

  18. Bacterial diversity in the active stage of a bioremediation system for mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Nicole; Schlömann, Michael; Mau, Margit

    2006-11-01

    Soils contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons are often cleaned in off-site bioremediation systems. In order to find out which bacteria are active during the degradation phase in such systems, the diversity of the active microflora in a degrading soil remediation system was investigated by small-subunit (SSU) rRNA analysis. Two sequential RNA extracts from one soil sample were generated by a procedure incorporating bead beating. Both extracts were analysed separately by generating individual SSU rDNA clone libraries from cDNA of the two extracts. The sequencing results showed moderate diversity. The two clone libraries were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were two other large groups in the clone libraries. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Epsilonproteobacteria were detected in lower numbers. The obtained sequences were predominantly related to genera for which cultivated representatives have been described, but were often clustered together in the phylogenetic tree, and the sequences that were most similar were originally obtained from soils and not from pure cultures. Most of the dominant genera in the clone libraries, e.g. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Acidovorax and Thiobacillus, had already been detected in (mineral oil hydrocarbon) contaminated environmental samples. The occurrence of the genera Zymomonas and Rhodoferax was novel in mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  19. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L. planting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad El-Din Hassan

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  20. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L.) planting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad El-Din; Bell, Terrence H; Stefani, Franck O P; Denis, David; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  1. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  3. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments. - Highlights: ► Bioremediation performance was investigated on hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. ► Major changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition were observed. ► Temperature exerted the major effect on bacterial assemblages. ► High bacterial diversity increased significantly biodegradation performance. ► This should be considered for sediment remediation by bio-treatments. - Bioremediation strategies which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity may significantly increase the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated marine sediments.

  4. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  5. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  8. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  9. An overview of sites contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses contamination of land and water by radioactive material which is a subject that has been receiving widespread media attention, and has become the cause of much public anxiety. The contaminated sites can be divided broadly into three groups: Those that are quite old, relatively small in size, and the legacy of non-nuclear industrial activities involved with natural radioactivity, mostly in the early part of the century; the chain of uranium extraction plants used during and shortly after World War II, and the plants and laboratories that comprise the Department of Energy (DOE) research and weapons production complex today. It is the latter group that is the focus of greatest public attention at the present time

  10. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Predrag R.; Čalenić Aleksandar I.; Polomčić Dušan M.; Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric bor...

  11. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  12. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, S.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  13. Distinguishing between contaminant and reef effects on meiofauna near offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, P. A.; Jarvis, S. C. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, TX (United States); Kennicutt, M. C. [Texas A and M Univ., Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The GEOMEX study which was initiated in 1993 successfully investigated the long-term effects of hydrocarbon production on macro- and meiobenthos at the community, population, organismic and suborganismic levels. It concluded that adverse effects were localized to within 100-200 m of production platforms. The current study was designed to distinguish between reef and contaminant effects on meiofaunal communities by comparing communities at production platforms, artificial reefs, platform removal sites and appropriate controls. The focus was on highly abundant and diverse meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods which exhibited negative effects in the GEOMEX study. The removal sites were found to have higher concentrations of many contaminants than reef or control sites, but lower concentrations than platform sites. Reduced meiobenthic abundance and altered Harpacticoida community structure were primarily a function of reef effects, not contaminant effects. The reef effect appeared to be important in controlling microfauna near platforms where contaminants were low because of drilling and production techniques in the Gulf of Mexico. The significant habitat influence was attributed to a variety of possible causes, such as increased food web activity related to primary production of hard-bottom algae, secondary production of fouling organisms or attraction of mobile fish and invertebrates. 23 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chow, Ka Lai [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ming Hung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10{sup −6} and 209 × 10{sup −6}, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10{sup −6}) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil.

  15. Evaluation of landfarm remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at the Inveresk Railyard, Launceston, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, M.A.; Garland, C.D.; Crowley, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cost of landfarm bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a disused railyard site in Tasmania, Australia is reported. The landfarm area was enclosed in an impermeable clay embankment and where necessary the base was also rolled with clay. Microbial inoculation was not deemed to be necessary since suitable degrading biota were found to be present in site samples prior to commencement of the landfarming. Fertilizer amendment comprised primarily ammonium sulphate and superphosphate to give a C:N ratio (TPH:fertilizer) of 28:1 and a C:P ratio of 200:1. The soil was turned regularly and watered as required for the 12-month duration of the operation. Over this period levels of TPH showed a linear decline from a mean of 4,644 mg/kg to near 100 mg/kg or less, with greatest losses being in the chain lengths C10-C28. The cost was determined to be $A13.40c per m 3 , which is at the lower end of the spectrum of reported landfarming costs. The cost of such operations is important since the reported economics will influence others' choice of bioremediation techniques

  16. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yu Bon; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin; Giesy, John P.; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10 −6 and 209 × 10 −6 , respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10 −6 ) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil

  17. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  18. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Tomáš; Vosáhlová, S.; Matějů, V.; Kováčová, Nora; Novotný, Čeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-7 ISSN 0090-4341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030; GA AV ČR KJB600200514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bioremediation * ecotoxicity * hydrocarbon-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.620, year: 2007

  19. Effect of hydrocarbon-contaminated fluctuating groundwater on magnetic properties of shallow sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameen, N. N.; Klueglein, N.; Appel, E.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kappler, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 442-460 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : environmental magnetism * magnetic susceptibility * groundwater table fluctuation * hydrocarbon contamination * magnetite formation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  20. Change of magnetic properties due to fluctuations of hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater in unconsolidated sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Petrovský, Eduard; Blaha, U.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 5 (2010), s. 1756-1762 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : hydrocarbon contamination * groundwater table fluctuation * magnetic properties * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.395, year: 2010

  1. Assessment of phytoremediation as an in-situ technique for cleaning oil-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, C. M.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Literature on examples of phytoremediation techniques used in the in-situ remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons is reviewed. The review includes discussion of the key mechanisms involved in each case, benefits, limitations and costs compared to alternative approaches, including natural attenuation, engineering and bioremediation. Review of the literature led to the conclusion that phytoremediation is an effective method for degrading and containing petroleum hydrocarbons in soil, and confirmed the ability of plants to transfer volatile petroleum hydrocarbons, such as napthalene, from the soil to the atmosphere via transpiration. The primary loss mechanism for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons appears to be microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants. The available information also suggests that plants may degrade petroleum hydrocarbons directly, although the indirect role played by plants is far more common. These roles include supplying root exudates for microbial use, releasing root-associated enzymes that degrade contaminants in the soil, and altering soil to promote phytoremediation. BTEX compounds are most easily amenable to phytoremediation; large and lipophilic compounds such as four or five-ring polyaromatic hydrocarbons are more difficult to remediate. The limited information available suggests that phytoremediation is slightly less expensive than bioremediation, and several order of magnitude less than engineering techniques. In general, phytoremediation is faster than natural attenuation, but typically slower than engineering and bioremediation. On the other hand, it is less disruptive to the site than ex-situ engineering and bioremediation that involve excavation efforts. Phytoremediation is most effective with shallow contamination. Preliminary screenings indicate that there are several plant species, native and introduced, that may be used with some success for phytoremediation in the Prairie and Boreal Plains ecozones

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  3. The bio-remediation of the contamination with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Sandra J; Concha, Alexander; Alcalde, Osmar R; Alvarez, Juan C; Garcia, Juan G; Guerra, Fabio W

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the oil industry comprise many processes that represent environmental risks, usually the pollution of the ecosystems with hydrocarbons. When bulky spills occur, the first measure used for damage repair is the physical gathering, but scattered quantities of oil even remain. The last is typical of chronic leakage's when is necessary to make use of other procedures for the environmental restoration. The bioremediation is an effective and economic technique useful in these cases that rest upon natural processes of the detritivorous tropic chain in all the ecosystems. There are over one-hundred species of bacteria and fungi able to profit the hydrocarbons as energy source for feeding, diminishing the pollutant to levels harmless to the physical, chemical and biological properties of the ecosystems. The current weariest stock belongs to the bacteria species pseudomonas aeruginosa. To apply properly this technique is necessary to know the nature of the pollutant, the properties of the substratum and the indigenous microbiological communities. Moreover it is required to control the environmental conditions, mainly aeration, moisture, temperature, pH, and nutrients status of the substratum

  4. Analysis of contamination in liquids hydrocarbons transport for pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Ricardo Zárate Neira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline contamination is usually understood to mean both the mixing effect produced when two different products transported by the same pipeline come into contact qith each other and often product of such mixing as well. This product os often referred to as "contamination" or as "interface" Cleary such intermixing is generally less serious in crude carrying, pipelines where each batch can become somewhat polluted by the batches inmediately preceding and immediately following without significant damage. However, the situation is different in a finished products pipeline, which may carry products as different as aircraft gasoline and light fuel oils. This article presents a brief description of the main factors influencing contamination with the objective of optimize conditions operating and to drive the more important respects about them.

  5. A critical assessment of asphalt batching as a viable remedial option for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, E.J.; Brashears, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt production equipment has been successfully utilized in the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper reports that there are two major ways in which this equipment can be used to remediate the petroleum contaminated soils; by incorporating the contaminated soil in the hot mix asphalt product or by using the equipment to clean the soil thermally of the contaminant, leaving a clean soil material. Both of these processes have limitations encompassing technical, political, and certainly liability problems. The remediation of contaminated soil in hot mix asphalt facilities is primarily a physical phenomenon relying on laws of heat and mass transfer. Although chemical changes do occur, the primary function of the process is to cause a physical separation of the contaminant from the soils

  6. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  8. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  9. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luiza L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm, which were similar to each other.

  10. Ecotoxicological hazard assessment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Y.; Pauwels, S.J.; Chasse, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment (EHA) developed by the Quebec Ministry of Environment and Wildlife was used as part of the management scheme of contaminated soils from a former refinery. The study consists of assessing five types of soils (reference, heavily contaminated, slightly contaminated, thermally-treated, and biotreated) to determine their relative intrinsic hazard. During the exploratory activities a series of ten assessment endpoints where identified to support this typical EHA. During SOURCE characterization, the physicochemical make-up of the soils is described and the presence and concentrations of priority pollutants is determined. During FATE characterization, the potential for bioconcentration, mobility, and persistence of pollutants is determined. During EFFECTS characterization, the soils and their leachates are tested using standard terrestrial and aquatic bioassays. The data from the toxicological and analytical testing program are evaluated semi-quantitatively on the basis of a scoring system developed by consensus. The discussion will highlight how data are used within an EHA to streamline the decision-making process regarding the follow-up cleanup and disposal of contaminated soils

  11. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  12. Land contamination. Technical guidance on special sites: nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Steeds, J.; Slade, N.

    2001-01-01

    Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 sets out a regulatory regime for the identification and remediation of land where contamination is causing unacceptable risks to defined receptors. The Environment Agency has a number of regulatory roles under this regime. Where land is designated as a Special Site, as defined in the Contaminated Land (England) Regulations 2000, the Agency will act as the enforcing authority. It is expected that a similar regime will be introduced in Wales during 2001, but the reader should check whether definitions of Special Sites in the Welsh regulations are the same as in the English ones. The Environment Agency's approach to carrying out its regulatory responsibilities is set out in its Part RA Process Documentation,, available on the Agency website (www.environment-agency. gov.uk). This documentation sets out how the Agency intends to carry out its responsibilities under Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, which came into force in England on 1 April 2000

  13. Contamination by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons: a threat to mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Santos Alencar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet with relevant ecological importance. It offers several services such as protection of the coastal region, immobilization of contaminants, as it is a food source and refuge for various organisms. However, mangroves are threatened by human activities. Oil spills in areas close to mangroves, for example, are potential sources for the entry of contaminants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Among other sources of threat, we list industrial waste and sewage, mining and fertilizer use. When they reach the mangroves, these contaminants may cause several negative effects and affect its balance.

  14. THE GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONING OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS RESULTING FROM SOIL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Lipińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization economy of oil mining and mineral waters is associated with planning the functions of spa treatment. Environmental protection of the spa areas also applies to preserve their technical and cultural heritage. This article attempts to determine the places of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon pollution substances. Their presence in the soil affects the quality of the environment. As a result, maps are produced showing directions of research: (1 the natural background of biodiversity, and (2 potential anthropogenic pollution. They are assessed in the context of the health and human life, protection of the environment and the possibility of damage to the environment. Research is conducted in communes of the status of the spa – for special protection.

  15. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil : annual report (1992-93)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study which examined the remediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil in a field-based bioreactor at a gas processing plant in Nevis, Alberta during 1992 and 1993. The hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil was placed in the Bio-Reactor and treated for eleven months. Four treatments were applied to eight Bio-Reactor cells: (1) ambient temperature/no forced aeration, (2) ambient temperature/forced aeration, (3) optimum temperature/no forced aeration and (4) optimum temperature/forced aeration. The ninth cell was filled with 30 cm contaminated topsoil and maintained under optimum temperature/forced aeration. The contaminated topsoil was kept moist throughout the experiment by an automatic irrigation system. The contaminated topsoil in the heated cells lost 40 per cent of its original hydrocarbon content in one year; the soil in the non-heated cells lost between 25 and 29 per cent in the same period. Results showed that the Bio-Reactor offered an inexpensive means for promoting a natural process for degrading organic compounds by microorganisms in soil. Equally important, it is capable of handling the large volumes of waste produced by the oil and gas industry. 64 refs., 35 tabs., 46 figs

  16. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil by wild ornamental Iridaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijuan; Wang, Yanan; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Binbin; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-03-04

    As a green remediation technology, phytoremediation is becoming one of the most promising methods for treating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)-contaminated soil. Pot culture experiments were conducted in this study to investigate phytoremediation potential of two representative Iridaceae species (Iris dichotoma Pall. and Iris lactea Pall.) in remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results showed that I. lactea was more endurable to extremely high concentration of PHCs (about 40,000 mg/kg), with a relatively high degradation rate of 20.68%.The degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils contaminated with 10,000 and 20,000 mg/kg of PHCs was 30.79% and 19.36% by I. dichotoma, and 25.02% and 19.35% by I. lactea, respectively, which improved by 10-60% than the unplanted controls. The presence of I. dichotoma and I. lactea promoted degradation of PHCs fractions, among which saturates were more biodegradable than aromatics. Adaptive specialization was observed within the bacterial community. In conclusion, phytoremediation by I. dichotoma should be limited to soils contaminated with ≤20,000 mg/kg of PHCs, while I. lactea could be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soils by PHCs with at least 40,000 mg/kg.

  17. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  19. Prediction of ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using physicochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.C.L.; Chai, E.Y.; Chu, K.K.; Dorn, P.B.

    1999-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of eight hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were used to predict toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants. The toxicity of these preremediated soils was assessed using earthworm avoidance, survival, and reproduction and seed germination and root growth in four plant species. No-observed-effect and 25% inhibitory concentrations were determined from the earthworm and plant assays. Physical property measurements and metals analyses of the soils were conducted. Hydrocarbon contamination was characterized by total petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and GC boiling-point distribution. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine relationships between physical and chemical properties and biological endpoints. Soil groupings based on physicochemical properties and toxicity from cluster and principal component analyses were generally similar. Correlation analysis identified a number of significant relationships between soil parameters and toxicity that were used in univariate model development. Total petroleum hydrocarbons by gas chromatography and polars were identified as predictors of earthworm avoidance and survival and seed germination, explaining 65 to 75% of the variation in the data. Asphaltenes also explained 83% of the variation in seed germination. Gravimetric total petroleum hydrocarbons explained 40% of the variation in earthworm reproduction, whereas 43% of the variation in plant root growth was explained by asphaltenes. Multivariate one-component partial least squares models, which identified predictors similar to those identified by the univariate models, were also developed for worm avoidance and survival and seed germination and had predictive powers of 42 and 29%, respectively.

  20. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  1. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and soil samples. Soil suspensions were tested as microbial inocula in biodegradation potential assays using contaminated perlite as an inert support. The basal respiratory rate of the recently contaminated soil was 15-38 mg C-CO 2  kg -1 h -1 , while the weathered soil presented a greater basal mineralisation capacity of 55-70 mg C-CO 2 kg -1 h -1 . The basal levels of lipase and dehydrogenase were significantly greater than those recorded in non-contaminated soils (551 ± 21 μg pNP g -1 ). Regarding the biodegradation potential assessment, the lipase (1000-3000 μg pNP g -1 of perlite) and dehydrogenase (~3000 μg INF g -1 of perlite) activities in the inoculum of the recently contaminated soil were greater than those recorded in the inoculum of the weathered soil. This was correlated with a high mineralisation rate (~30 mg C-CO 2 kg -1 h -1 ) in the recently contaminated soil and a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (~30 %). The combination of an inert support and enzymatic and respirometric analyses made it possible to detect the different biodegradation capacities of the studied inocula and the natural attenuation potential of a recently contaminated soil at high hydrocarbon concentrations.

  2. A method for predicting the extent of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of solid- and slurry-phase soil bioremediation experiments involving different crude oils and refined petroleum products were performed to investigate the factors which affect the maximum extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation. The authors used a comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group-type separation analyses, boiling-point distributions, and hydrocarbon typing by field ionization mass spectroscopy. Initial and final concentrations of specified hydrocarbon classes were determined in each of seven different bioremediation treatments. Generally, they found that the degree of TPH biodegradation was affected mainly by the type of hydrocarbons in the contaminant matrix. In contrast, the influence of experimental variables such as soil type, fertilizer concentrations, microbial plate counts, and treatment type (slurry versus landfarming) on the overall extent of TPH biodegradation was insignificant. Based on these findings, a predictive algorithm was developed to estimate the extent of TPH biodegradation from the average reduction of 86 individual hydrocarbon classes and their respective initial concentrations. Model predictions for gravimetric TPH removals were in close agreement with analytical results from two independent laboratories

  3. Laboratory studies of the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by in-vessel composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Lopez-Real, Joseph; Beck, Angus J.

    2005-01-01

    The biodegradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the USEPA, present in a coal-tar-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site was investigated using laboratory-scale in-vessel composting reactors to determine the suitability of this approach as a bioremediation technology. Preliminary investigations were conducted over 16 weeks to determine the optimum soil composting temperature (38, 55 and 70 deg. C). Three tests were performed; firstly, soil was composted with green-waste, with a moisture content of 60%. Secondly, microbial activity was HgCl 2 -inhibited in the soil green-waste mixture with a moisture content of 60%, to evaluate abiotic losses, while in the third experiment only soil was incubated at the three different temperatures. PAHs and microbial populations were monitored. PAHs were lost from all treatments with 38 deg. C being the optimum temperature for both PAH removal and microbial activity. Calculated activation energy values (E a ) for total PAHs suggested that the main loss mechanism in the soil-green waste reactors was biological, whereas in the soil reactors it was chemical. Total PAH losses in the soil-green waste composting mixtures were by pseudo-first order kinetics at 38 deg. C (k = 0.013 day -1 , R 2 = 0.95), 55 deg. C (k = 0.010 day -1 , R 2 = 0.76) and at 70 deg. C (k = 0.009 day -1 , R 2 = 0.73)

  4. Organic solvents improve hydrocarbon desorption and biodegradation in highly contaminated weathered soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rivero, M. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Mexico City (Mexico); Saucedo-Casteneda, G.; Gutierrez-Rojas, M. [Autonoma Metropolitan Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2007-07-15

    A toluene-based microbial slurry phase system was used to remediate hydrocarbons (HC) in highly contaminated soil samples collected from a site next to a working refinery in Mexico. Initial HC concentrations of the samples were 237.2 {+-} 16,6 g kg{sup -1} in dry soil. The microbial consortium consisted of 10 different strains in a mineral solution. Non-polar solvents used in the phase system included hexane, benzene, and toluene. Polar solvents included n-butanol, acetone, and methanol. The bioavailability of the HCs was increased using both polar and nonpolar solvents in order to promote desorption from the soil and to enhance overall HC biodegradation. HC desorption was analyzed in an abiotic system. Respiration and residual HCs were examined after a period of 30 days in order to compare the effects of the 2 solvents. The biodegradation extracts were then fractionated in a silica gel column to determine if the solvents actually enhanced the biodegradation of specific HC fractions. The study showed that induced dipole interactions forces resulted when nonpolar molecules were dissolved into a nonpolar solvent. Results for desorption and solubility varied among the 6 solvents. Higher dielectric constants resulted in higher solubility and desorption of HCs for nonpolar solvents, while the opposite effect was observed for polar solvents. It was concluded that toluene produced better biodegradation results than any of the milder solvents. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Identifying risk sources of air contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzlik, Jiri; Bozek, Frantisek; Pawelczyk, Adam; Licbinsky, Roman; Naplavova, Magdalena; Pondelicek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification. Statistical evaluation using all aforementioned methods demonstrated different ratios of the monitored PAHs in the intervals examined during warmer and colder periods. Analogous outputs were provided by comparing gradients of the emission factors acquired from the measured concentrations of BghiPe and BaP in motor vehicle exhaust gases. Based on these outputs, it was possible plausibly to state that the influence of burning organic fuels in heating stoves is prevalent in colder periods whereas in warmer periods transport was the exclusive source because other sources of PAH emissions were not found in the examined locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contamination of rivers in Tianjin, China by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Z.; Tao, S.; Pan, B.; Fan, W.; He, X.C.; Zuo, Q.; Wu, S.P.; Li, B.G.; Cao, J.; Liu, W.X.; Xu, F.L.; Wang, X.J.; Shen, W.R.; Wong, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Tianjin urban/industrial complex is highly polluted by some persistent organic pollutants. In this study, the levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were tested in sediment, water, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples in 10 rivers in Tianjin. The total concentration of 16 PAHs varied from 0.787 to 1943 μg/g dry weight in sediment, from 45.81 to 1272 ng/L in water, and from 0.938 to 64.2 μg/g dry weight in SPM. The levels of PAHs in these media are high in comparison with values reported from other river and marine systems. Variability of total concentrations of PAHs in sediment, water, and SPM from nine different rivers is consistent with each other. No obvious trends of total PAHs concentration variations were found between upstream and downstream sediment, water, and SPM samples for most rivers, which indicate local inputs and disturbances along these rivers. The spatial distributions of three-phase PAHs are very similar to each other, and they are also similar to those found in topsoil. However, their chemical profiles are significantly different from that of topsoil. The change of profiles is consistent with the different aqueous transport capability of 16 PAHs. Low molecular weight PAHs predomination suggests a relatively recent local source and coal combustion source of PAHs in the study area. - Coal combustion is suggested as a recent local source of PAHs in this area

  7. Microbial Degradation of Phenols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Creosote-contaminated Groundwater Under Nitrate-reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    of toluene, 2,4-DMP, 3,4-DMP and p-cresol depended on nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptors. 40–80% of the nitrate consumed during degradation of the aromatic compounds was recovered as nitrite, and the consumption of nitrate was accompanied by a production of ATP. Stoichiometric calculations indicated......Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture...... that in addition to the phenols are toluene other carbon sources present in the groundwater contributed to the consumption of nitrate. If the groundwater was incubated under anaerobic conditions without nitrate, sulphate-reducing conditions evolved after ∼ 1 month at 20°C and ∼2 months at 10°C. In the sulphate...

  8. Development and application of techniques for monitoring the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, C.; Hawar, J.; Samson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was designed to examine bioremediation potential in soil and to monitor performance during the treatment operation. Physical and chemical characterization of the soil provides information on the types of organics, their concentrations, and whether interfering materials are present. Microbiological assessment involves culturing of bacterial populations in the soil and examination of the colonies to determine which have the genetic potential to degrade the soil contaminants. Catabolic gene probes are used to survey viable bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Such soils consistently demonstrate the presence of bacteria possessing the genetic capability to degrade simple straight-chain alkanes and aromatics. Mineralization and respirometric studies are indicators of the biological activity in the soil, and can be directed at microbial activity towards specific substrates. Gene probe monitoring of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil during biopile treatment demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial numbers and activity were temperature dependent. The results showed that the activity of the indigenous bacteria as measured by hexadecane mineralization also correlated with the disappearance of the oil and grease. The application of this protocol has provided a useful means to screen contaminated soils for bacteria with desirable catabolic properties and to monitor pollutant-degrading bacteria during biotreatment. 15 refs., 10 figs

  9. Effect of single and mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on plant biomass yield and PAH dissipation during phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Batty, Lesley Claire

    2018-04-27

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites have a mixture of PAH of varying concentration which may affect PAH dissipation differently to contamination with a single PAH. In this study, pot experiments investigated the impact of PAH contamination on Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, and Festuca arundinacea biomass and PAH dissipation from soils spiked with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in single and mixed treatments. Stimulatory or inhibitory effects of PAH contamination on plant biomass yields were not different for the single and mixed PAH treatments. Results showed significant effect of PAH treatments on plant growth with an increased root biomass yield for F. arundinacea in the Phe (175%) and Flu (86%) treatments and a root biomass decrease in the mixed treatment (4%). The mean residual PAHs in the planted treatments and unplanted control for the single treatments were not significantly different. B[a]P dissipation was enhanced for single and mixed treatments (71-72%) with F. arundinacea compared to the unplanted control (24-50%). On the other hand, B[a]P dissipation was inhibited with L. perenne (6%) in the single treatment and M. sativa (11%) and L. perenne (29%) in the mixed treatment. Abiotic processes had greater contribution to PAH dissipation compared to rhizodegradation in both treatments. In most cases, a stimulatory effect of PAH contamination on plant biomass yield without an enhancement of PAH dissipation was observed. Plant species among other factors affect the relative contribution of PAH dissipation mechanisms during phytoremediation. These factors determine the effectiveness and suitability of phytoremediation as a remedial strategy for PAH-contaminated sites. Further studies on impact of PAH contamination, plant selection, and rhizosphere activities on soil microbial community structure and remediation outcome are required.

  10. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  11. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray-Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities.

  12. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar at manufactured-gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.C.; Rao, P.S.C.; Lee, L.S.; Okuda, I.

    1992-08-01

    One component of the EPRI's research on Envirorunental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) consists of developing information and models to predict releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at MGP sites. The results of this report focus primarily on release of PAHs from coal tars. There are at least two approaches to predicting the release of organic chemicals from coal tar to water. The simplest method to estimate aqueous concentrations is to assume that water solubility of a PAH compound released from the tar can be defined by equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions. Application of Raoult's law is another method to predict aqueous concentrations, which requires the assumption of ''ideal'' behavior for partitioning of PAHs between the tar and water phases. To evaluate the applicability of these two methods for predicting PAH releases, laboratory experiments were conducted with eight coal tar samples from former MGP sites across the country. Migration of chemicals in the environment and resulting contaminant plumes in groundwater are determined by leachate concentrations of the chemicals. The use of equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions will usually result in an overestimation of PAH concentrations in the leachate from a coal tar source, and thus the resulting PAH concentrations in groundwater. Raoult's law appears to be a more accurate approach to predicting the release of several PAHs from coal tars. Furthermore, if nonequilibrium conditions prevail, aqueous-phase PAH concentrations will be even lower than those predicted using Raoult's law

  13. Surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.W.; Park, J.Y.; Lee, H.H.; Cho, H.J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) using electrokinetic method was studied in a model system. Kaolinite and phenanthrene were selected as the model clay soil and representative HOC. Three different types of surfactants, APG (alkyl polyglucoside), Brij30 (polyoxyethylene 4 lauryl ether), and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), were used to enhance the solubility of HOCs. Electrokinetic (EK) column experiments were performed using water, surfactant solution, and acetate buffer solution under a constant current condition. Voltage and flow through the soil system were interpreted with time. Electrolyte pH at the anode and cathode compartments was observed for operation time. Removal efficiency of phenanthrene was examined after the end of EK operation during 2, 4, and 6 weeks. (orig.)

  14. Landfarming of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil contaminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Important in this study was the landfarm on Kreekraksluizen where landfarming was investigated in cooperation with RIZA, during a period of more than 10 years, which made it possible to predict the effect of landfarming in the long term. The database for this site is unique and will be extended in

  15. Metagenome-based metabolic reconstruction reveals the ecophysiological function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hardy Keller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing experiments with 13C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood.Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of a sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was

  16. Metagenome-Based Metabolic Reconstruction Reveals the Ecophysiological Function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sulfidic Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andreas H; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Starke, Robert; Bertilsson, Stefan; Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with (13)C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood. Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of an sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was recently

  17. Comparison of Phytoscreening and Direct-Push- Based Site Investigation at a Rural Megasite Contaminated with Chlorinated Ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Holm, Olaf; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    areas in particular. Here we compare two site screening techniques that can be applied quickly at relatively low cost, namely Direct Push (DP)-based groundwater sampling and tree core sampling. The effectiveness of both methods is compared for a rural megasite contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons...

  18. Abundance and diversity of n-alkane-degrading bacteria in a forest soil co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and metals: a molecular study on alkB homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Unraveling functional genes related to biodegradation of organic compounds has profoundly improved our understanding of biological remediation processes, yet the ecology of such genes is only poorly understood. We used a culture-independent approach to assess the abundance and diversity of bacteria catalyzing the degradation of n-alkanes with a chain length between C(5) and C(16) at a forest site co-contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and metals for nearly 60 years. The alkB gene coding for a rubredoxin-dependent alkane monooxygenase enzyme involved in the initial activation step of aerobic aliphatic hydrocarbon metabolism was used as biomarker. Within the area of study, four different zones were evaluated: one highly contaminated, two intermediately contaminated, and a noncontaminated zone. Contaminant concentrations, hydrocarbon profiles, and soil microbial respiration and biomass were studied. Abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacteria was quantified via real-time PCR of alkB, whereas genetic diversity was examined using molecular fingerprints (T-RFLP) and clone libraries. Along the contamination plume, hydrocarbon profiles and increased respiration rates suggested on-going natural attenuation at the site. Gene copy numbers of alkB were similar in contaminated and control areas. However, T-RFLP-based fingerprints suggested lower diversity and evenness of the n-alkane-degrading bacterial community in the highly contaminated zone compared to the other areas; both diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of alkB denoted a shift of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from Gram-positive bacteria in the control zone (most similar to Mycobacterium and Nocardia types) to Gram-negative genotypes in the contaminated zones (Acinetobacter and alkB sequences with little similarity to those of known bacteria). Our results underscore a qualitative rather than a quantitative response of

  19. Characterization of bacterial community structure in a hydrocarbon-contaminated tropical African soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Ilori, Mathew O; Amund, Olukayode O; LiiMien, Yee; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2018-04-01

    The bacterial community structure in a hydrocarbon-contaminated Mechanical Engineering Workshop (MWO) soil was deciphered using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Four hundred and thirty-seven clones cutting across 13 bacterial phyla were recovered from the soil. The representative bacterial phyla identified from MWO soil are Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Ignavibacteriae, Spirochaetes, Chlamydiae, Candidatus Saccharibacteria and Parcubacteria. Proteobacteria is preponderant in the contaminated soil (51.2%) with all classes except Epsilonproteobacteria duly represented. Rarefaction analysis indicates 42%, 52% and 77% of the clone library is covered at the species, genus and family/class delineations with Shannon diversity (H') and Chao1 richness indices of 5.59 and 1126, respectively. A sizeable number of bacterial phylotypes in the clone library shared high similarities with strains previously described to be involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. Novel uncultured genera were identified that have not been previously reported from tropical African soil to be associated with natural attenuation of hydrocarbon pollutants. This study establishes the involvement of a wide array of physiologically diverse bacterial groups in natural attenuation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil.

  20. Control of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater by intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Surampalli, Rao Y; Lee, Mu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the first phase of this study, the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the containment of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated at a gasoline spill site. Evidences of the occurrence of intrinsic bioremediation within the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) plume included (1) decreased BTEX concentrations; (2) depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, and sulfate; (3) production of dissolved ferrous iron, methane, and CO2; (4) deceased pH and redox potential; and (5) increased methanogens, total heterotrophs, and total anaerobes, especially within the highly contaminated areas. In the second phase of this study, enhanced aerobic bioremediation process was applied at site to enhance the BTEX decay rates. Air was injected into the subsurface near the mid-plume area to biostimulate the naturally occurring microorganisms for BTEX biodegradation. Field results showed that enhanced bioremediation process caused the change of BTEX removal mechanisms from anaerobic biodegradation inside the plume to aerobic biodegradation. This variation could be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the enhanced aerobic bioremediation process: (1) increased in DO, CO2, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decreased in dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total heterotrophs and decreased total anaerobes. Field results also showed that the percentage of total BTEX removal increased from 92% to 99%, and the calculated total BTEX first-order natural attenuation rates increased from 0.0092% to 0.0188% per day, respectively, after the application of enhanced bioremediation system from the spill area to the downgradient area (located approximately 300 m from the source area).

  1. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the rem...

  2. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  3. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  4. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993

  5. A soil washing pilot plant for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, I.A.; Roehrig, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A soil washing pilot plant was built and tested for its ability to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from certain soils. The ITEX soil washing pilot plant is a trailer mountable mobile unit which has a washing capacity of two tons per hour of contaminated soils. A benchscale study was carried out prior to the fabrication of the pilot plant. The first sample was contaminated with diesel fuel while the second sample was contaminated with crude oil. Various nonionic, cationic and anionic cleaning agents were evaluated for their ability to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from these materials. The nonionic cleaning agents were more successful in cleaning the soils in general. The ultimate surfactant choice was based on several factors including cost, biodegradability, cleaning efficiency and other technical considerations. The soil samples were characterized in terms of their particle size distributions. Commercial diesel fuel was carefully mixed in this sand to prepare a representative sample for the pilot plant study. Two pilot runs were made using this material. A multistage washing study was also conducted in the laboratory which indicates that the contamination level can be reduced to 100 ppm using only four stages. Because the pilot plant washing efficiency is twice as high, it is believed that ultimate contamination levels can be reduced to lower levels using the same number of stages. However, this hypothesis has not been demonstrated to date

  6. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Biological Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Moslemi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the consequences of discharging industrial wastes to land and water bodies, is the widespread accumulation and migration of toxic chemical mixtures in soil and groundwater resources. It is believed that the accumulation of contaminants in the environment constitutes a serious threat to ecological and human health. Bioremediation is an effective measure in dealing with such contaminations particularly those from petroleum hydrocarbon sources; moreover bioremediation is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. Therefore the goal of this study is discussing the theory and practice of biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils and assessing the effects of operational conditions and parameters such as: temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and  pH on the removal rate of the target contaminant which is handled in the designed reactor. Due to large production and consumption rate of diesel fuel inIran and many other countries, diesel fuel has been selected as target contaminant. In this study TOC and COD testing methods have been used to measure and assess the removal rate of the contaminant in the reactor. The experimental results indicate that, considering the operational conditions the indigenous microorganisms which have been separated from the soil are able to remove 50 to 83 percent of the contaminant after 30 days. Thereafter on the base of the results and considering the laboratorial specifications and conditions applied in this project, the optimum values of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration andpH were respectively determined as 35°C, 4mg/L and 7.

  7. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum germination to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in soil(s) artificially and historically contaminated with mixtures of PAR The level of germination of L. sativum decreased with increasing...

  8. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  9. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  10. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  11. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  12. Chemical and microbiological investigations on mineral-oil contaminated soils following on-site regeneration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Bosecker, K.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In the site of a former petroleum refinery, where bombing during the second World War has caused in part deep-down contamination of the ground with petroleum and its products, a pilot study with five on-site biological treatment beds was carried through by different firms with the aim to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the soil to 1 gramme per kilogramme of dry weight. Thus, good comparability of the different regeneration measures was given. Sampling was done at the end of the regeneration experiments by obtaining an average sample. (orig.) [de

  13. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  14. Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawierucha, I [Institute of Chemistry and Environment Protection, Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Waszyngtona 4/8, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Malina, G, E-mail: iwona_zawierucha@o2.pl [Faculty of Hydrogeology and Geology Engineering, Department of Geology, Geophysics and Environment Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-04-01

    Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O{sub 2} supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O{sub 2} uptake and CO{sub 2} production. The O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O{sub 2} uptake and CO{sub 2} production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO{sub 4} in concentration of 20 g L{sup -1} was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminated soils; Phytoremediation des sols contamines aux metaux lourds et aux hydrocarbures recalcitrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Chateauneuf, G.; Sura, C. [Inspec-Sol Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Labrecque, M.; Galipeau, C. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale; Greer, C.; Delisle, S.; Roy, S.; Labelle, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Research in Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to decontaminate soils and underground water. Inspec-Sol, a company located in Montreal, Quebec, conducted a two-year study to evaluate the decontamination capabilities of this technology. Trials in greenhouses and field studies at the Pitt Park along the Lachine Canal were conducted. The soils chosen for the studies were soils with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc) higher than those prescribed for the safe utilization of soils. The trials identified the three plant species (Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Festuca arundinacea) which had the best characteristics for phytoremediation. Controlled experiments were performed to optimize the technology to achieve the maximum extraction of contaminant. It was concluded that phytoremediation has potential for the remediation of urban soils contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants.

  17. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation in aquifers contaminated with chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Aalst-van Leeuwen, M.A. van; Heiningen, E. van; Buyzen, H. van; Sinke, A.; Liere, H.C. van; Harkes, M.; Baartmans, R.; Bosma, T.N.P.; Doddema, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation approaches for 16 contaminated sites in the Netherlands are discussed. At at least five out of 10 chlorinated solvent sites, natural attenuation can be used as one of the tools to prevent further dispersion of the plume. At two sites

  19. Soil washing and post-wash biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Alok

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soils by soil washing and subsequent biological treatment of the different soil fractions. In addition to soils obtained from contaminated sites, studies were also performed on soils contaminated in the laboratory. Soil washing was performed using a bench-scale soil washing system. Washing was carried out with simultaneous fractionation of the bulk soil into sand, silt and clay fractions. Cl...

  20. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Contaminated Soil Using Bacillus pumilus MVSV3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra Sheeba; Lakshmi, Mahalingam Brinda; Rajagopal, Perumalsam; Velan, Manickam

    2017-01-01

     A study on bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum sludge was performed using Bacillus pumilus/MVSV3 (Accession number JN089707). In this study, 5 kg of agricultural soil was mixed well with 5% oil sludge and fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N:P:K). The treatment resulted in 97% removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 122 d in bacteria mixed contaminated soil when compared to 12% removal of TPH in uninoculated contaminated soil. The population of the microorganism remained stable after introduced into the oil environment. The physical and chemical parameters of the soil mixed with sludge showed variation indicating improvement and the pH level decreased during the experiment period. Elemental analysis and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed the bacterial ability to degrade oil sludge components. Growth experiments with Trigonellafoenumgraecum (Fenugreek) showed the applicability of bioremediated soil for the production.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife.

  2. Methods for the analysis and remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Berardi, S.; Marino, A.; Paglietti, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, in recent years, the number of contaminated sites has multiplied disproportionately. In essence, contamination is caused by accidental spills or intentional discharge of pollutants into the soils or waters from industrial activities, or non-controlled deposits of urban and/or industrial waste, mostly part toxic and harmful. Contaminated sites clearly pose risks to human health and the environment; hence the need to remediate these sites. The remediation of soil and water and the restoration of degraded areas are complex operations requiring specific technical and scientific know-how, including knowledge of the methodologies and tools required to tackle problems arising during the different phases of the remediation process. These include, in particular: - health and environmental risk assessment procedures for the quantification of risks to human health (general population and workers) and the environment from a contaminated site; - remote sensing and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which are a fundamentally important IT support for each phase of planning and management of remediation interventions; - criteria for the management of sites contaminated by asbestos, a highly carcinogenic and therefore hazardous substance that was widely used in the past due to its particular mechanical and thermal characteristics; - analysis of the issues relating to waste management in contaminated sites; - relationship between safety procedures for workers and the general population. Identification of the best available techniques for an efficient, integrated management of contaminated sites, which will also take into account the health protection of workers and of the general population living near such sites

  3. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  4. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the removal rate of total n-alkanes (45.83 %) was higher than that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (30.34 %). The amendment of biochar did not result in significant improvement of TPH removal. In contrast, it showed a clear negative impact on the growth of ryegrass and the removal of TPHs by ryegrass. The removal rate of TPHs was significantly lower after the amendment of biochar. The results indicated that planting ryegrass is an effective remediation strategy, while the amendment of biochar may not be suitable for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  6. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  7. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  8. Multi-contamination (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of littoral sediments and the associated ecological risk assessment in a large lake in France (Lake Bourget).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécrivain, Nathalie; Aurenche, Vincent; Cottin, Nathalie; Frossard, Victor; Clément, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    The lake littoral sediment is exposed to a large array of contaminants that can exhibit significant spatial variability and challenge our ability to assess contamination at lake scale. In this study, littoral sediment contamination was characterized among ten different sites in a large peri-alpine lake (Lake Bourget) regarding three groups of contaminants: 6 heavy metals, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls. The contamination profiles significantly varied among sites and differed from those previously reported for the deepest zone of the lake. An integrative approach including chemical and biological analyses was conducted to relate site contamination to ecological risk. The chemical approach consisted in mean PEC quotient calculation (average of the ratios of the contaminants concentration to their corresponding Probable Effect Concentration values) and revealed a low and heterogeneous toxicity of the contaminant mixture along the littoral. Biological analysis including both laboratory (microcosm assays) and in situ (Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measurements) experiments highlighted significant differences among sites both in the field and in laboratory assays suggesting a spatial variation of the biota response to contamination. Linear regressions were performed between mean PEC quotients and biological results to assess whether littoral ecological risk was explained by the contamination profiles. The results highly depended on the study benthic or pelagic compartment. Regarding autochthonous Corbicula fluminea, no significant relationship between mean PEC quotients and biomarker activity was found while a significant increase in AChE was observed on autochthonous chironomids, suggesting different stress among benthic organisms. Both AChE and GST in caged pelagic Daphnia magna showed a significant positive relationship with mean PEC quotients. This study underlines the importance of

  9. Hot air vapor extraction system for remediation of petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Karr, L.; Fann, S.; Mathews, A.P.; Price, P.A.; Linginemi, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a demonstration of a technology entitled ''Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)'' at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site (HNTS), Port Hueneme, California. The demonstration of the HAVE technology at HNTS was conducted over a 3-month period between August 21, 1995 and November 22, 1995 and the lessons learned from the demonstration are discussed in details to guide the Department of Defense decision makers in analyzing the applicability of this technology to their contaminated sites. This technology demonstration was conducted under the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of the National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program (NETDP). The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) validate the efficacy of the HAVE technology to treat a wide range of hydrocarbons contaminated soils, (2) gather data to estimate treatment costs, and (3) develop engineering guidance needed to apply this remediation technology DoD-wide. Test runs were made on 5 different treatment cells containing various fuel hydrocarbons, ranging from gasoline to heavier petroleum fractions such as lubricating oil. Computer modeling was conducted to analyze the test results and also to optimize the HAVE system design. An economic analysis conducted for various remediation project sizes ranging from 750 to 9,000 cubic yards, the per cubic yard treatment costs are found to vary from $64.05 down to $36.54 respectively

  10. Soil-Water Repellency and Critical Humidity as Cleanup Criteria for Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Adams, Randy H.

    2010-05-01

    The majority of soil remediation programs focus mainly on reducing the hydrocarbon concentration, based on the assumption that the primary impact is toxicity and/or leachates and that these are directly proportional to concentration. None-the-less, interference with natural soil-water interactions are frequently more damaging, especially for sites contaminated with very viscous, weathered hydrocarbons. Therefore, the kind of hydrocarbons present in the soil and their interactions with soil surfaces may be more important than the overall hydrocarbon concentration in terms of soil restoration. One recently patented technology, the Chemical-Biological Stabilization process, focuses specifically on restoring soil fertility as the main objective for remediation of sites with agricultural use. This method was recently validated at an industrial scale by the treatment of 150 cubic meters of bentonitic drilling muds (70,5% fines) from an old sulphur mine, which were contaminated with very weathered oil (4° API), consisting of 31% asphaltenes. This material was treated by adding 4% (w/w, dry) of calcium hydroxide, followed by 4% (w/w, dry) of sugar cane cachasse (a fine fibered agricultural waste), thoroughly mixing between additions using an excavator. After the soil had dried sufficiently and the pH was soil water repellency. MED was measured on air dried soil and WDPT values were calculated from the extrapolation of penetration time vs. ethanol molarity functions (Rx=0,99). Additionally, water penetration times were measured at different humidities to determine critical moisture levels for absorption in soil humic substances while a vigorous vegetative growth was established. During two years of treatment the MED values were reduced 30% from 5,13 to 3,58M, and WDPT values were reduced over 25 times (from 10 exp5,6 s to 10 exp4,2 s). Critical humidity values varied from ~16,9 - 19,5%H for penetration in treated and untreated material. During the driest part of the year

  11. Modeling potential migration of petroleum hydrocarbons from a mixed-waste disposal site in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawson, S.A.; Walton, J.C.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of a mixed-waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has confirmed release and migration into the vadose zone of: (1) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vapor phase and (2) trace levels of certain transuranic elements. The finding has prompted an evaluation of the potential role of waste petroleum hydrocarbons in mediating or influencing contaminant migration from the disposal site. Disposal records indicate that a large volume of machine oil contaminated with transuranic isotopes was disposed at the site along with the chlorinated solvents and other radioactive wastes. A multiphase flow model was used to assess the possible extent of oil and vapor movement through the 177 m thick vadose zone. One dimensional simulations were performed to estimate the vertical distribution of the vapor phase, the aqueous phase, and immiscible free liquid as a function of time. The simulations indicate that the oil may migrate slowly through the vadose zone, to potentially significant depths. Calculated transport rates support the following ranking with regard to relative mobility: vapor phase > aqueous phase > free liquid. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Mandal, Asit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel metal-immobilizing organoclay (MIOC) synthesized and characterized. • MIOC immobilizes toxic metals and reduces metal bioavailability. • It enhances PAH-bioavailability to soil bacteria. • It improves microbial growth and activities in mixed-contaminated soils. • MIOC facilitates PAH-biodegradation in metal co-contaminated soils. - Abstract: Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad ® 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC > unmodified bentonite > Arquad–bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10–43%) as well as activities (respiration 3–44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils

  13. Study of radionuclide contamination at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the contamination technical areas of the former Semipalatinsk test site is discussed in details. It is concluded, that radioactive contamination of the Degelen technical area caused by underground nuclear tests is mainly retained within tunnels and cavities. Investigation showed that many tunnel portal areas here are contaminated by radioactive substances. Areas of significantly high contamination levels are also found at the Balapan technical area mainly around borehole sleeves. A serious source of radioactive contamination is tritium in used boreholes and high content of radionuclides produced due to the fission of nuclear device and activation of rocks at crater rim around the Atom lake

  14. Visualizing and Quantifying Bioaccessible Pores in Field-Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Clay Soils Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Kim, J.; Zhu, N.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial hydrocarbon degradation is environmentally significant and applicable to contaminated site remediation practices only when hydrocarbons (substrates) are physically bioaccessible to bacteria in soil matrices. Powerful X-rays are produced by synchrotron radiation, allowing for bioaccessible pores in soil (larger than 4 microns), where bacteria can be accommodated, colonize and remain active, can be visualized at a much higher resolution. This study visualized and quantified such bioaccessible pores in intact field-aged, oil-contaminated unsaturated soil fractions, and examined the relationship between the abundance of bioaccessible pores and hydrocarbon biodegradation. Using synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) at the Canadian Light Source, a large dataset of soil particle characteristics, such as pore volumes, surface areas, number of pores and pore size distribution, was generated. Duplicate samples of five different soil fractions with different soil aggregate sizes and water contents (13, 18 and 25%) were examined. The method for calculating the number and distribution of bioaccessible pores using CT images was validated using the known porosity of Ottawa sand. This study indicated that the distribution of bioaccessible pore sizes in soil fractions are very closely related to microbial enhancement. A follow-up aerobic biodegradation experiment for the soils at 17 °C (average site temperature) over 90 days confirmed that a notable decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations occurred in soils fractions with abundant bioaccessible pores and with a larger number of pores between 10 and 100 μm. The hydrocarbon degradation in bioactive soil fractions was extended to relatively high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C16-C34). This study provides quantitative information about how internal soil pore characteristics can influence bioremediation performance.

  15. 3D electrical image in area contaminated by hydrocarbons at the Cubatao, Brazil, industrial pole; Imageamento eletrico 3D em area contaminada por hidrocarbonetono no polo industrial de Cubatao - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessa, Marcus Paulus Martins [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello, CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcus.baessa@petrobras.br; Oliva, Andresa; Kiang, Chang Hung [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: aoliva@rc.unesp.br, chang@rc.unesp.br

    2010-12-15

    This work presents the results of geophysical surveys performed over an oil contaminated site in the Polo Industrial de Cubatao - Sao Paulo. The aim is to characterize geoelectrical signatures associated to hydrocarbon presence in order to delimit and calculate the volume of the contaminated area. For this study were used Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 3D Electrical Imaging for characterization of geology and geoelectrical response of the contaminant. The results showed that the hydrocarbon presence is associated to conductive anomalies due to products from biodegradation. The conductive anomalies are disseminated over the area, totalizing 1365.3 m3 volume. This volume, however, corresponds only to the residual phase contaminants, since it was not possible to map free-phase hydrocarbons. (author)

  16. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites

  17. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  18. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  19. Remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by ex situ microwave treatment: technical, energy and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, P P; Vagliasindi, F G A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the remediation of diesel-polluted soils was investigated by simulating an ex situ microwave (MW) heating treatment under different conditions, including soil moisture, operating power and heating duration. Based on experimental data, a technical, energy and economic assessment for the optimization of full-scale remediation activities was carried out. Main results show that the operating power applied significantly influences the contaminant removal kinetics and the moisture content in soil has a major effect on the final temperature reachable during MW heating. The first-order kinetic model showed an excellent correlation (r2 > 0.976) with the experimental data for residual concentration at all operating powers and for all soil moistures tested. Excellent contaminant removal values up to 94.8% were observed for wet soils at power higher than 600 W for heating duration longer than 30 min. The use of MW heating with respect to a conventional ex situ thermal desorption treatment could significantly decrease the energy consumption needed for the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from soils. Therefore, the MW treatment could represent a suitable cost-effective alternative to the conventional thermal treatment for the remediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

  20. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  1. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  2. Biodegradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Petroleum Oil Contaminating The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partila, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres (Chen et al., 2013). PAHs enter the environment via incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and accidental leakage of petroleum products, and as components of products such as creosote (Muckian et al., 2009). Due to PAHs carcinogenic activity, they have been included in the European Union (EU) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutant lists. Human exposure to PAHs occurs in three ways, inhalation, dermal contact and consumption of contaminated foods, which account for 88-98% of such contamination; in other words, diet is the major source of human exposure to these contaminants (Rey-Salgueiro et al., 2008). Both the World Health Organization and the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) have considered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker of the carcinogenic potency of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixture (Delgado-Saborit et al., 2011). Polycyclic aromatic and heavier aliphatic hydrocarbons, which have a stable recalcitrant molecular structure, exhibit high hydrophobicity and low aqueous solubility, are not readily removed from soil through leaching and volatilization (Brassington et al., 2007). The hydrophobicity of PAHs limits desorption to the aqueous phase (Donlon et al., 2002). Six main ways of dissipation, i.e. disappearance, are recognized in the environment: volatilization, photooxidation, Aim of the Work chemical oxidation, sorption, leaching and biodegradation. Microbial degradation is considered to be the main process involved in the dissipation of PAH (Yuan et al., 2002). Thus, more and more research interests are turning to the biodegradation of PAHs. Some microorganisms can utilize PAHs as a source of carbon and energy so that PAHs can be degraded to carbon dioxide and water, or transformed to other nontoxic or low-toxic substances (Perelo, 2010). Compared with other physical and chemical methods such as combustion

  3. Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Mixtures in Underground Contaminated Water in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aoudia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in diesel contaminated underground water in Oman (Rustaq, Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry was first used to determine the different concentrations in a standard mixture containing 16 PAHs. Retention time and calibration curves were obtained for all aromatic compounds and were used to identify a given analyte as well as its concentration in the contaminated underground water. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF was then used to treat standard aqueous solution of PAHs at low concentration (~ 1 ppb using an edible nonionic surfactant (Tween 80. The totality of the mixture components was completely rejected. Within the experimental detection limit (± 0.01 ppb, the residual PAH concentrations were less than 0.01 ppb in accord with the allowed concentrations in drinking water. Likewise, excellent rejections of PAHs in MEUF treatment of diesel contaminated underground water at an Omani site (Rustaq were observed. The concentration of PAHs was reduced to less than 0.01 ppb, the accepted limit for the most toxic member of the PAH group (benzo(apyrene.

  4. Effects of humic acid on phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soyoung Park; Ki Seob Kim; Jeong-Tae Kim; Daeseok Kang; Kijune Sung

    2011-01-01

    The use of humic acid (HA) to enhance the efficiency of phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel was evaluated in this study.A sample of soil was artificially contaminated with commercially available diesel fuel to an initial total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 2300 mg/kg and four heavy metals with concentrations of 400 mg/kg for Pb,200 mg/kg for Cu,12 mg/kg for Cd,and 160 mg/kg for Ni.Three plant species,Brassica campestris,Festuca arundinacea,and Helianthus annuus,were selected for the phytodegradation experiment.Percentage degradation of TPH in the soil in a control pot supplemented with HA increased to 45% from 30% without HA.The addition of HA resulted in an increases in the removal of TPH from the soil in pots planted with B.campestris,F.arundinacea,and H.annuus,enhancing percentage degradation to 86%,64%,and 85% from 45%,54%,and 66%,respectively.The effect of HA was also observed in the degradation of n-alkanes within 30 days.The rates of removal of n-alkanes in soil planted with B.campestris and H.annuus were high for n-alkanes in the range of C11-C28.A dynamic increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed during the last 15 days of a 30-day experimental period in all the pots amended with HA.The enhanced biodegradation performance for TPHs observed might be due to an increase in microbial activities and bioavailable TPH in soils caused by combined effects of plants and HA.The results suggested that HA could act as an enhancing agent for phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel and heavy metals.

  5. Integrated environmental risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated sites - a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an integrated risk assessment approach is proposed for evaluating environmental risks derived from petroleum-contaminated sites. The proposed approach is composed of (i) a hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM) which is used for simulating immiscible flow of released hydrocarbons in vadose zone, formation of lens in capillary fringe, dissolution of pollutants at water table, and transport of the pollutants to receptors, and (ii) a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model which is developed for comprehensively evaluating risks caused by a number of pollutants with different impact characteristics, based on the HSSM results. This hybrid HSSM-FRA approach was applied to a case study for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada, where soil and groundwater was contaminated by industrial wastes containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEXs). The results suggest that the HSSM-FRA can provide insight into the potential risk to the receptor of concern downward the aquifer and can serve as a basis for further remediation-related decision analysis. (author)

  6. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  7. Ranking harbours in the Maritime provinces of Canada for potential to contaminate American lobster (Homarus americanus) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouse, N.J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination within selected harbors in the Maritime provinces of Canada were evaluated by assessing point sources, population, industrial and commercial activity, international and domestic ship traffic, and the number of commercial fishing vessels. Results showed that Sydney ranked as the highest potential for PAH contamination. Ranking of the other Maritime harbors was also presented. The lobster contamination with PAHs was reviewed.

  8. Most hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the total environment are diazotrophic, which highlights their value in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Eliyas, Mohamed; Khanafer, Majida; Sorkhoh, Naser A; Radwan, Samir S

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-two out of the 100 hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species that have been already isolated from oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sites, characterized by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequencing, and preserved in our private culture collection, grew successfully in a mineral medium free of any nitrogenous compounds with oil vapor as the sole carbon source. Fifteen out of these 82 species were selected for further study based on the predominance of most of the isolates in their specific sites. All of these species tested positive for nitrogenase using the acetylene reduction reaction. They belonged to the genera Agrobacterium, Sphingomonas, and Pseudomonas from oily desert soil and Nesiotobacter, Nitratireductor, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Arthrobacter, Marinobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Diatzia, Mycobacterium, and Microbacterium from the Arabian/Persian Gulf water body. A PCR-DGGE-based sequencing analysis of nifH genes revealed the common occurrence of the corresponding genes among all the strains tested. The tested species also grew well and consumed crude oil effectively in NaNO3 -containing medium with and without nitrogen gas in the top space. On the other hand, these bacteria only grew and consumed crude oil in the NaNO3 -free medium when the top space gas contained nitrogen. We concluded that most hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are diazotrophic, which allows for their wide distribution in the total environment. Therefore, these bacteria are useful for the cost-effective, environmentally friendly bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

  9. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  10. Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel Contaminated Sites, Technical Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This report assesses the degree to which various types or engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater...

  11. Oil and gas site contamination risks : improved oversight needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    British Columbia has seen record levels of activities in the oil and gas sector. Upstream petroleum processes include exploration, well completion and production. Site contamination can occur during all of these activities, resulting in potential environmental and human health impacts. Although well operators are responsible by law for site restoration, there is a potential risk that some operators will not fulfill their responsibilities, thereby leaving the province liable for the site restoration costs. In British Columbia, the BC Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is responsible for managing these risks through oversight activities designed to ensure that industry meets its obligations. The OGC also manages the orphan sites reclamation fund. This report presented an audit of the OGC in order to determine if it is providing adequate oversight of upstream oil and gas site contamination risks. The audit examined whether the agency responsibilities are clear and whether the OGC is fully aware of the environmental and financial risks associated with upstream oil and gas site contamination. The audit also examined if the OGC has established appropriate procedures to oversee the risks and to inform the public of how effectively site contamination risks are being managed. The report presented the audit background, audit expectations, findings, conclusions and recommendations. It was concluded that the OGC's oversight of the environmental and financial risks associated with oil and gas site contamination needs improving. tabs., figs.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H.; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m 2 . The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures

  13. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  14. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  15. Combined in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils by closed-loop soil vapor extraction and air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.S.; Buckler, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment and restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at a bulk petroleum above-ground storage tank (AST) site in Michigan is being conducted through in-situ and ex-situ closed-loop soil vapor extraction (SVE), soil vapor treatment, and treated air injection (AI) processes. The soil vapor extraction process applies a vacuum through the petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils in the ex-situ bio-remediation pile (bio-pile) and along the perimeter of excavated area (in-situ area) to remove the volatile or light petroleum hydrocarbons. This process also draws ambient air into the ex-situ bio-pile and in-situ vadose zone soil along the perimeter of excavated area to enhance biodegradation of light and heavy petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The extracted soil vapor is treated using a custom-designed air bio-remediation filter (bio-filter) to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the soil vapor extraction air streams. The treated air is then injected into a flush grade soil bed in the backfill area to perform final polishing of the air stream, and to form a closed-loop air flow with the soil vapor extraction perforated pipes along the perimeter of the excavated area

  16. Management of radiation contaminated sites: public policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present document is interested in the management of radio-contaminated sites whom pollution comes essentially from some leftover old controlled practices and more precisely from mining activities relative to uranium and radium and thorium industries. The contaminations coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions and post accidental situations do not come into the field of this document. The management of contaminated sites is tackled in the aspect of radiation protection of populations living near or that could be there in the future. (N.C.)

  17. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  18. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    an old factory site by combining traditional geological, hydrological, and contaminant concentration data with DCIP surveys. The plume consisted of xenobiotic organic compounds and inorganics. The study assesses benefits and limitations of DCIP geophysics for contaminated site investigations. A 3D......Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... water and below the streambed. Surface DCIP surveys supported the characterization of the spatial variability in geology, hydraulic conductivity and contaminant concentration. Though DCIP data interpretation required additional borehole data, the DCIP survey reduced the number of boreholes required...

  19. Bacterial community shift and hydrocarbon transformation during bioremediation of short-term petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the impact of bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (BR, added both nutrients and bacterial consortia), and natural attenuation (NA) on hydrocarbon degradation efficiency and microflora characterization during remediation of a freshly contaminated soil. After 112 days of remediation, the initial level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (61,000 mg/kg soil) was reduced by 4.5% and 5.0% in the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Bioremediation did not significantly enhance TPH biodegradation compared to natural attenuation. The degradation of the aliphatic fraction was the most active with the degradation rate of 30.3 and 28.7 mg/kg/day by the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Soil microbial activities and counts in soil were generally greater for bioremediation than for natural attenuation. MiSeq sequencing indicated that the diversity and structure of microbial communities were affected greatly by bioremediation. In response to bioremediation treatment, Promicromonospora, Pseudomonas, Microcella, Mycobacterium, Alkanibacter, and Altererythrobacter became dominant genera in the soil. The result indicated that combining bioaugmentation with biostimulation did not improve TPH degradation, but soil microbial activities and structure of microbial communities are sensitive to bioremediation in short-term and heavily oil-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  1. Biotransformation of monoaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons at an aviation-gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.; Bledsoe, B.E.; Armstrong, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Loss of petroleum products from underground storage tanks, pipelines, and accidental spills are major sources of contamination of unsaturated soils, aquifer solids, and a shallow water table aquifer under the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, MI, has acclimated to the aerobic and anaerobic transformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX) released from an aviation gasoline spill. The aquifer also exhibits reductive dechlorination of a chlorinated solvent spill adjacent to the aviation gasoline spill. The groundwater is buffered near neutrality. The aviation gasoline plume is methanogenic and the aquifer contains enough iron minerals to support significant iron solubilization. Field evidence of both aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation of monoaromatics was confirmed by laboratory studies of aquifer material obtained from the site. In the laboratory studies, the removal of the monoaromatics in the anaerobic material was rapid and compared favorable with removal in the aerobic material. The kinetics of anaerobic removal of monoaromatics in the laboratory were similar to the kinetics at field scale in the aquifer. Biotransformation of the chlorinated solvents was not observed until late in the study, when daughter products from reductive dechlorination of the chlorinated solvents were identified by GC/MS

  2. Cleaning of contaminated soils with hydrocarbons by biocell; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Arguelles, R.; Flores-Torres, C; Chavez-Lopez, C.; Roldan-Martin, A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1990 the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPG and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore an experimental biopile of 30 m3 was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80 % of TPH and PAH remotion. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 425 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburo poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se lleva a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de http, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos. Las tecnicas propuesta son biopilas y lavado de suelos con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de http del 80 porciento con cinco meses de operacion. Se muestra las partes de una biopila y se dan los resultados de la biopila experimental en la refineria Francisco I. Madero.

  3. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  4. Plutonium-contaminated fragments at the Taranaki site at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.; Mika, J.F.; Williams, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    A detailed assessment is presented of the distribution of plutonium-contaminated fragments and sub-millimetre particles in the vicinity of the Taranaki site at the former U.K. Atomic Weapons Test Range at Maralinga in South Australia. The area which is contaminated with fragments has been divided into three general regions with the designations 'heavily contaminated', 'moderately contaminated' and 'plumes'. The average surface density, activity and estimated total number of fragments are presented for each region. Average surface densities of all fragments with americium-241 activities greater than 2 kBq are estimated to be 33, 7 and 2 m -2 for the 'heavily contaminated', 'moderately contaminated' and 'plumes' regions respectively. The total number of such fragments is estimated to be in excess of three million which accounts for a total plutonium activity of approximately 0.8 TBq. The implications of these results for a rehabilitation program are discussed

  5. Assessment of the role of plants in the bioremediation of two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, V L; McGill, W G [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    1999-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been considered as a viable alternative for cleaning up contaminated soils. A study was conducted to examine the potential for plant-assisted bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using wheat, canola, sunflower, fababean, and alsike clover. Crops were grown to maturity in greenhouses. Creosote and oil contaminated soils were used. The soils and plant tissues were then extracted and measured for dichloromethane-extractable organic (DEO) materials. The concentrations of DEO within the soil was them compared with non-planted samples. The study showed that at the end of a three month period there was no major difference in DEO concentrations in any of the soils. After six months, the DEO concentrations of the greenhouse soils had decreased compared to the reserved samples, but there was no major change in concentration due to the presence of any of the plant species. The results indicate that the role of plants in bioremediation systems, both as enhancers of bioremediation systems and as the possible sinks of contaminant C, should be further studied. 22 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  6. Assessment of the role of plants in the bioremediation of two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, V.L.; McGill, W.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    1999-07-01

    Phytoremediation has been considered as a viable alternative for cleaning up contaminated soils. A study was conducted to examine the potential for plant-assisted bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using wheat, canola, sunflower, fababean, and alsike clover. Crops were grown to maturity in greenhouses. Creosote and oil contaminated soils were used. The soils and plant tissues were then extracted and measured for dichloromethane-extractable organic (DEO) materials. The concentrations of DEO within the soil was them compared with non-planted samples. The study showed that at the end of a three month period there was no major difference in DEO concentrations in any of the soils. After six months, the DEO concentrations of the greenhouse soils had decreased compared to the reserved samples, but there was no major change in concentration due to the presence of any of the plant species. The results indicate that the role of plants in bioremediation systems, both as enhancers of bioremediation systems and as the possible sinks of contaminant C, should be further studied. 22 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Assessment of the role of plants in the bioremediation of two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, V.L.; McGill, W.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    1999-09-01

    Phytoremediation has been considered as a viable alternative for cleaning up contaminated soils. A study was conducted to examine the potential for plant-assisted bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using wheat, canola, sunflower, fababean, and alsike clover. Crops were grown to maturity in greenhouses. Creosote and oil contaminated soils were used. The soils and plant tissues were then extracted and measured for dichloromethane-extractable organic (DEO) materials. The concentrations of DEO within the soil was them compared with non-planted samples. The study showed that at the end of a three month period there was no major difference in DEO concentrations in any of the soils. After six months, the DEO concentrations of the greenhouse soils had decreased compared to the reserved samples, but there was no major change in concentration due to the presence of any of the plant species. The results indicate that the role of plants in bioremediation systems, both as enhancers of bioremediation systems and as the possible sinks of contaminant C, should be further studied. 22 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Assessment of the role of plants in the bioremediation of two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V.L.; McGill, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been considered as a viable alternative for cleaning up contaminated soils. A study was conducted to examine the potential for plant-assisted bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using wheat, canola, sunflower, fababean, and alsike clover. Crops were grown to maturity in greenhouses. Creosote and oil contaminated soils were used. The soils and plant tissues were then extracted and measured for dichloromethane-extractable organic (DEO) materials. The concentrations of DEO within the soil was them compared with non-planted samples. The study showed that at the end of a three month period there was no major difference in DEO concentrations in any of the soils. After six months, the DEO concentrations of the greenhouse soils had decreased compared to the reserved samples, but there was no major change in concentration due to the presence of any of the plant species. The results indicate that the role of plants in bioremediation systems, both as enhancers of bioremediation systems and as the possible sinks of contaminant C, should be further studied. 22 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  9. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  10. Treatment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils using hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by waste basic oxygen furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, T.T.; Kao, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The contamination of subsurface soils with petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying waste basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) as the catalyst to enhance the Fenton-like oxidation to remediate fuel oil or diesel contaminated soils. The studied controlling factors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons included concentrations of H 2 O 2 , BOF slag dosages, types of petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., fuel oil and diesel), and types of iron mineral. Experimental results indicate that oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbon via the Fenton-like process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag. Results from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveal that the major iron type of BOF slag/sandy loam system was iron mineral (e.g., α-Fe 2 O 3 and α-FeOOH). Approximately 76% and 96% of fuel oil and diesel removal were observed (initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 10,000 mg kg -1 ), respectively, with the addition of 15% of H 2 O 2 and 100 g kg -1 of BOF slag after 40 h of reaction. Because BOF slag contains extractable irons such as amorphous iron and soluble iron, it can act as an iron sink to supply iron continuously for Fenton-like oxidation. Results demonstrate that Fenton-like oxidation catalyzed by BOF slag is a potential method to be able to remediate petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils efficiently and effectively.

  11. Effect of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 inoculation on bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in aged and freshly PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunliffe, Michael; Kertesz, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 is able to degrade a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and as a sphingomonad belongs to one of the dominant genera found in PAH-contaminated soils. We examined the ecological effect that soil inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 has on the native bacterial community in three different soils: aged PAH-contaminated soil from an industrial site, compost freshly contaminated with PAHs and un-contaminated compost. Survival of S. yanoikuyae B1 was dependent on the presence of PAHs, and the strain was unable to colonize un-contaminated compost. Inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 did not cause extensive changes in the native bacterial community of either soil, as assessed by denaturing gel electrophoresis, but its presence led to an increase in the population level of two other species in the aged contaminated soil community and appeared to have an antagonistic affect on several members of the contaminated compost community, indicating niche competition. - Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 does not cause major changes in the native bacterial community while colonizing PAH-contaminated soils, but some niche competition is evident

  12. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  13. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  14. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Mandal, Asit [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Division of Soil Biology, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel metal-immobilizing organoclay (MIOC) synthesized and characterized. • MIOC immobilizes toxic metals and reduces metal bioavailability. • It enhances PAH-bioavailability to soil bacteria. • It improves microbial growth and activities in mixed-contaminated soils. • MIOC facilitates PAH-biodegradation in metal co-contaminated soils. - Abstract: Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad{sup ®} 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC > unmodified bentonite > Arquad–bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10–43%) as well as activities (respiration 3–44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  15. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site

  16. Baseline ecological risk assessment and remediation alternatives for a hydrocarbon-contaminated estuarine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedagiri, U.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to a property transaction, the groundwater at an industrial refinery site in New Jersey was found to be contaminated with a variety of petroleum-based organic compounds. The highly built-up site included an on-site estuarine wetland and was located in a developed, industrialized area near ecologically important estuarine marshes. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was developed on the basis of available data on site contamination and ecological resources. The onsite wetland and its user fauna were identified as the sensitive receptors of concern and the primary contaminant pathways wee identified. The ecological significance of the contamination was assessed with regard to the onsite wetland and in the context of its position within the landscape and surrounding land uses. The wetland exhibited a combination of impact and vitality, i.e., there were clearly visible signs of contaminant impact as well as a relatively complex and abundant food web. Because of its position within the developed landscape, the onsite wetland appeared to function as a refugium for wildlife despite the level of disturbance. The feasibility of achieving regulatory compliance through natural remediation was also examined with respect to the findings of the risk assessment and the resultant conclusions are discussed

  17. Comparison of microbial contamination at various sites along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the microbial contamination levels at various sites in the Plankenburg and Diep Rivers in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sampling of sites along the Plankenburg River started in June 2004 and continued for a period of 1 year until June 2005. Sampling of the Diep ...

  18. Petroleum-related contaminants near a produced water discharge site in the Santa Barbara Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.D.; Witter, A.E.; Higashi, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Offshore oil production generates substantial quantities of waste water that is frequently discharged into marine waters. Contamination of coastal sediments occurs due to other inputs including natural petroleum seeps, and this complicates assessments of the environmental effects of produced water in marine ecosystems. The current study has focused on characterization of contaminants in sediments near produced water discharge site off the coast of Southern California. First, it was important to address the question: ''What contaminants in sediments should be monitored as indicators of produced water effects?'' Dichloromethane extracts of sediments were analyzed for numerous organic constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring. Though the phenols and fatty acids were not detected in sediment extracts, normal and branched alkanes and other petroleum hydrocarbon biomarkers were quantified. No relationship was evident that related absolute concentrations of organic compounds to distance from the outfall, but patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons exhibited consistent spatial variations that could be related to distance from the produced water out fall. Analysis of chemical fossil ''biomarkers'' provides potentially useful indices of effects of waste discharges upon microbial biodegradation of organic compounds in sediments

  19. In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Brunero Bronzin, M.

    2005-01-01

    It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with

  20. Environmental biotechnology for the eco-efficient decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstin, S.; Andreas, P. L.; Hildegard, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Pollution of soil and ground water with petroleum hydrocarbons is a major environmental problem in many oil producing regions of the New Independent States. Decontamination of these areas using conventional technologies based on physical, chemical and / or thermal pollutant removal would require major financial resources and represent a great economical burden for these regions. Thus, contaminated land management (CLM) has to focus on efficient yet low-cost strategies yielding the optimum ecological outcome. Approaching such eco-efficient, i.e ecologically sound and economically feasible solutions includes the consideration of technical, scientific and socio-economic aspects. A comprehensive risk assessment states the basis for these CLM strategies, which considers both technical (e.g. soil type, groundwater characteristics) and regional aspects (e.g. demographic and socio-economic details). This requires a holistic understanding of these capacious problems and its communication to and the involvement of the stakeholders. Such eco-efficient technologies that are suitable for the clean-up of soils and aquifers polluted with organic chemicals (e.g. crude oil and its derivatives) are offered by environmental biotechnology. Decontamination techniques such as bioremediation, based on the engineered promotion of the soil's intrinsic microbiological capability to recover from environmental stresses, are fit to re-establish acceptable environmental conditions on a reasonable time-scale while requiring comparably little resources. Bioremediation techniques may be applied after excavation of the polluted soil (ex situ) or on the site as is, leaving contaminated material in place (in situ). Surface, ex situ, treatment (biopiles, landfarming) facilitates the homogenous addition of additives such as surfactants, nutrients or pollutant degrading microorganisms. By contrast, in situ technologies (e.g. bioventing, biosparging) are, as they do not require soil

  1. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Lopez-Real, Joe; Beck, Angus James

    2006-01-01

    In-vessel composting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site was investigated over 98 days using laboratory-scale in-vessel composting reactors. The composting reactors were operated at 18 different operational conditions using a 3-factor factorial design with three temperatures (T, 38 deg. C, 55 deg. C and 70 deg. C), four soil to green waste ratios (S:GW, 0.6:1, 0.7:1, 0.8:1 and 0.9:1 on a dry weight basis) and three moisture contents (MC, 40%, 60% and 80%). PAH losses followed first order kinetics reaching 0.015 day -1 at optimal operational conditions. A factor analysis of the 18 different operational conditions under investigation indicated that the optimal operational conditions for degradation of PAHs occurred at MC 60%, S:GW 0.8:1 and T 38 deg. C. Thus, it is recommended to maintain operational conditions during in-vessel composting of PAH-solid waste close to these values. - Maximum degradation of PAHs in an aged coal tar contaminated soil can be achieved using optimal operational conditions during composting

  2. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  3. Bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons by exogenously seeded bacterial consortium: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bordoloi, Naba K

    2011-03-01

    Spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons causes significant environmental pollution. Bioremediation is an effective process to remediate petroleum oil contaminant from the ecosystem. The aim of the present study was to reclaim a petroleum oil-contaminated soil which was unsuitable for the cultivation of crop plants by using petroleum oil hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium. Bacterial consortium consisting of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains were seeded to 20% (v/w) petroleum oil-contaminated soil, and bioremediation experiment was carried out for 180 days under laboratory condition. The kinetics of hydrocarbon degradation was analyzed using biochemical and gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The ecotoxicity of the elutriates obtained from petroleum oil-contaminated soil before and post-treatment with microbial consortium was tested on germination and growth of Bengal gram (Cicer aretinum) and green gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Bacterial consortium showed a significant reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon level in contaminated soil (76% degradation) as compared to the control soil (3.6% degradation) 180 days post-inoculation. The GC analysis confirmed that bacterial consortium was more effective in degrading the alkane fraction compared to aromatic fraction of crude petroleum oil hydrocarbons in soil. The nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds fraction was least degraded. The reclaimed soil supported the germination and growth of crop plants (C. aretinum and P. mungo). In contrast, seeds could not be germinated in petroleum oil-contaminated soil. The present study reinforces the application of bacterial consortium rather than individual bacterium for the effective bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of core microbial consortia to hydrocarbon contaminations in coastal sediment habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya using 454 pyrosequencing data of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core OTUs and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator – prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the structure of the network and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments.

  6. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on a free living marine nematode community: Results from microcosm experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, E.; Essid, N.; Beyrem, H.; Hedfi, A.; Boufahja, F.; Aissa, P. [Laboratoire de Biosurveillance de l' Environnement, Zarzouna (Tunisia). Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte; Vitiello, P. [Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille (France)

    2005-11-15

    Anthropogenic inputs of crude and refined petroleum hydrocarbons into the sea require knowledge of the effects of these contaminants on the receiving assemblages of organisms. A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the influence of diesel on a free living nematode community of a Tunisian lagoon. Sediments were contaminated by diesel that ranged in concentration from 0.5 to 20 mg diesel kg{sup -1} dry weight (dw), and effects were examined after 90 days. Gradual changes in community structure were revealed depending on the quantity of diesel administrated. In the medium (1 mg diesel kg{sup -1} and 5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) and high (10 mg diesel kg{sup -1}, 15 mg diesel kg{sup -1} and 20 mg kg{sup -1} (dw)) treated microcosms, most univariate measures, including diversity and species richness, decreased significantly with increasing level of diesel contamination whereas nematode assemblage from the low treated microcosm (0.5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) remained unaffected. Results from multivariate analyses of the species abundance data demonstrated that responses of nematode species to the diesel treatments were varied: Chaetonema sp. was eliminated at all doses tested and seemed to be intolerant species to diesel contamination; Pomponema sp. and Oncholaimus campylocercoides were significantly affected at all diesel contamination levels but they were not eliminated, these species were categorized as 'diesel-sensitive'; Hypodontolaimus colesi, Daptonema trabeculosum and Daptonema fallax which significantly increased respectively at 0.5, 1 and 5 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw) concentrations and appeared to be 'opportunistic' species at these doses whereas Marylynnia stekhoveni which increased at all high doses (10, 15 and 20 mg diesel kg{sup -1} (dw)) seemed to be a 'diesel-resistant' species. (author)

  7. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in Europe. Of these, approximately 340,000 sites are thought to be contaminated to a degree that may require remediation (Joint Research Center, 2014). Until recently, remediation was considered...... to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment...

  8. Dynamic Effects of Biochar on the Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Min; Ni, Ni; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-08-16

    Amending soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit a quadratic model. Before week 12 of the incubation, the incubation time was the main factor contributing to the changes in the soil bacterial community structure. However, biochar greatly affected the bacterial community structure after 12 weeks of amendment, and the effects were dependent upon the biochar type. Amendment with biochar mainly facilitated the growth of rare bacterial genera (relative abundance of 0.01-1%) in the studied soil. Therefore, the application of wheat straw biochar into PAH-contaminated soil can reduce the environmental risks of PAHs and benefit the soil microbial ecology.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  10. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglianti, Christophe; Hanna, Khalil; Brauer, Christine de; Germain, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. β-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 o C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil

  11. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a post-exercise analysis of decontamination options for the NUWAX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of NUWAX-83 was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to an accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program, called DECON, was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and used to conduct the decontamination analysis in November 1983. DECON was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: 1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; 2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; 3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; 4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; 5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and 6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  12. Decontamination analysis of a radiologically contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of decontamination options at the NUWAZX-83 exercise site. Held in May 1983, the purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the ability of federal, state and local officials to respond to a radiological accident involving nuclear weapons. A computer program developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory was used to conduct the decontamination analysis. The program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are demonstrated in this paper contribute to its potential usefulness as a planning tool for site restoration. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) using a Quick-Vac option, under which exterior surfaces are vacuumed before it rains; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring that specific methods be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying clean-up standards according to expected human exposure to the surface

  13. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  14. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  15. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  16. Hydrocarbon and Toxic Metal Contamination from Tank Installations in a Northwest Greenlandic Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2012-01-01

    Contamination from tank installations in the Arctic is an important issue, since tanks are a necessary feature of all communities, and may be a source of local pollution. Soil samples from below and around three tank installations and one reference site in the Northwest Greenlandic village...

  17. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-01-01

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m 3 of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project

  18. Improvement of phytoremediation of an aged petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Fic, Ewa; Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Pawlik, Małgorzata; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of soil inoculation with the Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain on the effectiveness of the phytoremediation of an aged hydrocarbon-contaminated [approx. 1% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The introduction of CD 106 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of ryegrass and the removal of hydrocarbons in planted soil. The fresh weight of the shoots and roots of plants inoculated with CD 106 increased by 49% and 30%, respectively. After 210 days of the experiment, the concentration of TPH was reduced by 31.2%, whereas in the planted, non-inoculated soil, it was reduced by 16.8%. By contrast, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon decreased by 18.7% in non-planted soil bioaugmented with the CD 106 strain. The rifampicin-resistant CD 106 strain survived after inoculation into soil and was detected in the soil during the entire experimental period, but the number of CD 106 cells decreased constantly during the enhanced phytoremediation and bioaugmentation experiments. The plant growth-promoting and hydrocarbon-degrading properties of CD 106, which are connected with its long-term survival and limited impact on autochthonous microflora, make this strain a good candidate for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  19. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils.

  20. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase.......4% PAH. We explain increased PAH desorption after addition of toluene by competitive adsorption to high-affinity sorption sites while acknowledging that toluene could additionally have increased PAH mobility within the soil matrix. Findings suggest that the presence of copollutants at contaminated sites...

  1. Consideration of natural attenuation. In remedation contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Upon the proposal submitted by ist Standing committee 5 (Contaminated Sites Committee - ALA) the Federal / State Working Group on Soil protection employed an ad hoc subcommittee dealing with considering natural attenuation in remediating contaminated sites and preparing an inter-State position paper. In the present position paper the way how to consider natural attenuation in practical remediation of contaminated sites is described. The systematic approach outlined allows an understandable decision-finding. A way is shown how the competent soil protection authorities may exercise discretion and in the framework of checking the appropriateness of measures may decide on the implementation of MNA based on a MNA concept (MNA = monitored natural attenuation). It is, however, also explained that when carrying out MNA a decision always made in an individual case is concerned which should be made in a close agreement between the obligated party and the authority.

  2. Contaminated Sites by Residues from Romanian Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Georgescu, D.; Vacariu, V.; Popescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Romania, the mining industries of ferrous ore, non-ferrous ore, bauxite, coal, chemical fertilisers, the extraction of natural gas and oil, etc. have a considerable weight in economy. The study lets us know that in these industries, in different by-products and waste from the process, some radionuclides come out. The preliminary data, which are determined in these industries, are compared with those data, which are published by the countries from EU. There were determined uranium, radium and thorium from ore and sterile (ferrous, non-ferrous, bauxite, talc, clay, asbestos, barytine, salt, coal and bituminous schist). Also, there have been determined the radium and the uranium content of waters from non-uraniferous mining sites. The level of radioactive noxa has been informative determined in each mine. The level of the concentrations requires a systematic research and an assessment of the risk and the impact against the environment, the workers, and the public. (author)

  3. Treatability of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils of different textures along a vertical profile by mechanical soil aeration: A laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Shi, Yi; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhifen; Xu, Zhu; Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technology that is suitable for sites contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs). Conventionally, this technique is used to treat the mixed soil of a site without considering the diversity and treatability of different soils within the site. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration for remediating soils of different textures (silty, clayey, and sandy soils) along a vertical profile at an abandoned chloro-alkali chemical site in China. The collected soils were artificially contaminated with chloroform (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Mechanical soil aeration was effective for remediating VCHs (removal efficiency >98%). The volatilization process was described by an exponential kinetic function. In the early stage of treatment (0-7hr), rapid contaminant volatilization followed a pseudo-first order kinetic model. VCH concentrations decreased to low levels and showed a tailing phenomenon with very slow contaminant release after 8hr. Compared with silty and sandy soils, clayey soil has high organic-matter content, a large specific surface area, a high clay fraction, and a complex pore structure. These characteristics substantially influenced the removal process, making it less efficient, more time consuming, and consequently more expensive. Our findings provide a potential basis for optimizing soil remediation strategy in a cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Baseline Assessment of Petroleum Contamination and Soil Properties at Contaminated Sites in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    microbial community, including high bacterial numbers in these soils. The results from this baseline study indicate that stimulating biodegradation...CEERD-RR), ERDC- CRREL. At the time of publication, Dr. Justin Berman was Chief, CEERD- RRN; CDR J. D. Horne, USN (Ret), was Chief, CEERD-RR; and Dr...of the fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial activity in ERDC/CRREL TR-17-13 3 situ to reveal the status of each site at the time of

  5. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory control in the rehabilitation of contaminated sites in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)

  7. Tryptophan Oxidative Metabolism Catalyzed by : A Thermophile Isolated from Kuwait Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim M. Al-Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolism has been extensively studied in humans as well as in soil. Its metabolism takes place mainly through kynurenine pathway yielding hydroxylated, deaminated and many other products of physiological significance. However, tryptophan metabolism has not been studied in an isolated thermophilic bacterium. Geobacillus stearothermophilus is a local thermophile isolated from Kuwait desert soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The bacterium grows well at 65 °C in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7, when supplied with organic compounds as a carbon source and has a good potential for transformation of steroids and related molecules. In the present study, we used tryptophan ethyl ester as a carbon source for the bacterium to study the catabolism of the amino acid at pH 5 and pH 7. In this endeavor, we have resolved twenty one transformation products of tryptophan by GC/LC and have identified them through their mass spectral fragmentation.

  8. 'Mussel Watch' and chemical contamination of the coasts by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) enter the coastal marine environment from three general categories of sources; pyrogenic, petrogenic (or petroleum), and natural diagenesis. PAH from different sources appear to have differential biological availability related to how the PAH are sorbed, trapped, or chemically bound to particulate matter, including soot. Experience to date with bivalve sentinel organism, or 'Mussel Watch', monitoring programs indicates that these programs can provide a reasonable general assessment of the status and trends of biologically available PAH in coastal ecosystems. As fossil fuel use increases in developing countries, it is important that programs such as the International Mussel Watch Program provide assessments of the status and trends of PAH contamination of coastal ecosystems of these countries. (author)

  9. Carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution of groundwater contaminated by produced water brine with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atekwana, Eliot A.; Seeger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The major ionic and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and the stable carbon isotope composition of DIC (δ"1"3C_D_I_C) were measured in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by produced water brine with petroleum hydrocarbons. Our aim was to determine the effects of produced water brine contamination on the carbonate evolution of groundwater. The groundwater was characterized by three distinct anion facies: HCO_3"−-rich, SO_4"2"−-rich and Cl"−-rich. The HCO_3"−-rich groundwater is undergoing closed system carbonate evolution from soil CO_2_(_g_) and weathering of aquifer carbonates. The SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater evolves from gypsum induced dedolomitization and pyrite oxidation. The Cl"−-rich groundwater is contaminated by produced water brine and undergoes common ion induced carbonate precipitation. The δ"1"3C_D_I_C of the HCO_3"−-rich groundwater was controlled by nearly equal contribution of carbon from soil CO_2_(_g_) and the aquifer carbonates, such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −11.6‰. In the SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater, gypsum induced dedolomitization increased the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −9.4‰. In the produced water brine contaminated Cl"−-rich groundwater, common ion induced precipitation of calcite depleted the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −12.7‰. The results of this study demonstrate that produced water brine contamination of fresh groundwater in carbonate aquifers alters the carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution. - Highlights: • We studied carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution in groundwater contaminated by produced water brine. • Multiple processes affect the carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution of the groundwater. • The processes are carbonate weathering, dedolomitization and common ion induce calcite precipitation. • The δ"1"3C added to DIC was −11.6‰ for weathering, −9.4‰ for dedolomitization

  10. Improving Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Contaminated Soil Through Low-Level Surfactant Addition After Conventional Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Alden C; Singleton, David R; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs. This work extends that concept by treating the effluent from the slurry-phase bioreactor in a second-stage batch reactor, to which POESH was added, for an additional 7 or 12 days. Surfactant amendment removed substantial amounts of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs remaining after conventional slurry-phase bioremediation, including more than 80% of residual 4-ring PAHs. Surfactant-amended treatment decreased soil cytotoxicity, but often increased the genotoxicity of the soil as measured using the DT-40 chicken lymphocyte DNA damage response assay. Potential ecotoxicity, measured using a seed germination assay, was reduced by bioreactor treatment and was reduced further after second-stage treatment with POESH. Of bacteria previously implicated as potential PAH degraders under POESH-amended conditions in a prior study, members of the Terrimonas genus were associated with differences in high-molecular weight PAH removal in the current study. Research using submicellar doses of surfactant as a second-stage treatment step is limited and these findings can inform the design of bioremediation systems at field sites treating soil contaminated with PAHs and other hydrophobic contaminants that have low bioaccessibility.

  11. In situ technologies for the remediation of contaminated sites. Part 8: Biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, M. (URS Consultants, Inc., Long Beach, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The paper discusses the in-situ technique of biodegradation for removal of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, from contaminated soils. Biodegradation involves growing microorganisms in the soil which consume the waste, breaking it down into less harmful end products. Enhancing the biological activity may require pH adjustment or the addition of supplementary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, trace metals and organic carbon. This is potentially an effective, low cost, and safe method for soil and groundwater decontamination, but has yet to be demonstrated for large sites. Detox Industries of Houston, Texas, has selected and bred a bank of 200 naturally occurring, nonpathogenic soil microorganisms for degrading such substances as polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. At one site, 1200 cubic yards of soil experienced a 90 percent reduction in contamination (with methylene chloride, n-butyl alcohol, dimethylaniline, and acetone) over 3 years. Costs are site- specific, but is usually 30 to 60 percent less than carbon adsorption or air stripping methods. Advantages are ease, safety, and cost. Limitations include difficulty to monitor and control, lack of experience and test data, and inapplicability of the technique where contaminants are refractory or are present at toxic levels. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Kuhn, T.; Vos, J.; Maesen, M.; Kalka, H.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Dejonghe, W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater base flow. Biotrans formation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil-contaminated soil with the earthworm: Hyperiodrilus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, O A; Aigbodion, F I

    2015-12-01

    A study on the bioremediation potentials of the earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus (Beddard) in soil contaminated with crude oil was investigated. Dried and sieved soils were contaminated with 5 ml each of crude oil with replicates and inoculated with earthworms and monitored daily for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), while BTEX constituents and earthworms tissues were analyzed using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the earthworm significantly enhanced the physicochemical parameters of the contaminated soil resulting in a decrease of the total organic carbon (56.64 %), sulfate (57.66 %), nitrate (57.69 %), phosphate (57.73 %), sodium (57.69 %), potassium (57.68 %), calcium (57.69 %) and magnesium (57.68 %) except pH (3.90 %) that slightly increased. There was a significant decrease in the TPH (84.99 %), benzene (91.65 %), toluene (100.00 %), ethylbenzene (100.00 %) and xylene (100.00 %). Analyses of the tissues of the earthworm at the end of the experiment showed that the earthworms bioaccumulated/biodegraded 57.35/27.64 % TPH, 38.91/52.73 % benzene, 27.76/72.24 % toluene, 42.16/57.85 % ethylbenzene and 09.62/90.38 % xylene. The results showed that the earthworms H. africanus could be used to bioremediate moderately polluted soil with crude oil contamination in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  14. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  15. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  16. Effect of activated carbon and biochars on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industrially contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    Coal production negatively affects the environment by the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two soils (KOK and KB) from a coking plant area was investigated and their total PAH concentration was 40 and 17 mg/kg for the sum (∑) 16 US EPA PAHs, respectively. A third soil was sampled from a bitumen plant area and was characterized by 9 mg/kg ∑16 US EPA PAHs. To reduce the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of the PAHs in the soil pore water, active carbon (AC) and two biochars pyrolysed from wheat straw (biochar-S) and willow (biochar-W) were added to the soils at 0.5-5 % (w/w), each. The AC performed best and reduced the Cfree by 51-98 % already at the lowest dose. The biochars needed doses up to 2.5 % to significantly reduce the Cfree by 44-86 % in the biochar-S and by 37-68 % in the biochar-W amended soils. The high black carbon (BC) content of up to 2.3 % in the Silesian soils competed with the sorption sites of the carbon amendments and the performance of the remediation was a consequence of the contaminant's source and the distribution between the BC and the AC/biochars. In contrast, the carbon amendment could best reduce the Cfree in the Lublin soil where the BC content was normal (0.05 %). It is therefore crucial to know the contaminant's source and history of a sample/site to choose the appropriate carbon amendment not only for remediation success but also for economic reasons.

  17. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sites in the United States contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbarst, A.B.; Blom, P.F.; Chan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the century that radioactive materials have been mined, processed, produced, and utilized, many sites across the US have become contaminated. Such sites include bases and installations of the Department of Defense, weapons production and research facilities of the Department of Energy, properties under the authority of other Federal agencies, privately-owned and governmental facilities that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Agreement States, and sites licensed by or the responsibility of states. This review reports on aspects of work by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others to identify sites contaminated with radioactive materials. It also describes the principal programs that have been instituted to deal with them

  19. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  20. Site remediation using photocatalytic VOC destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R.A.H.; Pearcey, R.; Kittrell, J.R.; Mackin, G.; Wise, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    An innovative environmental technology has been developed and demonstrated for cost-effective control of toxic air emissions, such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), found in soil and groundwater at hazardous waste sites and in industrial effluents. The technology uses UV light and a proprietary photocatalyst to adsorb and destroy pollutants at ambient conditions, even with high humidity. Air stripping and soil vapor extraction efficiently transfer the pollutants to the gas phase, where they can be economically treated by photocatalysis without the risk of hazardous by-product formation. The AIR2000 photocatalytic technology was successfully installed at the Stamina Mills Superfund site in Rhode Island, where a commercial scale unit is treating 700 cfm of up to 1,000 ppm TCE, mixed with PCE, dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethane (TCA), and vinyl chloride (VC) produced through a combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air stripping. As part of the EPA SITE program, the system was monitored for overall destruction removal efficiency (DRE) and hazardous by-product formation. A DRE in excess of 99% was reported over the first four months of operation, with greater than 99.99% DRE achieved, without production of hazardous by-products. The operating cost of the system is approximately 20% of activated carbon adsorption, which provides approximately $1,500,000 in cost savings over the life of the Stamina Mills project. The Adsorption Integrated Reaction (AIR) process is the recipient of the 1997 SBIR Technology of the Year award, the 1998 EPA Environmental Technology Innovator Award, and the 1998 R and D 100 Award.

  1. Contaminants at DOE sites and their susceptibility to bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Skeen, R.S.; Brouns, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    Contaminants at DOE sites encompass a range of common industrial pollutants. However, the prevalence of contaminant mixtures including organics, metals, and radionuclides is relatively unique to DOE's facilities. Bioremediation has been shown to be effective for destruction of many of the organic pollutants. The technology also has promise for application to many of the metals and radionuclides; however, field demonstrations for these applications have not yet been attempted. Because of the complexity of biodegradation of even a single-compound class, little has been done to develop or demonstrate in situ bioremediation technologies for multicompound combinations. The current bioremediation demonstration on CCl 4 and nitrates within the VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration is one the first efforts to address inorganic and organic co-contaminants simultaneously. Additional research, technology development, and field demonstrations are needed to evaluate the applicability of in situ bioremediation to DOE's most common contaminant mixtures

  2. Mapping of contaminated sites using mobile gamma spectrometry: Marcassin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, F.; Demongeot, S.; Crosland, E.; Foissard, B.

    2015-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As part of the development of a tool for use in a nuclear emergency, post-accident situations and contaminated sites, the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has designed an instrument for mapping natural and artificial radioactivity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry. The development of this mobile system is based on various studies initiated by IRSN. The tool, named MARCASSIN (Moyen Autoporteur pour la Realisation de Cartographies de l'Activite Sur Sites contamINes, or automotive resource for mapping radioactivity at contaminated sites), has already been used to characterise various types of sites: contaminated soil (Fukushima), old open-pit mines (centre of France) and environmental sites (Paris region). Mounted on a quad-type vehicle, the instrument is composed of a spectrometer, a radiation meter and a global positioning system. Using coordinates and nuclear data, results are given in the form of mapping indicating type of radionuclides, radioactivity level, dose rate and contamination distribution in real-time. To improve detection level above sites where radioactivity levels are low, the system also is capable of processing data. Two of these methods are as follows: the first, 're-meshing', improves the estimate of soil radioactivity by increasing measurement statistics. The results agree with the reference values (soil samples measured in the laboratory), even for normal environmental levels of radioactivity. The second method, for which a patent is pending, is based on a deconvolution of mapping data. Re-processing deducts the impulse response of MARCASSIN from the radiation flux measurements in order to restore the value sought, which is the soil emission rate by radiological energy or activity. A theoretical example demonstrates the possibilities of this method. (authors)

  3. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  4. Remedial technology for contaminated natural gas dehydrator sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosen, B.J.; Korreck, W.M.; Armstrong, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water and soil contamination at many of Michigan's oil and gas well sites has been attributed to natural gas dehydration processes. Since water was once thought to be the only by-product from the dehydration process, condensate from the process was discharged directly to the ground for several years. This condensate was later found to contain benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and the process of discharging condensate to the ground was stopped. Many oil and gas well sites had become impacted from the process during this time. Although condensate is no longer discharged to the ground, soil and water contamination still remains at many of these sites. In the last few years, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources has targeted over 90 well sites for assessment of contamination associated with gas dehydration. The results of many of these assessments indicate that soil and ground water have been impacted, and the State of Michigan has mandated cleanup of these sites. Remedial technologies which have been used to contain and/or clean up the sites include excavation and product removal, soil venting, purge and treat, and enhanced biodegradation. This paper is a discussion of the technology, implementation, and results from each of these methods

  5. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  6. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo A. Massol-Deyá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source. Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ∝, β and γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal φ29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene; and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA] were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE

  7. Radon as an indicator of environmental contamination by hydrocarbons in free-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at southeast of Sao Paulo city, from June/14 to May/15. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in ten monitoring stations installed in the contaminated area investigated and named 'A' to 'J'. Radon concentrations average for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations varied from (22 ± 4) kBq.m -3 to (39 ± 4) kBq.m -3 . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations, radon concentrations average were (1.4 ± 0.4) kBq.m -3 and (13 ± 9) kBq.m -3 . The results have shown good agreement between the used method and the conventional environmental investigation techniques, for the majority of the monitoring stations in different seasons. Results obtained with CR-39 detectors varied over the exposure time due to the different seasons. No relation was observed between radon activity concentrations and rain volume accumulated over the different CR-39 exposure times. The lowest 222 Rn activity concentrations occurred in 'G' and 'H' monitoring stations, also verifying by gamma-ray spectrometry, that the low activities are not related to the activity concentration of its father 226 Ra from the 238 U decay chain

  8. Phytoremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Cook, Rachel L.; Landmeyer, James E.; Atkinson, Brad; Malone, Donald R.; Shaw, George; Woods, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over approximately 579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95 percent mass loss for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and a 99 percent mass loss for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX and methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations have decreased in groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival was higher than the willows or pines on-site, even in a noncontaminated control area. All four Populus clones survived well at the site.

  9. Key players and team play: anaerobic microbial communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Vogt, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradation of anthropogenic pollutants in shallow aquifers is an important microbial ecosystem service which is mainly brought about by indigenous anaerobic microorganisms. For the management of contaminated sites, risk assessment and control of natural attenuation, the assessment of in situ biodegradation and the underlying microbial processes is essential. The development of novel molecular methods, "omics" approaches, and high-throughput techniques has revealed new insight into complex microbial communities and their functions in anoxic environmental systems. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of molecular methods to study anaerobic microbial communities in contaminated terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. We focus on current approaches to analyze composition, dynamics, and functional diversity of subsurface communities, to link identity to activity and metabolic function, and to identify the ecophysiological role of not yet cultured microbes and syntrophic consortia. We discuss recent molecular surveys of contaminated sites from an ecological viewpoint regarding degrader ecotypes, abiotic factors shaping anaerobic communities, and biotic interactions underpinning the importance of microbial cooperation for microbial ecosystem services such as contaminant degradation.

  10. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  11. Removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from contaminated soils by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladanowski, C.; Petti, L.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted using hexane for the removal of light crude oil from contaminated sand, peat, and clay soils. The bench-scale process tested consists of three major steps: solvent washing, settling/decantation/filtration of extract, and solvent recycle. The results indicate that the use of solvent extraction for cleanup of oil-contaminated soils is an effective technology at the bench-scale level. Using a 1,000 g batch system, extremely high oil removal efficiencies were obtained from contaminated sand (up to 98.9%) and peat soil (up to 83.9%). The final oil contaminant concentration for sand varied between 0.06% and 0.39%, while that for peat soil varied between 1.52% and 5.21%. The guidelines for the decommissioning and cleanup of sites in Ontario for oil and grease (1 wt %) were met in all instances for the treated sand. Hexane recovery from diesel-contaminated sand and peat soil experiments was ca 81% and 67% respectively. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Treatment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils using hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by waste basic oxygen furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, T.T. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.M., E-mail: jkao@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    The contamination of subsurface soils with petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying waste basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) as the catalyst to enhance the Fenton-like oxidation to remediate fuel oil or diesel contaminated soils. The studied controlling factors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons included concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BOF slag dosages, types of petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., fuel oil and diesel), and types of iron mineral. Experimental results indicate that oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbon via the Fenton-like process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag. Results from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveal that the major iron type of BOF slag/sandy loam system was iron mineral (e.g., {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-FeOOH). Approximately 76% and 96% of fuel oil and diesel removal were observed (initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 10,000 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively, with the addition of 15% of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 100 g kg{sup -1} of BOF slag after 40 h of reaction. Because BOF slag contains extractable irons such as amorphous iron and soluble iron, it can act as an iron sink to supply iron continuously for Fenton-like oxidation. Results demonstrate that Fenton-like oxidation catalyzed by BOF slag is a potential method to be able to remediate petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils efficiently and effectively.

  13. Modeling technique for optimal recovery of immiscible light hydrocarbons as free product from contaminated aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Grant S., Jr.; Peralta, R. C.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Contamination sites associated with light non-aqueous phase liquids {LNAPL) are numerous and represent difficult cleanup problems. Remediation methods for cleanup of LNAPL fluids in subsurface systems are continuously evolving with the development of various technologies for pump.-and~treat, soil venting, and in-situ bioremediation. Evaluating the effectiveness of remediation techniques as well as attempting to improve their efficiency has been a focus of many researchers, These efforts have ...

  14. Bioremediation of Petroleum hydrocarbon by using Pseudomonas species isolated from Petroleum contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Simranjeet Singh; Anu Manhas; Joginder Singh; Sourav Singla; Parvinder Kaur; Shivika Data; Pritika Negi; Arjun Kalia

    2014-01-01

    A newly isolated strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (Accession number KF 279042.1) have potential in diesel degradation and can be recommended for bioremediation of sites that are contaminated with diesel. This bacterium was characterized on the basis of microbiological, biochemical and molecular analysis. Bacterial growth optimization was studied based on carbon source, nitrogen source, pH and temperature. The strain was selected based on its ability to show growth in medium containing diesel. I...

  15. Methodology for contaminated sites of military activity territories restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Yushchenko, Yu. V.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Major part of Eastern Europe countries meet environmental problems related to sites of military activity. Major part of these sites is characterised with degradation of natural landscapes and contamination of geological environment with toxic and hazardous waste representing actual and potential danger for population and environment. Actual danger is caused with localisation of toxic waste, hazardous materials and waste which are preventing normal land use. Potential danger is related to successive dispersion of contamination in biosphere as well as origin of new derivatives and products having toxic and hazardous properties. The list of such sites and objects comprises bases of land, air and naval forces. These objects include a network of infrastructures: storages of fuels and lubricants (surface, underground), filling stations, pipe lines, reparation stations, garages, decontamination stations, underground storages of different purposes, depots (for ammunition, chemical products), hospitals, constructions, firing grounds (tank, artillery, aircraft bombing etc.) and waste disposal sites. Special programs aimed at military industries and bases contaminated sites remediation have been carrying out in developed countries (USA, United Kingdom, Germany etc.). This experience was used in the frames of joint programs having been founded in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Chesh Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania etc.). (author)

  16. Perspectives on innovative characterization and remediation technologies for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of legislative attention in the U.S. for about 20 years. Major strides in implementing cleanup programs have been accomplished. From complex abandoned hazardous waste sites to underground petroleum storage tanks to (more recently) Brownfields redevelopment, much assessment and remediation work have been carried out. This paper describes some of the data on the kinds of contamination, media, and technologies deployed to deal with problems at these sites. In addition, it highlights technology partnerships that have evolved to demonstrate and verify site measurement and clean-up technologies and to assure a more robust set of clean-up options. Finally, the advent of the Internet has increased access to a considerable body of publicly available information on the cost and performance of these technologies that might be of interest. (author)

  17. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of [1- 14 C]hexadecane and [1(4,5,8)- 14 C]naphthalene to 14 CO 2 was observed at 4 degree C and 25 degree C, and some was observed at 55 degree C, but none was observed at 80 degree C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5 degree C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota

  18. Application of in situ biosparging to remediate a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site: field and microbial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, C Y; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Chen, Y L

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a full-scale biosparging investigation was conducted at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site. Field results reveal that natural attenuation was the main cause of the decrease in major contaminants [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] concentrations in groundwater before the operation of biosparging system. Evidence of the occurrence of natural attenuation within the BTEX plume includes: (1) decrease of DO, nitrate, sulfate, and redox potential, (2) production of dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, methane, and CO(2), (3) decreased BTEX concentrations along the transport path, (4) increased microbial populations, and (5) limited spreading of the BTEX plume. Field results also reveal that the operation of biosparging caused the shifting of anaerobic conditions inside the plume to aerobic conditions. This variation can be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the biosparging process: (1) increase in DO, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decrease dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total cultivable heterotrophs, and (4) decreased total cultivable anaerobes as well as methanogens. Results of polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal that three BTEX biodegraders (Candidauts magnetobacterium, Flavobacteriales bacterium, and Bacteroidetes bacterium) might exist at this site. Results show that more than 70% of BTEX has been removed through the biosparging system within a 10-month remedial period at an averaged groundwater temperature of 18 degrees C. This indicates that biosparging is a promising technology to remediate BTEX contaminated groundwater.

  19. Assessment of natural hydrocarbon bioremediation at two gas condensate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.; Trent, G.L.; Brown, D.R.; Sublette, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Condensate liquids are present in soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver-Julesburg Basin operated by Amoco. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores strongly suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction

  20. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  1. Transforming Ecosystems: When, Where, and How to Restore Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26033665

  2. In situ sensing of subsurface contamination--part I: near-infrared spectral characterization of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavarioti, Maria; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pourjabbar, Anahita; Ghandehari, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    There is an imperative need for a chemical sensor capable of remote, in situ, long-term monitoring of chemical species at sites containing toxic chemical spills, specifically at chemical waste dumps, landfills, and locations with underground storage tanks. In the current research, a series of experiments were conducted measuring the near-infrared optical absorption of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A spectral library was then developed to characterize the optical spectra of liquid hydrocarbons. Near-infrared analysis was chosen due to compatibility with optical fibers. The goal was to differentiate between classes of hydrocarbons and to also discriminate between compounds within a class of similar molecular structures. It was observed that unique absorption spectra can be obtained for each hydrocarbon, and this uniqueness can be used to discriminate between hydrocarbons from different families. Statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient (Spearman and Pearson methods), were attempted to match absorption spectra from an unknown hydrocarbon with the database with limited success. An algorithm was subsequently written to identify the characteristic peaks of each hydrocarbon that could be used to match data from an unknown chemical species with the database.

  3. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  4. Microbial activity in an acid resin deposit: Biodegradation potential and ecotoxicology in an extremely acidic hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, Karin; Schloter, Michael; Meyer, Ortwin

    2006-01-01

    Acid resins are residues produced in a recycling process for used oils that was in use in the forties and fifties of the last century. The resin-like material is highly contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons, extremely acidic and co-contaminated with substituted and aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. To determine the potential for microbial biodegradation the acid resin deposit and its surroundings were screened for microbial activity by soil respiration measurements. No microbial activity was found in the core deposit. However, biodegradation of hydrocarbons was possible in zones with a lower degree of contamination surrounding the deposit. An extreme acidophilic microbial community was detected close to the core deposit. With a simple ecotoxicological approach it could be shown that the pure acid resin that formed the major part of the core deposit, was toxic to the indigenous microflora due to its extremely low pH of 0-1. - Acidity is the major toxic factor of the extremely hydrophobic and acidic mixed contamination found in an acid resin deposit

  5. Biological regeneration of carrier material for the adsorption of halogen hydrocarbons in plants for cleaning up contaminated groundwater. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressel, K.

    1993-06-01

    Halogen hydrocarbons and above all chlorinated hydrocarbons are widespread harmful substances in soils and in groundwater. When cleaning up groundwater contamination, the contaminants are brought into the gas phase by strip processes. From the gas phase, the contaminants can be adsorbed on different carrier materials, mostly active carbon. One was searching for ways to regenerate this adsorption material. The mixed culture from a sea sediment most suitable for the decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons was optimized regarding its decomposition performance and was later used on the technical scale. In the decomposition experiments on the large technical scale, the cultures were lodged on filling bodies which has a much higher amount of gaps. In this case, an optimum supply of the micro-organisms with oxygen and methane is guaranteed, which is used as co-substrate. No intermediate product was found in a gas chromatography examination. The biologically occupied stage is situated between a desorption column and the active carbon filters, and reduces the load of harmful substances which can no longer be brought into the gas phase by stripping out. This has the advantage that it can be integrated in existing plants and can be adapted to any case of contamination by lodging adapted micro-organisms on it. The basis for each application must be separately researched. (orig.) [de

  6. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  7. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  8. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  9. Implications of Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils for Human Health and Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L. [Department; Department; Stratton, Kelly G. [Pacific Northwest; Teeguarden, Justin G. [Pacific Northwest; Waters, Katrina M. [Pacific Northwest; Simonich, Staci L. Massey [Department; Department

    2017-08-09

    Background: Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Its success is largely evaluated through targeted analysis of PAH concentrations in soil and cancer risk (exposure) estimates. However, bioremediation often fails to significantly degrade the most carcinogenic PAHs and can initiate formation of more polar metabolites, some of which may be more toxic. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the cancer risk associated with PAH-contaminated soils was reduced post-bioremediation and to identify the most effective bioremediation strategies for degrading the carcinogenic and high molecular weight (≥MW302) PAHs. Methods: Pre- and post-bioremediation concentrations of eight B2 group carcinogenic PAHs in soils were collated from the literature and used to calculate excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) for adult populations exposed via non-dietary ingestion, per current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Due to the nature of the collated data (reported as mean concentrations ± standard deviations pre- and post-bioremediation), we used simulation methods to reconstruct the datasets and enable statistical comparison of ELCR values pre- and post-bioremediation. Additionally, we measured MW302 PAHs in a contaminated soil prior to and following treatment in an aerobic bioreactor and examined their contributions to cancer risk. Results: 120 of 158 treated soils (76%) exhibited a statistically significant reduction in cancer risk following bioremediation; however, 67% (106/158) of soils had post-bioremediation ELCR values over 10 fold higher than the USEPA health-based ‘acceptable’ risk level. Composting treatments were most effective at biodegrading PAHs in soils and reducing the ELCR. MW302 PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, alone, contributed an additional 35% to the cancer risk associated with the eight B2 group PAHs in the

  10. Effects of initial nitrogen addition on deep-soils bioventing at a fuel-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, J.W.; Guest, P.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A ruptured pipe at a Burlington Northern Railroad (BNRR) fueling pump house resulted in over 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel spilling onto the surrounding soil. An initial investigation of site conditions indicated that subsurface soils were contaminated with diesel fuel to ground water, which was observed approximately 70 feet below the ground surface. State regulatory agencies requested that BNRR develop and implement a remedial action plan to treat these diesel-contaminated soils and protect local ground waters. Engineering-Science, Inc. (ES) was retained for this work and, after evaluating a variety of remediation technologies recommended using soil venting methods to enhance the immediate volatilization and long-term biodegradation of fuel residuals. ES designed and implemented a ''bioventing'' pilot test to determine soil properties such as air permeability, and to assess the potential for partial volatilization and long-term biodegradation of diesel fuel residuals at the site. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels were monitored at a vapor extraction well (VEW) and six vapor monitoring points (VMPs) to determine the rates of volatilization and biological degradation of fuel residuals. Pilot test results confirmed that full-scale bioventing was feasible for the remediation of this site

  11. Strategies for the management of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butter, K. R.; Fellingham, L. R.; Holdroyd, S. D.; Smith-Briggs, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing field of activity. Worldwide the activity has been dominated by the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling sites and areas affected by major nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl and Khystym. To date most of the sites in or associated with the UK have been small in scale and have generally involved natural radionuclides. However, with the decommissioning of large areas of many old nuclear industry sites and those associated with the development and production of nuclear weapons and the operations of nuclear submarines, the scale of these operations is set to rise very significantly. This paper addresses key considerations in managing the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites. It illustrates their significance through examples ranging in scale from a few hectares to tens of thousands of square kilometres. The first example deals with a former waste storage and processing area at Harwell Laboratory. The second covers a risk reduction rehabilitation programme at the former British nuclear weapons test site at Maralinga in Australia. The third assesses the potential for cost-effective countermeasures to reduce aggregate doses received outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor site

  12. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil through bioremediation and landfill disposal at a remote location in northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanscartier, D.; Reimer, K.; Zeeb, B.; George, K. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group; Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2010-01-15

    This paper described an innovative method of managing diesel-contaminated soil in a remote Labrador community. The soil was treated in an aerated biopile to reduce mobile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) concentrations. The soil was then disposed of in a local landfill. An analysis of the soils showed that the method reduced total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the soil. Hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using the Canada-Wide standard reference method. TPH in leachate decreased during the 1-year field treatment period. PHC fractions were reduced to below the standard criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Volatilization was the predominant PHC removal mechanism in the field. The treated soils were used as a landfill cover for refuse. The cost of the treatment method compared favorably with other land remediation techniques. The biopile facility will be used to treat other fuel spills in the community and serve as a demonstration project for other communities. 36 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range < 300 microm. Therefore, the urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  15. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  16. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  17. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  18. A Coupled model for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Bo; Gong, Shulan; Xu, Ya

    2018-02-01

    The performance of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) system is usually investigated using a fixed resistivity distribution model in numerical simulation study. In this paper, a method to construct a time-varying resistivity model by coupling water transport, solute transport and constant current field is proposed for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites. Using the proposed method, a monitoring model is constructed for a contaminated site with a pollution region on the surface and ERT monitoring results at different time is calculated by the finite element method. The results show that ERT monitoring profiles can effectively reflect the increase of the pollution area caused by the diffusion of pollutants, but the extent of the pollution is not exactly the same as the actual situation. The model can be extended to any other case and can be used to scheme design and results analysis for ERT monitoring.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal wheat inoculation promotes alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation: Microcosm experiment on aged-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrid, Lenoir; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Frédéric, Laruelle; Yolande, Dalpé; Joël, Fontaine

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies reported the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to dissipate hydrocarbons in aged polluted soils. The present work aims to study the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonized wheat plants in the dissipation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our results demonstrated that the inoculation of wheat with Rhizophagus irregularis allowed a better dissipation of PAHs and alkanes after 16 weeks of culture by comparison to non-inoculated condition. These dissipations observed in the inoculated soil resulted from several processes: (i) a light adsorption on roots (0.5% for PAHs), (ii) a bioaccumulation in roots (5.7% for PAHs and 6.6% for alkanes), (iii) a transfer in shoots (0.4 for PAHs and 0.5% for alkanes) and mainly a biodegradation. Whereas PAHs and alkanes degradation rates were respectively estimated to 12 and 47% with non-inoculated wheat, their degradation rates reached 18 and 48% with inoculated wheat. The mycorrhizal inoculation induced an increase of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by 56 and 37% compared to the non-inoculated wheat. Moreover, an increase of peroxidase activity was assessed in mycorrhizal roots. Taken together, our findings suggested that mycorrhization led to a better hydrocarbon biodegradation in the aged-contaminated soil thanks to a stimulation of telluric bacteria and hydrocarbon metabolization in mycorrhizal roots. - Highlights: • Phytoremediation of aged-hydrocarbon polluted soils may be improved using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. • Inoculation of wheat with R. irregularis improved dissipation of PAH and alkanes. • Dissipation resulted from adsorption and bioaccumulation in wheat and mainly from biodegradation in soil. • Biodegradation was due to a stimulation of rhizosphere bacteria and an induction of root peroxidase. - Inoculation of wheat by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves biodegradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an aged-contaminated

  20. Stimulation of biological N2-fixation to accelerate the microbial remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshenko, N.N.; Lushnikov, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    All remediation projects are comprised at least in accelerating the processes of the self-cleaning and self-restoration of biocenose which is led to increasing the functional activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora (HOM). Some of experts are carefully relate to introducing the commercial cultures of active hydrocarbon-consuming microbes into soils. They are afraid of unpredictable behavior of the cultures in soils. That why the stimulation of metabolic activity of indigenous soil microflora seems to be most preferable. In fact, contamination of soil with low nitrogen capacity by oil spills leads to significant deficient of nitrogen for HOM. Nitrogen content limits the soil self-restoration. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are supplied to recover the balance. The study of the microbial destruction of petroleum-hydrocarbons in association with biochemical transformation of nitrogen was carried out in lab and field experiments during 2000-2004. Study showed the activity of HOM correlates with rate of microbial fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Activity of biological N 2 -fixation significantly depends on supplying fertilizers (dose, date and kind). General practice of remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils applies high initial doses of nitrogen-fertilizers (0.5-1 t per ha). Such practice leads to inhibition of N 2 -fixation processes, decreasing rate of oil destruction and loosing nitrogen due to activation of microbial denitrification. In opposition to that, the fractioned and advanced supplying mineral nitrogen fertilizers with aluminosilicate is the cost-effective approach to remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Field experiments showed that the approach allows to increase efficiency of treatment up to 70-75% and to decrease operational expenses 2-3 times at least. (authors)

  1. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    with soil samples (including aqua regia, acetic acid and aquaeous extracts) as well as water samples before and after waste water treatment and groundwater. The Bridging GAPS project has been set up to share expertise and identify available sensors and instruments that have a potential to be applied in site characterisation and monitoring of contaminated land. Furthermore field applications will be performed to test the usefullness for specific categories of contaminated land problems. At present a demonstration for mercury and chlorinated hydrocarbon related contaminated land problems is expected to be carried out as part of this project. An inventory study for sensors and instruments is underway. One of the information sources will be the response to questionaires that have been sent out. This inventory should lead to the availability of a sensor catalog. (orig.)

  2. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  3. Ecotoxicological assessment of bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Samson, R.

    1995-01-01

    A battery of bioassays [barley seed germination, barley plant growth, lettuce seed germination, worm mortality, Microtox reg-sign, lettuce root elongation, algae Selenastrum capricornutum growth, Daphnia magna mortality, and SOS Chromotest (±S9)] was used to assess an above-ground heap pile treatment of a soil contaminated with aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons (12 to 24 carbons). Despite an initial oil and grease concentration of 2,000 mg/kg, no significant (geno)toxicity was apparent in the soil sample before treatment. During the treatment, which decreased oil and grease concentrations to 800 mg/kg, slight toxicity was revealed by three bioassays (barley seed germination, worm mortality, Daphnia magna mortality), and a significant increase in genotoxicity was measured with the SOS Chromotest (± S9). It appears that ecotoxicological evaluation revealed harmful condition(s) that were not detected by chemical assessment. This suggests that the remediation had ceased before complete detoxification occurred. This phenomenon must be further investigated, however, to furnish solid conclusions on the toxicological effectiveness of the biotreatment

  4. Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Lin, Weiyun; Cao, Tong

    2014-09-15

    An overview of literature about isolating biosurfactant producers from marine sources indicated no such producers have been reported form North Atlantic Canada. Water and sediment samples were taken from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal and offshore areas in this region. Either n-hexadecane or diesel was used as the sole carbon source for the screening. A modified colony-based oil drop collapsing test was used to cover sessile biosurfactant producers. Fifty-five biosurfactant producers belong to genera of Alcanivorax, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces were isolated. The first three genera were established after 1980s with interesting characteristics and limited relevant publications. Some of the 55 isolated strains were found with properties such as greatly reducing surface tension, stabilizing emulsion and producing flocculant. Isolates P6-4P and P1-5P were selected to demonstrate the performance of biosurfactant production, and were found to reduce the surface tension of water to as low as 28 dynes/cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni, moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.

  7. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  8. Ecological risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at a site with historical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Janes, A.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    An Ecological Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The ERA assessed risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated no undue risk to aquatic biota from radionuclides. Small potential risks were identified for terrestrial biota at limited locations associated with this industrial site. Recommendations are provided for follow-up risk-informed activities. (author)

  9. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO 2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel , Cécile; Gourry , Jean-Christophe; Deparis , Jacques; Blessing , Michaela; Ignatiadis , Ioannis; Guimbaud , Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combi...

  10. Cleanup of metals and hydrocarbons contaminated soils using the ChemTech process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, R.; Yan, V.; Lim, S.

    1997-01-01

    The ChemTech soil treatment process, an on-site ex-situ system, comprised of a three-phase fluidized bed to scour, emulsify and chemically leach soil contaminants into a process water, was described. The cleaned soils are then removed from the process circuit by means of a hydrodynamic classifier. At this point they are suitable for return to the excavation site. The process was demonstrated on a pilot scale in January 1997 by Klohn-Crippen Consultants at a demonstration program of emerging and innovative technologies sponsored by the Bay Area Defence Conversion Action Team (BADCAT), to assist with the remediation of twelve closing military bases in the San Francisco area. The ChemTest demonstration involved the removal of copper, chromium, lead and zinc from the Hunter Point Naval Reserve, plus treatability tests on a number of other contaminated soil samples. The ChemTech process was selected by federal and state regulatory agencies from 21 proposed technologies on the basis of performance, effectiveness, low cost, and absence of secondary environmental impacts. This paper provides details of the demonstration program, addresses the applicability of the technology to other sites, and provides cost estimates of unit cleanup costs. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  12. Applying no-depletion equilibrium sampling and full-depletion bioaccessibility extraction to 35 historically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolomé, Nora; Hilber, Isabel; Sosa, Dayana

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in contaminated soils is considered a complement to measurements of total concentrations in risk assessment and legislation. Consequently, methods for its quantification require validation with historically contaminated soils. In this study, 35...... with polyoxymethylene was used to determine freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) with silicone rods was used to determine the bioaccessible PAH concentrations (Cbioacc) of these soils. The organic carbon partition...... Capacity Ratio (SCR); particularly for soils with very high KD. The source of contamination determined bioaccessible fractions (fbioacc). The smallest fbioacc were obtained with skeet soils (15%), followed by the pyrogenically influenced soils, rural soils, and finally, the petrogenically contaminated soil...

  13. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic...... assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...

  14. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of major rivers in the Czech Republic using biliary metabolite in chub, Leuciscus cephalus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahova, Jana; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Kodes, Vit; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the major rivers in the Czech Republic using 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) content in chub bile as a biomarker. The highest concentration of 1-OHP was found in the Otava River at Topělec (80.5 ng mg protein(-1)); the lowest content of 1-OHP was found in the Vltava at Zelčín (9.6 ng mg protein(-1)). At all sites, bottom sediment samples were collected and analyzed for PAH content. The PAH content ranged between 1.2 and 15.2 mg kg dry mass(-1) at all sites. Statistically significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between biliary 1-OHP and sediment PAH content were found. Correlation coefficients for total and individual priority PAHs ranged from 0.63 to 0.77.

  15. Effect in laboratory of addition of inorganic fertilizers made in degradation of hydrocarbon on contaminated soil by oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo Castro, Jenny Liliana; Perdomo Rojas, Maria Carolina; Benavides Lopez de Mesa, Joaquin L

    2004-01-01

    At present one of the most important environmental problems is contamination of soil ecosystem by hydrocarbon spilling mainly of oil and its derivates, which occurs when oil is explored or transported. Furthermore in Colombia it occurs due to violent assaults made by men outside of law against petroleum infrastructure. To solve this problem there are treatment methods to recover contaminated soil as Land farming technique, adding organic nutrients. In this research this technique was evaluated in vitro, through a design of six experimental units (EU) which contained contaminated soil with crude oil; three EU were treated with Triple 15 inorganic fertilizer and the other three were taken as biotic control. Land farming effectiveness was determined by pH analysis, humidity percent, temperature, count of total heterotrophic microorganisms, and probable number of I degrades microorganisms, nutrients and total hydrocarbons for a four month experimental period At the d of that period, in Land farming treatment with nutrients added was achieved a high remotion percentage TPH up to 91 %, getting final TPH concentration of 2028 ppm comparing biotic control in which the remotion percentage achieved up to 65% and a TPH final concentration was 8049 ppm thus, it could demonstrate that nutrient addition optimizes the degrading hydrocarbon process in soil

  16. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  17. Natural attenuation in contaminated soils with hydrocarbons; Atenuacion natural en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona Ramirez, L; Iturbide Arguelles, R [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    A contaminated soil experiment was performed using simples from a refinery, containing oil derivative hydrocarbons, specifically those with high concentrations of polyaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). The testing consisted in 7 pans with 7 kg of soil, the preparation of 6 pans under specific conditions and one as a blank, the conditions were: water content (15 y 30%), addition a non-ionic surfactant. The process consisted in the daily aeration and water control of the samples. The PAH were analyzed: anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. The results after 8 weeks showed a gradual degradation of PAH, indicating a better removal obtained when the water content was 30% with nutrients addition. [Spanish] Se realizo un experimento con suelo contaminado proveniente de una refineria, el cual contaba con hidrocarburos derivados de petroleo, especificamente con concentraciones elevadas de hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP). El estudio consistio en preparar 7 cajones con 7 kg de suelo, cada uno con las siguientes condiciones: S1suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos y 15% de contenido de agua. S2 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de Nitrogeno y Fosforo (N y P) con 15% de contenido de agua. S3 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de N y P mas un surfactante no ionico, Emulgin W600, con 15% de contenido de agua. S4 igual a S1 pero con 30% de contenido de agua. S5 igual a S2, con 30% de contenido de agua. S6 igual S3 con 30% de contenido de agua. S7 suelo contaminado testigo, sin control de humedad y sin aireacion. La experimentacion consistio en airear el suelo diariamente y controlar el contenido de agua de manera que este fuera constante. Los resultados, indican que la mejor remocion se obtuvo para el contenido de agua de 30%, con adicion de nutrientes y surfactante. Los compuestos con mayor eficiencia de remocion para todas las opciones son naftaleno y antraceno. Por lo tanto, de acuerdo con los resultados, los compuestos

  18. Apparent Contradiction: Psychrotolerant Bacteria from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Arctic Tundra Soils That Degrade Diterpenoids Synthesized by Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Stewart, Gordon R.; Mohn, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Resin acids are tricyclic terpenoids occurring naturally in trees. We investigated the occurrence of resin acid-degrading bacteria on the Arctic tundra near the northern coast of Ellesmere Island (82°N, 62°W). According to most-probable-number assays, resin acid degraders were abundant (103 to 104 propagules/g of soil) in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but they were undetectable (soil) in pristine soils from the nearby tundra. Plate counts indicated that the contaminated and the pristine soils had similar populations of heterotrophs (106 to 107 propagules/g of soil). Eleven resin acid-degrading bacteria belonging to four phylogenetically distinct groups were enriched and isolated from the contaminated soils, and representative isolates of each group were further characterized. Strains DhA-91, IpA-92, and IpA-93 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain DhA-95 is a member of the genus Sphingomonas. All four strains are psychrotolerant, with growth temperature ranges of 4°C to 30°C (DhA-91 and DhA-95) or 4°C to 22°C (IpA-92 and IpA-93) and with optimum temperatures of 15 to 22°C. Strains DhA-91 and DhA-95 grew on the abietanes, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, but not on the pimaranes, isopimaric and pimaric acids. Strains IpA-92 and IpA-93 grew on the pimaranes but not the abietanes. All four strains grew on either aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, which is unusual for described resin acid degraders. Eleven mesophilic resin acid degraders did not use hydrocarbons, with the exception of two Mycobacterium sp. strains that used aliphatic hydrocarbons. We conclude that hydrocarbon contamination in Arctic tundra soil indirectly selected for resin acid degraders, selecting for hydrocarbon degraders that coincidentally use resin acids. Psychrotolerant resin acid degraders are likely important in the global carbon cycle and may have applications in biotreatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. PMID:11097882

  19. Delineation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination at a former hydrogenation plant using spectral induced polarization imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Kemna, Andreas; Oberdörster, Christoph; Zschornack, Ludwig; Leven, Carsten; Dietrich, Peter; Weiss, Holger

    2012-08-01

    Broadband spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements were conducted at a former hydrogenation plant in Zeitz (NE Germany) to investigate the potential of SIP imaging to delineate areas with different BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) concentrations. Conductivity images reveal a poor correlation with the distribution of contaminants; whereas phase images exhibit two main anomalies: low phase shift values (product (BTEX concentrations > 1.7 g/l), and higher phase values for lower BTEX concentrations. Moreover, the spectral response of the areas with high BTEX concentration and free-phase products reveals a flattened spectrum in the low frequencies (< 40 Hz), while areas with lower BTEX concentrations exhibit a response characterized by a frequency peak. The SIP response was modelled using a Debye decomposition to compute images of the median relaxation-time. Consistent with laboratory studies, we observed an increase in the relaxation-time associated with an increase in BTEX concentrations. Measurements were also collected in the time domain (TDIP), revealing imaging results consistent with those obtained for frequency domain (SIP) measurements. Results presented here demonstrate the potential of the SIP imaging method to discriminate source and plume of dissolved contaminants at BTEX contaminated sites.

  20. Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Characterization of the contaminated site is essential before embarking on a programme for its remediation and ultimate restoration. Reliable and suitable data must be obtained regarding the distribution and physical, chemical and nuclear properties of all radioactive contaminants. Characterization data is necessary for assessing the associated radiation risks and is used in support of the required engineering design and project planning for the environmental restoration. In addition, continuing characterization can provide information regarding efficiency of the cleanup methods and influence possible redirection of work efforts. Similarly, at the end of the remediation phase, characterization and ongoing monitoring can be used to demonstrate completion and success of the cleanup process. The suggested methodology represents a contribution attempting to solve the issue of preremediation characterization in a general manner. However, a number of difficulties might make this methodology unsuitable for general application across the diverse social, environmental and political systems in the IAEA Member States. This TECDOC covers the methodologies used to characterize radioactively contaminated sites for the purpose of remediating the potential sources of radiation exposure and assessing the hazards to human health and the environment

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  3. Assessment of the horizontal transfer of functional genes as a suitable approach for evaluation of the bioremediation potential of petroleum-contaminated sites: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Ince, Bahar; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Orhan

    2017-06-01

    Petroleum sludge contains recalcitrant residuals. These compounds because of being toxic to humans and other organism are of the major concerns. Therefore, petroleum sludge should be safely disposed. Physicochemical methods which are used by this sector are mostly expensive and need complex devices. Bioremediation methods because of being eco-friendly and cost-effective overcome most of the limitations of physicochemical treatments. Microbial strains capable to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons are practically present in all soils and sediments and their population density increases in contact with contaminants. Bacterial strains cannot degrade alone all kinds of petroleum hydrocarbons, rather microbial consortium should collaborate with each other for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. Horizontal transfer of functional genes between bacteria plays an important role in increasing the metabolic potential of the microbial community. Therefore, selecting a suitable degrading gene and tracking its horizontal transfer would be a useful approach to evaluate the bioremediation process and to assess the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites.

  4. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F.; Mdachi, S.J.M.; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  7. Off-site contamination at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setaro, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    An upgrade of the radioactive liquid waste system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had been under way for the past several years. One of the upgrades involves the construction of a Monitoring and Control Station (MCS) which will receive waste from an analytical chemistry building prior to the waste being discharged to the main waste processing area. The MCS was located in a radiologically clean area adjacent to the analytical chemistry facility and no monitoring of personnel was necessary. On December 29, 1992, workers became contaminated and left the site prior to the discovery of the contamination. The construction workers were not employees of the Facility Management Contractor, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, but were subcontractor employees answering to the Construction Manager, a different prime contractor

  8. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found...... to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models...... that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert...

  9. Microbial responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in temporary river sediments: Experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Capri, Silvio; Casella, Patrizia; Fazi, Stefano; Marxsen, Juergen; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2016-01-15

    Temporary rivers are characterized by dry-wet phases and represent an important water resource in semi-arid regions worldwide. The fate and effect of contaminants have not been firmly established in temporary rivers such as in other aquatic environments. In this study, we assessed the effects of sediment amendment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on benthic microbial communities. Experimental microcosms containing natural (Control) and amended sediments (2 and 20 mg PAHs kg(-1) were incubated for 28 days. The PAH concentrations in sediments were monitored weekly together with microbial community structural (biomass and phylogenetic composition by TGGE and CARD-FISH) and functional parameters (ATP concentration, community respiration rate, bacterial carbon production rate, extracellular enzyme activities). The concentration of the PAH isomers did not change significantly with the exception of phenanthrene. No changes were observed in the TGGE profiles, whereas the occurrence of Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria was significantly affected by the treatments. In the amended sediments, the rates of carbon production were stimulated together with aminopeptidase enzyme activity. The community respiration rates showed values significantly lower than the Control after 1 day from the amendment then recovering the Control values during the incubation. A negative trend between the respiration rates and ATP concentration was observed only in the amended sediments. This result indicates a potential toxic effect on the oxidative phosphorylation processes. The impoverishment of the energetic resources that follows the PAH impact may act as a domino on the flux of energy from prokaryotes to the upper level of the trophic chain, with the potential to alter the temporary river functioning.

  10. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L -1 ). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g -1 ). CO 2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L -1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO 2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  12. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  13. <