WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon contaminants correlation

  1. Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants: Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-10-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  2. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  3. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  4. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  5. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  6. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  7. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  9. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  10. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical ... Ground water contamination by crude oil therefore is becoming an increasing sensitive issue in Nigeria because most of the water supply is derived from shallow and ..... patches of weathered, partially degraded oil on the.

  11. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  13. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic......, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources...

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  15. Biosurfactant-enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude biosurfactant extract produced by two microbial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei were used to enhance the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in a mangrove swamp in Nigeria. Nutrient application in combination with biosurfactants showed very significant ...

  16. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  17. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical parameters were investigated in Ochani Stream site in Ejamah Ebubu, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State. The results show that a major crude oil spillage occurred at Ejamah Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria approximately 30 ...

  18. Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Clemens, R.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, several laboratory methods have been developed for the prediction of contaminant bioavailability. So far, none of these methods has been extensively tested for petroleum hydrocarbons. In the present study we investigated solid-phase extraction and persulfate oxidation for the prediction of

  19. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  20. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Figure 3. Changes in the respiration rates of compost inhabiting microorganisms during composting. Values are means of three replicates ± 1 Standard Error. Table 1. Changes in the C:N ratios of compost mixture during incubation. Treatment. 0. 6 Months. 12 Months. 18 Months. Contaminated soil (control ...

  1. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  2. ENVIROMENTAL HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN RICOTTA AND MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mercogliano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain. Aim of this study was the evaluation of PAHs in ricotta and mozzarella di bufala cheese, produced by milk of buffalo collected in three farms, located in a high contaminated area in Campania because of a waste treatment plant and illegal waste incineration. 11 PAHs were identified both in milk and dairy products. Carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(apyrene were found in a range including 0.42- 12.96 μg/kg and dibenzo(ahanthracene 0.21-10.08 μg/kg. Anthracene showed higher concentrations than the other PAHs (45.23-436.85 μg/kg.

  3. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  4. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Chitosan application as a biocoagulant in wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Álava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environment contamination in Ecuador, done by the production, transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons, requires further research regarding new treatment alternatives that use biodegradable substances. In this study, abdominal shrimp shell waste, Litopenaeus vannamei was used to obtain chitosan and then apply it as a biocoagulant to a wastewater sample contaminated with hydrocarbon products. The produced chitosan was characterised by potentiometric titration, resulting in a deacetylation degree (%DD of 87.18%– 93.72% and by intrinsic viscosimetry, obtaining an average molecular weight (g/mol of 5.2x105 –5.4x105. The application of chitosan was done in a jar test, for which a completely randomised factorial design 2k was set, resulting in an evident statistically significant effect for all the factor studied, that is, pH (Initial, chitosan type and agitation method, using the turbidity percentage removal as the response variable. As a result, a pH of 5.5, a 2 mg(Chitosan/L(sample and a fast agitation method were applied to a contaminated sample reducing the turbidity in 98.19%, the oxygen chemical demand in 78.17%, color in 91.45% and total petroleum hydrocarbon in 99.09%.

  6. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrocarbon Contamination Decreases Mating Success in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics. PMID:22053187

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  9. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  10. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  11. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics associated with high soil conductivities in a shallow hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Franklyn David

    TDS at the contaminated locations were also coincident with higher DIC, and increased CO2 production. In general, both TDS and bulk soil conductivity increased with depth at the contaminated and uncontaminated locations. TDS and bulk conductivity were positively correlated at the uncontaminated location, suggesting that TDS was a good predictor of bulk conductivity. However, at the contaminated locations, the correlation between the bulk conductivity and the TDS was poorer, the lack of correlation being more so in portions of the aquifer with free phase hydrocarbons (RDFH). This may suggest that the TDS may not reliably predict the bulk conductivities of hydrocarbon-impacted soils. The present study seeks to provide a likely interrelationship between redox processes, biomineralization of hydrocarbons, and high bulk soil conductivities. Moreover, high conductivities measured at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites may be useful in assessing the potential for natural attenuation and to monitor intrinsic bioremediation at these sites.

  12. [Bioslurry remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z; Li, P; Guo, S; Jing, X; Wang, X; Zhang, H

    2001-09-01

    Through the operation of the pilot-scale slurry reactor, the operational parameters of bioslurry remediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), including temperature, ratio of water to soil, aeration flux, were determined. As the operational condition was that the ratio of water to soil was 2:1, the temperature was 20 degrees C-25 degrees C and aeration flux was 60 L/h, a good result of the remediation could be achieved. With the fungi isolated from contaminated soil as pure culture to degrade PAHs, after 34 days incubation, 90% of pyrene and 33.3% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Fusarium, 81.5% of pyrene and 49.2% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Mucor, 52% of pyrene and of 46% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Penicillium.

  13. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive.

  14. Selection of Biosurfactan/Bioemulsifier-Producing Bacteria From Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Viramontes-Ramos, Sabina; Cristina Portillo-Ruiz, Martha; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Mar?a de Lourdes; Torres-Mu?oz, Jos? Vinicio; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca Estela; Nev?rez-Moorill?n, Guadalupe Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were...

  15. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  16. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  17. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  18. Geophysical techniques in the study of Hydrocarbon contamination: lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo; Straface, Salvatore; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is an environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time and the actual method are invasive and expansive . In the last years there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Greenhouse et al., 1993; Daily and Ramirez, 1995; Lendvay et al., 1998; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009), and there have been several recent study that relate self-potential measurements to subsurface contaminants (Perry et al., 1996; Naudet et al., 2003; Naudet et al., 2004). Infact, this method is a valid tool for site characterization and monitoring because it is sensitive to contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation phase (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005). Therefore the goal of this investigation is to characterize underground contaminant distributions using minimally invasive geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential), in combination with hydrochemical measurements, and to develop fundamental constitutive relations between soil physical and degradation activity parameters and geophysically measurable parameters, in order to improve site remediation efficiency. These tests have been realized at a PVC pool situated in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA. The pool is completely filled with ~ 0.80 m3 of an homogeneous medium (quartz-rich sand with a medium-high hydraulic conductivity in the order of 10-5 m/s), to simulate the space and time dynamics of an artificial aquifer; besides it has been endowed of a sensors network at surface and in borehole, to measure self-potential and electrical resistivity. The experiments consist in geophysical measurements to monitor a simulated oil spill into sand-box following by water rain. The experiment was able to obtain

  19. New minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) correlation for hydrocarbon miscible injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklavani, A.M.; Vatani, A. [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering. Petroleum Engineering Dept.], e-mail: morady.babak@gmail.com; Moradi, B.; Tangsirifard, J. [Iranian Central Oil Fields Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). R and D Dept.

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents a new empirically derived correlation for estimating the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) required for multi contact miscible (MCM) displacement of reservoir petroleum by hydrocarbon gas flooding. Only few empirical correlations exist for determining the MMP. These correlations are often used to estimate the MMP without considering the composition of the injected gas. On the other hand these correlations are based on a limited set of experimental data which are not quite applicable. In addition, in such correlations the complex condensing/vaporizing displacement process is not regarded. In this study, however, the derived correlation investigates the influence of the vaporizing/condensing drive mechanism and oil and gas composition on gas miscibility pressure. MMP has been correlated with temperature, oil composition and injection gas composition. Their effect on hydrocarbon gas MMP has been documented. MCM process was also modeled by compositional slim tube simulators. The modified Peng-Robison equation of state (PR3) was used to evaluate miscibility conditions. The new correlation is based on regression of widely experimentally measured MMP data in literature and data generated from validated compositional slim tube simulators. By comparing the calculated MMPs from the improved correlation data with currently used correlations and experimentally measured data, it was found that the novel correlation is significantly more accurate than other correlations. (author)

  20. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55-1.72% for red, white and green teas.

  1. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Zachara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, i.e., benzo(apyrene and sum of benzo(apyrene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(bfluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD. The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE. Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(apyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in the Italian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovici, M; Dolara, P; Casalini, C; Ciappellano, S; Testolin, G

    1995-01-01

    The content of total and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian foods was measured. The highest levels of PAHs were found in pizza baked in wood-burning ovens and barbecued beef and pork. Relatively high levels were also found in beet greens and squash, apples and bread, fried beef, pork and rabbit, cured meats and chocolate. Conversely low levels were detected in potatoes and cooked fish, beverages and eggs. The daily intake of total and carcinogenic PAHs also was calculated by multiplying the average consumption of each food by its mean concentration of PAHs. Cereal and milk products, meat, vegetables and fruits were the highest contributors to total PAH intake, since these products are the most important dietary components in Italy. The calculated total dietary PAH intake was 3 micrograms/day per person. The calculated intake of carcinogenic PAHs was 1.4 microgram/day per person. The dietary intake of PAHs was high compared with the calculated respiratory intake (370 ng/day) owing to polluted city air in Italy. These results confirm that food is the major source of human exposure to PAHs, due in particular to the high consumption of contaminated cereal products.

  3. Effects of Temperature Changes on Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soils from an Arctic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Klemm, S.; Whyte, L.; Ghoshal, S.

    2009-05-01

    Bioremediation is being considered as a cost-effective and a minimally disruptive remedial option at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic impacted by petroleum NAPL contamination. The implementation of on-site bioremediation in cold environments has been generally limited in the short, non-freezing summer months since ground remains frozen for 8-9 months of the year. This study evaluates the effect of different temperature regimes on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates and extent, as well as on the microbial activity. A series of pilot-scale landfarming bioremediation experiments (1 m×0.6 m×0.35 m soil tank dimension) was performed using aged, petroleum fuel-contaminated soils shipped from Resolution Island, Nunavut, Canada. These experiments were conducted under the following temperature conditions: (1) variable daily average field temperatures (1 to 10°C) representative of summers at the site; (2) constant mean temperature-mode with 6°C, representing typical stable laboratory incubation; and (3) under seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (-8°C to 10°C). Data to be presented include changes with time of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration fractionated by C-lengths, soil moisture (unfrozen water) contents, O2 and CO2 concentrations in soil pore gas, microbial population size and community composition in nutrient- amended and untreated landfarms. Hydrocarbon biodegradation and heterotrophic respiration activity was more rapid under the variable temperature cycle (1 to 10°C) than at a constant average temperature of 6°C, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were reduced by 55% due to biodegradation over a 60 day test period under the variable temperature regime, compared to only 21% in soil tanks which were subjected to a constant temperature of 6°C. Shifts in microbial community were clearly observed in the both temperature modes using PCR-DGGE analyses and the emergence of a hydrocarbon-degrading population, Alkanindiges, was

  4. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  7. Ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Diana Bizecki; Knight, J Diane; Farrell, Richard E; Germida, James J

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. Differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. Screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. Thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western Canada were assessed for their ability to survive in crude oil-contaminated soil. Four naturalized grasses (i.e., Agropyron pectiniforme, Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), three naturalized legumes (i.e., Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, and Trifolium repens), two native forbs (i.e., Artemisia frigida and Potentilla pensylvanica), one native grass (i.e., Bromus ciliatus) and two native legumes (i.e., Glycyrrhiza lepidota and Psoralea esculenta) exhibited phytoremediation potential, based on survival. We determined the effect of increasing crude oil concentrations on total and root biomass, and relative growth rate of those species with the highest survival. The addition of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% (crude oil wt/fresh soil wt) crude oil to soil significantly decreased both the total biomass by at least 22% of the control and the relative growth rate of all species except P. esculenta. Root biomass significantly decreased by at least 22% with crude oil addition in all species except P. esculenta and A. frigida. Total biomass production in contaminated soil had a significant negative correlation with the relative growth rate in uncontaminated soil.

  8. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Soil Science, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Geophysical Responses of Hydrocarbon-impacted Zones at the Various Contamination Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Ko, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    One controlled experiment and two field surveys were conducted to investigate the geoelectrical responses of hydrocarbon-contaminated zones, so called smeared zone, on the geophysical data at the hydrocarbon- contaminated sites with various conditions. One controlled physical model experiment with GPR using fresh gasoline and two different 3-D electrical resistivity investigations at the aged sites. One field site (former military facilities for arms maintenance) was mainly contaminated with lubricating oils and the other (former gas station) was contaminated with gasoline and diesel, respectively. The results from the physical model experiment show that GPR signals were enhanced when LNAPL was present as a residual saturation in the water-saturated system due to less attenuation of the electromagnetic energy through the soil medium of the hydrocarbon-impacted zone (no biodegradation), compared to when the medium was saturated with only water (no hydrocarbon impaction). In the former gas station site, 3-D resistivity results demonstrate that the highly contaminated zones were imaged with low resistivity anomalies since the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has been undergone for many years, causing the drastic increase in the TDS at the hydrocarbon-impacted zones. Finally, 3-D resistivity data obtained from the former military maintenance site show that the hydrocarbon-contaminated zones show high resistivity anomalies since the hydrocarbons such as lubricating oils at the contaminated soils were not greatly influenced by microbial degradation and has relatively well kept their original physical properties of high electrical resistivity. The results of the study illustrated that the hydrocarbon-impacted zones under various contamination conditions yielded various geophysical responses which include (1) enhanced GPR amplitudes at the fresh LNAPL (Gasoline to middle distillates) spill sites, (2) low electrical resistivity anomalies due to biodegradation at the

  10. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  11. Field-scale assessment of phytotreatment of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.R.T.; Koskinen, P.E.P.; Tuhkanen, T.A.; Puhakka, J.A. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere Univ. of Tech., Tampere (Finland); Pichtel, J. [Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States); Vaajasaari, K. [Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, Tampere (Finland); Joutti, A. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Background, Aims, and Scope. Phytoremediation is remediation method which uses plants to remove, contain or detoxify environmental contaminants. Phytoremediation has successfully been applied for the removal of fresh hydrocarbon contamination, but removal of aged hydrocarbons has proven more difficult. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface can be enhanced by the presence of plant roots, i.e. the rhizosphere effect. Phytostabilization reduces heavy metal availability via immobilization in the rhizosphere. Soils contaminated by both hydrocarbons and heavy metals are abundant and may be difficult to treat. Heavy metal toxicity can inhibit the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading micro-organisms and decrease the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria. In this experiment, weathered hydrocarbon- and heavy metal-contaminated soil was treated using phytoremediation in a 39-month field study in attempts to achieve both hydrocarbon removal and heavy metal stabilization. Methods. A combination of hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal stabilization was evaluated in a field-scale phytoremediation study of weathered contaminants. Soil had been contaminated over several years with hydrocarbons (11,400{+-}4,300 mg kg dry soil){sup -1} and heavy metals from bus maintenance activities and was geologically characterized as till. Concentrations of soil copper, lead and zinc were 170{+-}50 mgkg{sup -1}, 1,100{+-}1,500 mg kg{sup -1} and 390{+-} 340 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The effect of contaminants, plant species and soil amendment (NPK fertilizer or biowaste compost) on metabolic activity of soil microbiota was determined. Phytostabilization performance was investigated by analyses of metal concentrations in plants, soil and site leachate as well as acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri and Enchtraeus albidus. Results. Over 39 months hydrocarbon concentrations did not decrease significantly (P=0.05) in non-amended soil, although 30% of initial hydrocarbon concentrations were

  12. Millimeter-scale concentration gradients of hydrocarbons in Archean shales: Live-oil escape or fingerprint of contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    2011-06-01

    Archean shales from the Pilbara in Western Australia contain biomarkers that have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotes 2.7 billion years (Ga) ago, with far reaching implications for the evolution of Earth's early biosphere. To re-evaluate the provenance of the biomarkers, this study determined the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in the original drill core material. Rock samples were cut into millimeter-thick slices, and the molecular content of each slice was analyzed. In core from the Hamersley Group (˜2.5 Ga), C contamination model), and leaching of indigenous hydrocarbons out of host shales driven by pressure release after drilling ('live-oil' effect). To test these models, the hydrocarbon distributions in the Archean shales are compared with artificially contaminated rocks as well as younger mudstones where leaching of live-oil had been observed. The results show that chromatographic phenomena associated with live-oil escape and contaminant diffusion have strong effects on molecular ratios and maturity parameters, potentially with broad implications for oil-source rock correlation studies and paleoenvironmental interpretations. For the Archean shales, the live-oil effect is consistent with some of the observed patterns, but only the contamination model fully explains the complex chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the biomarkers in the Pilbara samples have an anthropogenic origin, and previous conclusions about the origin of eukaryotes and oxygenic photosynthesis based on these samples are not valid. However, the study also identified indigenous molecules. The spatial distribution of particular aromatic hydrocarbons suggests they are syngenetic. Although devoid of biological information, these aromatics now represent the oldest known clearly-indigenous terrestrial liquid hydrocarbons.

  13. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg-1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm-1. Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  16. Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions.

  17. Microbial treatment of soils with mixed contaminations from radioactive residues and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, D.; Glombitza, F. [C and E Consulting and Engineering GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of contaminated soils often is complicated due to the presence of different pollutants. A remediation process must take into consideration the requirements of each of these contaminants. From uranium mining activities a great number of sites remained contaminated with hydrocarbons and radioactive residues which have to be treated for environmental protection reasons. The concept of a treatment process for these kinds of mixed contaminations is introduced. First, the hydrocarbons are removed biologically with help of on or off-site technologies. After the degradation, the soil, now only contaminated with radionuclides, can be disposed like other radioactive wastes. For the biological treatment process, conventional methods can be applied which, however, have to be modified to consider radiation protection.

  18. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-11-25

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Martian (SNC) Meteorite ALH 84001: Hydrocarbons from Mars, Terrestrial Contaminants, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Romanek, C. S.; Macheling, C. R.; Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Score, R.; Zare, R. N.

    1995-09-01

    Previous work has shown that pre-terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and certain meteorites [1-3]. We previously reported the first observation of PAHs in the newest member of the SNC group, Allan Hills 84001 [4] and determined that particular types of organic compounds are indigenous to ALH 84001 because they are associated with certain mineralogical features [4]. We also analyzed two diogenites from Antarctica: one showed no evidence for aromatic hydrocarbons while the other contained PAHs with the same major peaks as those in ALH 84001[4]. PAHs in the diogenite meteorite are not associated with mineral features on the analyzed surface and the most abundant PAHs in the diogenite are lower by a factor of 3 than those in ALH 84001. Furthermore, ALH 84001 contains a number of minor PAHs not found in the diogenite or typical terrestrial soils [4]. In this study we are analyzing a more complete group of Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites, including SNCs, to determine: (1) PAHs abundance and diversity in Antarctic meteorites and (2) the contribution of PAHs in SNCs from martian and, possibly, terrestrial sources. ALH 84001 is an unusual orthopyroxenite which contains abundant carbonate spheroids which are ~100-200 micrometers in diameter and range in composition from magnesite to ferroan magnesite [5-7]. These spheroids are not the result of terrestrial contamination: oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that the carbonates probably precipitated from a low-temperature fluid within the martian crust [5] and carbon isotopic abundances are consistent with martian atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source [5]. PAHs may coexist with other low-temperature carbon-bearing phases in a subsurface martian environment. Samples: We are analyzing freshly-fractured meteorite samples, or chips, which have been extracted from the internal regions of the following meteorites: ALH 84001 (crush and uncrush zones), EETA79001

  1. Magnetic Parameter Changes in Soil and Sediments in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M. L.; Ameen, N. N.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic proxies were successfully used for fast and non-destructive detection of fly ash related heavy metal pollution. Correlations of magnetic signals with organic contaminants in soils and sediments were also reported; however, their significance is unclear because of co-existing heavy metal pollution. At a hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated former military airbase (Hradcany, Czech Rep.), where heavy metal contents are insignificant, we detected clearly higher magnetic concentrations at the top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. Frequent GWF by up to ca. one meter was caused through remediation by air sparging. In this study and all previous ones magnetite was identified as the dominant phase for higher magnetic concentrations. To determine the importance of microbial activity and soil parameters on changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) laboratory batch experiments with different microbially active and sterile soils without carbon addition and with gasoline amendment were setup. MS of these microcosms was followed weekly. Depending on the soil MS either increased or decreased by up to ~7% and remained constant afterwards. The main findings were that MS changes were mainly microbially driven and influenced by the bioavailable Fe content, the initial MS and the organic carbon content of the soils. Moreover, we tested magnetic changes in laboratory columns, filled with sand from the field site Hradcany, by simulating water level changes. The observed changes were small and hardly statistically significant. Our laboratory studies revealed that different factors influence changes in magnetic properties of soil/sediments after HC contamination, with much smaller effects than expected from anomalies observed at field sites. With the present results, the ambitious goal of using magnetic monitoring for detecting HC contaminations by oil spills seem far from practical application.

  2. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  6. Temporal biogeophysical signatures at hydrocarbon contaminated sites associated with long-term remediation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E.; Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E.; Werkema, D. D.

    2009-05-01

    Biogeophysical signatures of hydrocarbon contaminated sites provide ideal laboratories for investigating microbial-geophysical relationships as the excess organic carbon present at these sites stimulates microbial activity. As such geophysical investigations have documented characteristic changes associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation in both field and laboratory experiments. The conceptual model that results from almost a decade of studies from these environments is one in which over time, the geophysical signatures due to bio-physicochemical changes imparted on the aquifer by the microbial activity reach some maximum or minimum related to the availability of terminal electron acceptors, the organic carbon source concentration, and microbial activity. However, with continuous removal of the contaminant mass either by natural attenuation (e.g., intrinsic bioremediation) or engineered (bio) remediation, a decrease in the microbial activity is predicted to cause associated changes in the geophysical properties (i.e., geophysical signatures revert to original conditions). This paper will present the results of repeated geophysical investigations at a hydrocarbon contaminated site acquired over an eleven-year period documenting changes in geophysical signatures associated with removal of hydrocarbon mass in the contaminated zone. Initial investigations at the site showed that relative to background, the contaminated area was characterized by higher bulk electrical conductivity, positive SP anomaly, and attenuated GPR reflections. Over time, the contaminated zone bulk electrical conductivity had reverted to near background conditions, the positive SP anomaly became more negative, and the zone of attenuated GPR reflections showed increased signal strength. The removal of hydrocarbon mass in the vadose zone over the plume by a soil vapor extraction system decreased the level of biological activity and therefore the magnitude of the geophysical signatures. We conclude

  7. Nonvalence Correlation-Bound Anion States of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Vamsee K; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2015-10-15

    In this work, we characterize the nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Unlike the analogous image potential states of graphene that localize the charge density of the excess electron above and below the plane of the sheet, we find that for PAHs, much of the charge distribution of the excess electron is localized around the periphery of the molecule. This is a consequence of the electrostatic interaction of the electron with the polar CH groups. By replacing the H atoms by F atoms or the CH groups by N atoms, the charge density of the excess electron shifts from the periphery to above and below the plane of the ring systems.

  8. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a

  9. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  10. Contamination by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons: a threat to mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos Santos Alencar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet with relevant ecological importance. It offers several services such as protection of the coastal region, immobilization of contaminants, as it is a food source and refuge for various organisms. However, mangroves are threatened by human activities. Oil spills in areas close to mangroves, for example, are potential sources for the entry of contaminants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Among other sources of threat, we list industrial waste and sewage, mining and fertilizer use. When they reach the mangroves, these contaminants may cause several negative effects and affect its balance.

  11. Structure of bacterial communities along a hydrocarbon contamination gradient in a coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissé, Sandrine; Coulon, Frédéric; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; McGenity, Terry J; Duran, Robert

    2008-11-01

    The bacterial diversity of a chronically oil-polluted retention basin sediment located in the Berre lagoon (Etang-de-Berre, France) was investigated. This study combines chemical and molecular approaches in order to define how the in situ petroleum hydrocarbon contamination level affects the bacterial community structure of a subsurface sediment. Hydrocarbon content analysis clearly revealed a gradient of hydrocarbon contamination in both the water and the sediment following the basin periphery from the pollution input to the lagoon water. The nC17 and pristane concentrations suggested alkane biodegradation in the sediments. These results, combined with those of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, indicated that bacterial community structure was obviously associated with the gradient of oil contamination. The analysis of bacterial community composition revealed dominance of bacteria related to the Proteobacteria phylum (Gamma-, Delta-, Alpha-, Epsilon- and Betaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobium groups and Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria phyla. The adaptation of the bacterial community to oil contamination was not characterized by dominance of known oil-degrading bacteria, because a predominance of populations associated to the sulphur cycle was observed. The input station presented particular bacterial community composition associated with a low oil concentration in the sediment, indicating the adaptation of this community to the oil contamination.

  12. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons using bioslurry reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, S.K.; Zappi, M.E.; Teeter, C.L.; Gunnison, D.; Cullinane, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Defense has over 12,000 sites contaminated from military activities. This report presents data from two bench-scale and two pilot-scale studies that evaluated the suitability of the bioslurry process to bioremediate soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Soils from two contaminated sites were studied. The first soil contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds, ketones, and chlorinated ethanes; the second soil contained gasoline and associated compounds. Conceptual designs and costs of bioslurry processes for field applications are also presented. Bench-scale studies were performed in 5-L batch reactors, equipped with aeration and mixing equipment. Various nutrient amendments, surfactants, and selected microbial consortia were evaluated during the bench-scale studies. Several reactors were also operated using only native microbes.

  13. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  14. THE GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONING OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS RESULTING FROM SOIL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Lipińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization economy of oil mining and mineral waters is associated with planning the functions of spa treatment. Environmental protection of the spa areas also applies to preserve their technical and cultural heritage. This article attempts to determine the places of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon pollution substances. Their presence in the soil affects the quality of the environment. As a result, maps are produced showing directions of research: (1 the natural background of biodiversity, and (2 potential anthropogenic pollution. They are assessed in the context of the health and human life, protection of the environment and the possibility of damage to the environment. Research is conducted in communes of the status of the spa – for special protection.

  15. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  17. Prospects for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to assist in phytoremediation of soil hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtor, Monika; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualistic associations with the roots of 80-90% of vascular plant species and may constitute up to 50% of the total soil microbial biomass. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants. The paper presents and evaluates the role and significance of AMF in phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We focused on (1) an impact of hydrocarbons on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, (2) a potential of AMF to enhance phytoremediation, (3) determinants that influence effectiveness of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated soils. This knowledge may be useful for selection of proper plant and fungal symbionts and crucial to optimize environmental conditions for effective AMF-mediated phytoremediation. It has been concluded that three-component phytoremediation systems based on synergistic interactions between plant roots, AMF and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms demonstrated high effectiveness in dissipation of organic pollutants in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  19. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics associated with high electrical conductivities in a shallow hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, F.; Atekwana, E.; Atekwana, E.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Sauck, W.

    2003-04-01

    Data collected from a network of in-situ vertical resistivity probes (VRPs) deployed within a hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer showed high soil conductivities associated with zones where residual and dissolved phase hydrocarbons (RDH) occur and zones where these phases coexist with free phase hydrocarbons (RDFH). Bulk soil conductivities were highest (12 to 30 mS/m) in the RDFH zone compared to the RDH zone (10 to 25 mS/m). Groundwater from closely spaced multi-level piezometers (MLPs) installed in the aquifer was analyzed to investigate the role of mineral weathering as the source of ions responsible for the high soil conductivity. Evidence for mineral weathering in the aquifer was assessed using major inorganic ions, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), stable carbon isotope ratio of DIC (δ13CDIC), and bulk soil conductivity. The link between bulk soil conductivity and δ13CDIC in contaminant plumes has never been reported in the literature. The results show higher Na, Ca, and Mg in the contaminated zone compared to background. The higher TDS in the contaminated zones is consistent with the weathering of carbonates and Na and Ca feldspars, the dominant minerals in the aquifer. Higher TDS at the contaminated locations was also coincident with higher DIC. The δ13CDIC values of 16.9 to 9.5 ppm suggest that DIC evolution within this zone is controlled by carbonate dissolution through enhanced CO_2 production related to microbial hydrocarbon degradation. Within the range of δ13CDIC values reported for groundwater at the RDH locations, the more positive δ13CDIC values were observed in zones where reduction of NO_3, Mn(IV), Fe(III), and SO_4 was occurring and was coincident with higher bulk soil conductivity. Within the portion of the aquifer with RDFH, δ13CDIC ranged from +6.5 to 4.4 ppm, suggesting that methanogenesis is the dominant redox process at this location. High DIC within the methanogenic zone is also coincident with higher bulk soil conductivity. Thus the

  20. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  3. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  4. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray-Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  6. Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Viramontes-Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were grown in liquid medium, and surface tension and emulsification index were determined in cell-free supernantant and cell suspension. A total of 324 bacterial strains were tested, and 17 were positive for the drop-collapse and hydrocarbon-layer agar methods. Most of the strains were Pseudomonas, except for three strains (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus. Surface tension was similar in cell-free and cell suspension measurements, with values in the range of 58 to 26 (mN/m, and all formed stable emulsions with motor oil (76-93% E24. Considering the variety of molecular structures among microbial biosurfactants, they have different chemical properties that can be exploited commercially, for applications as diverse as bioremediation or degradable detergents.

  7. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendyk Łukasz; Charzyński Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally imp...

  8. Potential Use of Polyacrylamide Encapsulation for Treatment of Petroleum Drilling Cuttings and Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy H. Adams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral soil of alluvial origin, contaminated with diesel+lubricating oil (1:2, was treated with a commercial polyacrylamide product at 100 % of the distributer recommended dosage, producing a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (EPA 9074 of 76 % that remained stable during the study period (38 days and even after thermal treatment (60 ºC, 18 hrs.. Increasing the dosage to 150 % did not improve the treatment results, but repeating the treatment (at 100 % resulted in a slight additional reduction (4 %. Similar results were obtained with oil-based drilling cuttings (~60 % reduction at both 100 % and 150 %. Pre-drying of the drilling cuttings prior to treatment did not improve the hydrocarbon reduction, but it did produce smaller, potentially more stable aggregates (0.5 – 1-0 mm in diameter. The treatment of organic soil resulted in a similar reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (65 % and a reduction of acute toxicity (Microtox to below background levels, however this effect was not stable. An additional application (including mixing of the polyacrylamide product resulted in partial disintegration of the organic fibres and release of the stabilized hydrocarbons, measuring an overall increase in hydrocarbon concentration of 19 %.

  9. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  11. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  12. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  13. Organochlorine, Trace Element, and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants Investigation of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1985-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine, trace element, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants were examined in sediment and biota from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The study was...

  14. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between

  15. Bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the amphipod Corophium volutator relates to chemical desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, R H; Ciarelli, S; Tolls, J; Kater, B J; Belfroid, A

    2001-08-01

    In the present study, the relationship between bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic amphipods and the PAH desorption kinetics was examined. To that end, field-contaminated sediment was treated in three different ways. One subsample had no addition of PAHs and contained native PAHs only. To a second subsample, six PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene) were added in the laboratory. Two of the PAHs were added at higher concentrations to a third subsample, serving as a control for concentration-dependent uptake. Marine amphipods (Corophium volutator) were exposed to the three subsamples for a maximum of 25 d and were subsequently analyzed. Desorption kinetics were determined for both the lab-contaminated and the native PAHs. The biota-to-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of the individual native and lab-contaminated PAHs correlated well with the rapidly desorbing fraction (R2 = 0.76). The BSAFs were 1.4 to 3.3 higher for the lab-contaminated PAHs compared with the native PAHs, while the difference between the rapidly desorbing fractions was a factor of 1.1 to 1.8. The BSAFs of the lab-contaminated PAHs in the second and third subsample were equal, indicating concentration-independent accumulation. The results suggest that lab-contaminated PAHs are more available to amphipods than native PAHs and that differences in bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native PAHs to marine amphipods are related to differences in desorption behavior.

  16. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-01-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  17. Natural attenuation of fuel hydrocarbon contaminants: Hydraulic conductivity dependency of biodegradation rates in a field case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-07-15

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  18. The role of biominerals in enhancing the geophysical response at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewafy, Farag Mohamed

    There are several source mechanisms by which microbial activity in the subsurface can change geophysical signatures. To date the source mechanisms generating the geophysical signatures in microbially active environments remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between the biogeochemical processes resulting in biotransformation of metallic iron mineral phases and the associated biogeophysical signatures. Hydrocarbon contaminated environments provide excellent laboratories for investigating iron mineral biotransformation. In particular, we investigated the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the complex conductivity (CC) signatures of a hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota. For the MS study, we investigated the changes in the MS response for cores retrieved from the site as well as down boreholes. The contaminated location revealed two enriched MS zones. The first MS lies within the hydrocarbon smear zone, which is limited to the zone of water table fluctuation with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and organic carbon content. Magnetite and siderite were the dominant minerals formed during this process. However, magnetite was responsible for the bulk of MS changes. The second zone of MS enhancement lies within the vadose zone which is characterized by methane depletion suggesting that aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of methane is coupled to iron-reduction resulting in magnetite precipitation. For the CC work, we conducted laboratory CC measurements along four cores in addition to field CC survey. We found that the real (sigma‧) and imaginary (sigma″) conductivity are higher for samples from within the oil plume especially within the smear zone compared to background uncontaminated samples. Using magnetite as an example of the biometallic minerals in the smear zone at the site, a clear increase in the sigma″ response with increasing magnetite content was observed suggesting that the presence of bio-metallic mineral

  19. Remediation of a soil chronically contaminated with hydrocarbons through persulfate oxidation and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rocío; David Gara, Pedro Maximiliano; Fernández-González, Antonio José; Rosso, Janina Alejandra; Del Panno, María Teresa

    2018-03-15

    The impact of remediation combining chemical oxidation followed by biological treatment on soil matrix and microbial community was studied, of a chronically hydrocarbon contaminated soil sourced from a landfarming treatment. Oxidation by ammonium persulfate produced a significant elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an increase in PAH bioavailability. Organic-matter oxidation mobilized nutrients from the soil matrix. The bacterial populations were affected negatively, with a marked diminution in the diversity indices. In this combined treatment with oxidation and bioremediation working in tandem, the aliphatic-hydrocarbon fractions were largely eliminated along with additional PAHs. The chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated a change in soil nutrients. In spite of the high residual-sulfate concentration, a rapid recovery of the cultivable bacterial population and the establishment of a diverse and equitable microbial community were obtained. Pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated a marked succession throughout this twofold intervention in accordance with the chemical and biologic shifts observed. These remediation steps produced different effects on the soil physiology. Spectroscopic analysis became a useful tool for following and comparing those treatments, which involved acute changes in a matrix of such chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The combined treatment increased the elimination efficiency of both the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the PAHs at the expense of the mobilized organic matter, thus sustaining the recovery of the resilient populations throughout the treatment. The high-throughput-DNA-sequencing techniques enabled the identification of the predominant populations that were associated with the changes observed during the treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminated soils; Phytoremediation des sols contamines aux metaux lourds et aux hydrocarbures recalcitrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Chateauneuf, G.; Sura, C. [Inspec-Sol Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Labrecque, M.; Galipeau, C. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale; Greer, C.; Delisle, S.; Roy, S.; Labelle, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Research in Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to decontaminate soils and underground water. Inspec-Sol, a company located in Montreal, Quebec, conducted a two-year study to evaluate the decontamination capabilities of this technology. Trials in greenhouses and field studies at the Pitt Park along the Lachine Canal were conducted. The soils chosen for the studies were soils with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc) higher than those prescribed for the safe utilization of soils. The trials identified the three plant species (Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Festuca arundinacea) which had the best characteristics for phytoremediation. Controlled experiments were performed to optimize the technology to achieve the maximum extraction of contaminant. It was concluded that phytoremediation has potential for the remediation of urban soils contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants.

  1. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the removal rate of total n-alkanes (45.83 %) was higher than that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (30.34 %). The amendment of biochar did not result in significant improvement of TPH removal. In contrast, it showed a clear negative impact on the growth of ryegrass and the removal of TPHs by ryegrass. The removal rate of TPHs was significantly lower after the amendment of biochar. The results indicated that planting ryegrass is an effective remediation strategy, while the amendment of biochar may not be suitable for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  3. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  4. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  5. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  6. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic

  7. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  8. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  9. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.

  10. Determination of hydrocarbons in old creosote contaminated soil using headspace solid phase microextraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M; Fäldt, J; Dalhammar, G; Borg-Karlson, A K

    2001-09-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used together with GC-MS to analyze organic substances directly in a soil, heavily contaminated with PAHs/creosote (approximately 300 mg/kg soil), from an old gaswork site in Stockholm, Sweden. The HS-SPME results, both qualitative and quantitative, were compared with traditional liquid extraction using ethyl acetate/hexane (20:80). It was shown that the concentrations determined with HS-SPME at 60 degrees C correlated well, for compounds containing up to two and three aromatic rings (naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorenes, while a lower concentration was obtained for phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The total concentrations for each compound determined with HS-SPME ranged from 2 to 25 microg/g soil. Quantification was done using standard addition of compounds directly to the soil samples. The bioavailable fraction of the compounds in the contaminated soil at 20 degrees C was analyzed using external calibration by spiking sterile uncontaminated sand (same texture and particle size as the contaminated soil but without a heavily sorbed organic fraction) with hydrocarbon standards in different concentrations. Storage of exposed fibers at 20 degrees C showed that analysis should be done within two days to make qualitative measurements and earlier (as soon as possible) for quantitative determinations.

  11. Effect of oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on goat's milk contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Grova, Nathalie; Rychen, Guido; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno; Feidt, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    The impact of chronic exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on milk contamination was evaluated by oral administration of a mixture of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(k)fluorene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene at 0.02 mg/kg to lactating goats for 28 days. We analysed PAHs and their major metabolites in milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results evidence several major points: (1) benzo(k)fluorene, benzo(a)pyrene an...

  12. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  13. Process for the restoration of solids contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.; Jackson, J.D.; McMillin, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Processes have been developed for the restoration of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy organics. The intended product is a field deployable materials handling system and phase separation process ranging in size from 1 yd{sup 3}/hr to 50 yd{sup 3}/hr for commercial application to environmental problems associated with the exploration, production, refining and transport of petroleum, petroleum products and organic chemicals. Effluents from contaminated sites will be clean solids (classified by size if appropriate), and the concentrated contaminant. The technology is based on biochemical solvation, liquid/liquid and liquid/solid extractions, materials classification, mechanical and hydraulic scrubbing, and phase separation of organic and aqueous phases. Fluid use is minimized through utilization of closed-loop (recycle) systems. Contaminants that are removed from the solid materials may be destroyed, disposed of using existing technologies, or used on-site for cogeneration of /power for plant operations. Additionally, if the contaminant is a valued product, the material may be recovered for application or sale. Clean solid material is not sterilized and may be returned to normal agricultural, commercial, residential or recreational use in most instances.

  14. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  15. Using Different Tolerant Plant for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction activity, transportation and processing of crude oil caused soil contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH. The develop phytoremediation process of contaminated soils with 2.8 % TPH, were studied in pots, with a tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne. Four treatments, each consisting of three replicates, were realized in randomized block design. The experimental variants are: control, uncontaminated soil, untreated and treated contaminated soil with anaerobic stabilized sewage sludge (50 t/ha in absence/presence volcanic indigenous tuff amendment (5 t/ha. Removal efficiencies of TPH from the contaminated soils variants treated with organic fertilizer without volcanic indigenous tuff and mixed with tuff after eight months was 73.4 % and 78.9 % respectively. The results are supported by healthy plants with roots system well developed. The green biomass harvested from the variant fertilized with sludge mixed with volcanic tuff was similar to the harvested from control variant, 15.1-17.9 g / pot of vegetation The obtained results show that, the tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne must be applied safely to phytoremediation, on TPH contaminated soil.

  16. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influx and sediment contamination in an urbanized estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marina R; Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo R; Caramão, Elina B

    2010-09-01

    Sediments from the Patos Lagoon Estuary in Southern Brazil and sludge from incoming effluents were assessed for the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shallow sediments adjoining the City of Rio Grande were found to be contaminated by PAHs mainly near urban effluent discharge, as well as in the port area. Effluents clustered into four groups according to their sources (sewage, industrial, runoff, and mixed), with each demonstrating different contributions of PAHs to the estuary. There was a predominance of runoff and mixed sources. Navigation activity was the second most important source of PAHs to sediments. The PAHs ratio identified the origin of these contaminants as essentially pyrolytic. The impact of PAHs as a result of uncontrolled disposal or accidental discharge of PAH-rich residues was suggested for several points. These points were primarily near gas stations and motor workshops. In about 30% of sampled sediments, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene surpassed the Threshold Effects Level adopted for marine environments.

  17. Heat Transfer Correlations for Flow Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures inside Horizontal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, X.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Chen, G. F.

    The hydrocarbons and its mixtures are suitable for environment-friendly refrigerant alternatives because of their good environmental criteria and high thermodynamic performances. Based on the experimental results of the hydrocarbon mixtures, a correlation was developed earlier by Zou (2010) to predict saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficients inside horizontal smooth tubes. In this article, the proposed correlation is extended to predict evaporation of some more mixtures (such as R50/R170) inside a horizontal tube by evaluating the mixture factor for that fluid. The comparisons of the present model and other classic models with the previous experimental data are made to evaluate the mean deviation for the hydrocarbon mixtures. It reveals that the new model is better to predict the flow boiling heat transfer for the hydrocarbon mixtures.

  18. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  19. Assessment of five bioaccessibility assays for predicting the efficacy of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandie, Catherine E; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Adetutu, Eric M; Ball, Andy S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in aged contaminated soils (1.6-67gkg(-1)) was assessed using four non-exhaustive extraction techniques (100% 1-butanol, 100% 1-propanol, 50% 1-propanol in water and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) and the persulfate oxidation method. Using linear regression analysis, residual hydrocarbon concentrations following bioaccessibility assessment were compared to residual hydrocarbon concentrations following biodegradation in laboratory-scale microcosms in order to determine whether bioaccessibility assays can predict the endpoint of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The relationship between residual hydrocarbon concentrations following microcosm biodegradation and bioaccessibility assessment was linear (r(2)=0.71-0.97) indicating that bioaccessibility assays have the potential to predict the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation. However, the slope of best fit varied depending on the hydrocarbon fractional range assessed. For the C(10)-C(14) hydrocarbon fraction, the slope of best fit ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 indicating that the non-exhaustive or persulfate oxidation methods removed 3.5-8 times more hydrocarbons than biodegradation. Conversely, for the higher molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions (C(29)-C(36) and C(37)-C(40)), biodegradation removed up to 3.3 times more hydrocarbons compared to bioaccessibility assays with the resulting slope of best fit ranging from 1.0-1.9 to 2.0-3.3 respectively. For mid-range hydrocarbons (C(15)-C(28)), a slope of approximately one was obtained indicating that C(15)-C(28) hydrocarbon removal by these bioaccessibility assays may approximate the extent of biodegradation. While this study demonstrates the potential of predicting biodegradation endpoints using bioaccessibility assays, limitations of the study include a small data set and that all soils were collected from a single site, presumably resulting from a single contamination source. Further evaluation and validation is

  20. Bacterial community shift and hydrocarbon transformation during bioremediation of short-term petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the impact of bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (BR, added both nutrients and bacterial consortia), and natural attenuation (NA) on hydrocarbon degradation efficiency and microflora characterization during remediation of a freshly contaminated soil. After 112 days of remediation, the initial level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (61,000 mg/kg soil) was reduced by 4.5% and 5.0% in the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Bioremediation did not significantly enhance TPH biodegradation compared to natural attenuation. The degradation of the aliphatic fraction was the most active with the degradation rate of 30.3 and 28.7 mg/kg/day by the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Soil microbial activities and counts in soil were generally greater for bioremediation than for natural attenuation. MiSeq sequencing indicated that the diversity and structure of microbial communities were affected greatly by bioremediation. In response to bioremediation treatment, Promicromonospora, Pseudomonas, Microcella, Mycobacterium, Alkanibacter, and Altererythrobacter became dominant genera in the soil. The result indicated that combining bioaugmentation with biostimulation did not improve TPH degradation, but soil microbial activities and structure of microbial communities are sensitive to bioremediation in short-term and heavily oil-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  2. Cleaning of contaminated soils with hydrocarbons by biocell; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Arguelles, R.; Flores-Torres, C; Chavez-Lopez, C.; Roldan-Martin, A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1990 the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPG and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore an experimental biopile of 30 m3 was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80 % of TPH and PAH remotion. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 425 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburo poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se lleva a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de http, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos. Las tecnicas propuesta son biopilas y lavado de suelos con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de http del 80 porciento con cinco meses de operacion. Se muestra las partes de una biopila y se dan los resultados de la biopila experimental en la refineria Francisco I. Madero.

  3. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Mandal, Asit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-15

    Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC>unmodified bentonite>Arquad-bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10-43%) as well as activities (respiration 3-44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Mandal, Asit [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Division of Soil Biology, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel metal-immobilizing organoclay (MIOC) synthesized and characterized. • MIOC immobilizes toxic metals and reduces metal bioavailability. • It enhances PAH-bioavailability to soil bacteria. • It improves microbial growth and activities in mixed-contaminated soils. • MIOC facilitates PAH-biodegradation in metal co-contaminated soils. - Abstract: Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad{sup ®} 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC > unmodified bentonite > Arquad–bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10–43%) as well as activities (respiration 3–44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  5. Bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons by exogenously seeded bacterial consortium: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bordoloi, Naba K

    2011-03-01

    Spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons causes significant environmental pollution. Bioremediation is an effective process to remediate petroleum oil contaminant from the ecosystem. The aim of the present study was to reclaim a petroleum oil-contaminated soil which was unsuitable for the cultivation of crop plants by using petroleum oil hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium. Bacterial consortium consisting of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains were seeded to 20% (v/w) petroleum oil-contaminated soil, and bioremediation experiment was carried out for 180 days under laboratory condition. The kinetics of hydrocarbon degradation was analyzed using biochemical and gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The ecotoxicity of the elutriates obtained from petroleum oil-contaminated soil before and post-treatment with microbial consortium was tested on germination and growth of Bengal gram (Cicer aretinum) and green gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Bacterial consortium showed a significant reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon level in contaminated soil (76% degradation) as compared to the control soil (3.6% degradation) 180 days post-inoculation. The GC analysis confirmed that bacterial consortium was more effective in degrading the alkane fraction compared to aromatic fraction of crude petroleum oil hydrocarbons in soil. The nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds fraction was least degraded. The reclaimed soil supported the germination and growth of crop plants (C. aretinum and P. mungo). In contrast, seeds could not be germinated in petroleum oil-contaminated soil. The present study reinforces the application of bacterial consortium rather than individual bacterium for the effective bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil.

  6. A simple strategy for investigating the diversity and hydrocarbon degradation abilities of cultivable bacteria from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučková, Maria; Puškarová, Andrea; Chovanová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Ferianc, Peter; Pangallo, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial strains is a valuable bioremediation strategy for cleaning the environment from hydrocarbon pollutants. The isolation and selection of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria is therefore crucial for obtaining the most promising strains for site decontamination. Two different media, a minimal medium supplemented with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a MS medium supplemented with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, were used for the isolation of bacterial strains from two hydrocarbon contaminated soils and from their enrichment phases. The hydrocarbon degradation abilities of these bacterial isolates were easily and rapidly assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. The diversity of the bacterial communities isolated from these two soil samples and from their enrichment phases was evaluated by the combination of a bacterial clustering method, fluorescence ITS-PCR, and bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Different PCR-based assays were performed in order to detect the genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation. The best hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, including Arthrobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, were isolated directly from the soil samples on minimal medium. The nahAc gene was detected only in 13 Gram-negative isolates and the sequences of nahAc-like genes were obtained from Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas brenneri, Pseudomonas entomophila and P. koreensis strains. The combination of isolation on minimal medium with the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay was effective in selecting different hydrocarbon-degrading strains from 353 isolates.

  7. Assessment of three approaches of bioremediation (Natural Attenuation, Landfarming and Bioagumentation - Assistited Landfarming) for a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, C; Spada, V; Sciarrillo, R

    2017-03-01

    Contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) subsequent to refining activities, is currently one of the major environmental problems. Among the biological remediation approaches, landfarming and in situ bioremediation strategies are of great interest. Purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of a remediation process wholly based on biological degradation applied to contaminated soils from a decommissioned refinery. This study evaluated through a pot experiment three bioremediation strategies: a) Natural Attenuation (NA), b) Landfarming (L), c) Bioaugmentation-assisted Landfarming (LB) for the treatment of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). After a 90-days trial, Bioagumentation - assistited Landfarming approach produced the best results and the greatest evident effect was shown with the most polluted samples reaching a reduction of about 86% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), followed by Landfarming (70%), and Natural Attenuation (57%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of bioremediation strategies was the most advantageous option for the treatment of contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or landfarming applied alone. Besides, our results indicate that incubation with an autochthonous bacterial consortium may be a promising method for bioremediation of TPH-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stimulating in situ surfactant production to increase contaminant bioavailability and augment bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, N. W.; Bentley, H. W.; Yiannakakis, A.; Bentley, A. J.; Cassidy, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of a bioremediation strategy is largely dependent on relationships between contaminant sequestration (geochemical limitations) and microbial degradation potential (biological limitations). As contaminant bioavailability becomes mass transfer limited, contaminant removal will show less sensitivity to biodegradation enhancements without concurrent enhancements to rates of mass transfer into the bioavailable phase. Implementing a strategy that can simultaneously address geochemical and biological limitations is motivated by a subsurface zone of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) contamination that is in excess of 10 acres (40,000 sq. meters). Biodegradation potential at the site is high; however, observed biodegradation rates are generally low, indicative of bioavailability limitations (e.g., low aqueous solubilities, nutrient deficiencies, and/or mass transfer limitations), and estimates indicate that bioremediation (i.e., biosparging/bioventing) with unaugmented biodegradation may be unable to achieve the remedial objectives within an acceptable time. Bench-scale experiments using soils native to the site provide evidence that, in addition to nutrient additions, a pulsed oxygen delivery can increase biodegradation rates by stimulating the microbial production of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), leading to a reduction in surface tension and an increase in contaminant bioavailability. Pilot-scale tests at the field site are evaluating the effectiveness of stimulating in situ biosurfactant production using cyclic biosparging. The cyclic sparging creates extended periods of alternating aerobic and oxygen-depleted conditions in the submerged smear zone. The increased bioavailability of LPH and the resulting biodegradation enhancements during the test are evaluated using measurements of surface tension (as confirmation of biosurfactant accumulation) and nitrate concentrations (as substantiation of anaerobic biodegradation during shut-off periods). The

  9. Response of core microbial consortia to hydrocarbon contaminations in coastal sediment habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya using 454 pyrosequencing data of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core OTUs and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator – prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the structure of the network and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments.

  10. Dynamic Effects of Biochar on the Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Min; Ni, Ni; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-08-16

    Amending soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit a quadratic model. Before week 12 of the incubation, the incubation time was the main factor contributing to the changes in the soil bacterial community structure. However, biochar greatly affected the bacterial community structure after 12 weeks of amendment, and the effects were dependent upon the biochar type. Amendment with biochar mainly facilitated the growth of rare bacterial genera (relative abundance of 0.01-1%) in the studied soil. Therefore, the application of wheat straw biochar into PAH-contaminated soil can reduce the environmental risks of PAHs and benefit the soil microbial ecology.

  11. In situ electro-osmotic cleanup of tar contaminated soil—Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-12-01

    An in situ electro-osmosis experiment was set up in a tar contaminated clay soil in Olst, the Netherlands, at the site of a former asphalt factory. The main goal of this experiment was to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the contaminated clay layer by applying an electric gradient of 12 V m-1 across the soil over an electrode distance of 1 m. With the movement of water by electro-osmosis and the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80), the non-polar PAHs were dragged along by convection and removed from the fine soil fraction. Soil samples were taken at the start and after 159 days at the end of the experiment. Water at the electrode wells was sampled regularly during the course of the experiment. The results reflect the heterogeneity of the soil characteristics and show the PAH concentrations within the experimental set up. After first having been released into the anolyte solution due to extraction by Tween 80 and subsequent diffusion, PAH concentrations increased significantly in the electrode reservoirs at the cathode side after 90 days of experiment. Although more detailed statistical analysis is necessary to quantify the efficiency of the remediation, it can be concluded that the use of electro-osmosis together with a non-ionic surfactant is a feasible technique to mobilize non-polar organic contaminants in clayey soils. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglianti, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centre Sciences, Information et Technologies pour l' Environnement (SITE) - ENS de Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 cours Fauriel - 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: khalilhanna@hotmail.com; Brauer, Christine de [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Germain, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 {sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  14. Cross-correlation Diagnostics for Contamination in Emission Line Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Henry; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy catalogues generated from emission line surveys with low-resolution spectrographs generally contain contaminants due to errors in line identification. Measuring the contamination fraction, in this case, is essential for the cosmological analysis from the catalogue. Here we present a novel method of contamination diagnostics by using the shape of the auto- and cross-correlations. As an example, we study a case for the HETDEX (Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy eXperiment) survey where low-redshift Oxygen line (3727 Å) emitters contaminate high-redshift Lyman-α (1216 Å) emitters. We include redshift-space distortion and lensing magnification. This technique is also useful for future emission line surveys such as eBOSS, WFIRST, SPHEREx, and Euclid.

  15. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  16. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  17. Increase in removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando J S; de França, Francisca P

    2005-01-01

    A 23 full factorial experimental design was adopted to estimate the effects of three variables on the biodegradation of oil during soil bioremediation: bioaugmentation seeding a mixed culture, addition of fertilizer or mineral media, and correction of initial pH of the soil to 7.0. The tests were carried out in polyvinyl chloride reactors with 5.0 kg of crude oil-contaminated soil at 14 g/kg. After screening the variables, soil bioremediation tests were conduced with varied C:N ratios, yielding an increase in biodegradation of the oil heavy fraction from 24 to 65%, consumption of total n-paraffins, and a remarkable decrease in the concentration of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the soil.

  18. Analysis of hydrocarbon contamination with membrane-assisted solvent extraction: comparison of agitation and sonication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Z; Eke, Zs; Rikker, T; Torkos, K

    2009-10-09

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) coupled to large volume injection was applied to the determination of (gasoline-type) hydrocarbon contamination in water samples. Hexane was used as acceptor phase. 50 microL extract was injected in the programmed temperature vaporizer injector using combined split-splitless evaporation. The extraction conditions were optimized both for MASE with agitation and for MASE with sonication. In the course of optimization the effect of extraction time, extraction temperature, agitation speed, solvent volume, pH, ionic strength and the addition of methanol were tested. Over 75% recovery was accomplished in the range of diesel oil hydrocarbons (n-C(9)-n-C(24)). The developed method was validated. Linearity, accuracy and precision were tested. The method showed excellent linearity between 1 and 1000 microgL(-1) for n-alkanes and between 0.05 and 50 mgL(-1) for gasoline. The method was tested with comprehensive GCxGC as well and found to be non-discriminative to all major compounds of diesel oil.

  19. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  20. Geoelectrical characterization of a site with hydrocarbon contamination caused by pipeline leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Shevnin, Vladimir; Ochoa-Valdes, Jesus [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is used extensively in environmental impact studies including hydrocarbon contamination. In this work, the results of the geoelectrical characterization of a contaminated site caused by pipeline leakage are presented. Geoelectrical study was performed with multi-electrode technology and 2D profile data interpretation. VES results from six parallel profiles were presented in resistivity sections and maps. Layered model of the site was found including aquifer and aquitard layers. Although the contamination grade of the site is low, we found two contaminated zones into sandy aquifer. Aquifer and aquitard were characterized by its resistivity, clay content, porosity and cation exchange capacity values. Recalculation of resistivity data into petrophysical sections and maps was performed by an inversion algorithm taking into account pore water salinity. Petrophysical parameters for uncontaminated areas estimated from resistivity are close to real values; meanwhile, in contaminated zones petrophysical parameters have anomalous values. Similar effects of contamination influence on petrophysical parameters were found in laboratory by resistivity measurements made at clean and contaminated sand samplers. [Spanish] El metodo Sondeo Electrico Vertical (SEV) es ampliamente utilizado en estudios de impacto ambiental incluyendo el caso de contaminacion por hidrocarburos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion geoelectrica de un sitio contaminado por hidrocarburos relacionado con una fuga en linea de ducto. El estudio geoelectrico fue realizado utilizando el metodo SEV en la variante de tomografia, realizandose una interpretacion 2D de los datos observados. Seis perfiles paralelos de SEV fueron medidos y presentados sus resultados en secciones y mapas. Se determino un modelo estratificado que incluye acuitardo y acuifero. Aunque el grado de contaminacion en este sitio es bajo fue posible localizar dos zonas

  1. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  2. Contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons release. Contaminacion de suelos y aguas subterraneas por fugas de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzikar, R.; Rogel Quesada, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the fundamentals driving the transfer of hydrocarbons at the geological media, the state of the art on contamination R and D and decontamination technologies for both soils and groundwater. A real example is given located at the Slovnaft Refinery in Bratislava (Slovakia). (Author)

  3. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  4. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J

    2012-01-15

    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surfactant-Enhanced Desorption and Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Aitken, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated two nonionic surfactants, one hydrophobic (Brij 30) and one hydrophilic (C12E8), for their ability to enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil after it had been treated in an aerobic bioreactor. The effects of each surfactant were evaluated at doses corresponding to equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations well above the surfactant’s critical micelle concentration (CMC), slightly above the CMC, and below the CMC. The concentrations of all 3- and 4-ring PAHs were significantly lower in the soil amended with Brij 30 at the two lower doses compared to controls, whereas removal of only the 3-ring PAHs was significantly enhanced at the highest Brij 30 dose. In contrast, C12E8 did not enhance PAH removal at any dose. In the absence of surfactant, soil over an 18-d period. Brij 30 addition at the lowest dose significantly increased the desorption of most PAHs, whereas the addition of C12E8 at the lowest dose actually decreased the desorption of all PAHs. These findings suggest that the effects of the two surfactants on PAH biodegradation could be explained by their effects on PAH bioavailability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the properties of the surfactant and its dose relative to the corresponding aqueous-phase concentration are important factors in designing systems for surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils in which PAH bioavailability is limited. PMID:20586488

  6. Field—Based Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Hydrocarbons at Industrially Contaminated Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Rigou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.

  7. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo A. Massol-Deyá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source. Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ∝, β and γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal φ29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene; and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA] were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE

  8. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  9. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  10. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm), which were similar to each other. PMID:22935169

  11. Microbial diversity in a hydrocarbon- and chlorinated-solvent- contaminated aquifer undergoing intrinsic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojka, M.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Haack, S.K.; Pace, N.R.

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach was used to survey constituents of microbial communities associated with an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons (mainly jet fuel) and chlorinated solvents undergoing intrinsic bioremediation. Samples were obtained from three redox zones: methanogenic, methanogenic-sulfate reducing, and iron or sulfate reducing. Small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified directly from aquifer material DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria- or Archaea-specific primers and were cloned. A total of 812 clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), approximately 50% of which were unique. All RFLP types that occurred more than once in the libraries, as well as many of the unique types, were sequenced. A total of 104 (94 bacterial and 10 archaeal) sequence types were determined. Of the 94 bacterial sequence types, 10 have no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions and are phylogenetically grouped in six novel division level groups (candidate divisions WS1 to WS6); 21 belong to four recently described candidate divisions with no cultivated representatives (OPS, OP8, OP10, and OP11); and 63 are phylogenetically associated with 10 well-recognized divisions. The physiology of two particularly abundant sequence types obtained from the methanogenic zone could be inferred from their phylogenetic association with groups of microorganisms with a consistent phenotype. One of these sequence types is associated with the genus Syntrophus; Syntrophus spp. produce energy from the anaerobic oxidation of organic acids, with the production of acetate and hydrogen. The organism represented by the other sequence type is closely related to Methanosaeta spp., which are known to be capable of energy generation only through aceticlastic methanogenesis. We hypothesize, therefore, that the terminal step of hydrocarbon degradation in the methanogenic zone of the aquifer is aceticlastic methanogenesis and

  12. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  13. Implications of Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils for Human Health and Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L. [Department; Department; Stratton, Kelly G. [Pacific Northwest; Teeguarden, Justin G. [Pacific Northwest; Waters, Katrina M. [Pacific Northwest; Simonich, Staci L. Massey [Department; Department

    2017-08-09

    Background: Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Its success is largely evaluated through targeted analysis of PAH concentrations in soil and cancer risk (exposure) estimates. However, bioremediation often fails to significantly degrade the most carcinogenic PAHs and can initiate formation of more polar metabolites, some of which may be more toxic. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the cancer risk associated with PAH-contaminated soils was reduced post-bioremediation and to identify the most effective bioremediation strategies for degrading the carcinogenic and high molecular weight (≥MW302) PAHs. Methods: Pre- and post-bioremediation concentrations of eight B2 group carcinogenic PAHs in soils were collated from the literature and used to calculate excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) for adult populations exposed via non-dietary ingestion, per current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Due to the nature of the collated data (reported as mean concentrations ± standard deviations pre- and post-bioremediation), we used simulation methods to reconstruct the datasets and enable statistical comparison of ELCR values pre- and post-bioremediation. Additionally, we measured MW302 PAHs in a contaminated soil prior to and following treatment in an aerobic bioreactor and examined their contributions to cancer risk. Results: 120 of 158 treated soils (76%) exhibited a statistically significant reduction in cancer risk following bioremediation; however, 67% (106/158) of soils had post-bioremediation ELCR values over 10 fold higher than the USEPA health-based ‘acceptable’ risk level. Composting treatments were most effective at biodegrading PAHs in soils and reducing the ELCR. MW302 PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, alone, contributed an additional 35% to the cancer risk associated with the eight B2 group PAHs in the

  14. Succession of phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic community characteristics during in vitro bioslurry treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelberg, D B; Talley, J W; Perkins, E J; Tucker, S G; Luthy, R G; Bouwer, E J; Fredrickson, H L

    2001-04-01

    Dredged harbor sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was removed from the Milwaukee Confined Disposal Facility and examined for in situ biodegradative capacity. Molecular techniques were used to determine the successional characteristics of the indigenous microbiota during a 4-month bioslurry evaluation. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), multiplex PCR of targeted genes, and radiorespirometry techniques were used to define in situ microbial phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic responses, respectively. Soxhlet extractions revealed a loss in total PAH concentrations of 52%. Individual PAHs showed reductions as great as 75% (i.e., acenapthene and fluorene). Rates of (14)C-PAH mineralization (percent/day) were greatest for phenanthrene, followed by pyrene and then chrysene. There was no mineralization capacity for benzo[a]pyrene. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a threefold increase in total microbial biomass and a dynamic microbial community composition that showed a strong correlation with observed changes in the PAH chemistry (canonical r(2) of 0.999). Nucleic acid analyses showed copies of genes encoding PAH-degrading enzymes (extradiol dioxygenases, hydroxylases, and meta-cleavage enzymes) to increase by as much as 4 orders of magnitude. Shifts in gene copy numbers showed strong correlations with shifts in specific subsets of the extant microbial community. Specifically, declines in the concentrations of three-ring PAH moieties (i.e., phenanthrene) correlated with PLFA indicative of certain gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Rhodococcus spp. and/or actinomycetes) and genes encoding for naphthalene-, biphenyl-, and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase degradative enzymes. The results of this study suggest that the intrinsic biodegradative potential of an environmental site can be derived from the polyphasic characterization of the in situ microbial community.

  15. Use of slow-release fertilizers and biopolymers for stimulating hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran Xu; Li Ching Yong; Yong Giak Lim; Obbard, J.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminated beach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high level of nutrients in leached sediments, as well as elevated levels of microbial activity and rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Chitin was more biodegradable than chitosan and gradually released nitrogen into the sediment. The addition of chitin or chitosan to the Osmocote amended sediments enhanced biodegradation rates of the alkanes relative to the presence of Osmocote alone, where chitosan was more effective than chitin due to its greater oil sorption capacity. Furthermore, chitosan significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (author)

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (soil) observed in the aquifer also indicate that the iron reduction and methanogenesis are not the dominant biodegradation patterns in the contaminant plume. Results from the microcosm study reveal that preliminary laboratory study is required to determine the appropriate substrates and oxidation-reduction conditions to enhance the biodegradation of MTBE. Results suggest that in situ or on-site aerobic bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would

  17. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  18. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  19. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  1. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  2. Activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni, moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.

  3. Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur

    OpenAIRE

    Jenessa Gjeltema; Michael Stoskopf; Damian Shea; Ryan De Voe

    2012-01-01

    Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species’ small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found ...

  4. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metal contamination of coastal sediment and biota from Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandi, Kissao; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Porrachia, Magali; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The state of contamination of tropical environments, particularly in Africa, remains a relatively under explored subject. Here, we determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and trace metal concentrations in coastal sediment and biota samples (fish and mussels) from Togo (West Africa). In the sediments, the ∑21 PAH concentrations ranged from sediment samples, and that PAHs originated mainly from anthropogenic combustion activities. The sediments were also analyzed for major elements and a total of 15 trace metals, which were found in elevated concentrations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) values relative to the Earth's crust show that the contamination is extremely severe for Cd (EF = 191), severe for Cr (EF = 18) and U (EF = 17.8), moderately severe for Zr (EF = 8.8), for Ni (EF = 6.8), Sr (EF = 5.9) and Ba (EF = 5.4), and moderate for V (EF = 3.6) and Zn (EF = 3.4). Sediments sampled in areas affected by the dumping of phosphorite mine tailings showed particularly high concentrations of trace metals. Overall, concentrations of both PAHs and trace metals in sediment tend to increase from the coastline to the open sea (2 km offshore). This is attributable to the increasingly finer texture of coastal sediment found offshore, which has a terrigenous origin and appears loaded with various contaminants through adsorption processes. Such high loads of trace metals were also found in the biota (fish and mussels). The ratio of measured trace metal concentrations in biota to threshold limits set by the World Health Organization herein defined as relative health factor (RHF) was high. Average RHF values in fish were highest for Se (470), As (250), Ag (97), Ni (78), Mn (63), Fe (53), Pb (36), Cd (10), and Cr (7) while lowest for Cu (0.08) and Zn (0.03). Cd and Al did not bioaccumulate in the analyzed fish species. In mussels, the RHF values were highest for Fe (9,108), As (295), Pb (276), Se (273), Mn (186), Ni (71), Ag (70), Cd (14), and Cu (4).

  6. POLYCICLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN WELS CATFISH (SILURUS GLANIS CAUGHT IN THE PO RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this investigation was to evaluate IPA contamination in samples of Silurus glanis caught in Po river. N. 54 muscle samples were collected and analyzed. Five samples exceeded the maximum limit set by CE Regulation 1881/2006 for Benzo(apirene. Therefore, 10% of Silurus fished turned out to be not adequate and potentially harmful for consumers. In order to estimate the real risk for human health it is necessary to enforce this study, correlating the results with the effective fish consumption.

  7. Natural attenuation in contaminated soils with hydrocarbons; Atenuacion natural en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona Ramirez, L.; Iturbide Arguelles, R. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    A contaminated soil experiment was performed using simples from a refinery, containing oil derivative hydrocarbons, specifically those with high concentrations of polyaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). The testing consisted in 7 pans with 7 kg of soil, the preparation of 6 pans under specific conditions and one as a blank, the conditions were: water content (15 y 30%), addition a non-ionic surfactant. The process consisted in the daily aeration and water control of the samples. The PAH were analyzed: anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. The results after 8 weeks showed a gradual degradation of PAH, indicating a better removal obtained when the water content was 30% with nutrients addition. [Spanish] Se realizo un experimento con suelo contaminado proveniente de una refineria, el cual contaba con hidrocarburos derivados de petroleo, especificamente con concentraciones elevadas de hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP). El estudio consistio en preparar 7 cajones con 7 kg de suelo, cada uno con las siguientes condiciones: S1suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos y 15% de contenido de agua. S2 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de Nitrogeno y Fosforo (N y P) con 15% de contenido de agua. S3 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de N y P mas un surfactante no ionico, Emulgin W600, con 15% de contenido de agua. S4 igual a S1 pero con 30% de contenido de agua. S5 igual a S2, con 30% de contenido de agua. S6 igual S3 con 30% de contenido de agua. S7 suelo contaminado testigo, sin control de humedad y sin aireacion. La experimentacion consistio en airear el suelo diariamente y controlar el contenido de agua de manera que este fuera constante. Los resultados, indican que la mejor remocion se obtuvo para el contenido de agua de 30%, con adicion de nutrientes y surfactante. Los compuestos con mayor eficiencia de remocion para todas las opciones son naftaleno y antraceno. Por lo tanto, de acuerdo con los resultados, los compuestos

  8. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  9. Two-liquid-phase system: A promising technique for predicting bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congying; Wang, Ziyu; Li, Zengbo; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-02-01

    A two-liquid-phase system (TLPS), which consisted of soil slurry and silicone oil, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four long-term contaminated soils in order to assess the bioavailability of PAHs. Extraction kinetics of six PAHs viz. phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene were selected to investigate as they covered the susceptible and recalcitrant PAHs in soil. A parallel experiments were also carried out on the microbial degradation of these PAHs in soil with and without biostimulation (by adding (NH4)2HPO4). The rapidly desorbed fraction of fluoranthene, as indicated by the two-fraction model, was found the highest, ranging from 21.4% to 37.4%, whereas dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene was the lowest, ranging from 8.9% to 20.5%. The rapid desorption of selected PAHs was found to be finished within 24 h. The rapidly desorbed fraction of PAHs investigated using TLPS, was significantly correlated (R2 = 0.95) with that degraded by microorganisms in biostimulation treatment. This suggested that the TLPS-assisted extraction could be a promising technique in determining the bioavailability of aged PAHs in contaminated soils. It also suggested that applying sufficient nutrients in bioremediation of field contaminated soils is crucial. Further work is required to test its application to more hydrophobic organic pollutants in long-term contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g-1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  12. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  13. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  14. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  15. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  16. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A. B.; Paradelo, R.; Vecino, X.; Cruz, J. M.; Gudiña, E.; Rodrigues, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; Domínguez, J. M.; Barral, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment. PMID:23691515

  17. Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils and Groundwater in Northern Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Charles

    1998-01-01

    ...-landfarming, recirculating leachbeds, and infiltration galleries. Landfarming involves adding water and nutrients to contaminated soil to stimulate microbial activity and contaminant degradation...

  18. A biogeochemical transport model to simulate the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant fluxes across the groundwater-surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and surface water resources. Riparian zones may play an important role in the attenuation of contaminant concentrations when contaminant plumes flow from groundwater to surface water...... because of the occurrence of redox gradients, strongly reductive conditions and high biological activity. In order to meet the expectations of the EU Water Framework Directive, an evaluation of the impact of such plumes on surface water is needed. The aim of this work is to develop a groundwater transport...... number of geochemical processes, allows the simulation of soil geochemical transformations when microbial by-products are released to surface water, and the consideration of non-linear feedbacks on bacterial growth and pollutant transformations. Sensitivity analysis is performed through Monte Carlo...

  19. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  20. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F

    2005-07-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution

  1. Liquid-liquid equilibria for glycols plus hydrocarbons: Data and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for seven binary glycol-hydrocarbon systems have been measured in the temperature range 32 degreesC to 80 degreesC and at the pressure 1 bar. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + heptane, methyleyclohexane (MCH) + hexane, propylene glycol (PG......) + heptane, diethylene glycol (DEG) + heptane, triethylene glycol (TEG) + heptane, and tetraethylene glycol (TETRA) + heptane. The data obtained were correlated with the NRTL model and two different versions of the UNIQUAC equation. The NRTL model and one of the UNIQUAC equations (UQ 4) have a linear...

  2. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  3. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace....... This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures....

  4. Natural attenuation of chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; a hydrogeochemical and microbiological investigation workplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lilly, Michael R.; Braddock, Joan F.; Hinzman, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes include biological degradation, by which microorganisms break down contaminants into simpler product compounds; adsorption of contaminants to soil particles, which decreases the mass of contaminants dissolved in ground water; and dispersion, which decreases dissolved contaminant concentrations through dilution. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) assess the degree to which such natural processes are attenuating chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination in ground water, and (2) evaluate the effects of ground-water/surface-water interactions on natural-attenuation processes in the area of the former East and West Quartermasters Fueling Systems for Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The study will include investigations of the hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological processes occurring at this site that influence the transport and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water. To accomplish these objectives, a data-collection program has been initiated that includes measurements of water-table elevations and the stage of the Chena River; measurements of vertical temperature profiles within the subsurface; characterization of moisture distribution and movement in the unsaturated zone; collection of ground-water samples for determination of both organic and inorganic chemical constituents; and collection of ground-water samples for enumeration of microorganisms and determination of their potential to mineralize contaminants. We will use results from the data-collection program described above to refine our conceptual model of hydrology and contaminant attenuation at this site. Measurements of water-table elevations and river stage will help us to understand the magnitude and direction of ground-water flow and how changes in the stage of the Chena River affect ground-water flow. Because ambient ground water and surface water typically have different temperature characteristics, temperature monitoring will likely provide further insight

  5. Bench-scale optimization of bioaugmentation strategies for treatment of soils contaminated with high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, W.l.; Jones-Meehan, J.; Pritchard, P.H.; Jones, W.R. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States). Center of Marine Biotechnology

    1999-07-01

    The chemical composition of crude oil, creosote, and refined petroleum includes hundreds of different alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons, among which are the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are rapidly removed by the activities of autochthonous bacterial populations while other PAHs, especially those with four or more fused aromatic rings, are refractory to biodegradation. The persistence of high molecular weight of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (hPAHs) in soils implies either that their low solubility renders them poorly available to bacteria, or that autochthonous bacteria do not contain the metabolic or co-metabolic pathways required for their degradation or both. The rate and extent of PAH degradation in contaminated soil is not always predictable for standard biological treatment strategies. This study examines a matrix of treatments suitable for land farming in order to identify those that maximize the removal of hPAHs. The treatments include those intended to increase the bioavailability of hPAH, such as additions of biosurfactant-producing bacteria (i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 64) and addition of light oils, as well as treatments intended to increase the metabolic potential of the bacterial community. The latter includes the addition of inorganic nutrients and bacterial strains capable of degrading hPAHs co-metabolically (i.e. Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505). The efficacy of immobilizing PAH-degrading bacteria on vermiculite is also considered, as will be the monitoring of leachate for biodegradation of PAHs in a simulated land farming operation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  7. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  9. Metagenome-based metabolic reconstruction reveals the ecophysiological function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hardy Keller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing experiments with 13C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood.Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of a sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was

  10. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption materials for removal of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykova, Y.; Steenari, B.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stromvall, A.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Water Environment Transport, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE Goteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Adsorption function and capacities, for heavy metals and selected hydrocarbons, of several low-cost and alternative bio-sorption materials have been investigated. The materials studied were residual products from the forest industry (saw dust, pine bark and fiber ash) and natural materials (peat moss, shrimp shells and seaweed). Batch tests and column experiments were carried out with both artificial solutions and highly contaminated leachate from an industrial landfill. Fiber ashes and peat showed the highest sorption capacity for metals among the materials studied in comparative batch tests. In these tests, artificial single metal solutions in concentration ranges of 1?10 mg/l, and liquid to solid ratios of 20 and 200 were used. The fiber ash removed lead by 99%, copper by 100%, zinc by 99% and chromium by 82%. Peat removed lead by 98%, copper by 94%, zinc by 73% and chromium by 88%. Metal removal from the landfill leachates was also studied in batch tests, where lead was reduced by ash and peat by 99% and 96% respectively, copper by 100% and 92%, zinc by 95% and 33%, cadmium by 88% and 40%. A net release of Al, Cr, Ca, Ba and K from ash was observed, whereas the peat removed chromium by 66% and aluminium by 85%. The lower performance of the adsorbents for complex solutions as real leachates, suggests competitive sorption of ions although the mechanisms of sorption are not yet fully understood. In initial batch studies for organic pollutants, the adsorption for diesel oil by ash and peat was 98% and 97% respectively, 97% and 92 % for the n-alkane C16, and 91% for n-C{sub 12} for both materials. Bark adsorbed diesel oil by 83%, and the lower value could be explained by the larger particle size of the bark. Several column tests with peat, a peat-ash mixture and bark have been carried out to investigate the adsorbents' behavior and sorption capacity under flowing conditions. Both simulated contaminated groundwater and real landfill leachates were used as

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  13. Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Stoskopf, Michael; Shea, Damian; De Voe, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species' small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found in higher concentrations at the breeding site that allowed direct vehicular access, but calculated risk quotients indicated low risk to toad reproduction associated with the current PAH analyte levels.

  14. Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Groboillot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production.

  15. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated microbial activity in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Jia, Zhongjun; Li, Zhengao; Teng, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soils by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a widespread environmental problem and the remediation of PAHs from these areas has been a major concern. The effectiveness of many in situ bioremediation systems may be constrained by low contaminant bioavailability due to limited aqueous solubility or a large magnitude of sorption. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) on bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 of an aged PAH-contaminated soil. When 10% (W/W) MCD amendment was combined with bioaugmentation by the PAH-degrading bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2, the percentage degradation of total PAHs was significantly enhanced up to 34.8%. Higher counts of culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and higher soil dehydrogenase and soil polyphenol oxidase activities were observed in 10% (W/W) MCD-assisted bioaugmentation soil. This MCD-assisted bioaugmentation strategy showed significant increases (p contaminated soil. The results suggest that MCD-aided bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 may be a promising practical bioremediation strategy for aged PAH-contaminated soils.

  16. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic zeolite for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Kathy A; Bacus, Joannelle; Taya, Naoyuki; Komatsu, Yu; Perera, Jilska M; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2010-11-15

    Hydrophobic zeolite was synthesized, modified and characterized for its suitability as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material for treatment of hydrocarbons in groundwater. Batch sorption tests were performed along with a number of standard characterization techniques. High and low ionic strength and pH tests were also conducted to determine their impact on hydrocarbon uptake. Further ion exchange tests were conducted to determine the potential for the zeolite to act as both a hydrocarbon capture material and nutrient a delivery system for bioremediation. The zeolite was coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (C18) to change its surface properties. The results of the surface characterization tests showed that the underlying zeolite structure was largely unaffected by the coating. TGA measurements showed a reactive carbon content of 1-2%. Hydrocarbon (o-xylene and naphthalene) sorption isotherms results compared well with the behaviour of similar materials investigated by other researchers. Ionic strength and pH had little effect on hydrocarbon sorption and the treated zeolite had an ion exchange capacity of 0.3 mequiv./g, indicating it could be utilised as a nutrient source in PRBs. Recycle tests indicated that the zeolite could be used cleaned and reused at least three times without significant reduction in treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endophytic root bacteria associated with the natural vegetation growing at the hydrocarbon-contaminated Bitumount Provincial Historic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Natalie P; Helgason, Bobbi L; Germida, James J

    2017-06-01

    The Bitumount Provincial Historic site is the location of 2 of the world's first oil-extracting and -refining operations. Despite hydrocarbon levels ranging from 330 to 24 700 mg·(kg soil)-1, plants have been able to recolonize the site through means of natural revegetation. This study was designed to achieve a better understanding of the plant-root-associated bacterial partnerships occurring within naturally revegetated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Root endophytic bacterial communities were characterized from representative plant species throughout the site by both high-throughput sequencing and culturing techniques. Population abundance of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria was significantly influenced (p bacteria was influenced by both plant species and sampling location. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the potential functional diversity of the root endophytic bacteria. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and 2 hydrocarbon-degrading genes (CYP153 and alkB) were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the interaction of plant species and sampling location. Our findings suggest that some of the bacterial communities detected are known to exhibit plant growth promotion characteristics.

  19. Persistence and degrading activity of free and immobilised allochthonous bacteria during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivelli, Valentina; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Cordoni, Sergio; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2013-02-01

    Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. bioremediation experiments were carried out using free and immobilized cells on natural carrier material (corncob powder) in order to evaluate the feasibility of its use in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA gene as molecular fingerprinting method in order to assess the persistence of inoculated strains in the soil over time. Immobilized Pseudomonas cells degraded hydrocarbons more efficiently in the short term compared to the free ones. Immobilization seemed also to increase cell growth and stability in the soil. Free and immobilized Rhodococcus cells showed comparable degradation percentages, probably due to the peculiarity of Rhodococcus cells to aggregate into irregular clusters in the presence of hydrocarbons as sole carbon source. It is likely that the cells were not properly adsorbed on the porous matrix as a result of the small size of its pores. When Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas cells were co-immobilized on the matrix, a competition established between the two strains, that probably ended in the exclusion of Pseudomonas cells from the pores. The organic matrix might act as protective agent, but it also possibly limited cell density. Nevertheless, when the cells were properly adsorbed on the porous matrix, the immobilization became a suitable bioremediation strategy.

  20. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  2. Inhibitory effect of aged-petroleum hydrocarbons on the survival of inoculated microorganism in a crude-oil contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Park, Youn Jong; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

    2009-12-01

    We studied the effects of aged total petroleum hydrocarbons (aged TPH) on the survival of allochthonous diesel-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain YS-7 in both laboratory and field investigations. The aged TPH extracted from a crude oil-contaminated site were fractionized by thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID). The three fractions identified were saturated aliphatic (SA), aromatic hydrocarbon (AH), and asphaltene-resin (AR). The ratio and composition of the separated fractions in the aged TPH were quite different from the crude-oil fractions. In the aged TPH, the SA and AH fractions were reduced and the AR fraction was dramatically increased compared to crude oil. The SA and AH fractions (2 mg/L each) of the aged TPH inhibited the growth of strain YS-7. Unexpectedly, the AR fraction had no effect on the survival of strain YS-7. However, crude oil (1,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of strain YS-7. When strain YS-7 was inoculated into an aged crude oil-contaminated field and its presence was monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that it had disappeared on 36 days after the inoculation. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the SA and AH fractions in aged TPH are more toxic to an allochthonous diesel-degrading strain than the AR fraction.

  3. Evidence of coupled carbon and iron cycling at a hydrocarbon-contaminated site from time lapse magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Anders L.; Slater, Lee D.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional characterization and monitoring of hydrocarbon (HC) pollution is often expensive and time-consuming. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been proposed as an inexpensive, long-term monitoring proxy of the degradation of HC. We acquired repeated down hole MS logging data in boreholes at a HC-contaminated field research site in Bemidji, MN, USA. The MS data were analyzed in conjunction with redox conditions and iron availability within the source zone to better assess whether MS can serve as a proxy for monitoring HC contamination in unconsolidated sediments. The MS response at the site diminished during the sampling period, which was found to coincide with depletion of solid phase iron in the source zone. Previous geochemical observations and modeling at the site suggest that the most likely cause of the decrease in MS is the transformation of magnetite to siderite, coupled with the exhaustion of ferrihydrite. Although the temporal MS response at this site gives valuable field-scale evidence for changing conditions of iron cycling and stability of iron minerals it does not provide a simple proxy for long-term monitoring of biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the smear zone.

  4. Cleaning of contaminated grounds with hydrocarbons by means of biopile; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe Arguelles, R.; Flores Torres, C.; Chavez Lopez, C.; Roldan Martin, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1999, the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPH and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore, an experimental biopile of 30 m{sup 3} was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80% of TPH and PAH remove. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 325 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se llevo a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de HTP, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos (Iturbe et al., 2000). Las tecnicas propuestas son biopilas y lavado de suelo con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de HTP del 80 porciento en cinco meses de operacion.

  5. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S. [School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001 (Australia); Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 {+-} 3.7% compared to < 1.2% without nitrogen and phosphorus additions. {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 {+-} 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 {+-} 0.2 to 35.8 {+-} 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33-37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. Black

  6. Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases by Peracids Correlates with the Hydrocarbon Chain Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kuban-Jankowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases are crucial enzymes controlling numerous physiological and pathophysiological events and can be regulated by oxidation of the catalytic domain cysteine residue. Peracids are highly oxidizing compounds, and thus may induce inactivation of PTPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of peracids with different length of hydrocarbon chain on the activity of selected PTPs. Methods: The enzymatic activity of human CD45, PTP1B, LAR, bacterial YopH was assayed under the cell-free conditions, and activity of cellular CD45 in human Jurkat cell lysates. The molecular docking and molecular dynamics were performed to evaluate the peracids binding to the CD45 active site. Results: Here we demonstrate that peracids reduce enzymatic activity of recombinant CD45, PTP1B, LAR, YopH and cellular CD45. Our studies indicate that peracids are more potent inhibitors of CD45 than hydrogen peroxide (with an IC50 value equal to 25 nM for peroctanoic acid and 8 µM for hydrogen peroxide. The experimental data show that the inactivation caused by peracids is dependent on hydrocarbon chain length of peracids with maximum inhibitory effect of medium-chain peracids (C8-C12 acyl chain, which correlates with calculated binding affinities to the CD45 active site. Conclusion: Peracids are potent inhibitors of PTPs with the strongest inhibitory effect observed for medium-chain peracids.

  7. Correlation between nitrate contamination and ground water pollution potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shafiul H; Kehew, Alan E; Passero, Richard N

    2003-01-01

    AQUIPRO, a PC-based method, was used to assess aquifer vulnerability using digital water well logs. The AQUIPRO model is a parameter/factor weighting system for rating the pollution potential of an aquifer. This method uses the well depth, as well as the clay and partial clay thickness in a well, to generate pollution potential scores. In this model, aquifer protection increases as the AQUIPRO vulnerability scores increase and ground water pollution potential decreases. Computerized water well records of 2435 domestic wells with partial chemistry data were used to determine the ground water pollution potential of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Theoretically, low AQUIPRO pollution potential scores should have more frequent occurrences of ground water contamination events than areas with high AQUIPRO scores with similar land-use, well construction, and well densities. The relative AQUIPRO scores were compared with the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N in ground water wells. The average nitrate-N concentrations within each relative AQUIPRO vulnerability scores category were also compared. The results indicate that domestic wells containing 5 mg/L or more nitrate-N showed a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N and relative decrease of AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.99) vulnerability scores. In other words, as the ground water pollution potential increases, the occurrence frequency of nitrate-N also increases. Furthermore, the results show that as the relative AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.96) vulnerability scores decrease, the mean nitrate-N concentrations also increase.

  8. Taguchi Method for Development of Mass Flow Rate Correlation using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Mixture in Capillary Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM. The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach explores the economic benefit that lies in studies of this nature, where only a small number of experiments are required and yet valid results are obtained. Considering the effects of the capillary tube geometry and the inlet condition of the tube, dimensionless parameters were chosen. The new correlation was also based on the Buckingham Pi theorem. This correlation predicts 86.67% of the present experimental data within a relative deviation of -10% to +10%. The predictions by this correlation were also compared with results in published literature.

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions in a membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Morici, Claudia; Ødegaard, Hallvard

    2016-11-01

    The joint effect of wastewater salinity and hydrocarbons on nitrous oxide emission was investigated. The membrane bioreactor pilot plant was operated with two phases: i. biomass acclimation by increasing salinity from 10gNaClL(-1) to 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase I); ii. hydrocarbons dosing at 20mgL(-1) with a constant salt concentration of 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase II). The Phase I revealed a relationship between nitrous oxide emissions and salinity. During the end of the Phase I, the activity of nitrifiers started to recover, indicating a partial acclimatization. During the Phase II, the hydrocarbon shock induced a temporary inhibition of the biomass with the suppression of nitrous oxide emissions. The results revealed that the oxic tank was the major source of nitrous oxide emission, likely due to the gas stripping by aeration. The joint effect of salinity and hydrocarbons was found to be crucial for the production of nitrous oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrocarbon and Toxic Metal Contamination from Tank Installations in a Northwest Greenlandic Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2012-01-01

    of Tasiusaq were analysed for the total content of hydrocarbons (THC), lead, cadmium and organic content in the soil. Concentrations up to 77,000 mg/kg DW THC were found, mainly as weathered oil products. Elevated levels of lead and cadmium were also found in many of the samples, with concentrations up to 300...

  11. About the order in aerobic heterotrophic microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The organizational structure of communities of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria was studied by means of physiological and molecular typing of the members of arbitrary samples of isolates, ASsI. The isolate sample assay (ISA) was applied to three different hydrocarbon-polluted sites: a dry windrow pile

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination along oil tanker routes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater from the oil tanker route region between 0-25 N and 45-75 E were estimated using UV-absorbance and fluoroscence techniques. Concentrations in surface waters averaged 9.2 plus or minus 1.18 mu g l-1...

  13. Correlation of levels of volatile versus carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples from smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, data on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air samples from fish smokehouses (Nordholm et al. 1986) and meat smokehouses (Hansen et al. submitted for publication) were used to analyze the extent to which six different volatile PAH compounds could...... function as markers for the total concentration of six different carcinogenic particulate PAH compounds. Although a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentration of each of six volatile compounds and the total concentration of carcinogenic PAH compounds, a particularly good...... carcinogenic PAH compounds in air samples from smokehouses, whereas fluoranthene and pyrene displayed the highest specificity. However, when the applicability of the six markers was tested on air samples from iron foundries, only naphthalene and pyrene were useful as markers for the carcinogenic compounds...

  14. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface.

  15. Plant-bacteria partnership: phytoremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil and expression of catabolic genes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamna Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to living organisms when they are exposed in natural environment. Once they come in contact, it is not an easy to remove them because many of their constituents are persistent in nature. To achieve this target, different approaches have been exploited by using plants, bacteria, and plant-bacteria together. Among them, combined use of plants and bacteria has gained tremendous attention as bacteria possess set of catabolic genes which produce catabolic enzymes...

  16. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.; Vezzu, Guido; Freilich, Alfred; Paolini, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The increasing usage of the feed gases of lower grade liquid oxygen (LOX) containing higher levels of trace hydrocarbon impurities in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation requires a better understanding of the kinetics of the by-product formation resulting from reactions involving these hydrocarbon impurities. As a case study of hydrocarbon impurities, the kinetics of CH4 conversion in DBDs and the subsequent HNO3 formation were investigated by means of gas-phase plasma diagnostics, supported by detailed process modeling, and extensive in-situ and ex-situ by-product analysis. The by-products formation in the plasma with the presence of CH4, were found to differ significantly in oxygen-fed generators as compared to generators fed with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The amount of HNO3 formed depends on the concentration of NOx formed in the plasma and the amount of CH4 that is converted, but not on the O3 concentration. In the present work we have investigated CH4 concentrations of up to 1.95 wt% of the feed gas. The rate of deterioration of the overall ozone generator performance was found to be affected by the concentration of nitrogen in the oxygen/nitrogen mixture.

  18. Plant-bacteria partnership: phytoremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil and expression of catabolic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamna Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to living organisms when they are exposed in natural environment. Once they come in contact, it is not an easy to remove them because many of their constituents are persistent in nature. To achieve this target, different approaches have been exploited by using plants, bacteria, and plant-bacteria together. Among them, combined use of plants and bacteria has gained tremendous attention as bacteria possess set of catabolic genes which produce catabolic enzymes to decontaminate hydrocarbons. In return, plant ooze out root exudates containing nutrients and necessary metabolites which facilitate the microbial colonization in plant rhizosphere. This results into high gene abundance and gene expression in the rhizosphere and, thus, leads to enhanced degradation. Moreover, high proportions of beneficial bacteria helps plant to gain more biomass due to their plant growth promoting activities and production of phytohromones. This review focuses functioning and mechanisms of catabolic genes responsible for degradation of straight chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with their potential of degradation in bioremediation. With the understanding of expression mechanisms, rate of degradation can be enhanced by adjusting environmental factors and acclimatizing plant associated bacteria in plant rhizosphere.

  19. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  20. Phytomediated Biostimulation of the Autochthonous Bacterial Community for the Acceleration of the Depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Di Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was to validate the vegetation of dredged sediments with Phragmites australis as an exploitable biostimulation approach to accelerate the depletion of PAHs in nitrogen spiked sediments. Vegetation with Phragmites australis resulted in being an efficient biostimulation approach for the depletion of an aged PAHs contamination (229.67±15.56 μg PAHs/g dry weight of sediment in dredged sediments. Phragmites australis accelerated the oxidation of the PAHs by rhizodegradation. The phytobased approach resulted in 58.47% of PAHs depletion. The effects of the treatment have been analyzed in terms of both contaminant depletion and changes in relative abundance of the metabolically active Gram positive and Gram negative PAHs degraders. The metabolically active degraders were quantified both in the sediments and in the root endospheric microbial community. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions have been performed on the retrotranscribed transcripts encoding the Gram positive and Gram negative large α subunit (RHDα of the aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. The Gram positive degraders resulted in being selectively favored by vegetation with Phragmites australis and mandatory for the depletion of the six ring condensed indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene.

  1. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MIXTURES FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly contaminated (with PAHs) topsoils were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the feasibility and mechanism of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Effect of SCF density, temperature, cosolvent type and amount, and of slurrying the soil with water were ...

  2. Soil-Water Repellency and Critical Humidity as Cleanup Criteria for Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Adams, Randy H.

    2010-05-01

    The majority of soil remediation programs focus mainly on reducing the hydrocarbon concentration, based on the assumption that the primary impact is toxicity and/or leachates and that these are directly proportional to concentration. None-the-less, interference with natural soil-water interactions are frequently more damaging, especially for sites contaminated with very viscous, weathered hydrocarbons. Therefore, the kind of hydrocarbons present in the soil and their interactions with soil surfaces may be more important than the overall hydrocarbon concentration in terms of soil restoration. One recently patented technology, the Chemical-Biological Stabilization process, focuses specifically on restoring soil fertility as the main objective for remediation of sites with agricultural use. This method was recently validated at an industrial scale by the treatment of 150 cubic meters of bentonitic drilling muds (70,5% fines) from an old sulphur mine, which were contaminated with very weathered oil (4° API), consisting of 31% asphaltenes. This material was treated by adding 4% (w/w, dry) of calcium hydroxide, followed by 4% (w/w, dry) of sugar cane cachasse (a fine fibered agricultural waste), thoroughly mixing between additions using an excavator. After the soil had dried sufficiently and the pH was planted by seed. Over a two year period this material was monitored for several factors including field moisture (%H), field capacity (FC), and soil water repellency. MED was measured on air dried soil and WDPT values were calculated from the extrapolation of penetration time vs. ethanol molarity functions (Rx=0,99). Additionally, water penetration times were measured at different humidities to determine critical moisture levels for absorption in growth was established. During two years of treatment the MED values were reduced 30% from 5,13 to 3,58M, and WDPT values were reduced over 25 times (from 10 exp5,6 s to 10 exp4,2 s). Critical humidity values varied from ~16

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain CNV2, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2016-05-12

    Here, we report the 2.6 Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain CNV2, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. CNV2 contains 2,545 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 33.2%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an S. saprophyticus adapted to an oil-contaminated environment. Copyright © 2016 Mukherjee et al.

  4. Characterization of the contamination produced by uncontrolled dumping of aromatic hydrocarbons; Caracterizacion de la contaminacion producida por el vertido incontrolado de hidrocarburos aromaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A.; Collado Fernandez, D.

    1996-08-01

    Uncontrolled dumping of aromatic hydrocarbons (m, o and p-xylen, ethylbenzene, etc) in the Tenes Valley aquifer (Besos river bassin) has produced a very important contamination of alluvial aquifer, that shows high concentrations of m, p xylen (41 mg/l) in groundwater, at a very vulnerable area. site characterization shows high concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ba in groundwater, originated by degradation of organic pollutants. Numerical simulation of plume movement shows a conditioned mobilization contaminants by biodegradation process. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogu, T P; Azubuike, C C; Ogugbue, C J

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  6. Biosurfactants produced by Microbacterium sp., isolated from aquatic macrophytes in hydrocarbon-contaminated area in the Rio Negro, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms., collected in oil contaminated wastewater of effluent generated by Petrobras refinery in Manaus were investigated to determine their potential for producing biosurfactants. Assay with 2.6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP indicator to verify hydrocarbon biodegradation activity; oil emulsification test; drop-collapse method; surface tension and growth curve of biosurfactant production. The M87 Microbacterium sp. strain chosen for this work was identified by the sequencing of the rDNA region and the chemical characterization was performed by FTIR, UFLC/MS and 1H RMN techniques. The selected bacterial isolate provided 3g L-1 of biosurfactant, using diesel oil as sole carbon source, being efficient in biodegrading oil as demonstrated by the DCPIP test. Fractions obtained by column chromatography were efficient in reducing water surface tension around 40 mN m-1, especially fraction 1, which reduced it to 34.17 mN m-1. The different techniques of chemical analysis used for the identification of the biosurfactant isolate indicated that this is probably a long - chain fatty acid lipid type, which may be used in the future as both biosurfactant in decontamination processes of hydrocarbon-polluted areas or as bioemulsifier in countless processes, since it exhibited no toxicity as determined by Alamar Blue assay.

  7. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Nwogu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  8. Distribution of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contents in an alfisol contaminated with waste-lubricating oil amended with organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesodun, J K; Mbagwu, J S C

    2008-05-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater with mineral oil-based products is among the most common sources of pollution in Nigeria. This study evaluated the distribution of some heavy metals and hydrocarbon content in soil contaminated with waste-lubricating oil (spent oil), and the effectiveness of some abundantly available organic wastes from animal source as remediation alternative to the expensive chemical and physical methods. The main-plot treatments include control (C), cow dung (CD), poultry manure (PM) and pig waste (PW) applied at 10Mg/ha each; while the sub-plot treatments were control (0%), 0.5%, 2.5% and 5% spent oil (SP) applied at 10, 50 and 100 Mg/ha, respectively arranged in a split-plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. These treatments were applied once each year for two consecutive years. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at 3, 6 and 12 months each year and analyzed for Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn, while the residual total hydrocarbon content (THC) was determined at the end of the 2 years study. Results show significant (poil pollution following the sequence 5%SP>2.5%SP>0.5%SP, indicating higher metal pollution with increase in oil pollution. General distribution of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn, relative to sampling periods, followed 3 months>6 months>12 months in the 1st year indicating reduction in metal levels with time. The trend for 2nd year indicated higher accumulation of Cr and Ni in 12 months, while Pb and Zn decreased with time of sampling. The results further showed higher accumulation of Cr followed by Zn, relative to other metals, with oil pollution. However, addition of organic wastes to the oil polluted soils significantly (pPW>CD.

  9. An evaluation of the ability of chemical measurements to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen M; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Hawthorne, Steven B; Nakles, David V; Neuhauser, Edward F

    2010-07-01

    The present study examined the ability of three chemical estimation methods to predict toxicity and nontoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) -contaminated sediment to the freshwater benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca for 192 sediment samples from 12 field sites. The first method used bulk sediment concentrations of 34 PAH compounds (PAH34), and fraction of total organic carbon, coupled with equilibrium partitioning theory to predict pore-water concentrations (KOC method). The second method used bulk sediment PAH34 concentrations and the fraction of anthropogenic (black carbon) and natural organic carbon coupled with literature-based black carbon-water and organic carbon-water partition coefficients to estimate pore-water concentrations (KOCKBC method). The final method directly measured pore-water concentrations (pore-water method). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's hydrocarbon narcosis model was used to predict sediment toxicity for all three methods using the modeled or measured pore-water concentration as input. The KOC method was unable to predict nontoxicity (83% of nontoxic samples were predicted to be toxic). The KOCKBC method was not able to predict toxicity (57% of toxic samples were predicted to be nontoxic) and, therefore, was not protective of the environment. The pore-water method was able to predict toxicity (correctly predicted 100% of the toxic samples were toxic) and nontoxicity (correctly predicted 71% of the nontoxic samples were nontoxic). This analysis clearly shows that direct pore-water measurement is the most accurate chemical method currently available to estimate PAH-contaminated sediment toxicity to H. azteca. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  10. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC-MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D; Osborn, A Mark; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC-MS/MS. •Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils.•Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system.•This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils.

  11. Meta-transcriptomics indicates biotic cross-tolerance in willow trees cultivated on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Marleau, Julie; Guidi Nissim, Werther; Labrecque, Michel; Pitre, Frederic E; Joly, Simon

    2015-10-12

    High concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution can be hazardous to human health and leave soils incapable of supporting agricultural crops. A cheap solution, which can help restore biodiversity and bring land back to productivity, is cultivation of high biomass yielding willow trees. However, the genetic mechanisms which allow these fast-growing trees to tolerate PHCs are as yet unclear. Salix purpurea 'Fish Creek' trees were pot-grown in soil from a former petroleum refinery, either lacking or enriched with C10-C50 PHCs. De novo assembled transcriptomes were compared between tree organs and impartially annotated without a priori constraint to any organism. Over 45% of differentially expressed genes originated from foreign organisms, the majority from the two-spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae. Over 99% of T. urticae transcripts were differentially expressed with greater abundance in non-contaminated trees. Plant transcripts involved in the polypropanoid pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), had greater expression in contaminated trees whereas most resistance genes showed higher expression in non-contaminated trees. The impartial approach to annotation of the de novo transcriptomes, allowing for the possibility for multiple species identification, was essential for interpretation of the crop's response treatment. The meta-transcriptomic pattern of expression suggests a cross-tolerance mechanism whereby abiotic stress resistance systems provide improved biotic resistance. These findings highlight a valuable but complex biotic and abiotic stress response to real-world, multidimensional contamination which could, in part, help explain why crops such as willow can produce uniquely high biomass yields on challenging marginal land.

  12. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia, E-mail: flavia.girolami@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.spalenza@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica, E-mail: monica.carletti@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola, E-mail: paola.sacchi@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rasero@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.nebbia@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of the Bílina River (Czech Republic using passive water samplers and fish biliary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination on the Bílina River (the Czech Republic by measurement of three PAH biliary metabolites in fish and 16 PAHs in passive samplers. A total of sixty-one fish were collected; the indicator species were chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.; n = 25, roach (Rutilus rutilus L.; n = 17 and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.; n = 19. Three biliary PAH metabolites were measured: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, 2-naphtol, and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, but only 1-OHP was detected in all fish. The highest median value of 32.3 ng·mg-1of 1-OHP was found at Ústí nad Labem, while the lowest median value of 27.6 ng·mg-1was found in the control site, Březenec. No significant differences (P < 0.05 among the sites were found. The highest concentration of PAH was detected in Litvínov-Záluží (172.0 ng·l-1 and the lowest concentration (7.9 ng·l-1 was detected in Březenec. A positive, but non-significant correlation (rs = 0.8 was confirmed between biliary 1-OHP and total PAH in passive samplers. These results indicate the highest pollution in the middle stretches of the Bílina River, especially at Litvínov-Záluží. We confirmed 1-OHP as the most prevalent PAH biliary metabolite in fish that could be used as a biomarker for assessment of PAH pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. The main importance of the present study is in the combination of biochemical and chemical monitoring that provides complex evaluation of aquatic environment contamination. It was the first study on the Bílina River, in which the assessment of PAH contamination in the aquatic ecosystem was realized using combination of biotic and abiotic monitoring.

  15. Monitoring bioremediation of hydrocarbon and salt-contaminated wastes using exotoxicological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R. M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Three wastes - (1) a crude oil spill agricultural soil, (2) a diesel invert mud residue, and (3) flare pit waste - were treated in a temperature/moisture-controlled field unit for approximately 12 months, followed by additional treatment in a secondary treatment unit. Although the bioremedial treatment was very effective in reducing the hydrocarbon content of each waste, the amount of decline in toxicity was uncertain. In order to monitor reduction in toxicity and environmental risk, the wastes were subjected to an ecotoxicological protocol, consisting of single species bioassays which measured seedling emergence, root elongation, earthworm survival and reduction in photoluminescence by Photobacterium phosphoreum (i.e. the MICROTOX{sup T}M method). Chronic soil process assays were used to address decomposition (mass loss of alfalfa stems, and nitrification potentials of the wastes). Waste 1 was moderately toxic initially but this toxicity vanished after 16 months; Waste 2 tested highly toxic in all tests initially and was still slightly toxic after 16 months; Waste 3 was highly toxic initially, but toxicity declined rapidly when the MICROTOX{sup T}M was applied, and further bioremediation resulted in rapid loss of toxicity after only 10 months. Thus ecotoxicological response appears to be waste-specific and toxicity cannot be predicted from the hydrocarbon content.

  16. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated magnetic, gravity, and GPR surveys to locate the probable source of hydrocarbon contamination in Sharm El-Sheikh area, south Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mona; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Sharm El-Sheikh waters were suddenly hit by hydrocarbon spills which created a serious threat to the prosperous tourism industry in and around the city. Analysis of soil samples, water samples, and seabed samples collected in and around the contaminated bay area showed anomalous levels of hydrocarbons. An integrated geophysical investigation, using magnetic, gravity, and ground penetrating radar geophysical tools, was conducted in the headland overlooking the contaminated bay in order to delineate the possible subsurface source of contamination. The results of the geophysical investigations revealed three underground manmade reinforced concrete tanks and a complicated network of buried steel pipes in addition to other unidentified buried objects. The depths and dimensions of the discovered objects were determined. Geophysical investigations also revealed the presence of a north-south oblique slip fault running through the eastern part of the studied area. Excavations, conducted later on, confirmed the presence of one of the tanks delineated by the geophysical surveys.

  20. Contamination of runoff waters with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the city of Siedlce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research on content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of runoff waters collected in Siedlce city. The samples were collected in March, July and October 2015. The highest mean total concentration of 16 PAHs amounting to 12.54 μmolּdm-3 was determined in water samples collected at Łukowska Street, whereas the lowest concentrations (1.90 μmolּdm-3 were found in samples collected at Warszawska Street. In some samples, small amounts of benzo(apyrene were present; the average content ranged from 0.02 μmol⋅dm-3 at Warszawska Street to 0.20 μmolּdm-3 at Garwolińska Street.

  1. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Stuart E.

    2002-06-01

    Several varieties of transgenic poplar containing cytochrome P-450 2E1 have been constructed and are undergoing tests. Strategies for improving public acceptance and safety of transgenic poplar for chlorinated hydrocarbon phytoremediation are being developed. We have discovered a unique rhizobium species that lives within the stems of poplar and we are investigating whether this bacterium contributes nitrogen fixed from the air to the plant and whether this endophyte could be used to introduce genes into poplar. Studies of the production of chloride ion from TCE have shown that our present P-450 constructs did not produce chloride more rapidly than wild type plants. Follow-up studies will determine if there are other rate limiting downstream steps in TCE metabolism in plants. Studies of the metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in poplar cells have provided evidence that the native plant metabolism is due to the activity of oxidative enzymes similar to the mammalian cytochrome P-450 2E1.

  2. Correlating gene expression with deformities caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugiak, B.; Weber, L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in fish causes lethal disturbances in fish development, but the effects of acute AhR agonist exposure on the cardiovascular system and deformities remain unclear. This study addressed this issue by performing a series of experiments on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The authors hypothesized that genes needed for cardiovascular regulation (PTGS) would exhibit a stronger link to deformities than detoxification enzymes (CYPs). Zebrafish eggs were exposed aqueously until 4 days post-fertilization (dpf) to the AhR agonists benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD) alone and in combination with the putative AhR antagonists resveratrol or alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF). Gene expression was measured using real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR in zebrafish at 5 and 10 dpf. Although the mortalities did not differ considerably among groups at 10 dpf, the deformities increased significantly after BaP-ANF at 5 dpf and after BaP at 10 dpf, but not after TCDD treatment. CYP and PTGS isozymes exhibited small, but statistically significant changes at 5 dpf. By 10 dpf, the expression returned to control values. In general, CYP1A and PTGS-1 expression at 5 dpf were positively correlated with deformities, while all other genes were negatively correlated with deformities. It was concluded that changes in CYP1A, CYP1C2, and PTGS-1 gene expression at 5 dpf are associated with developmental deformities, but additional work is needed to determine which has the most important mechanistic link.

  3. Improving Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Contaminated Soil Through Low-Level Surfactant Addition After Conventional Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Alden C; Singleton, David R; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs. This work extends that concept by treating the effluent from the slurry-phase bioreactor in a second-stage batch reactor, to which POESH was added, for an additional 7 or 12 days. Surfactant amendment removed substantial amounts of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs remaining after conventional slurry-phase bioremediation, including more than 80% of residual 4-ring PAHs. Surfactant-amended treatment decreased soil cytotoxicity, but often increased the genotoxicity of the soil as measured using the DT-40 chicken lymphocyte DNA damage response assay. Potential ecotoxicity, measured using a seed germination assay, was reduced by bioreactor treatment and was reduced further after second-stage treatment with POESH. Of bacteria previously implicated as potential PAH degraders under POESH-amended conditions in a prior study, members of the Terrimonas genus were associated with differences in high-molecular weight PAH removal in the current study. Research using submicellar doses of surfactant as a second-stage treatment step is limited and these findings can inform the design of bioremediation systems at field sites treating soil contaminated with PAHs and other hydrophobic contaminants that have low bioaccessibility.

  4. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K H; Kim, K W

    2001-07-01

    In order to assess the applicability of an earthworm bioassay as a technique for monitoring the soil flushing process, short-term and long-term toxicity tests were conducted on remediated soil using various pore volumes of surfactant solution. Results obtained on short-term toxicity testing indicated that biomass increased as the soil flushing proceeded, and on diesel-contaminated soils this testing showed that the effect of diesel is lethal and that 25 pore volumes of soil surfactant were not sufficient to abrogate the toxic effect of diesel. These short-term tests also showed strong sublethal relationships between the development of biomass, and the concentrations of toxic chemicals in the soil. Although relationships between contaminants and the various bioassay parameters examined were not significant in long-term testing, an increase in the number of juveniles was observed over time, which may have been a consequence of a reduction in toxicity associated with the flushing process.

  5. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil through composting with fresh organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Houot, Sabine; Qiao, Min; Nunan, Naoise; Garnier, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Composting may enhance bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils by providing organic substrates that stimulate the growth of potential microbial degraders. However, the influence of added organic matter (OM) together with the microbial activities on the dissipation of PAHs has not yet been fully assessed. An in-vessel composting-bioremediation experiment of a contaminated soil amended with fresh wastes was carried out. Four different experimental conditions were tested in triplicate during 60 days using laboratory-scale reactors: treatment S (100% soil), W (100% wastes), SW (soil/waste mixture), and SWB (soil/waste mixture with inoculation of degrading microorganisms). A dry mass loss of 35 ± 5% was observed in treatments with organic wastes during composting in all the treatments except treatment S. The dissipation of the 16 USEPA-listed PAHs was largely enhanced from no significant change to 50.5 ± 14.8% (for SW)/63.7 ± 10.0% (for SWB). More obvious dissipation was observed when fresh wastes were added at the beginning of composting to the contaminated soil, without significant difference between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling showed that fungi and G-bacteria dominated at the beginning of experiment and were probably involved in PAH dissipation. Subsequently, greater relative abundances of G + bacteria were observed as PAH dissipation slowed down. The results suggest that improving the composting process with optimal organic compositions may be a feasible remediation strategy in PAH-contaminated soils through stimulation of active microbial populations.

  6. Bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: albert.juhasz@unisa.edu.a [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Smith, Euan [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Waller, Natasha [CSIRO Land and Water, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Stewart, Richard [Remediate, Kent Town, SA 5067 (Australia); Weber, John [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The impact of residual PAHs (2250 +- 71 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) following enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 +- 1286 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. Microtox{sup TM} results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in EC{sub 50} values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. However, in studies conducted with Eisenia fetida, PAH bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a result of ENA. Similarly, Beta vulgaris L. biomass yields were increased 2.1-fold following ENA of creosote-contaminated soil. While earthworm and plant assays indicated that PAH bioavailability was reduced following ENA, the residual PAH fraction still exerted toxicological impacts on both receptors. Results from this study highlight that residual PAHs following ENA (presumably non-bioavailable to bioremediation) may still be bioavailable to important receptor organisms such as earthworms and plants. - Residual PAHs in creosote-contaminated soil following enhanced natural attenuation impacted negatively on ecological receptors.

  7. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  8. Microorganisms Associated with Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites and Reservoirs for Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. Cristina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-10-21

    Russian partner Institutes tested a number of strains from their collection and/or selected at oilfield contamination/ extraction sites to determine their ability to create aggregates that could plug oil well reservoirs to enhance oil recovey. Among these tested, five facultative anaerobic organisms that performed the best in the Russian Institutes' trials were shipped to Argonne and evaluated at Argonne for their ability to produce aggregates that plug pores in oil reservoirs formations. Results were provided to the Industrial Partner who is interested in receiving the strains for further testing.

  9. Vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, R H K; Sani, A; Almuktar, S A A A N; Scholz, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to compare the impact of different design (aggregate size) and operational (contact time, empty time and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading) variables on the long-term and seasonal performance of vertical-flow constructed wetland filters operated in tidal flow mode before and after a one-off spill of diesel. Ten different vertical-flow wetland systems were planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed). Approximately 130 g of diesel fuel was poured into four wetland filters. Before the spill, compliance with secondary wastewater treatment standards was achieved by all wetlands regarding ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) and suspended solids (SS), and non-compliance was recorded for biochemical oxygen demand and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus (PO₄-P). Higher COD inflow concentrations had a significantly positive impact on the treatment performance for COD, PO₄-P and SS. The wetland with the largest aggregate size had the lowest mean NO₃-N outflow concentration. However, the results were similar regardless of aggregate size and resting time for most variables. Clear seasonal outflow concentration trends were recorded for COD, NH4-N and NO₃-N. No filter clogging was observed. The removal efficiencies dropped for those filters impacted by the diesel spill. The wetlands system shows a good performance regarding total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal.

  10. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand

    2004-09-27

    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  11. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters.

  12. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive technique based on resistivity measurements in soils. After the detection of hydrocarbons contaminated areas, boreholes with continuous coring were performed in a petrol station located in Murcia Region (Spain. The drillholes reached depths down to 10 m and soil samples were taken from each meter of the drilling. The optimization in the soil samples handling and storage, for both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds determinations, was achieved by designing a soil sampler to minimize volatilization losses and in order to avoid the manual contact with the environmental samples during the sampling. The preservation of soil samples was performed according to Europe regulations and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations into two kinds of glass vials. Moreover, it has been taken into account the determination techniques to quantify the hydrocarbon pollution based on Gas Chromatography with different detectors and headspace technique to reach a liquid-gas equilibrium for volatile analyses.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area.

  14. Effect of activated carbon and biochars on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industrially contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    Coal production negatively affects the environment by the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two soils (KOK and KB) from a coking plant area was investigated and their total PAH concentration was 40 and 17 mg/kg for the sum (∑) 16 US EPA PAHs, respectively. A third soil was sampled from a bitumen plant area and was characterized by 9 mg/kg ∑16 US EPA PAHs. To reduce the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of the PAHs in the soil pore water, active carbon (AC) and two biochars pyrolysed from wheat straw (biochar-S) and willow (biochar-W) were added to the soils at 0.5-5 % (w/w), each. The AC performed best and reduced the Cfree by 51-98 % already at the lowest dose. The biochars needed doses up to 2.5 % to significantly reduce the Cfree by 44-86 % in the biochar-S and by 37-68 % in the biochar-W amended soils. The high black carbon (BC) content of up to 2.3 % in the Silesian soils competed with the sorption sites of the carbon amendments and the performance of the remediation was a consequence of the contaminant's source and the distribution between the BC and the AC/biochars. In contrast, the carbon amendment could best reduce the Cfree in the Lublin soil where the BC content was normal (0.05 %). It is therefore crucial to know the contaminant's source and history of a sample/site to choose the appropriate carbon amendment not only for remediation success but also for economic reasons.

  15. Identification of polar transformation products and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil following bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Aitken, Michael D; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is a technique commonly used to reduce the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. However, the efficacy of bioremedial applications is evaluated based on the removal of a subset of parent (or unsubstituted) PAHs and does not incorporate toxic polar transformation products or the more mutagenic high molecular weight PAHs (MW≥302amu or MW302-PAHs). Previously, an effects-directed analysis approach was used to assess the effect of bioremediation on the toxicity of a coal tar-contaminated soil. Increased genotoxicity and developmental toxicity was measured postbioremedation in the more polar soil extract fractions, as compared to the less polar fractions where the targeted PAHs eluted, and could not be attributed to the 88 target PAHs analyzed for (including selected oxygen-containing PAHs). In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize transformation products in the soil extract fractions identified as toxic, previously. Additionally, the degradation of 12MW302-PAHs, picene (MW=278) and coronene (MW=300) were evaluated following bioremediation. Non-targeted analysis resulted in the tentative identification of 10 peaks with increased intensity postbioremediation (based on mass spectral library matching and fragmentation patterns from >5000 candidate peaks in the soil extracts). Several of these compounds contained oxygen, suggesting they would be relatively polar. MW302-PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation, suggesting that the carcinogenic potential associated with these PAHs might remain unchanged. The results of this study suggest that polar transformation products, and MW302-PAHs, should be considered for realistic risk assessment of bioremediated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine P Pagé

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(apyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls. An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the

  17. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visualizing and Quantifying Bioaccessible Pores in Field-Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Clay Soils Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Kim, J.; Zhu, N.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial hydrocarbon degradation is environmentally significant and applicable to contaminated site remediation practices only when hydrocarbons (substrates) are physically bioaccessible to bacteria in soil matrices. Powerful X-rays are produced by synchrotron radiation, allowing for bioaccessible pores in soil (larger than 4 microns), where bacteria can be accommodated, colonize and remain active, can be visualized at a much higher resolution. This study visualized and quantified such bioaccessible pores in intact field-aged, oil-contaminated unsaturated soil fractions, and examined the relationship between the abundance of bioaccessible pores and hydrocarbon biodegradation. Using synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) at the Canadian Light Source, a large dataset of soil particle characteristics, such as pore volumes, surface areas, number of pores and pore size distribution, was generated. Duplicate samples of five different soil fractions with different soil aggregate sizes and water contents (13, 18 and 25%) were examined. The method for calculating the number and distribution of bioaccessible pores using CT images was validated using the known porosity of Ottawa sand. This study indicated that the distribution of bioaccessible pore sizes in soil fractions are very closely related to microbial enhancement. A follow-up aerobic biodegradation experiment for the soils at 17 °C (average site temperature) over 90 days confirmed that a notable decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations occurred in soils fractions with abundant bioaccessible pores and with a larger number of pores between 10 and 100 μm. The hydrocarbon degradation in bioactive soil fractions was extended to relatively high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C16-C34). This study provides quantitative information about how internal soil pore characteristics can influence bioremediation performance.

  19. Shifts in microbial community structure during in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingwen; Li, Feng; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the microbial mechanism of in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR). Various concentrations of rhamnolipids, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) were separately sprayed onto soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for years. Within 90 days, the highest level of degradation (95 %) was observed in the soil treated with rhamnolipids (10 mg/kg), followed by 92 % degradation with Tween 80 (50 mg/kg) and 90 % degradation with SDBS (50 mg/kg). The results of the microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) suggest that bacteria dominated the enhanced PAH biodegradation (94 % of the maximum contribution). The shift of bacterial community structure during the surfactant treatment was analyzed by using the 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. In the presence of surfactants, the number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas increased from 2-3 to 15-30 % at the end of the experiment (two to three times of control). Gene prediction with phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) shows that the PAH-degrading genes, such as 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenase and PAH dioxygenase large subunit, significantly increased after the surfactant applications (p < 0.05). The findings of this study provide insights into the surfactant-induced shifts of microbial community, as well as critical factors for efficient bioremediation.

  20. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Soils of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala: Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaraneni, Varun K; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sum of the concentrations of these PAHs at the urban and peri-urban sites ranged from 460 to 3251 μg kg (mean, 1401 μg kg), whereas at agricultural sites the range was 350 to 2087 μg kg (mean, 1038 μg kg). Analysis to identify and apportion the source showed that the PAHs emitted from wood stoves contributed 71 and 76% of the total PAHs in urban and agricultural areas soils, respectively. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk due to the ingestion of soil, dermal contact, and dietary intake through corn consumption was greater than the acceptable level of 10 established by the USEPA. Our findings suggest that the residents of rural communities can be at increased cancer risk despite little or no industrial activity in the local area. Alternate domestic fuel sources should be considered to reduce the health risk in local communities. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  3. Evaluation of sediment contamination by monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal lagoons of Gulf of Saros, NE Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Selma; Alpar, Bedri

    2017-05-15

    The concentrations and distribution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and the sum of m-, p- and o-, xylenes) were determined in the sediments of coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Saros, using a static headspace GC-MS. The total concentrations of BTEX compounds ranged from 368.5 to below detection limit 0.6μgkg-1 dw, with a mean value of 61.5μgkg-1 dw. The light aromatic fraction of m-, p-xylene was the most abundant compound (57.1% in average), and followed by toluene (38.1%)>ethylbenzene (4.1%)>o-xylene (2.5%)>benzene (1.1%). The factor analysis indicated that the levels and distribution of BTEX compounds depend on the type of contaminant source (mobile/point), absorbance of compounds in sediment, and mobility of benzene compound and degradation processes. Point sources are mainly related to agricultural facilities and port activities while the dispersion of compounds are related with their solubility, volatility and effect of sea/saline waters on lagoons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  5. Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Alfaro-Barta, Irene; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-21

    Soils impregnated with creosote contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). To bioremediate these soils and avoid PAH spread, different bioremediation strategies were tested, based on natural attenuation, biochar application, wheat straw biostimulation, Pleurotus ostreatus mycoremediation, and the novel sequential application of biochar for 21 days and P. ostreatus 21 days more. Soil was sampled after 21 and 42 days after the remediation application. The efficiency and effectiveness of each remediation treatment were assessed according to PAH degradation and immobilization, fungal and bacterial development, soil eco-toxicity and legal considerations. Natural attenuation and biochar treatments did not achieve adequate PAH removal and soil eco-toxicity reduction. Biostimulation showed the highest bacterial development but low PAH degradation rate. Mycoremediation achieved the best PAH degradation rate and the lowest bioavailable fraction and soil eco-toxicity. This bioremediation strategy achieved PAH concentrations below Spanish legislation for contaminated soils (RD 9/2005). Sequential application of biochar and P. ostreatus was the second treatment most effective for PAH biodegradation and immobilization. However, the activity of P. ostreatus was increased by previous biochar application and PAH degradation efficiency was increased. Therefore, the combined strategy for PAH degradation have high potential to increase remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  7. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  9. Effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and related contaminants on common tern reproduction: Integration of (bio)chemical and ecological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murk, A.J. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands); Boudewijn, T.J.; Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Bosveld, A.T.C. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands); Rossaert, G.; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P. [Inst. for Nature Management, Hasselt (Belgium); Meininger, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated ecotoxicological study was made to establish the possible effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons (PHAHs) on common tern (Stema hirundo) reproduction. In eight Dutch or Belgian colonies, breeding biology and food choice were determined. In all colonies 15 second eggs from three-egg clutches were collected for artificial incubation and (bio)chemical analysis. Results from these analyses were combined with biological data from the remaining eggs of the clutches. A relationship was found between yolksac mono-ortho PCB levels and main food species (fish or insects) of the adult terns before egg-laying. Colony average breeding data differed only slightly, and were difficult to relate to PHAH levels. When the colonies were grouped after yolksac PHAH-patterns and main food species, significant differences in average egg laying date, egg laying period, incubation period, egg volume and chick weight could be related to differences in yolksac PHAH and retinoid levels, and hepatic EROD activity. The data from all colonies also were used as one dataset and correlated with the (bio)chemical parameters. In summary there were significant correlations or clear trends between yolksac PHAHs or hepatic EROD-activity and prolonged egg laying and incubation period, and smaller eggs and chicks. Lower yolksac retinoid and plasma thyroid hormone levels, and a higher ratio of plasma retinol over yolksac retinoids correlated with longer egg laying and incubation periods, and smaller chicks and eggs (only with thyroid hormone).

  10. [Correlation between microbial growth in conjunctival swabs of corneal donors and contamination of organ culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Bischoff, M; Schirra, F; Langenbucher, A; Ong, M; Halfmann, A; Herrmann, M; Seitz, B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rate of contamination in conjunctival swabs from corneal donors by microbiological investigations and to correlate this with microbial contamination of the culture medium. Contamination of conjunctival swabs and culture media was analyzed retrospectively for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 at the LIONS corneal bank of Saar-Lor-Lux Trier/Westpfalz at the Saarland University Medical Center. The total annual number of conjunctival swabs was 316 in 2009, 341 in 2010 and 381 in 2011. Conjunctival swabs were taken prior to 1.25% povidone-iodine application. After disinfection donor corneas were harvested by in situ corneoscleral disc excision in all cases. The correlation between positive conjunctival swabs and microbial contamination of the culture medium was analyzed. In every year examined the contamination rate of the culture medium was significantly higher in cases of contaminated conjunctival swabs (p culture medium was contaminated in 16.5%, 11.5% and 7.6% of the donated corneas with positive conjunctival swabs and in 7.2%, 1.9% and 0.6% in donated corneas with negative conjunctival swabs, respectively. A positive correlation was found between contamination of the culture medium and microbial colonization of the conjunctival swabs, Nevertheless, microbial colonization of the conjunctiva was high and contamination of the culture medium was relatively low. For the microbial contamination rate of the donated corneas in the medium, conjunctival disinfection time with iodine solution before explantation of the corneoscleral disc and the addition of antibiotics to the culture medium seem to play a protective role.

  11. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  12. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  13. Contamination, source identification, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of vegetable greenhouses in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Qiqi; Wu, Juan; Zeng, Lusheng; Chen, Qinghua; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ma, Dong; Ge, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in soil (n=196) and vegetable (n=30) collected from greenhouses, and also in the soil (n=27) collected from agriculture fields close to the greenhouses in Shandong Province, China. The total PAH concentration (∑16PAH) ranged from 152.2µg/kg to 1317.7µg/kg, within the moderate range in agricultural soils of China. Three-ring PAHs were the dominant species, with Phe (16.3%), Ace (13.1%), and Fl (10.5%) as the major compounds. The concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW ≤3 rings) PAHs were high in the east and north of Shandong, while the concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW ≥4 rings) PAHs were high in the south and west of the study area. The PAH level in soils in industrial areas (IN) was higher than those in transport areas (TR) and rural areas (RR). No significant difference in concentration of ∑16PAH and composition was observed in soils of vegetable greenhouses and field soils. PAH concentration exhibited a weakly positive correlation with alkaline nitrogen, available phosphorus in soil, but a weakly negative correlation with soil pH. However, no obvious correlation was observed between PAH concentration and organic matter of soil, or ages of vegetable greenhouses. ∑16PAH in vegetables ranged from 89.9µg/kg to 489.4µg/kg, and LMW PAHs in vegetables positively correlated with those in soils. The sources of PAHs were identified and quantitatively assessed through positive matrix factorization. The main source of PAHs in RR was coal combustion, while the source was traffic in TR and IN. Moreover, petroleum source, coke source, biomass combustion, or mixed sources also contributed to PAH pollution. According to Canadian soil quality guidelines, exposure to greenhouse soils in Shandong posed no risk to human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Use of Substrate-Induced Gene Expression in Metagenomic Analysis of an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthew J; Paterson, E Suzanne; Lambert, Iain B

    2015-11-20

    Metagenomics allows the study of genes related to xenobiotic degradation in a culture-independent manner, but many of these studies are limited by the lack of genomic context for metagenomic sequences. This study combined a phenotypic screen known as substrate-induced gene expression (SIGEX) with whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. SIGEX is a high-throughput promoter-trap method that relies on transcriptional activation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in response to an inducing compound and subsequent fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate individual inducible clones from a metagenomic DNA library. We describe a SIGEX procedure with improved library construction from fragmented metagenomic DNA and improved flow cytometry sorting procedures. We used SIGEX to interrogate an aromatic hydrocarbon (AH)-contaminated soil metagenome. The recovered clones contained sequences with various degrees of similarity to genes (or partial genes) involved in aromatic metabolism, for example, nahG (salicylate oxygenase) family genes and their respective upstream nahR regulators. To obtain a broader context for the recovered fragments, clones were mapped to contigs derived from de novo assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA which, in most cases, contained complete operons involved in aromatic metabolism, providing greater insight into the origin of the metagenomic fragments. A comparable set of contigs was generated using a significantly less computationally intensive procedure in which assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA was directed by the SIGEX-recovered sequences. This methodology may have broad applicability in identifying biologically relevant subsets of metagenomes (including both novel and known sequences) that can be targeted computationally by in silico assembly and prediction tools. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of humic deposit (leonardite) on degradation of semi-volatile and heavy hydrocarbons and soil quality in crude-oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Oguz Can; Erdogan, Esin Eraydın; Karaca, Ayten

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigate the bioremedial potential of humic deposit (leonardite), the effects of the treatments of leonardite and a commercial bioaugmentation agent on the degradation of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons (C13-C31) and soil enzyme activities (urease acid-alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase) were tested within a soil incubation experiment lasting 120 days. Experimentally crude-oil-contaminated soil (2.5%) was regulated to a C:N:P ratio (100:15:1; Oilcon), amended with 5% of leonardite and regulated to the same C:N:P ratio (Oilcon-L) or mixed with a commercial bioaugmentation product (Oilcon-B), respectively. In the short period of incubation (60 days), Oilcon and Oilcon-B treatments showed higher hydrocarbon degradations, whereas Oilcon-L showed higher hydrocarbon degradation over Oilcon and Oilcon-B treatments in the long-term (120 days). Applying contaminated soil with leonardite increased urease (LSD, 4.978, *Psoil ecological quality measured as soil enzyme activities.

  18. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.

  19. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard and polypropylene film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH), and polyalphaolefins (PAO from hot melts) into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard or polypropylene (PP) flexible film was studied. Migration was monitored during shelf life (up to 24 months), through storage in a real supermarket (packs kept on shelves), conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil), and storage in a warehouse (packs inside of the transport box of corrugated board). Semolina pasta packed in virgin paperboard (without hot melts) had a MOSH content lower than 1.0 mg kg(-1). An increasing contamination with PAO belonging to the adhesives used to close the boxes was detected in egg pasta, wrapped in aluminium (1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 24 months, respectively). An environmental contribution to total hydrocarbon contamination was observed in egg pasta kept on shelves that, after 3 and 24 months, showed levels of PAO/MOSH semolina pasta packed in PP film and stored in the transport box showed that some MOSH migrated into the pasta from the board of the transport box (through the plastic film).

  20. Mild acid and alkali treated clay minerals enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soil: A14C-tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils requires a higher microbial viability and an increased PAH bioavailability. The clay/modified clay-modulated bacterial degradation could deliver a more efficient removal of PAHs in soils depending on the bioavailability of the compounds. In this study, we modified clay minerals (smectite and palygorskite) with mild acid (HCl) and alkali (NaOH) treatments (0.5-3 M), which increased the surface area and pore volume of the products, and removed the impurities without collapsing the crystalline structure of clay minerals. In soil incubation studies, supplements with the clay products increased bacterial growth in the order: 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl ≥ unmodified for palygorskite. A 14 C-tracing study showed that the mild acid/alkali-treated clay products increased the PAH biodegradation (5-8%) in the order of 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified > 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl > 0.5 M NaOH ≥ unmodified ≥ 3 M NaOH for palygorskite. The biodegradation was correlated (r = 0.81) with the bioavailable fraction of PAHs and microbial growth as affected particularly by the 0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M NaOH-treated clay minerals. These results could be pivotal in developing a clay-modulated bioremediation technology for cleaning up PAH-contaminated soils and sediments in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Unsaturated Flow and Contaminant Transport with Correlated Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative contributions from uncertainties in input parameters to the predictive uncertainties in unsaturated flow and contaminant transport are investigated in this study. The objectives are to: (1) examine the effects of input parameter correlations on the sensitivity of unsaturated flow and conta...

  3. Duodenoscope hang time does not correlate with risk of bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroux, Riley; Sheppard, Michelle; Wright, Sharon B; Sawhney, Mandeep; Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Kalaidjian, Robin; Snyder, Graham M

    2017-04-01

    Current professional guidelines recommend a maximum hang time for reprocessed duodenoscopes of 5-14 days. We sought to study the association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. We analyzed cultures of the elevator mechanism and working channel collected in a highly standardized fashion just before duodenoscope use. Hang time was calculated as the time from reprocessing to duodenoscope sampling. The relationship between hang time and duodenoscope contamination was estimated using a calculated correlation coefficient between hang time in days and degree of contamination on the elevator mechanism and working channel. The 18 study duodenoscopes were cultured 531 times, including 465 (87.6%) in the analysis dataset. Hang time ranged from 0.07-39.93 days, including 34 (7.3%) with hang time ≥7.00 days. Twelve cultures (2.6%) demonstrated elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination. The correlation coefficients for hang time and degree of duodenoscope contamination were very small and not statistically significant (-0.0090 [P = .85] for elevator mechanism and -0.0002 [P = 1.00] for working channel). Odds ratios for hang time (dichotomized at ≥7.00 days) and elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination were not significant. We did not find a significant association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. Future guidelines should consider a recommendation of no limit for hang time. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  6. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on two-dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Dong, Guimei; Sun, Xueshan; Yang, Yanrong; Yu, Yaping; Liu, Haixue; Zhang, Weiyu

    2018-02-01

    A new approach for quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment was proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate method. 40 mixture solutions of anthracene and pyrene were prepared in the laboratory. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of all samples were collected. And 2D fluorescence correlation spectra were calculated under the excitation perturbation. The N-way partial least squares (N-PLS) models were developed based on 2D fluorescence correlation spectra, showing a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 3.50 μg L- 1 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.42 μg L- 1 for anthracene and of 3.61 μg L- 1 and 4.29 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. Also, the N-PLS models were developed for quantitative analysis of anthracene and pyrene using EEM fluorescence spectra. The RMSEC and RMSEP were 3.97 μg L- 1 and 4.63 μg L- 1 for anthracene, 4.46 μg L- 1 and 4.52 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. It was found that the N-PLS model using 2D fluorescence correlation spectra could provide better results comparing with EEM fluorescence spectra because of its low RMSEC and RMSEP. The methodology proposed has the potential to be an alternative method for detection of PAHs in environment.

  8. Assessment of the distortions caused by a pipe and an excavation in the electric and electromagnetic responses of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Hilda Patricia; Robledo, Fabiana Elizabeth; Osella, Ana María; de la Vega, Matías

    2012-02-01

    Here, we present the results of a geophysical survey performed to characterize a hydrocarbon contamination plume, arising from a puncture in a master crude oil pipe in Argentina. This pipe was buried in an inhabited suburban yard with flat topography. At the moment of the event a stretch of the duct was uncovered and the leaked oil flooded the terrain up to several meters around the puncture. The contamination was produced by infiltration from the surface and also by flowing through the inner layers. The first steps in the treatment of the spill were to pump the oil, excavate the sector nearby the puncture and repair the pipe. Around one year later, we preformed the geophysical prospecting, which goal was to determine the extent of the contaminant plume, required for selecting adequate remediation strategies. We combined dual-coil, frequency domain electromagnetic induction surveys and 2D dipole-dipole geoelectrical profiling. Besides, we performed Wenner soundings at several positions on the walls of the excavation, where contaminated and clean sediments were exposed. From the 1D inversion of the electromagnetic data, 2D inversion of the dipole-dipole data, and Wenner data, we found that, in general, the contamination decreased the resistivity of the affected subsoil volumes. However, three of the geoelectrical profiles exhibited localized, very resistive anomalies, which origin was not clear. They did not seem to be associated to the presence of high concentrations of poorly or non-degraded hydrocarbon, since two of these profiles crossed the more contaminated area, but the other was located quite further away. As an attempt to identify the cause of these anomalies, we carried out a 3D numerical simulation of the effects of the pipe and the excavation on the 2D dipole-dipole images. From this study, we could effectively determine that they were mainly distortions generated by those structures. This allowed for providing a proper interpretation of the images of

  9. Treatability of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils of different textures along a vertical profile by mechanical soil aeration: A laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Shi, Yi; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhifen; Xu, Zhu; Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technology that is suitable for sites contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs). Conventionally, this technique is used to treat the mixed soil of a site without considering the diversity and treatability of different soils within the site. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration for remediating soils of different textures (silty, clayey, and sandy soils) along a vertical profile at an abandoned chloro-alkali chemical site in China. The collected soils were artificially contaminated with chloroform (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Mechanical soil aeration was effective for remediating VCHs (removal efficiency >98%). The volatilization process was described by an exponential kinetic function. In the early stage of treatment (0-7hr), rapid contaminant volatilization followed a pseudo-first order kinetic model. VCH concentrations decreased to low levels and showed a tailing phenomenon with very slow contaminant release after 8hr. Compared with silty and sandy soils, clayey soil has high organic-matter content, a large specific surface area, a high clay fraction, and a complex pore structure. These characteristics substantially influenced the removal process, making it less efficient, more time consuming, and consequently more expensive. Our findings provide a potential basis for optimizing soil remediation strategy in a cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  12. Effect of vegetation in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with a low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Wu, Shubiao; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz; Kuschk, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In order to characterize the effect of vegetation on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs (planted with Phragmites australis and unplanted) treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with MCB (monochlorobenzene, as a low chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 10 mg L(-1)), and PCE (perchloroethylene, as a high chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 2 mg L(-1)), were examined. With mean MCB inflow load of 299 mg m(-2) d(-1), the removal rate was 58 and 208 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted and planted wetland, respectively, after 4 m from the inlet. PCE was almost completely removed in both wetlands with mean inflow load of 49 mg m(-2) d(-1). However, toxic metabolites cis-1,2-DCE (dichloroethene) and VC (vinyl chloride) accumulated in the unplanted wetland; up to 70% and 25% of PCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-DCE and VC after 4 m from the inlet, respectively. Because of high sulphate concentration (around 850 mg L(-1)) in the groundwater, the plant derived organic carbon caused sulphide formation (up to 15 mg L(-1)) in the planted wetland, which impaired the MCB removal but not statistically significant. The results showed significant enhancement of vegetation on the removal of the low chlorinated hydrocarbon MCB, which is probably due to the fact that aerobic MCB degraders are benefited from the oxygen released by plant roots. Vegetation also stimulated completely dechlorination of PCE due to plant derived organic carbon, which is potentially to provide electron donor for dechlorination process. The plant derived organic carbon also stimulated dissimilatory sulphate reduction, which subsequently have negative effect on MCB removal. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. PMID:28546498

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion.

  15. Evaluation of the quasi correlated tight-binding (QCTB) model for describing polyradical character in polycyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzanov, Anatoliy V.; Plasser, Felix; Das, Anita; Lischka, Hans

    2017-02-01

    We present a verification and significant algorithmic improvement of the quasi-correlation tight-binding (QCTB) scheme (a Hückel-Hubbard-type model mimicking electron correlation) for describing effectively unpaired electrons in the spirit of Head-Gordon's approach [M. Head-Gordon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 488 (2003)]. For comparison purposes, results based on the high-level ab initio multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster method previously computed in our works are invoked. In doing so, typical polyaromatic hydrocarbons (polyacenes, periacenes, zethrenes, and the Clar goblet) are studied. The evaluation shows that the QCTB Hückel-like scheme extended for electron correlation effects provides a qualitatively and in several cases also quantitatively good picture of the unpairing electrons in formally closed-shell electronic systems. Additionally, fairly large nanographene systems of triangulene structure (C426) and a perforated nanoribbon (C8860) have been treated at QCTB level. Two analytical model problems in the framework of QCTB prove the ability of this approximation to give a correct description of natural orbital occupancy spectra. For the studied QCTB scheme, an efficient algorithm is elaborated, and large-scale calculations of radical characteristics for nanographene networks with thousands of carbon atoms are possible.

  16. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R

    2009-11-01

    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  17. Understanding the Impacts of Land Uses on the Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Contamination By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons throughout a Small State in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants that enter the environment through combustion processes and are often found in higher concentration of urban areas. However, once released, these compounds can travel long distances via transport through the atmosphere and can be deposited on the landscape far away from their original source. This PAH deposition pattern can slowly lead to the diffuse contamination of whole landscapes. Since most of the air masses entering the northeastern United States originate from the Midwest where coal burning power plants are plentiful, several atmospheric pollutants are introduced to the region in addition to local sources. Here, atmospheric deposition of PAHs in six different locations throughout Rhode Island was measured using passive bulk-deposition samplers for 3 years. The data were analyzed statistically by principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify the source of contamination and respective apportionment. The data clearly show that an urban-to- rural gradient exists where deposition rates are significantly higher in urban areas (up to 12325 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) compared to rural areas (as low as 11 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) and also follow seasonal trends that show higher deposition rates in the fall and winter compared to the summer and spring time. Further, based on PAH source apportionment ratios, contamination origins differ spatially. For example, fossil fuel, coal, and vehicle combustion is present in all samples; however fossil fuel combustion is dominant in urban samples. In Rural areas biomass combustion is much more prevalent and is not as greatly represented in urban or suburban areas. Therefore, even in a small state such as Rhode Island airborne PAH contamination can be fingerprinted readily for different sampling areas, indicating that distant emission sources have a widespread impact on regional air quality.

  18. The utility of solid-phase microextraction in evaluating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioavailability during habitat restoration with dredged material at moderately contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Amanda A; Johnson, Nathan W

    2017-10-17

    The over- or underprediction of risk in moderately contaminated sediments can have a large impact on the nature of applied management strategies given that concentrations border on being toxic or not toxic. Project managers should give significant consideration as to how moderate levels of contaminants in native sediments and dredged material used for restoration will impact recovery of habitat. Total solid-phase (Ctotal ) and porewater (Cfree ) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in native sediments and dredged material to determine if the predictions of risk from Ctotal are consistent with those based on Cfree . The sediment matrix phase in which PAHs were quantified resulted in disparate conclusions regarding the predicted reduction in contamination following restoration. Total solid-phase PAH concentrations suggested a significant decrease following restoration, whereas little to no change was observed in measured Cfree . Risk metrics based on Ctotal gave inconclusive estimates for toxicity, whereas measured Cfree suggested toxicity is unlikely, a conclusion consistent with toxicity testing. The incorporation of black carbon (BC) into model estimates for Cfree gave predictions more consistent with measured Cfree , suggesting that geochemical conditions (especially BC) play an important part in predicting toxicity at moderately contaminated sites. In addition to the use of Cfree in toxicity evaluation, in-situ Cfree measurements provided a constraint on diffusive PAH loads from sediment relative to ongoing stream loads. If passive sampling had been employed during the sampling designs and site evaluations, the costs of toxicity testing would not have been incurred, given that Cfree suggested little to no toxicity. The results from the project highlight the benefits to be gained by moving beyond inconclusive, screening-level Ctotal metrics and implementing more sensitive and accurate Cfree metrics in assessments of risk in moderately

  19. Campylobacter contamination in broiler carcasses and correlation with slaughterhouses operational hygiene inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Dierick, Katelijne; Van Huffel, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates factors associated with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses, using survey data collected from nine Belgian slaughterhouses in 2008 in accordance with a European Union baseline study. Campylobacter were detected in 51.9% (202/389) (95% confidence interval, 46.8%-56.9%) of broiler carcasses. Campylobacter concentration was slaughterhouses in prevalence and concentrations of Campylobacter in their sampled carcasses. Campylobacter prevalence (but not concentrations) was positively associated with increase in broilers age. Both Campylobacter prevalence and concentration were significantly higher in carcasses sampled during June and September (but not in July and August) than carcasses sampled in January. We also investigated the correlation (Spearman's rank correlation test) between the scores of official control inspections and Campylobacter prevalence for eight out of the nine slaughterhouses. The control inspections were routinely performed by the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, and the concluded inspection scores were used as a general numerical indicator for the status of operational hygiene and quality of management in the slaughterhouses. Ranking of slaughterhouses based on their inspection scores was statistically correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.857) with their ranking based on prevalence of Campylobacter. In the present study we demonstrate how the outcomes from a routine baseline survey could be coupled with other readily available data from national control authorities in order to enable a better insight over Campylobacter contamination status in broiler slaughterhouses. Findings from this work call for subsequent in-depth investigations on technical and hygiene management factors that could impact Campylobacter contamination across broiler slaughterhouses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  1. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  2. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by higher concentration of PHE treatments, while polyphenol oxidase activities were prohibited more than 10 % in non-rhizophere sediment. Compared with the control, PHE treatments had also significantly (P < 0.05) lower total microbial biomass; especially for gram-negative bacteria, this decrease was more than 24 %. However, the PYR treatments had little effect on the dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) biomass. The greatest abundance of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  3. Apheresis technology correlates with bacterial contamination of platelets and reported septic transfusion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anne F; Dy, Beth A; DeMerse, Barbara; Wagner, Stephen J; Stramer, Susan L; O'Neill, E Mary; Herron, Ross M

    2017-12-01

    Apheresis technology to collect platelet (PLT) components differs among devices. We evaluated the relationship of the plateletpheresis device with bacterial contamination and reported septic transfusion reactions. Plateletpheresis was performed using Amicus (Fenwal, a Fresenius Kabi Company) or Trima (Trima Accel, TerumoBCT) from 2010 to 2014. All donations used inlet-line sample diversion and were tested by quality control (QC; Day 1) aerobic culture. Rates of bacterial contamination and septic reactions to PLTs were calculated for both devices. During the 5-year study period, plateletpheresis collections using Amicus and Trima devices totaled 1,486,888 and 671,955 donations, respectively. The rate of confirmed-positive bacterial cultures of apheresis PLT donations was significantly higher with Amicus than with Trima (252 vs. 112 per 106 donations [odds ratio {OR}, 2.3; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.8-2.9]). Septic transfusion reactions were caused by 30 apheresis PLT units from 25 contaminated Amicus procedures and three apheresis PLT units from three contaminated Trima procedures. The overall rate of septic reactions was significantly higher with apheresis PLT components collected with Amicus than with Trima (16.8 vs. 4.5 per 106 donations [OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-12.5]). All apheresis PLT components implicated in septic transfusion reactions had negative QC culture results incubated through Day 5 (i.e., false negatives). Apheresis technology affects bacterial contamination of plateletpheresis collections. The device-specific, higher rate of confirmed-positive bacterial culture results also correlated with a significantly higher rate of reported septic transfusion reactions to apheresis PLTs. © 2017 AABB.

  4. The impact of petroleum hydrocarbon and brine contaminants to macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting lotic systems at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In May 1995, an initial contaminants survey of Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge was completed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The results of that study...

  5. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Enterobacter cloacae Strain S1:CND1, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2016-05-12

    We report here the 4.57-Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Enterobacter cloacae strain S1:CND1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. S1:CND1 contains 4,205 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 57.45%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an E. cloacae adapted to an oil-contaminated environment. Copyright © 2016 Mukherjee et al.

  7. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a mixed culture and its component pure cultures, obtained from PAH-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzesicka-Mlynarz, D.; Ward, O. P.

    1995-06-01

    A mixed culture, isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) grew on and degraded fluoranthene in aqueous media supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and peptone. A pure culture of Pseudomona sp. strain HL7b which was known to degrade fluoranthene was incorporated into initial experiments for comparative purposes. Increased complex nitrogen levels in the aqueous media promoted bacteria growth, and fluoranthene degradation, while high glucose levels diminished fluoranthene degradation. The mixed culture containing 4 Gram-negative rods biodegraded the PAH mixture better than the pure culture. Pure cultures exhibited a good capacity for removal of more water-soluble PAHs, but a lesser capacity for low water-soluble PAHs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 26 refs.

  8. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase...... of the accessible fraction to 49 ± 2%, whereby primarily the accessibility of higher molecular weight PAHs (log Kow > 6) was affected. Competitive binding was verified using the same soil with only desorption-resistant PAHs present. In this experiment, passive dosing of toluene resulted in desorption of 13 ± 0...

  9. Effects of mixing low amounts of orange peel (Citrus reticulata) with hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in solid culture to promote remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Martín, A; Esparza-García, F; Calva-Calva, G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2006-01-01

    The effect of mixing low amounts of orange peel (Citrus reticulata) with a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons (58,000 mg kg(-1) soil) for promoting the soil remediation in solid culture was studied. The experimental design was established in solid culture at soil/orange (Citrus reticulata) peel ratios of 100:0, 98:2, 96:4, 94:6 and 92:8, at 30% humidity and a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, for 15, 60 and 90 days, respectively. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased significantly (69%) after 15 days in the treatment with a soil to orange peel ratio of 92:8. Furthermore, in this treatment bacterial counts increased from 17 to 20 ln CFU (2.6 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8)), while the fungal count was 11 ln CFU (6.5 x 10(4)) at initial and final time of treatment. An increase in microbial respiration activity and TPH removal (69%) was observed at other soil/orange peel ratios after 60 days when moisture content and nutrients were adjusted; however, N and P were not consumed at a great extent.

  10. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available 32, 2317?2324. Huang, X.D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced toxicity ofPAHs to the f region of Brassica napus (canola) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in simulated solar radiation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety....F., Dixon, G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced eVTects ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 33, 73?80. Siciliano, S.D., Germida, J.J., 1999...

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T.; Mills, Graham A.; Olayinka, Kehinde O.; Alo, Babajide I.

    2014-01-01

    Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 μg/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 μg/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MD...

  13. Decadal trends in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in The Netherlands : Declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A. Dick; Baggelaar, Paul K.; van Lieverloo, J. Hein M; Ariese, Freek

    2016-01-01

    Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, were analyzed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the

  14. Fecal contamination of drinking water supplies in and around Chandigarh and correlation with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Taneja; Malkit, Singh; Pooja, Rao; Manisha, Biswal; Shiva, Priya; Ram, Chander; Meera, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Acute gastroenteritis due to Vibrio cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli is a common problem faced in the hot and humid summer months in north India. The study was undertaken to evaluate drinking water supplies for fecal coliforms, V. cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli in urban, semiurban and rural areas in and around Chandigarh and correlate with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis occurring from the same region. Drinking water sample were collected from various sources from April to October 2004 from a defined area. Samples were tested for fecal coliforms and E. coli count. E. coli were screened for heat labile toxin (LT) also. Stool samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis from the same region and time were collected and processed for V. cholerae, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and others like Salmonella, Shigella and Aeromonas spp. A total of 364 water samples were collected, (251 semi urban, 41 rural and 72 from urban areas). 116 (31.8%) samples were contaminated with fecal coliforms (58.5% rural, 33.4% semiurban and 11.1% of samples from urban areas). E. coli were grown from 58 samples. Ninety two isolates of E. coli were tested for enterotoxins of which 8 and 24 were positive for LT and ST respectively. V. cholerae were isolated from 2 samples during the outbreak investigation. Stored water samples showed a significantly higher level of contamination and most of Enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from stored water samples. A total of 780 acute gastroenteritis cases occurred; 445 from semiurban, 265 rural and 70 from urban areas. Out of 189 stool samples submitted, ETEC were the commonest (30%) followed by V. cholerae (19%), Shigellae (8.4%), Salmonellae (2.1%) and Aeromonas (2.6%). ST-ETEC (40/57) were commoner than LT-ETEC (17/57). In the present study, high levels of contamination of drinking water supplies (32.1%) correlated well with cases of acute gastroenteritis. Majority of cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in the semi urban

  15. Correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and airborne particle mutagenicity in the rubber factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, B; Palus, J; Rogaczewska, T; Szymczak, W; Spiechowicz, E

    1992-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between benzo[a]pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations and mutagenic activity of airborne particles sampled at different workplaces of the factory producing various types of tires. The solid phase of aerosols was collected on Whatman glass-fibers filters using Staplex pumps. Coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs) were extracted from sample filters using ultrasonic-benzene extraction and determined by the gravimetric method. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography with a spectrofluorimetric detector. The mutagenic substances were extracted from collected material with acetone. The mutagenic properties were estimated with the Ames' test using S. typhimurium strain TA98 without and with S9 fraction. At nearly all workplaces the concentrations of BaP and CTPVs were within the range of 4-61 ng/m3 and 0.11-1.26 mg/m3, respectively. Only at weighing were they much higher and amounted to 172-2261 ng/m3 for BaP and 3.05-4.07 mg/m3 for CTPVs. The highest exposure to mutagenic airborne particulate matter was found at weighing (1500 rev/m3), the mixers loading level (> 500 rev/m3) and the carbon black station (> 150 rev/m3). The air mutagenic activity at other workplaces, especially at the extruder mill of the mixer (> 90 rev/m3), the two-roll mill of mixers (> 70 rev/m3), mixer I loading (> 70 rev/m3), calendering (> 70 rev/m3) and fender vulcanizing (> 80 rev/m3) was even much more higher than that found in the urban indoor and outdoor air (2-9 rev/m3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Detecting anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation signature metabolites in a 2-year laboratory study of petroleum-contaminated groundwater and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semple, K.M.; Foght, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Fan, X.; Guigard, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Biggar, K. [BGC Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A signature metabolite analysis method was used to demonstrate levels of anaerobic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in polluted groundwater systems. The signature metabolite analysis was then coupled with an analysis of residual petroleum hydrocarbons and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) in order to estimate the range of anaerobic biodegradation processes. Soil and groundwater samples were collected from a site at a natural gas condensate facility in Alberta. Average groundwater temperatures at the site ranged between 5 and 10 degrees C. Mesocosms were then prepared and amended with sulfate or nitrate TEAs, and ammonia and phosphate. The mesocosm were then incubated for a 2-year period at 15 degrees C. Samples of the groundwater-sediment slurry were then analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results of the analysis demonstrated that molecular ions of different classes of signature metabolites were present. It was concluded that metabolite analysis can be used to verify and predict in situ anaerobic biodegradation potential. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A

  18. A STUDY OF DISSOLUTION RATE-LIMITED BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY RESIDUAL HYDROCARBONS. (R825549C039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread release of organic chemicals in the environment frequently leads to ground-water contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) because many of these organic chemicals are barely soluble in water. Understanding the mechanisms of transport and biotic transf...

  19. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  20. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  1. Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallisch, Stefanie; Gril, Tjasa; Dong, Xia; Welzl, Gerd; Bruns, Christian; Heath, Ester; Engel, Marion; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    might be a useful agent to stimulate bioremediation of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

  2. Rehabilitation of Seven (7) Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites in a Brackish Water/Lagoon Environment in South Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Avryl; Ramnath, Kelvin; Dyal, Shyam; Lalla, Francesca; Roopchand, Jaipersad

    2007-12-01

    The Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited operates in a wide diversity of tropical habitats in South Trinidad one of which is a brackish water environment known as the Godineau Swamp. Historically this field was operated by predecessor multinational companies, who at that time employed operational practices based on the absence of legal requirements, that were not environmentally considerate. Following a detailed environmental audit of the field (also known as the Oropouche Field), seven (7) contaminated sites were found, that presented a risk to the lagoon and its associated mangrove swamp ecology. Remediation of the seven (7) sites was done in two (2) phases; phase 1 being sampling and characterization of the waste inclusive of migration and phase 2 the actual on-site soil remediation. Phase 1 conducted during the period December 2004 to February 2005, indicated a total of 19,484 m3 of contaminated material with TPH being the main contaminant. The average concentration of TPH was 3.25%. Phase 2 remediation was initiated in October 2005 and involved the following three (3) aspects to achieve a TPH concentration of less than 1%: ▪ Preparation of waste remediation sites adjacent to contaminated sites and excavation and spreading onto cells ▪ Bioremediation onsite using naturally occurring bacteria and rototilling ▪ Rehabilitation and closure of the site following accepted lab results. The benefits of conducting this project in the petroleum industry are to ensure compliance to the national Sensitive Areas Rules and Draft Waste Management Rules, conformance to ISO 14001 Certification requirements and conservation of biodiversity in the mangrove swamp.

  3. Visual evaluation of cattle cleanliness and correlation to carcass microbial contamination during slaughtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, Andrea; Bardasi, Lia; Riu, Raffaela; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Liuzzo, Gaetano; Galletti, Giorgio; Giacometti, Federica; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether the visual cleanliness of cattle slaughtered was correlated to hide and carcass contamination as indicated by aerobic colony count (ACC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) and Escherichia coli count (ECC). Cattle in a slaughterhouse were visually inspected and assigned to a category from 1 (very clean) to 5 (very dirty) based on cleanliness. Fifteen animals for each category were randomly selected, hide and carcass sampled and analyzed for ACC, EC and ECC. Results showed that increasing dirt on cattle was associated with higher ACC, EC and ECC on hide and carcasses. Carcass ACC and ECC belonging to animals classified in cleanliness categories 3, 4 or 5 have a higher probability of exceeding the limits set by the Reg. EU 2073/2005. The study supports the conclusion that the pre-slaughter visual evaluation of animal cleanliness and application of corrective actions can be an effective aid to reduce carcass contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  5. Field note: successful establishment of a phytoremediation system at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer: trends, trials, and tribulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel L; Landmeyer, James E; Atkinson, Brad; Messier, Jean-Pierre; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2010-09-01

    We report the establishment of a mixed hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) phytoremediation system at a fuel-contaminated site. Several approaches were used to balance competing goals of cost-effectiveness yet successful tree establishment without artificial irrigation or trenching. Bare root and unrooted cuttings were installed using either: (1) 1.2 m deep holes excavated with an 8 cm diameter auger using a direct-push rig and backfilled with the excavated, in situ soil; (2) 1.2 m deep holes created with a 23 cm diameter auger attached to a Bobcat rig and backfilled with clean topsoil from offsite; and (3) shallow holes between 15-30 cm deep that were created with a 1.3 cm diameter rod and no backfill. Tree mortality from initial plantings indicated contaminated zones not quantified in prior site investigations and remedial actions. Aquifer heterogeneity, underground utilities, and prior remediation infrastructure hampered the ability of the site to support a traditional experimental design. Total stem length and mortality were measured for all planted trees and were incorporated into a geographic information system. Planting early in the growing season, augering a larger diameter hole, and backfilling with clean, uncontaminated topsoil was cost effective and allowed for greater tree cutting growth and survival.

  6. Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Raeid M M; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was 90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53-100% of C12-C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats' microbial communities and that these mats contribute directly to the removal of hydrocarbons from oil field wastewaters.

  7. Monitoring the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a co-contaminated soil using stable isotope labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawra, Anna; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Watzinger, Andrea; Soja, Gerhard; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Conventional remediation techniques like "dig and dump" are costly and limited in scale. Plant- and microbe-based alternatives, e.g. phytoremediation options, offer a cheap and environmentally friendly approach that can be applied on larger areas. However, the application of phytoremediation techniques to co-contaminated sites may be hindered due to a potential inhibition of biodegradation processes by the presence of heavy metals in soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the degradation of organic pollutants can be enhanced by immobilising potentially toxic heavy metals. This study aims to identify the influence of heavy metal immobilisation on the degradation of organic pollutants, and to determine chemical, physical and biological measures further accelerating these processes. The influence of heavy metals on organic pollutant degradation dynamics is assessed using 13C-phospholipid fatty acid analysis (13C-PLFA). Application of 13C-labeled phenanthrene allows the identification of microbial groups responsible for the degradation process. For metal immobilisation and enhanced biodegradation, distinct mineral and organic soil amendments (iron oxides, gravel sludge, biochar) are deployed, partly in combination with fast-growing and pollution-tolerant woody plants (willow, black locust and alder). Results of an incubation batch experiment show a fast degradation of the phenanthrene label within the first two weeks by various microbial groups (gram negative bacteria as indicated by the cy17:0 peak) resulting in a decrease by up to 80% of the total PAH concentration (Σ 16 EPA PAHs) measured in soil. A similar trend was observed in the greenhouse pot experiment, whereby heavy metal accumulation in the woody plants growing on the co-contaminated soil significantly varied with plant species (willow > black locust, alder).

  8. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in historically contaminated soils after lab incubation with sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of application of sewage sludge-derived biochars for the immobilisation of freely dissolved (Cfree) and bioaccessible (Cbioacc) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Soil SL-COK collected from the area of a coking plant and soil SL-BIT collected from the area of a plant producing bituminous materials were chosen for the study. The biochars were produced from sewage sludge at temperatures of 500 °C (BC500) or 700 °C (BC700). The biochars were mixed with the soil at the dose of 5% and incubated for a period of 60 d. The content of PAHs was determined with the use of polyoxymethylene (POM) (Cfree) or a solution of cyclodextrins and silicon rod elastomer (Cbioacc). Biochars reduced the content of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs in soils. A higher level of reduction was noted for Cfree PAHs than for Cbioacc PAHs. Biochar produced at 700 °C was more effective in the reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs than biochar produced at 500 °C. It was found that in the soil in which the source of contamination were processes related with the production of bituminous materials (SL-BIT), the effect of reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc was greater than in soil SL-COK where the source of PAHs were coking processes. It also needs to be emphasised that soil SL-BIT, for which better reduction of PAHs was noted, was also characterised by a lower affinity towards those compounds than soil SL-COK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between the degree of destructive hydrogenation of the organic matter of lignites from the near-Moscow fields and the structure and quantitative content of particular groups of hydrocarbons in semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Savchenko, V.E.; Pipchenko, I.A. [Tula State Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    1998-02-01

    A correlation between the hydrocarbon composition of semicoking tars of lignites from near-Moscow fields and the degree of destructive hydrogenation of these lignites in the course of semicoking is examined.

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunde, Oluwatoyin T; Mills, Graham A; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2014-01-01

    Soils from 12 sites in Lagos area, Nigeria impacted by anthropogenic activities were extracted by ultrasonication and analysed for the concentration of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The concentration of the sum of PAHs ranged from 0.2 to 254 μg/g at these sites. The sum benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent dose (BaPeq) at the sites ranged from 0.0 (K, forest soil) to 16.7 μg/g (C, the lubricating oil depot soil). Mean daily intake (MDI) for the composite soils samples when compared that of food revealed that some of the individual PAH in samples from sites A (Dump site), C (Depot and loading point for used for black oil), F (Dump site), G(petroleum depot), H (Roadside) and L (Car park) exceeded the recommended the recommended MDI threshold for food, indicating some risk associated with activities on these sites based on this ingestion estimate exceeded value. 8.2 × 10(-6), 7.1 × 10(-7), 1.2 × 10(-4), 4.9 × 10(-7), 7.3 × 10(-7), 1.4 × 10(-5), 7.9 × 10(-5), 4.6 × 10(-6), 3.4 × 10(-7), 2.4 × 10(-7), 2.2 × 10(-7) and 1.1 × 10(-4) estimated theoretical cancer risk (ER) for an adult with a body weight of 70 kg working on sites were composite soil samples A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L respectively were sampled. The ER from occupational exposure to surface soil based on oral ingestion were all higher than the target risk of 1 × 10(-6) for normal exposure but were all within the 1 × 10(-4) for extreme exposure for most of the sites except for site C and L. The differences in concentration and risk were related to the different activities (e.g., handling of petroleum products, open burning, bush burning) undertaken at these locations. However, it should be noted here that the resultant risk could be overestimated, since these calculations were based on an exhaustive extraction technique which may be different from uptake by the human guts (bioavailability study).

  11. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Interaction of biosurfactant-microorganism to enhance phytoremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contaminated soils with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Yin, Rui; Lin, Xian-gui; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiao-min; Li, Xuan-zhen; Yang, Ting

    2010-04-01

    A pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out to investigate the interactive effect of rhamnolipids (RH) addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria (DB) inoculation on the phytoremediation efficiency for removal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from agricultural soils. Results indicated that RH addition and DB inoculation promoted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) growth and PAHs degradation in the soil. After 90 days, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 30.0% and 49.6% for the treatment of RH and DB, respectively, but only 21.7% for control. For the treatment of RH + DB, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 53.9%, showing synergy effect of RH addition and DB inoculation. In addition, the average PAHs degradation gradually reduced with the increase of the PAHs rings, but DB inoculation promoted the degradation of four-ring PAHs and five-ring PAHs. The number of PAHs degrading bacteria and dehydrogenase activity increased with the removal ratio of PAHs. Therefore RH addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria inoculation were effective in enhancing the phytoremediation efficiency of the long-term PAHs contaminated soils.

  13. Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov., able to growth on media supplemented with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, Isabel M; Purswani, Jessica; González-López, Jesús; Pozo, Clementina

    2015-11-26

    A bacterial strain designated as strain SH7T was isolated from the hydrocarbon contaminated soil of a pilot plant (Granada, Spain). The strain was selected for its capacity to growth in media supplemented with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as sole energy and carbon source. Strain SH7T was a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SH7T belongs to a cluster comprising species of the genus Paenibacillus and was closely related to Paenibacillus borealis DSM 13188T (97%) and Paenibacillus odorifer DSM 15391T (98%). DNA-DNA hybridization tests showed low relatedness of the strain SH7T with Paenibacillus borealis (16.9±1.5%) and Paenibacillus odorifer (16.6±2.1%) respectively. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7, anteiso-C15:0 (32.9%) and C16:0 (29.0%) were the predominant cellular fatty acids. Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and three unknown aminophospholipids were the major phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 44.3 mol%. The data obtained in this study indicate that the SH7Tstrain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SH7T (= CECT 8558T =DSM 29760T).

  14. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.E. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Henrysson, T. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a, h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this study show that, in a heterogeneous soil environment, the fungi have different abilities to degrade PAH, with Trametes showing little or no accumulation of dead-end metabolites and Phanerochaete and Pleurotus showing almost complete conversion of anthracene to 9,10-anthracenedione. In contrast to earlier studies, Phanerochaete showed the ability to degrade the accumulated 9,10-anthracenedione while Pleurotus did not. This proves that, in a heterogeneous soil system, the PAH degradation pattern for white-rot fungi can be quite different from that in a controlled liquid system. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  16. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Binupriya, Arthur [Research and Development Division, Regent Ecotech Private Limited, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Baik, Sang-Ho [Radiation Application Research Division, ARTI, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea); Yun, Sei-Eok [Department of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Research Institute of Bioindustry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of a crude oil. Among 57 oil-degrading bacterial cultures isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples, Bacillus sp. IOS1-7, Corynebacterium sp. BPS2-6, Pseudomonas sp. HPS2-5, and Pseudomonas sp. BPS1-8 were selected for the study based on the efficiency of crude oil utilization. Along with the selected individual strains, a mixed bacterial consortium prepared using the above strains was also used for degradation studies. The mixed bacterial consortium showed more growth and degradation than did individual strains. At 1% crude oil concentration, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 77% of the crude oil. This was followed by 69% by Pseudomonas sp. BPS1-8, 64% by Bacillus sp. IOS1-7, 45% by Pseudomonas sp. HPS2-5, and 41% by Corynebacterium sp. BPS2-6. The percentage of degradation by the mixed bacterial consortium decreased from 77 to 45% as the concentration of crude oil was increased from 1 to 12%. Temperature of 35 C and pH 7 were found to be optimum for maximum degradation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori

    OpenAIRE

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from...

  19. Contaminação de aqüífero por hidrocarbonetos: estudo de caso na Vila Tupi, Porto Velho - Rondônia Hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater: the case of Tupi Village, Porto Velho-RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcimar Juarez Forte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground storage tanks (UST are widely used in the Porto Velho area. A large number of these USTs are in bad condition due to corrosion processes causing groundwater contamination. A large number of these leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFT are in urban areas but due to the lack of water quality monitoring, they are only detected when there is a high contamination level. This study identified petroleum hydrocarbons, derived from a LUFT, by a silica gel/petroleum ether partitioning gravimetric method and by gas chromatographic analysis of samples collected in wells dug in a gas station and in houses in the aforementioned neighborhood.

  20. Determination of saturated-hydrocarbon contamination in baby foods by using on-line liquid-gas chromatography and off-line liquid chromatography-comprehensive gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Purcaro, Giorgia; Franchina, Flavio Antonio; Sciarrone, Danilo; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco; Tranchida, Peter Quinto

    2012-10-12

    The present contribution describes an investigation directed towards the use of a rapid heart-cutting multidimensional LC-GC-FID method for the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), contained in different types of homogenized solid baby food (fish, meat and fruit products). The fish and meat products all contained vegetable oil (sunflower), potentially an important source of mineral-oil contamination. Sixteen commercial baby food samples were subjected to analysis, with various degrees of MOSH contamination (from 0.3mg/kg to circa 14 mg/kg) found. Hence, MOSH contamination was found not only in the meat and fish products, but also in the fruit ones. A fruit-based baby food was lab-made, using the ingredients reported on the commercial product, and was found to be contaminated. The single ingredients were then subjected to LC-GC analysis, with corn starch and sugar found to be the source of contamination. For confirmation of the analytical findings, three of the sixteen samples were analyzed in two separate laboratories, using two distinct LC-GC methods, based on different interfaces. The results were confirmed, in qualitative terms, by collecting the LC fractions, relative to some of the food samples, and subjecting them to comprehensive two-dimensional GC-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, mass spectral data were attained for the saturated hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOESTIMULACIÓN (NUTRIENTES EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON HIDROCARBUROS UTILIZANDO RESPIROMETRÍA Evaluation of Biostimulation (Nutrients in Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soils by Respirometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIKA GARCÍA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de bioestimulación por nutrientes utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos compuestos (FIC N:P:K 28:12:7 y sales inorgánicas simples (SIS NH4NO3 y K2HPO4 en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos utilizando respirometría. El suelo fue contaminado con lodos aceitosos a una concentración 40.000 mgTPH/kgps. Para cuantificar el consumo de oxígeno se utilizaron dos respirómetros de medición manométrica HACH® 2173b y OXITOP® PF600 durante ensayos de 13 días (n=3. Se evaluaron dos tratamientos (FIC y SIS y tres controles (abiótico, sustrato de referencia y sin nutrientes. Se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos (pH, nutrientes y TPH y microbiológicos (heterótrofos y degradadores al inicio y al final de cada ensayo. SIS y el control sin nutrientes presentaron las mayores tasas de respiración, en el equipo HACH se obtuvieron valores de 802,28 y 850,72 mgO2kgps-1d-1 respectivamente, y en OXITOP fueron de 936,65 y 502,05 mgO2kgps-1d-1, respectivamente, indicando que los nutrientes de SIS estimularon el metabolismo microbiano. Por otro lado, FIC presentó los recuentos y tasas de respiración más bajas (188,18 y 139,87 mgO2kgps-1d-1 en HACH y OXITOP, respectivamente, esto pudo estar relacionado a un efecto inhibitorio generado por la acumulación de amoniaco, limitando el crecimiento de la población degradadora.The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF (N:P:K 28:12:7 and simple inorganic salts (SIS (NH4NO3 and K2HPO4. The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40,000 mgTPH/kgdw. The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH® 2173b and OXITOP® PF600 during thirteen days (n=3. Two treatments (ICF and SIS and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and

  2. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control Contaminação microbiana de combustíveis hidrocarbonados e o seu controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Gaylarde

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.O problema microbiano maior na indústria de refino de petróleo é a contaminação de produtos armazenados, que pode levar à perda da qualidade, à formação de borra e à deterioração de tubulações e tanques de estocagem, na refinaria e no usuário. São abordadas, neste artigo, três classes de combustível, gasolina, querosene de aviação e óleo diesel, correspondente à ordem crescente de peso no fracionamento de petróleo. O óleo diesel apresenta os problemas microbiológicos mais sérios. São relatados os diversos microrganismos isolados de sistemas de combustíveis hidrocarbonados. São apresentadas as condições necessárias para crescimento microbiano e os métodos utilizados para o monitoramento e controle desse crescimento. Os efeitos de diversos aditivos, inclusive biocidas, são discutidos

  3. Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Air-Contamination Effects on Extinction Limits of Non-Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames for a HIFiRE Scramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Dawson, Lucy C.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2009-01-01

    Unique nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen air-contamination effects on the extinction Flame Strength (FS) of non-premixed hydrocarbon (HC) vs. air flames are characterized for 7 gaseous HCs, using a new idealized 9.3 mm straight-tube Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) at 1 atm. FS represents a laminar strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, Uair, that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. Besides ethane, propane, butane, and propylene, the HCs include ethylene, methane, and a 64 mole-% ethylene / 36 % methane mixture, the writer s previously recommended gaseous surrogate fuel for HIFiRE scramjet tests. The HC vs. clean air part of the work is an extension of a May 2008 JANNAF paper that characterized surrogates for the HIFiRE project that should mimic the flameholding of reformed (thermally- or catalytically-cracked) endothermic JP-like fuels. The new FS data for 7 HCs vs. clean air are thus consolidated with the previously validated data, normalized to absolute (local) axial-input strain rates, and co-plotted on a dual kinetically dominated reactivity scale. Excellent agreement with the prior data is obtained for all 7 fuels. Detailed comparisons are also made with recently published (Univ. Va) numerical results for ethylene extinction. A 2009-revised ethylene kinetic model (Univ. Southern Cal) led to predicted limits within approx. 5 % (compared to 45 %, earlier) of this writer s 2008 (and present) ethylene FSs, and also with recent independent data (Univ. Va) obtained on a new OJB system. These +/- 5 % agreements, and a hoped-for "near-identically-performing" reduced kinetics model, would greatly enhance the capability for accurate numerical simulations of surrogate HC flameholding in scramjets. The measured air-contamination effects on normalized FS extinction limits are projected to assess ongoing Arc-Heater-induced "facility test effects" of NO production (e.g., 3 mole-%) and resultant oxygen

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their metabolites in blood, feces, and urine of rats orally exposed to PAH contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, F J; Moonen, E J; van der Wal, L; Levels, P; Kleinjans, J C

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have become an ubiquitous upper soil component as a consequence of industrialization involving a multitude of combustion processes. Ingestion of PAH contaminated soil is considered to be a major exposure route, specifically for small children living on these soils. Health risk assessment is based on extrapolations from data obtained via studies performed with pure chemicals. Additionally it is assumed that after oral intake all PAH present in the soil will be absorbed by the human body. Interactions with the soil matrix, however, may modulate the bioavailability of PAH. In this study, we examined the absorption and excretion of PAH in rats orally exposed either to industrially contaminated soils or pure model compounds as anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). The model compounds and the metabolites, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene) and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), were measured in blood, feces or urine by means of HPLC with fluorescence detection. Because of rapid biotransformation only minimal levels of unmetabolized anthracene, pyrene and B[a]P in blood could be detected. The pharmacokinetic parameters were nonlinear and suggestive of enterohepatic cycling. Only low levels of the compounds were excreted unchanged in feces whereas the levels of the metabolites were considerably higher in feces and urine. These results indicate that the dosed PAH are largely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, subsequently metabolized and excreted as metabolites via urine and feces. Significant differences between the soil-treated group and the pure mixture-treated group could be observed; the soil-treated group showed higher fecal excretion of unchanged pyrene (0.5 versus 0.2% of the original dose) and B[a]P (1 versus 0.3%), lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in feces (5.1 versus 17. 0%), and lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in urine (0.2 versus 3.4%). The fecal excretion of 3-OH-B[a]P between the two groups was similar (8

  5. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Zeng, Fangang [School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Xue, Nandong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: ligulax@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (< 2 {mu}m clay, 2-20 {mu}m silt, 20-200 {mu}m fine sand, and > 200 {mu}m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 {mu}g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 {mu}g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil organic

  6. Biological treatment with mass balance analysis for two types of groundwaters contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and tetrachloroethylene; Sekiyukei tanka suiso oyobi tetrachloroethylene osen chikasui no seibutsu shori ni okeru busshitsu shushi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, K. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Kuraishi, J.; Tsuchiya, Y. [Nishihara Environmental Sanitation Research Corp., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A depollution experiment with microbial decomposition was carried out on simulated groundwaters contaminated by a jet fuel (JP-4) composed of petroleum hydrocarbons as the main constituent and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). An aerobic batch reactor (SBR) was used for a purification experiment on the JP-4 contaminated groundwater. An anaerobic batch reactor (AnSBR) connected with the SBR in series was used for a purification experiment on the PCE contaminated groundwater. For microbe sources, the Formulation L-104 and sludge in a sludge digestion tank were used. The following conclusions were obtained as the result of the experiment: 98-99% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons existing in the simulated JP-4 contaminated water is decomposed by the biological treatment, and 0.06-1.3% thereof is discharged in the treated water; and in the depollution experiment on the PCE using the AnSBR reactor connected with the SBR in series, a PCE removal rate of 99.2% was obtained in a PEC load with 35.1{mu}mol per cycle in average. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Correlation of Trace Contaminants to Wastewater Management Practices in Small Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten low-order streams draining headwatersheds were evaluated over one year for the presence of ten organic contaminants including steroidal hormones, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban, and the artificial sweetener sucralose. The wastew...

  8. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  9. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution of marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Nicole M.; Hess, Matthias; Bouskill, Nick J.; Mason, Olivia U.; Jansson, Janet K.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-03-25

    During hydrocarbon exposure, the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential within the surface layer of marine sediments causing anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems

  10. Correlation Among Soil Enzyme Activities, Root Enzyme Activities, and Contaminant Removal in Two-Stage In Situ Constructed Wetlands Purifying Domestic Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Xu, Jiajun; Chu, Xianglin; Li, Shiyin; Wang, Peifang; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage in situ wetlands (two vertical flow constructed wetlands in parallel and a horizontal flow constructed wetland) were constructed for studying domestic wastewater purification and the correlations between contaminant removal and plant and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated the removal efficiency of NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) were significantly correlated with both urease and protease activity, and the removal of total phosphorus was significantly correlated with phosphatase activity. Chemical oxygen demand removal was not correlated with enzyme activity in constructed wetlands. Plant root enzyme (urease, phosphatase, protease and cellulose) activity correlation was apparent with all contaminant removal in the two vertical flow constructed wetlands. However, the correlation between the plant root enzyme activity and contaminant removal was poor in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. Results indicated that plant roots clearly played a role in the removal of contaminants.

  11. Accidental contamination during hydrocarbon exploitation and the rapid transfer of heavy-mineral fines through an overlying highly karstified aquifer (Paradiso Spring, SE Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Rosario; Forti, Paolo; Antoci, Maria Lucia; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    The area around Ragusa in Sicily is well known for the exploration of petroleum deposits hosted in Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These reservoirs are overlain by less permeable rocks, whereas the surface geology is characterized by outcrops of Oligo-Miocene carbonate units hosting important aquifers. Some of the karst springs of the area are used as drinking water supplies, and therefore these vulnerable aquifers should be monitored and protected adequately. In the early afternoon (14:00) of 27 May until the late evening (19:30) of 28 May 2011, during the construction of an exploitation borehole (Tresauro 2), more than 1000 m3 of drilling fluids were lost in an unknown karst void. Two days later, from 06:30 on 30 May, water flowing from Paradiso Spring, lying some 13.7 km SW of the borehole and 378 m lower, normally used as a domestic water supply, was so intensely coloured that it was unfit for drinking. Bulk chemical analyses carried out on the water have shown a composition that is very similar to that of the drilling fluids lost at the Tresauro borehole, confirming a hydrological connection. Estimations indicate that the first signs of the drilling fluids took about 59 h to flow from their injection point to the spring, corresponding to a mean velocity of ∼230 m/h. That Paradiso Spring is recharged by a well-developed underground drainage system is also confirmed by the marked flow rate changes measured at the spring, ranging from a base flow of around 10-15 l/s to flood peaks of 2-3 m3/s. Reflecting the source and nature of the initial contamination, the pollution lasted for just a few days, and the water returned to acceptable drinking-water standards relatively quickly. However, pollution related to heavy-mineral fines continues to be registered during flooding of the spring, when the aqueducts are normally shut down because of the high turbidity values. This pollution event offers an instructive example of how hydrocarbon exploitation in intensely karstified

  12. Biorremediação de solos contaminados com hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs são compostos mutagênicos e carcinogênicos aos humanos e aos animais que são introduzidos no ambiente em grandes quantidades, devido às atividades relacionadas à extração, ao transporte, ao refino, à transformação e à utilização do petróleo e de seus derivados. Apesar disso, a grande maioria dos microrganismos do solo não possui a capacidade de degradá-los, o que resulta na sua acumulação no ambiente e na conseqüente contaminação dos ecossistemas. Uma estratégia para a eliminação dos HAPs do solo é através da biorremediação, na qual os microrganismos que apresentam capacidade de metabolizar estes compostos irão transformá-los em substâncias inertes, CO2 e água. No entanto, esta biotecnologia pode ser limitada pela falta de microrganismos degradadores dos HAPs no solo, pela presença de condições ambientais desfavoráveis a estes microrganismos ou pela baixa biodisponibilidade dos contaminantes à microbiota degradadora. Para superar estas limitações e promover uma eficiente remoção dos contaminantes do ambiente, várias técnicas de biorremediação foram desenvolvidas, como biorremediação passiva, bioaumentação, bioestimulação, fitorremediação, landfarming, compostagem e biorreatores. Esta revisão visa a discutir os metabolismos bacteriano e fúngico destes compostos, os principais fatores químicos e físicos que influenciam a sobrevivência e a atividade destes microrganismos degradadores no ambiente e apresentar as técnicas de biorremediação que estão sendo atualmente utilizadas para a remoção dos HAPs no solo.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds to the humans and animals, released through the environment by anthropogenic activities related to the extraction, transport, refine, transformation and use of the petroleum and its derivatives. Most of the soils microorganisms do not possess the

  13. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The correlation with and impact on reproductive hormones in umbilical cord serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanshan; Tang, Mengling; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Tianle; Liu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of ubiquitous pollutant with the potential ability to cause endocrine disruption that would have an adverse health impact on the general population. To assess the maternal exposure to PAHs in neonates and evaluate the possible impact of PAHs on reproductive hormone levels, the concentration of PAHs and reproductive hormone levels in the umbilical cord serum of 98 mother-infant pairs in the Shengsi Islands were investigated. The median concentration of total PAHs was determined to be 164 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR 93.6-267) ng g-1 lipid, and 68% of the PAHs were lower-molecule congeners. The highest level was found for pyrene (PYR) and naphthalene (NAP), which contributed 54.6% of all the PAHs present in the samples. The exposure to PAHs negatively affected estradiol (E2) and Anti-Mullerian hormones (AMH) and positively affected FSH in the umbilical cord serum. The result expanded the database of the human burden of PAHs and suggested that PAHs can act as a type of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical (EDC). These results may help to understand the complex pathways involved in disorders of human reproductive health associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rock-Eval 6 Applications in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production, and Soil Contamination Studies Les applications de Rock-Eval 6 dans l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures, et dans les études de contamination des sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafargue E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful petroleum exploration relies on detailed analysis of the petroleum system in a given area. Identification of potential source rocks, their maturity and kinetic parameters, and their regional distribution are best accomplished by rapid screening of rock samples (cores and/or cuttings using the Rock-Eval apparatus. The technique has been routinely used for about fifteen years and has become a standard tool for hydrocarbon exploration. This paper describes how the new functions of the latest version of Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 have expanded applications of the method in petroleum geoscience. Examples of new applications are illustrated for source rock characterization, reservoir geochemistry, and environmental studies, including quantification. Le succès d'une exploration pétrolière repose sur l'analyse détaillée du système pétrolier dans une zone donnée. L'identification des roches mères potentielles, la détermination de leur maturité, de leurs paramètres cinétiques et de leur répartition sont réalisées au mieux à partir d'examens rapides d'échantillons de roches (carottes ou déblais au moyen de la pyrolyse Rock-Eval. Cette technique a été utilisée en routine pendant une quinzaine d'années et elle est devenue un outil standard pour l'exploration des hydrocarbures. Cet article décrit comment les nouvelles fonctionnalités de la dernière version de l'appareil Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 ont permis une expansion des applications de la méthode en géosciences pétrolières. Des exemples d'applications nouvelles sont illustrés dans les domaines de la caractérisation des roches mères, de la géochimie de réservoir et des études environnementales incluant la quantification et la description des hydrocarbures dans des sols contaminés.

  16. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-03-15

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  18. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches.

  19. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zesen [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wen, Jingya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Institute of Hydropower and Environment Research, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence ofMicrobacterium foliorumStrain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-05-25

    Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2017 Lumactud et al.

  1. Use of rum and sugar cane bagasse in the removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil; Uso de cachaza y bagazo de cana de azucar en la remocion de hidrocarburos en suelo contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using two different types of agricultural residues, filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith, as amendment and bulking agents. To test these approaches, a microcosms test was applied to soil contaminated with 14 300 mg kg-1 of TPH and 23.14 mg kg-1 of PAH. The soil treatments consisted of the following ratios of soil to residue (%/%): 100:0, 98:2, 98:4 and 98:6, and macronutrient addition was based on a carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (C:N:P, %/ % / %) of 100:10:1. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith treatments, in which the TPH removal efficiency was 60.1% using sugar cane bagasse pith and 51.4% with filter cake mud. A filter cake mud ratio of 96:4 produced the highest observed removal efficiency of PAH (43%), and a sugarcane bagasse pith ratio of 98:2 resulted in a PAH removal efficiency of 41%. Filter cake mud treatment could be an alternative for use in the bioremediation process of soils polluted with hydrocarbons. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de remocion de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos (HAP) y de hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP) de un suelo contaminado con petroleo crudo, utilizando dos tipos de residuos agroindustriales, la cachaza y el bagazo de cana de azucar como enmiendas y texturizante. Para ello, se realizaron pruebas en microcosmos de cultivos solidos para la biorremediacion de un suelo contaminado con 14300 mg kg-1 de HTP y 23.14 mg kg-1 de HAP. Las relaciones suelo: residuo utilizadas en las pruebas fueron las siguientes (%): 100:0, 98:2, 96:4 y 94:6, y la adicion de macronutrimentos con base en la relacion carbono/nitrogeno/fosforo (%%%) de 100:10:1. El analisis estadistico indico que hay diferencias

  2. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  3. Decadal trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in the Netherlands: declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dick Vethaak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure, were analysed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the Netherlands. Dab (Limanda limanda and flounder (Platichthys flesus with partly overlapping distributions were used as target species. In total 1831 bile samples were analysed individually: 417 dab in 1998-2005 and 1438 flounder in 1996-2012. The sampling procedure for flatfish and the PAH metabolites determination by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence (FL detection were based on international guidelines. Measuring the absorbance at 380 nm was tested to correct for possible differences in feeding status, but this turned out not to be a suitable parameter for the standardisation of PAH metabolite concentrations. Both fish species showed statistically significant differences in biliary 1-OHPyr concentrations between various locations. The highest level of PAH contamination was found in flounder from the estuarine Western Scheldt, which might be partly due to local dredging activities. Dab from the central North Sea (Dogger Bank showed the lowest level of PAH contamination. Analysis of all the data indicated mainly downward trends in PAH contamination, most clearly pronounced in the Dutch Wadden Sea. PAH exposure levels in the Dutch coastal waters including the Eastern Scheldt and the Wadden Sea, and also at the offshore North Sea monitoring sites represent levels of response that are not indicative of significant harm. In contrast, PAH contamination in the more industrialised Dutch estuaries (Western Scheldt and Ems Dollard is still a cause for concern. Future monitoring should register the total bile volume, the sex of the fish and the method of fishing to improve the interpretation of the data. In addition, the biliary

  4. Inconsistent correlation between aerobic bacterial surface and air counts in operating rooms with ultra clean laminar air flows: proposal of a new bacteriological standard for surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, B; Friberg, S; Burman, L G

    1999-08-01

    The relationship between surface contamination (cfus/m2/h) with particles carrying aerobic bacteria and corresponding air contamination rates (cfus/m3) was evaluated in operating rooms (OR) equipped with ultra clean vertical or horizontal laminar airflow (LAF). For the evaluation we collected data during strictly standardized sham operations using non-woven disposable or cotton clothing. Air contamination in the wound and instrument areas (Casella slit sampler) was related to the surface contamination rate (settle plates) in the same areas and in addition, on the patient chest. Typically, the mean surface counts were 20-70 cfus/m2/h and the air counts 1-2 cfus/m3 in disposable clothing experiments, whilst the use of cotton clothing resulted in higher counts of 100-200 cfus/m2/h (wound P > 0.05, patient P > 0.05, instruments P operations together, the surface and air contamination rates (surface/air ratio SAR) were highly correlated (P = 0.02-0.004) and the ratio varied between 18:1 and 50:1 with a mean for wound air of 36:1. Using only disposable clothing in the vertical LAF, the number of significant correlations was reduced. With cotton clothing experiments in vertical LAF and in the horizontal LAF using disposable clothing, no significant correlation between surface and air contamination was found. The wide variation of SAR values and the inconsistent relationship between surface and air counts indicates that measurement of OR air contamination represents an unhelpful method for assessment of surgical site contamination in LAF units. We propose instead that colony counts on sedimentation plates is a clinically more relevant indicator of bacterial OR contamination in LAF units. In addition to the current bacteriological standard for ultra clean OR air of (contamination rate of < 350 cfus/m2/h.

  5. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  6. Radon as an indicator of environmental contamination by hydrocarbons in free-phase; Radonio como indicador de contaminacao ambiental por hidrocarbonetos em fase livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at southeast of Sao Paulo city, from June/14 to May/15. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in ten monitoring stations installed in the contaminated area investigated and named 'A' to 'J'. Radon concentrations average for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations varied from (22 ± 4) kBq.m{sup -3} to (39 ± 4) kBq.m{sup -3} . For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations, radon concentrations average were (1.4 ± 0.4) kBq.m{sup -3} and (13 ± 9) kBq.m{sup -3}. The results have shown good agreement between the used method and the conventional environmental investigation techniques, for the majority of the monitoring stations in different seasons. Results obtained with CR-39 detectors varied over the exposure time due to the different seasons. No relation was observed between radon activity concentrations and rain volume accumulated over the different CR-39 exposure times. The lowest {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations occurred in 'G' and 'H' monitoring stations, also verifying by gamma-ray spectrometry, that the low activities are not related to the activity concentration of its father {sup 226}Ra from

  7. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Zuijdgeest

    Full Text Available After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater.

  8. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RECONSTRUCTING THE STELLAR MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES USING S{sup 4}G IRAC 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m IMAGES. I. CORRECTING FOR CONTAMINATION BY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, HOT DUST, AND INTERMEDIATE-AGE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie/Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Skibba, Ramin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Regan, Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of constructing accurate two-dimensional maps of the stellar mass distribution in nearby galaxies from Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m images, we report on the separation of the light from old stars from the emission contributed by contaminants. Results for a small sample of six disk galaxies (NGC 1566, NGC 2976, NGC 3031, NGC 3184, NGC 4321, and NGC 5194) with a range of morphological properties, dust content, and star formation histories are presented to demonstrate our approach. To isolate the old stellar light from contaminant emission (e.g., hot dust and the 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature) in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands we use an independent component analysis (ICA) technique designed to separate statistically independent source distributions, maximizing the distinction in the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of the sources. The technique also removes emission from evolved red objects with a low mass-to-light ratio, such as asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars, revealing maps of the underlying old distribution of light with [3.6]-[4.5] colors consistent with the colors of K and M giants. The contaminants are studied by comparison with the non-stellar emission imaged at 8 {mu}m, which is dominated by the broad PAH feature. Using the measured 3.6 {mu}m/8 {mu}m ratio to select individual contaminants, we find that hot dust and PAHs together contribute between {approx}5% and 15% to the integrated light at 3.6 {mu}m, while light from regions dominated by intermediate-age (AGB and RSG) stars accounts for only 1%-5%. Locally, however, the contribution from either contaminant can reach much higher levels; dust contributes on average 22% to the emission in star-forming regions throughout the sample, while intermediate-age stars contribute upward of 50% in localized knots. The removal of these contaminants with ICA leaves maps of the old stellar disk that retain a high degree of

  10. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  11. Selective treatment to reduce contamination of propolis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) still preserving its active polyphenol component and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Fabio; Crimaldi, Laura; Maccari, Francesca; Zaccaria, Vincenzo; Fachini, Alfredo; Volpi, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents. Extracts were characterised for total content of polyphenols, for in vitro antioxidant activity, and single classes of polyphenols evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Obtained propolis extracts were found to have PAH8 and specific benzo[a]pyrene content below limits recommended by EFSA. The reported extractive procedure is easily applicable for possible industrial productions and may also be adopted to the purification of polyphenols from other plant extracts and natural sources.

  12. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  13. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.; Flowers, T.H.; Duncan, H.J.; Alder, J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Glasgow Marine Technological Centre

    2006-06-15

    The relevance of germination trials for screening plants that may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated land was evaluated. The germination and subsequent growth of 7 grass and legume species were evaluated in soil spiked with a pure PAH mixture or coal tar and soil from a former coking plant heavily contaminated with aged PAHs. None of these treatments adversely affected germination of the plants. However, apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil. In the coal tar spiked soil 4 out of the 7 species showed reduced growth, as did 3 out of the 7 in the soil spiked with a mixture of 7 PAHs. Therefore, germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied.

  14. Measuring the EUV-induced contamination rates of TiO2-capped multilayer optics by anticipated production-environment hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. B.; Faradzhev, N. S.; Tarrio, C. S.; Lucatorto, T. B.; Bartynski, R. A.; Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2009-03-01

    The primary, publicly reported cause of optic degradation in pre-production extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography systems is carbon deposition. This results when volatile organics adsorb onto optic surfaces and then are cracked by EUV-induced reactions. Hence the deposition rate depends on the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the molecule-surface system as well as the basic photon-stimulated reaction rates, both of which may vary significantly for different organic species. The goal of our ongoing optics-contamination program is to estimate the contamination rate of species expected in the tool environment by exposing samples to in-band 13.5 nm light from our synchrotron in the presence of fixed partial pressures of admitted gases. Here we report preliminary results of contamination rates on TiO2-capped samples for species observed in resist-outgassing measurements (benzene, isobutene, toluene and tert-butylbenzene) in the pressure range (10-6 to 10-4) Pa which all display an unexpected logarithmic dependence on pressure. This scaling is in agreement with previous EUV exposures of other species at NIST as well as independent measurements of coverage performed at Rutgers University. These results are consistent with a molecular desorption energy that decreases with coverage due to molecular interactions (Temkin model). Use of the proper scaling law is critical when estimating optic lifetimes by extrapolating over the 3-to-6 orders of magnitude between accelerated-testing and tool-environment partial pressures.

  15. Microbial and molecular techniques to evaluate and to implement in-situ biodegradation potential and activity at sites contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, F. [HPC Envirotec / France and HPC AG (Germany); Henkler, Ch. [Planreal (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Intrinsic bio-remediation harnesses the ability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade contaminants that are present in soil and groundwater. Over the past decade many environmental regulatory agencies especially in Europe have come to recognize the importance of these natural processes in contaminant attenuation. In order to use in-situ bio-remediation to clean up a site successfully it is necessary to investigate the indigenous microbial population and its potential activity to degrade the contaminants of concern (COCs). The evaluation of naturally-occurring degradative activity in initial screening of soil and groundwater samples using recently developed molecular and microbial methods may allow for the implementation of a contaminant reduction and management program without the need for fully engineered remediation intervention. Limited engineering approaches (nutrient delivery etc.) can be implemented to support naturally-occurring bio-restoration processes to achieve a controlled, dynamic attenuation of COCs. Techniques for monitoring pollutant-degrading microorganisms were previously limited to standard culturing techniques. More recently, techniques based upon detection of genetic elements and metabolic activities have been developed in collaboration with university partners Europe, especially in France. The modern techniques are more sensitive for monitoring microbial populations, metabolic activity and the genetic potential to degrade the COCs, and avoid the need for cultivation of microbes under artificial conditions in the laboratory. Especially the application of PCR-Tests (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are able to quantify the Genetic Potential of Pollutant Microbiological Degradation on a contaminated site. This enables to use very economic in-situ site rehabilitation strategies as for example (Dynamic Natural Attenuation). For this modern application of these new strategies PLANREAL created with HPC Envirotec and together with a French University

  16. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using sewage sludge as an alternative source of nutrients; Biorremediacion de suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos empleando lodos residuales como fuente alterna de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Prado, Adriana [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: adriana.martinez@orst.edu; Perez Lopez, Ma. Elena [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (IPN-CIIDIR) Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico); Pinto Espinoza, Joaquin; Gurrola Nevarez, Blanca Amelia; Osorio Rodriguez, Ana Lilia [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this research an aerobic bioremediation process, of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated using residual sludge (biosolids) from a local domestic wastewater treatment plant, as an alternative micro and macro nutrient source. Contamination of the soil resulted from accidental spills with hydrocarbons, mainly diesel, gasoline, and residual oils, from the San Antonio mining unit which belongs to Goldcorp Mexico Company, located in Tayoltita, from the municipality of San Dimas, Durango. Laboratory and pilot experiments were conducted, adjusting soil water content to field capacity and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio to 10:1, evaluating the effect of addition of nutrients, density of the material being remediated, and the influence of soil particle size in the remediation process. It was demonstrated that the biosolids stimulated the native microorganisms of the polluted soil; consequently the hydrocarbon degradation process was accelerated. The hydrocarbons were used as carbon and electron donor source, coupling the oxidation-reduction reaction with oxygen which served as the electron acceptor. Treated soil was remediated and reached the maximum permissible limit (MPL), established in the Mexican current regulations (NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SS-2003), at both stages, and it is recommended as an optional process to the mining company to fulfill with the Clean Industry Program. [Spanish] En la presente investigacion se evaluo el proceso de biorremediacion aerobica de un suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos de petroleo empleando lodos residuales (biosolidos), provenientes de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) domesticas de la localidad, como fuente alterna de macro y micronutrientes. La contaminacion del suelo fue resultado de derrames accidentales de diesel, aceite y grasas en la unidad minera San Antonio perteneciente al grupo Goldcorp Mexico, ubicada en el municipio de San Dimas, en Tayoltita, Durango. Se realizaron experimentos a escala

  17. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  18. Escherichia coli Contamination across Multiple Environmental Compartments (Soil, Hands, Drinking Water, and Handwashing Water) in Urban Harare: Correlations and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Friedrich, Max N D; Gächter, Marja; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Mlambo, Linn S; Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Julian, Timothy R

    2018-01-22

    Escherichia coli pathotypes (i.e., enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic) have been identified among the pathogens most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pathogenic E. coli are transmitted from infected human or animal feces to new susceptible hosts via environmental reservoirs such as hands, water, and soil. Commensal E. coli, which includes nonpathogenic E. coli strains, are widely used as fecal bacteria indicator, with their presence associated with increased likelihood of enteric pathogens and/or diarrheal disease. In this study, we investigated E. coli contamination in environmental reservoirs within households (N = 142) in high-population density communities of Harare, Zimbabwe. We further assessed the interconnectedness of the environmental compartments by investigating associations between, and household-level risk factors for, E. coli contamination. From the data we collected, the source and risk factors for E. coli contamination are not readily apparent. One notable exception is the presence of running tap water on the household plot, which is associated with significantly less E. coli contamination of drinking water, handwashing water, and hands after handwashing. In addition, E. coli levels on hands after washing are significantly associated with handwashing water contamination, hand contamination before washing, and diarrhea incidence. Finally, we observed that animal ownership increases E. coli contamination in soil, and E. coli in soil are correlated with contamination on hands before washing. This study highlights the complexity of E. coli contamination in household environment within LMICs. More, larger, studies are needed to better identify sources and exposure pathways of E. coli-and enteric pathogens generally-to identify effective interventions.

  19. Subsurface microbial community structure correlates with uranium redox phases during in situ field manipulation in a contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    Long-term field manipulation experiments investigating the effects of subsurface redox conditions on the fate and transport of soluble uranium(VI) were conducted over a 3 year period at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. In the highly contaminated source zone, introduction of ethanol to the subsurface stimulated native denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, iron-reducing and fermentative microorganisms and reduced U to below 0.03 mg/L. Subsequently, oxygen and nitrate were experimentally re-introduced into the subsurface to examine the potential for re-oxidation and re-mobilization of U(IV). Introduction of oxygen or nitrate caused changes in subsurface geochemistry and re-oxidation of U. After reoxidation, the subsurface experienced several months of starvation conditions before ethanol injection was restored to reduce the treatment zone. Subsurface microorganisms were characterized by community fingerprinting, targeted population analyses, and quantitative PCR of key functional groups in 50 samples taken during multiple phases of field manipulation. Statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the microbial community would co-vary with the shifts in the subsurface geochemistry. The level of hydraulic connectivity of sampling wells to the injection well was readily tracked by microbial community analysis. We demonstrate quantitatively that specific populations, especially Desulfosporosinus, are heavily influenced by geochemical conditions and positively correlate with the immobilization of uranium. Following nitrate reoxidation, populations of Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate reducing organisms (Thiobacillus) showed an increase in relative abundance.

  20. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).

  1. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  2. Effect of co-application of nano-zero valent iron and biochar on the total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal and toxicity of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Kołtowski, Michał

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate co-application of biochar and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) in order to increase the degradation of PAHs and reduce the toxicity of soils historically contaminated with these compounds. To performed the experiment biochar, biochar with nZVI (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil), or nZVI alone (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil) were added to the PAHs contaminated soils. The soils alone and soils with amendments were aged by mixing for 7 and 30 days. After that the chemical analysis were carried out and total (Ctot) and Cfree PAH content in the samples were determined. Moreover, the toxicity of aqueous extracts were investigated using the Microtox(®) (Vibrio fischeri) method. Results showed that any of used nZVI dose did not reduce the content of Ctot or Cfree PAHs in contaminated soils, but biochar applied both alone and together with the nZVI significantly reduced Ctot and Cfree PAHs. However, no significant differences in PAH reduction were found between biochar alone and biochar with nZVI addition. This indicates that the observed reduction was mostly associated with the sorption properties of biochar. Moreover, only in the case of co-application of biochar and nZVI reduction of the toxicity of nZVI to V. fischeri was observed. The toxic effect was different and depend on the type of soil and their properties including total organic carbon and black carbon content, which may affect the PAHs reduction efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g-1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  4. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part II: Polyethylene Particles Decrease the Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Julia; Seidensticker, Sven; Marggrander, Nikolaj; Zarfl, Christiane

    2018-02-07

    Microplastic particles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are currently discussed as an emerging persistent organic pollutant and as acting as a vector for hydrophobic chemicals. Microplastic particles may ultimately deposit and accumulate in soil as well as marine and freshwater sediments where they can be harmful to organisms. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of natural freshwater sediment bacterial communities (by genetic fingerprint) to exposure to microplastics (polyethylene, 2 and 20 mg/g sediment) and microplastics loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene and anthracene), using a laboratory-based approach. After two weeks of incubation, the bacterial community composition from an unpolluted river section was altered by high concentrations of microplastics, whereas the community downstream of a wastewater treatment plant remained unchanged. Low microplastic concentrations loaded with phenanthrene or anthracene induced a less pronounced response in the sediment communities compared to the same total amount of phenanthrene or anthracene alone. In addition, biodegradation of the PAHs was reduced. This study shows, that microplastic can affect bacterial community composition in unpolluted freshwater sediments. Moreover, the results indicate that microplastics can serve as a vehicle for hydrophobic pollutants but bioavailability of the latter is reduced by the sorption to microplastics.

  5. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part II: Polyethylene Particles Decrease the Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kleinteich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic particles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are currently discussed as an emerging persistent organic pollutant and as acting as a vector for hydrophobic chemicals. Microplastic particles may ultimately deposit and accumulate in soil as well as marine and freshwater sediments where they can be harmful to organisms. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of natural freshwater sediment bacterial communities (by genetic fingerprint to exposure to microplastics (polyethylene, 2 and 20 mg/g sediment and microplastics loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene and anthracene, using a laboratory-based approach. After two weeks of incubation, the bacterial community composition from an unpolluted river section was altered by high concentrations of microplastics, whereas the community downstream of a wastewater treatment plant remained unchanged. Low microplastic concentrations loaded with phenanthrene or anthracene induced a less pronounced response in the sediment communities compared to the same total amount of phenanthrene or anthracene alone. In addition, biodegradation of the PAHs was reduced. This study shows, that microplastic can affect bacterial community composition in unpolluted freshwater sediments. Moreover, the results indicate that microplastics can serve as a vehicle for hydrophobic pollutants but bioavailability of the latter is reduced by the sorption to microplastics.

  6. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens...... across Europe, where a significant number of human bones was well preserved. The findings demonstrate several important issues: (a) although teeth are more resilient to contamination than bone, both are readily contaminated (presumably through handling or washing), and (b) once contaminated in this way...... with the presence of observable contamination in both bone and teeth samples from individual samples. While we can only speculate on the cause of this relationship, we posit that they provide useful guides for the assessment of whether samples are likely to be contaminated or not. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  7. Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and metal contaminants in sediments in UK estuaries and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Nicolaus, E E; Law, Robin J; Wright, Serena R; Lyons, Brett P

    2015-06-15

    The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quality standards including ERL, ERM and EAC, all of which have been established internationally. Out of a total of 38,031 individual samples analysed, 42.6% and 7.7% exceeded the ERL/EAC and ERM values, respectively. The highest Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) for metals, PAHs and PCBs were observed for copper, fluorene and CB118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, the highest concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were observed in 2011 in the Lower Medway indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. This study suggests that re-suspension of contaminants banned over 20years ago is still an ongoing issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M

    1994-01-01

    In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon--DNA adducts in white blood cells from lung cancer patients: no correlation with adduct levels in lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, F. J.; Hillebrand, M. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; van Zandwijk, N.; Jansen, H. M.; den Engelse, L.; Kriek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Smokers of cigarettes are exposed to a number of carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and are at a high risk for lung cancer. PAHs exert their carcinogenic activity after metabolic activation to reactive intermediates that can damage DNA through adduct formation. Measuring

  10. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  11. Remobilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils with a new bio-surfactant; Remobilisation d'Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) presents dans les sols contamines a l'aide d'un tensioactif d'origine biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabet, S.

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic pollutants released into the environment by combustion processes; Due to their high sorption capacity, soils constitute their main environmental sink. PAH are hydrophobic and weakly biodegradable, moreover they are toxic and considered as potent human carcinogen. Various technologies are used for the remediation of PAH-contaminated soils, but they are not cost effective and may be hazardous for the environment. Some recent studies suggest that the use of bio-surfactants is a promising method that enhances the removal of PAHs from soils. This study investigates the properties and the impact of a new bio-surfactant, on the mobilization of three PAH (fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene). The bio-surfactant seems to be weakly sorbed on the soil studied. Solubilizing effects have been studied by the Molar Solubilization Ratio (MSR). In the ternary mixture, the less hydrophobic PAH (fluorene) favors the micellar solubilization of the most hydrophobic one by decreasing interfacial tensions. The soil column studies revealed that the bio-surfactant was rapidly efficient. Results obtained in dynamic studies were consistent with those obtained in static studies. This work also investigated the effect of the contamination level on PAH remobilization. The study reveals that PAH solubilization increases with the contamination level until micelle saturation. The percentage re-mobilized depends on the contaminant studied and the content of organic matter rate. As a matter of fact, for the soil containing the higher OM rate, remobilization follows physico-chemical properties of the PAH. For the soil containing less OM, the mineral fraction seems to play a significant role on PAH adsorption. (author)

  12. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  13. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  14. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  15. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, Paul E. (Latham, NY); Mackenzie, Patricia D. (Clifton Park, NY); Horney, David P. (Mayfield, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  16. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Edward J.; Anderson, Brian L.; Wijesinghe, Ananda M.; Viani, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  17. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (psoil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (psoil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  18. Investigations of microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on 13C-labeled phenanthrene in a soil co-contaminated with trace elements using a plant assisted approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawra, Anna; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Jäger, Anna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Soja, Gerhard; Reichenauer, Thomas; Watzinger, Andrea

    2017-12-16

    Co-contaminations of soils with organic and inorganic pollutants are a frequent environmental problem. Due to their toxicity and recalcitrance, the heterogeneous pollutants may persist in soil. The hypothesis of this study was that degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is enhanced if heavy metals in soil are immobilized and their bioavailability reduced. For metal immobilization and enhanced biodegradation, distinct mineral and organic soil amendments (iron oxides, gravel sludge, biochar) were deployed in an incubation batch experiment. The second part of the experiment consisted of a greenhouse pot experiment applying fast-growing and pollution-tolerant woody plants (willow and black locust). Soil amendments initially immobilized NH4NO3-extractable zinc, cadmium, and lead; after 100 days of incubation, soil amendments showed reductions only for cadmium and a tendency to enhance arsenic mobility. In order to monitor the remediation success, a 13C-phenanthrene (PHE) label was applied. 13C-phospholipid fatty acid analysis (13C-PLFA) further enabled the identification of PHE-degrading soil microorganisms. Both experiments exhibited a similar PLFA profile. Gram-negative bacteria (esp. cy17:0, 16:1ω7 + 6, 18:1ω7c) were the most significant microbial group taking up 13C-PHE. Plants effectively increased the label uptake by gram-positive bacteria and increased the biomass of the fungal biomarker, although their contribution to the degradation process was minor. Plants tended to prolong PAH dissipation in soil; at the end of the experiment, however, all treatments showed equally low total PAH concentrations in soil. While black locust plants tended not to take up potentially toxic trace elements, willows accumulated them in their leaves. The results of this study show that the chosen treatments did not enhance the remediation of the experimental soil.

  19. Effect of salinity on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saline-alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Tang, J C; Li, D S; Zhang, Q M

    2012-09-01

     The aim of this paper is to check the effect of salinity on the bioremediation process of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  In this study, soil salinity was adjusted to different levels by water leaching method and the bioremediation process was conducted for 28 days. Soil pH increased after leaching and decreased during bioremediation process. At initial time, moderate salinity enhanced the biodegradation and addition of microbial consortium was not effective in enhancing degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. At day of 28 days, higher degradation rate was found in treatments with more leaching times with a maximum value of 42·36%. Dehydrogenase activity increased with the progress of bioremediation and positive correlation was found between dehydrogenase activity and degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result showed decreased microbial community diversity with increased salt content.  The result suggested that salinity had great impact on bioremediation, and leaching and addition of inoculated consortium were effective in enhancing biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  The result of this study is important for understanding the bioremediation process of petroleum in contaminated soil. New remediation method of petroleum contaminated soil can be developed based on this study. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Coal and deodorizer residues in marine sediments - contaminants or pollutants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.M.; Downie, J.; Maynard, A.; Taylor, L.A. [EVS Consultants Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Sediment studies around the diffuser of a relatively untreated major marine municipal sewage discharge indicated that 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were among the contaminants of concern. Subsequent investigations revealed that elevated PAH concentrations were due to the shipwreck of a collier in the 1890s and were apparently not bioavailable. Coal is a common contaminant in marine and freshwater sediments and may be responsible, in some cases, for high PAH contaminant concentrations not resulting in pollution (i.e. biological effects) and can also affect total organic carbon measurements and normalization. Little information exists regarding 1,4-DCB, whose main source to sewage appears to be toilet block deodorizers and which appears to be useful marker of the extent of contamination for untreated sewage discharges. Correlative analyses suggest it is pollutant, but this remains to be confirmed by experimental testing.

  1. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  2. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  3. The Correlation between Eating Utensils and Place of Sales in the Contamination of Escherichia coli in Food Sold at Campus Food Stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, in general, the safety of food that is sold at any canteens in the campuses, the eating utensils are handled and the food stalls are managed are still uncertain. This research was aimed to understand the correlation between the eating utensils handling and the contamination of Escherichia coli (E. coli in the food sold by the food vendors in the campus. The cross-sectional design research applied on the food stalls in the university campus in Depok with a total number of 173 consumers as respondents. The variables observed as independent variables were the sanitation of the eating utensils and the sanitation of the dining place. The examination method of the Most Probable Number (MPN for E. coli was conducted to assess the food’s hygiene. The data analyzed using the chi-square test and followed by the logistic regression. The result showed that more than half of the food samples (59.54% were contaminated by E. coli. The storage place of the eating utensils was most significantly correlated with the E. coli contamination of the served food with an OR=0.45 (0.21-0.87. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the awareness of this risk and reinforce supervision by the Health Authorities and by the management of the place of sales to provide guidance to the food vendors and to the consumers as well. Further research is recommended to observe the E. coli contamination through clean water, eating utensils, the hands of the consumers and the napkins used to wipe dry the eating utensils.

  4. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons in intertidal ecosystem along the Bombay Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Mayadeo, M.S.; Dhadke, P.M.

    of petroleum hydrocarbons (153.8 mu g.l sup(-1) in water sample collected near an outfall indicated that the intertidal ecosystem of Worli might be contaminated by the effluent discharges from the onshore industrial unit...

  6. Hydrocarbon phytoremediation in the family Fabaceae--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica; Soole, Kathleen; Bentham, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Currently, studies often focus on the use of Poaceae species (grasses) for phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Research into the use of Fabaceae species (legumes) to remediate hydrocarbons in soils has been conducted, but these plants are commonly overlooked due to slower recorded rates of degradation compared with many grass species. Evidence in the literature suggests that in some cases Fabaceae species may increase total degradation of hydrocarbons and stimulate degradative capacity of the soil microbial community, particularly for contaminants which are normally more recalcitrant to degradation. As many recalcitrant hydrocarbons have negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, development of remediation options is crucial. Reconsideration of Fabaceae species for removal of such contaminants may lead to environmentally and economically sustainable technologies for remediation of contaminated sites.

  7. GEOELECTRICAL STRATIGRAPHY AND ANALYSIS OF A HYDROCARBON IMPACTED AQUIFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon impacted sites predicts anomalously high conductivities coincident with aged contaminated zones. These high conductivities are attributed to an enhancement of mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox p...

  8. Hydrocarbon mineralization in sediments and plasmid incidence in sediment bacteria from the Campeche bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, J.G.; Somerville, C.C.; Cunningham, K.A.; Adamantiades, G.A.; Byrd, J.J.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of ({sup 14}C) hexadecane and ({sup 14}C)phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO{sub 2} in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth.

  9. Hydrocarbon mineralization in sediments and plasmid incidence in sediment bacteria from the campeche bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, J G; Somerville, C C; Cunningham, K A; Adamantiades, G A; Byrd, J J; Colwell, R R

    1990-06-01

    Rates of degradation of radiolabeled hydrocarbons and incidence of bacterial plasmid DNA were investigated in sediment samples collected from the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, site of an offshore oil field containing several petroleum platforms. Overall rates of mineralization of [C]hexadecane and [C]phenanthrene measured for sediments were negligible; <1% of the substrate was converted to CO(2) in all cases. Low mineralization rates are ascribed to nutrient limitations and to lack of adaptation by microbial communities to hydrocarbon contaminants. Plasmid frequency data for sediment bacteria similarly showed no correlation with proximity to the oil field, but, instead, showed correlation with water column depth at each sampling site. Significant differences between sites were observed for proportion of isolates carrying single or multiple plasmids and mean number of plasmids per isolate, each of which increased as a function of depth.

  10. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  11. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  12. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  13. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Their addition in soil has been known to inhibit soil respiration, nitrogen mineralization and nitrification (Lao et al, 2005;. Sobolev and Begonia, 2008; Nwuche and Ugoji,. 2008). Heavy metals have also been implicated in the reduction of degradation of vegetable materials and can potentially limit the biodegradation of ...

  14. Structure-reactivity correlation of diesel soot and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls in biofuel emissions; Struktur-Reaktivitaets-Korrelation von Dieselruss und Charakterisierung von PAHs und Carbonylen im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Markus

    2009-12-29

    This work reports on the determination of the structure-reactivity correlation of soot using Raman microscopy (RM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), as well as on changes in the emission level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbonyls at the combustion of biofuels. To characterize the reactivity of soot the combustion behaviour of model- and diesel soot has been determined by means of TPO in the presence of oxygen. In this context, spark-discharge soot and graphite powder were applied as model substances, and EURO VI and IV diesel soot as real-diesel soots. The structure of soot samples was investigated by RM and structural changes during the TPO were observed. In order to make a statement about the changes in PAH and carbonyl compound emissions during combustion of biofuels, samples were taken at different engine testbenches. Fossil fuel, biodiesel and vegetable oil were used during this study, as well as fuel mixtures with different biofuel fractions.

  15. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  16. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  17. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of fentanyl-contaminated heroin exposure among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmadu, Alexandria; Carroll, Jennifer J; Hadland, Scott E; Green, Traci C; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2017-05-01

    The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016. Participants completed questionnaires ascertaining drug use patterns and risk behaviors, including FCH exposure. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with known or suspected FCH exposure. Of 199 participants, the median age was 25 (IQR: 22, 27), 130 (65.3%) were male, and 122 (61.3%) were of White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. In total, 22 (11%) reported known or suspected FCH exposure in the prior six months. Several drug use patterns and risk behaviors were associated with FCH exposure, including: regular heroin and cocaine use; diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl use in the prior six months; NMPO use to avoid withdrawal symptoms; longer duration of NMPO use; regular injection drug use; and prior overdose (all pfentanyl prior to last use, 59% reported that FCH provides a better high, and all recognized that fentanyl increases overdose risk. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin is an emerging trend among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island. Overdose prevention programs addressing FCH use are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between the Results of Sequential Extraction and Effectiveness of Immobilization Treatment of Lead- and Cadmium-Contaminated Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Dalmacija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the quality of sediment from the Great Backi Canal (Serbia, based on the pseudo-total lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd content according to the corresponding Dutch standards and Canadian guidelines, showed its severe contamination with these two metals. A microwave-assisted BCR (Community Bureau of Reference of the Commission of the European Union sequential extraction procedure was employed to assess their potential mobility and risk to the aquatic environment. Comparison of the results of sequential extraction and different criteria for sediment quality assessment has led to somewhat contradictory conclusions. Namely, while the results of sequential extraction showed that Cd comes under the high-risk category, Pb shows low risk to the environment, despite its high pseudo-total content. The contaminated sediment, irrespective of the different speciation of Pb and Cd, was subjected to the same immobilization, stabilization/solidification (S/S treatments using kaolinite, montmorillonite, kaolinite-quicklime, montmorillonite-quicklime, fly ash, zeolite, or zeolite-fly ash combination. Semi-dynamic leaching tests were conducted for Pb- and Cd-contaminated sediment in order to assess the long-term leaching behavior of these metals. In order to simulate “worst case” leaching conditions, the semi-dynamic leaching test was modified using 0.014 M acetic acid (pH = 3.25 and humic acid solutions (20 mg TOC l-1 as leachants instead of deionized water. The effectiveness of S/S treatment was evaluated by determining diffusion coefficients (De and leachability indices (LX. The standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP was applied to evaluate the extraction potential of Pb and Cd. A diffusion-based model was used to elucidate the controlling leaching mechanisms. Generally, the test results indicated that all applied S/S treatments were effective in immobilizing Pb and Cd, and the treated sediments may be considered acceptable

  20. Spatial correlation analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments between Taihu Lake and its tributary rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yu; Li, Qianyu; Cai, Yongjiu; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Taihu Lake basin (THB) and Taihu Lake body (THL) were investigated. Higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were observed for THB than THL. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 12.1 to 2281.1ngg-1 dw for THB and from 11.4 to 209.9ngg-1 dw for THL, while OCPs ranged from 16.3 to 96.9ngg-1 dw and from 16.8 to 61.9ngg-1 dw for THB and THL, respectively. Spatial distribution of PAHs and OCPs showed a high correspondence with the land use of THB and surrounding anthropogenic activity. Additionally, the Kriging interpolation plots demonstrated that the major upper reaches were more polluted than the lower reaches, indicating the transport of pollutants with the water flow direction. The organic matter contents were responsible for OCP distribution other than PAHs due to the biodegradation capacity difference of chemicals. Similar compositions of pollutants were observed with 3- and 4-ringed PAHs accounting for a total of 78.3% for THB and 85.8% for THL, respectively. HCHs and DDTs were predominant OCPs, which contributed to 31.8% and 21.7% for THB, and 33.6% and 21.9% for THL, respectively. The isomeric and parent substance/metabolite ratios implied fresh inputs of DDTs and chlordanes, while HCHs and endosulfans were mainly from old usage. PAH source identification performed by diagnostic ratios demonstrated the mixed sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic ones dominated by grass, wood and coal combustion. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) based on the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used to evaluate the ecological risks of sediments. Although no frequently adverse effects were observed, potential ecological risks induced by Ant, BaA, γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT and chlordanes should also be paid attention to considering the continuous inputs of such pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Molecular ratio analyses also show that petroleum origin is the chief source of PAHs contamination in all samples except in the control that is characterized with pyrogenic and petrogenic source. @JASEM. Key words: PAHs, soil Contamination, Abraka. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are group of organic compound that ...

  2. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent lubricating oil contaminated soil. ... This study has shown that resident bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of developing models and strategies ...

  3. Hydrocarbon Degradation Potentials of Bacteria Isolated from Spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of ... dithiophosphate, metal soaps and other organometallic compounds (Lu and ... contamination of the air, soil, fresh water especially by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

  4. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contamination in aquatic environments adjacent to areas of multiple uses: to whom is that environmental liability?; Contaminacao por hidrocarbonetos aromaticos policiclicos (HPAS) em ambientes aquaticos adjacentes a areas de multiplos usos: a quem corresponde esse passivo ambiental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marina R.D.; Mirlean, Nicolai; Machado, Maria Isabel C.S. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil); Caramao, Elina B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Contamination often can be related to different activities, especially in areas with multiple uses. In these cases, studies are necessary to correctly evaluate the origin of contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds that have two main sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic processes. In Rio Grande City, located at the margins of Patos Lagoon estuary, south Brazil, there are several navigation and industrial activities. This work has the objective to determinate the origins of PAHs and to evaluate the contribution of different sources to the aquatic contamination. The sampling stations were classified according to three main types: industrial effluent, sewage and runoff. We collected sediments from the bottom of effluent channels and from the respective estuarine environments. The material was sieved (0,063 mm), dried, extracted in soxhlet apparatus with methylene chloride and GC-MS analyzed. The results showed that pyrolytic compounds were predominant, indicating the contribution of diffuse sources. This type of study was successful in relating PAHs with their sources, confirming the role of urban and other industries activities in this case of contamination, superimposed to the midstream e downstream activities of petroleum industry. (author)

  6. Gene expression correlates with process rates quantified for sulfate- and Fe(III-reducing bacteria in U(VI-contaminated sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Akob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Though iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria are well known for mediating uranium(VI reduction in contaminated subsurface environments, quantifying the in situ activity of the microbial groups responsible remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of quantitative molecular tools that target mRNA transcripts of key genes related to Fe(III and sulfate reduction pathways in order to monitor these processes during in situ U(VI remediation in the subsurface. Expression of the Geobacteraceae-specific citrate synthase gene (gltA and the dissimilatory (bisulfite reductase gene (dsrA, were correlated with the activity of iron- or sulfate-reducing microorganisms, respectively, under stimulated bioremediation conditions in microcosms of sediments sampled from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In addition, Geobacteraceae-specific gltA and dsrA transcript levels were determined in parallel with the predominant electron acceptors present in moderately and highly contaminated subsurface sediments from the OR-IFRC. Phylogenetic analysis of the cDNA generated from dsrA mRNA, sulfate-reducing bacteria-specific 16S rRNA, and gltA mRNA identified activity of specific microbial groups. Active sulfate reducers were members of the Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacterium, and Desulfotomaculum genera. Members of the subsurface Geobacter clade, closely related to uranium-reducing Geobacter uraniireducens and Geobacter daltonii, were the metabolically-active iron-reducers in biostimulated microcosms and in situ core samples. Direct correlation of transcripts and process rates demonstrated evidence of competition between the functional guilds in subsurface sediments. We further showed that active populations of Fe(III-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria are present in OR-IFRC sediments and are good potential targets for in situ bioremediation.

  7. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Comte

    Full Text Available We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60. Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes.

  8. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexia; Gräfenhan, Tom; Links, Matthew G; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C. purpurea, and suggested that C. purpurea DNA is readily detectable on agricultural commodities, including those for which ergot was not identified as a grading factor. To get a sense of the prevalence and level of C. purpurea DNA in cereal grains, we developed a quantitative PCR assay based on the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and applied it to 137 samples from the 2014 crop year. The amount of Claviceps DNA quantified correlated strongly with the proportion of ergot sclerotia identified in each grain lot, although there was evidence that non-target organisms were responsible for some false positives with the ITS-based assay. We therefore developed a cpn60-targeted loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and applied it to the same grain wash samples. The time to positive displayed a significant, inverse correlation to ergot levels determined by visual ratings. These results indicate that both laboratory-based and field-adaptable molecular diagnostic assays can be used to detect and quantify pathogen load in bulk commodities using cereal grain washes.

  9. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    that thraustochytrids have the capability to utilize a wide range of organic nitrogen and carbon compounds for their nutrition. However, the capability of these protists to degrade hydrocarbons has not been examined so far. Hydrocarbons occur in seawater either... chromatography. (1) Gravimetry: Tarballs were extracted from experimental flasks with 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride, the extract transferred to pre- weighed Petri dish and the solvent allowed to RAIKAR et al.: THRAUSTOCHYTRID PROTISTS DEGRADE HYDROCARBONS...

  10. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  11. Accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen; Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, J

    2003-05-01

    Conventional landfarming approaches to bioremediation of refinery and other petroleum sludges are not acceptable environmentally and are banned in most North American jurisdictions. While initial bioreactor-based systems for treatment of these sludges required batch-cycle process-times of 1-3 months, an accelerated process has now been developed which can be completed in 10-12 days. In this process, up to 99% of total petroleum hydrocarbons are degraded and the sludges are converted from hazardous to non-hazardous according to the United States EPA's toxicity characteristic leachate procedure criteria. Understanding and exploiting mechanisms to improve hydrocarbon accession to the degrading microorganisms was a key development component of the process. Contrasting physiological mechanisms were observed for different component organisms of the mixed culture with respect to their associations with the hydrocarbon substrate; and the beneficial effects of using surfactants were demonstrated. The mixed culture used in the process exhibited a capacity for high-rate degradation of volatile organic carbons and the potential use of the culture as a liquid biofilter was demonstrated. The culture was also effective as an inoculant for the bioaugmentation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and as a de-emulsifier of oilfield emulsions and could transform some other environmental contaminants which are not predominant components of crude oil.

  12. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea)

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Ranya A.

    2015-02-01

    Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt). Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed.

  13. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranya A. Amer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt. Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed.

  14. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  15. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  16. Avoidance from petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhle, Bjørn

    1982-01-01

    Med norsk forord og sammendrag. In laboratory experiments cod was presented a choice situation between different concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, appearing as "water soluble fraction" and emulsified droplets derived from Fuel Oil No. 2. In most experiments, the fishes seemed to avoid water containing hydrocarbons, though some fishes for periods was indifferent also to considerable contaminated water. The over all results indicates that a majority of the fishes av...

  17. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  18. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...

  19. for Phytoremediation of Motor Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high cost, adverse effects on the environment and low efficiencies of the physical, chemical and thermal techniques currently being used to remediate hydrocarbon contaminated soils calls for evaluation of plant based methods. In this work, phytoremediation study was made with laterite soil artificially contaminated with ...

  20. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil collected from the ...

  1. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  2. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  3. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  4. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  6. Partial Transformation Products as Indicators of Microbial Hydrocarbon Degradation in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, W. T.

    2001-12-01

    Monitored natural decay (intrinsic bioremediation), a cost-effective method for remediating contaminated property, is widely applied to fuel contaminated sites. If an intrinsic bioremediation approach could be supported for the clean up of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated properties, millions of dollars in clean-up costs could potential be saved, especially in transfers of industrial properties that will continue to be used for industrial purposes. Proving intrinsic biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic. Slow PAH biodegradation rates in contaminated soils mean that oxygen mass transfer rates into the soil exceeds bacterial oxygen demand. Likewise carbon dioxide production during degradation is sufficiently slow that carbon dioxide will not accumulate in the soil gas to levels exceeding background, uncontaminated soils. Therefore, oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation, typical indicators of intrinsic remediation activity at fuel contaminated sites, are of little use in demonstrating intrinsic PAH remediation. Additionally, direct measurement of PAH loss over time is of limited use in the absence of extensive historical records, especially at sites that are still emitting PAHs as part of their operations. PAH loss rates may be in the order of 10% per year, whereas combined sampling and analytical error can be greater than 50%. It is our hypothesis that PAH degradation products, such as aromatic carboxylic acids and dihydrodiols, will be present in soils where biodegradation is occurring and absent in soils that are biologically inactive. We have developed methods for the extraction of PAH biodegradation products from soils and the analysis of these metabolites by both gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. We have tested our hypothesis against soils undergoing both active and passive bioremediation. Our results indicate that PAH degradation products are detectable in many soils

  7. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Microorganisms play diverse roles in biotechnology; one of such roles is ... hydrocarbon polluted sites using vapour phase transfer technique with ... The purified fungal isolates were identified based on .... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase systems which incorporate molecular .... substrate specificity on marine bacteria.

  9. Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Tanja; Arbuthnott, Devin; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Nosil, Patrik; Crespi, Bernard J

    2013-07-16

    Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks. Hydrocarbon profiles differed substantially among the nine analyzed species, as well as between partially reproductively-isolated T. cristinae populations adapted to different host plants. In no-choice trials, mating was more likely between species with similar than divergent hydrocarbon profiles, even after correcting for genetic divergences. The macroevolution of hydrocarbon profiles, along a Timema species phylogeny, fits best with a punctuated model of phenotypic change concentrated around speciation events, consistent with change driven by selection during the evolution of reproductive isolation. Altogether, our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles vary among Timema species and populations, and that most evolutionary change in hydrocarbon profiles occurs in association with speciation events. Similarities in hydrocarbon profiles between species are correlated with interspecific mating propensities, suggesting a role for cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in mate choice and speciation in the genus Timema.

  10. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A

    2014-06-01

    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  11. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent and fresh cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of soil with industrial cutting fluids containing heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons has detrimental effects on ecosystems. As such contaminants constitute risk to human health; they can enter the food chain through agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. This growing concern about ...

  12. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent and fresh cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAYONWAOLUWOLE JOHN

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... Contamination of soil with industrial cutting fluids containing heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons has detrimental effects on ecosystems. As such contaminants constitute risk to human health; they can enter the food chain through agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. This growing ...

  13. Petroleum contamination of soil and water, and their effects on vegetables by statistically analyzing entire data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-kai; Yang, Jun-cheng; Du, Xiao-ming; Li, Fa-sheng; Hou, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons have been used to assess total oil concentrations, petroleum sources, and petroleum degradation. In this study, surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and vegetables were collected from the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China, and the samples were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon contents. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 1.06-4.01 μg/g in the soil. The concentrations and the geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes showed that the low carbon number hydrocarbons were mainly from petroleum sources, whereas the high carbon number hydrocarbons received more hydrocarbons from herbaceous plants. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 9.20-93.44 μg/L and 23.74-118.27 μg/L in the groundwater and the surface water, respectively. The water had characteristics of petroleum and submerged/floating macrophytes and was found in concentrations that would cause chronic disruption of sensitive organisms. The concentrations and geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes in Brassica chinensis L. and Apium graveolens were different, but both were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the sorption of n-alkanes to soil particles could not be described by linear models. The distributions of n-alkanes in vegetables were positively correlated with those in soil, and the correlation coefficient was up to 0.9310 using the constructed vectors. Therefore, the researchers should pay close attention to the effect of soil contamination on vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Remarkable impact of PAHs and TPHs on the richness and diversity of bacterial species in surface soils exposed to long-term hydrocarbon pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Tibor; Vajna, Balázs; Táncsics, András; Márialigeti, Károly; Lányi, Szabolcs; Máthé, István

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, because of substantial use of petroleum-derived fuels the number and extension of hydrocarbon polluted terrestrial ecosystems is in growth worldwide. In remediation of aforementioned sites bioremediation still tends to be an innovative, environmentally attractive technology. Although huge amount of information is available concerning the hydrocarbon degradation potential of cultivable hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria little is known about the in situ long-term effects of petroleum derived compounds on the structure of soil microbiota. Therefore, in this study our aim was to determine the long-term impact of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs), total alkyl benzenes (TABs) as well as of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the structure of bacterial communities of four different contaminated soil samples. Our results indicated that a very high amount of TPH affected positively the diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This finding was supported by the occurrence of representatives of the α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Bacilli classes. High concentration of VPHs and TABs contributed to the predominance of actinobacterial isolates. In PAH impacted samples the concentration of PAHs negatively correlated with the diversity of bacterial species. Heavily PAH polluted soil samples were mainly inhabited by the representatives of the β-, γ-Proteobacteria (overwhelming dominance of Pseudomonas sp.) and Actinobacteria.

  15. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  16. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  17. A bivariate contaminated binormal model for robust fitting of proper ROC curves to a pair of correlated, possibly degenerate, ROC datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuetong; Chakraborty, Dev P

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to design and implement a bivariate extension to the contaminated binormal model (CBM) to fit paired receiver operating characteristic (ROC) datasets-possibly degenerate-with proper ROC curves. Paired datasets yield two correlated ratings per case. Degenerate datasets have no interior operating points and proper ROC curves do not inappropriately cross the chance diagonal. The existing method, developed more than three decades ago utilizes a bivariate extension to the binormal model, implemented in CORROC2 software, which yields improper ROC curves and cannot fit degenerate datasets. CBM can fit proper ROC curves to unpaired (i.e., yielding one rating per case) and degenerate datasets, and there is a clear scientific need to extend it to handle paired datasets. In CBM, nondiseased cases are modeled by a probability density function (pdf) consisting of a unit variance peak centered at zero. Diseased cases are modeled with a mixture distribution whose pdf consists of two unit variance peaks, one centered at positive μ with integrated probability α, the mixing fraction parameter, corresponding to the fraction of diseased cases where the disease was visible to the radiologist, and one centered at zero, with integrated probability (1-α), corresponding to disease that was not visible. It is shown that: (a) for nondiseased cases the bivariate extension is a unit variances bivariate normal distribution centered at (0,0) with a specified correlation ρ1 ; (b) for diseased cases the bivariate extension is a mixture distribution with four peaks, corresponding to disease not visible in either condition, disease visible in only one condition, contributing two peaks, and disease visible in both conditions. An expression for the likelihood function is derived. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm, CORCBM, was implemented in the R programming language that yields parameter estimates and the covariance matrix of the parameters, and other statistics. A

  18. Studies on the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the microbial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with 3 different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions (premium motor spirit 'PMS', domestic purpose kerosene 'DPK' and automotive gas oil 'AGO'). Soil surface samples (0.5 cm) were collected r