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Sample records for hydrocarbon bearing formation

  1. Experimental Study on Hydrocarbon Formation Due to Reactions Between Carbonates and Water or Water—Bearing Minerals in Deep Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁克难; 汪本善; 等

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of formation of abiogenetic hydrocarbons at the depth of the Earth,experimental research on reactions between carbonates and water or waterbearing minerals was carried out at the pressure of about 1GPa and the temperature range of 800-1500℃.The reactions took place in an open and nonequilibrium state.Chromatographic analyses of the gas products indicate that in the experiments there were generated CH4-dominated hydrocarbons,along with some CO2 and CO.Accordingly,we think there is no essential distinction between free-state water and hydroxy in the minerals in the process of hydrocarbon formation.This study indicates that reactions between carbonates and water or water-bearing minerals should be an important factor leading to the formation of abiogenetic hydrocarbons at the Earth's depth.

  2. Formation of abnormal high pressure and its application in the study of oil-bearing property of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShanWen; ZHANG LinYe; ZHANG ShouChun; LIU Qing; ZHU RiFang; BAO YouShu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denu-dation are the main factors influencing oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative re-lations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.

  3. Experimental Probing on Formation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon in Deep Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Kenan; Xiao Wansheng; Zhang Huizi; Wang Benshan

    1997-01-01

    @@ In order to study the formation mechanism of hydrocarbon in the earth's interior, preliminary experiments on chemical reactions of wax, graphite, siderite with supercritical water have been carried out respectively under the conditions of temperature about 800~1500℃ and pressure approximately above 1 GPa. These reactions can produce a large amount of methane, together with some CO2 and a little other hydrocarbons, indicating that the reactions of carbon-bearing materials with supercritical water is possibly a new formation mechanism of hydrocarbon under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure in deep earth.

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of the jurassic coal-bearing strata in the Liupanshan area, china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pei; Li, Changzhi; Wang, Feifei

    2017-05-01

    The Liupanshan area is situated to the southwest of the Ordos Basin. Because of larger stratigraphic thickness and thicker overlying sedimentary coverage, the coal-bearing Yan’an Formation in the Liupanshan area is supposed to have higher hydrocarbon potential than that in the Ordos Basin. 25 samples collected from 10 sedimentary sections in the Liupanshan area have been tested to evaluate the quality of the coals and dark mudstones of the Yan’an Formation. The Yan’an Formation in the Liupanshan area generally bears thick coals and dark mudstones, though the stratigraphic thickness and coal-bearing coefficient vary greatly. Most of the source rocks have high total organic carbon and chloroform bitumen “A”, which can be classified to the category of “good to excellent source rocks”. The main organic matter type of the source rocks is II2 and III kerogen, having larger potential to generate gas. The maturity is the key factor because the coals in the Ordos Basin are mostly immature to low-mature. Results show that the maturity of the source rocks in the Liupanshan area is higher, most reaching mature to high-mature stage. Therefore, the hydrocarbon potential of the Yan’an Formation in the Liupanshan area is very high and this formation deserves further exploration.

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  6. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811 K. Results indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700 K. No improvements were obtained when deoxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. Results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, lating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  7. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  8. Formation Dynamics and Quantitative Prediction of Hydrocarbons of the Superpressure System in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Fenggui; HAO Xuefeng; LIU Qing; ZHUO Qingong; ZHANG Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of formation dynamics of oil/gas pools, the Dongying sag can be divided into three dynamic systems regarding the accumulation of oil and gas: the superpressure closed system,the semi-closed system and the normal pressure open system. Based on the analysis of genesis of superpressure in the superpressure closed system and the rule of hydrocarbon expulsion,it is found that hydrocarbon generation is related to superpressure, which is the main driving factor of hydrocarbon migration. Micro fractures formed by superpressure are the main channels for hydrocarbon migration. There are three dynamic patterns for hydrocarbon expulsion: free water drainage, hydrocarbon accumulation and drainage through micro fissures. In the superpressure closed system, the oil-driving-water process and oil/gas accumulation were completed in lithologic traps by way of such two dynamic patterns as episodic evolution of superpressure systems and episodic pressure release of faults. The oil-bearing capacity of lithologic traps is intimately related to reservoir-forming dynamic force. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic conditions for pool formation can effectively predict the oil-bearing capability of traps.

  9. Mechanism of Silurian Hydrocarbon Pool Formation in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luofu; Guo Yongqiang; Zhao Yande; Li Yan; Chen Yuanzhuang; Chen Lixin; Pang Xiongqi; Xie Qilai; Huo Hong; Zhao Suping; Li Chao; Li Shuangwen

    2007-01-01

    There are three formation stages of Silurian hydrocarbon pools in the Tarim Basin. The widely distributed asphaltic sandstones in the Tazhong (central Tarim) and Tabei (northern Tarim) areas are the results of destruction of hydrocarbon pools formed in the first-stage, and the asphaltic sandstones around the Awati Sag were formed in the second-stage. The hydrocarbon migration characteristics reflected by the residual dry asphalts could represent the migration characteristics of hydrocarbons in the Silurian paleo-pools, while the present movable oil in the Silurian reservoirs is related to the later-stage (the third-stage) hydrocarbon accumulation.

  10. Chemical Analysis of Hydrocarbon Grease from Spin Bearing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    antioxidant but rather to some grease degradation products. (The antioxidant is expected to vaporize and leave the grease under vacuum.) The gas...to 10-3 torr level, phenyl-8- naphthylamIne Is sufficiently volatile to vaporize and leave the grease. The appearance of the solitary, hydrocarbon...Configuration of 2,4- Decadienals Isolated from Oils Containing Linoleic Acid," Nature 185, 310-311 (1960). 7. B. G. Tarladgis, and B. M. Watts

  11. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  12. Distribution of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; ZHAO Suping; CHEN Lixin; HUO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China were discussed in this paper, and differences between the East and the West basins in tectonic setting, age, lithology, sedimentary environment, and hydrocarbon generation feature and potential were also studied. Considering the Lüliang Mountains-Dalou Mountains as the boundary, source rocks in the East basins are distributed mainly in three NNE-trend subsiding belts, and those in the West basins are distributed in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains and Qilian Mountains. They are mainly NWW trending and can be divided into four basin groups.

  13. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  14. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX; Uwechue, Uzo Philip [Houston, TX

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  15. Bearing-Only Formation Control for Cascade Multirobots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation control method is proposed, which is used to queue multirobots in a single-direction cascade structure. In the cascade formation, each robot is a follower for the previous robot and a leader for the next robot, and the robots in the middle act as both leader and follower. The follower robot can only observe the bearing information of the leader robot. The observability of the cascade leader-follower formation is studied, which shows that the bearing-only observation meets the observability conditions required for the nonlinear system. Based on the bearing-only observations, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF is employed for the state estimation of the leader and the follower robots at all levels, which enables the real-time movement control of the follower robots via the input-output feedback control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can efficiently control the formation of multirobots as desired.

  16. New Approaches for the Production of Hydrocarbons from Hydrate Bearing Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Giese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of natural gas hydrates at all active and passive continental margins has been proven. Their global occurrence as well as the fact that huge amounts of methane and other lighter hydrocarbons are stored in natural gas hydrates has led to the idea of using hydrate bearing sediments as an energy resource. However, natural gas hydrates remain stable as long as they are in mechanical, thermal and chemical equilibrium with their environment. Thus, for the production of gas from hydrate bearing sediments, at least one of these equilibrium states must be disturbed by depressurization, heating or addition of chemicals such as CO2. Depressurization, thermal or chemical stimulation may be used alone or in combination, but the idea of producing hydrocarbons from hydrate bearing sediments by CO2 injection suggests the potential of an almost emission free use of this unconventional natural gas resource. However, up to now there are still open questions regarding all three production principles. Within the framework of the German national research project SUGAR the thermal stimulation method by use of in situ combustion was developed and tested on a pilot plant scale and the CH4-CO2 swapping process in gas hydrates studied on a molecular level. Microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for in situ investigations of the CO2-hydrocarbon exchange process in gas hydrates and its driving forces. For the thermal stimulation a heat exchange reactor was designed and tested for the exothermal catalytic oxidation of methane. Furthermore, a large scale reservoir simulator was realized to synthesize hydrates in sediments under conditions similar to nature and to test the efficiency of the reactor. Thermocouples placed in the reservoir simulator with a total volume of 425 L collect data regarding the propagation of the heat front. In addition, CH4 sensors are placed in the water saturated sediment to detect the distribution of CH4

  17. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  18. Shock-tube pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons - Formation of soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Hsu, J. P.; Miller, D. L.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Soot formation in pyrolysis of chlorinated methanes, their mixtures with methane, and chlorinated ethylenes were studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. An additional single-pulse shock-tube study was conducted for the pyrolysis of methane, methyl chloride, and dichloromethane. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1300-3000 K, pressures of 0.4-3.6 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations of 1-5 x 10 to the 17th atoms cu cm. The amounts of soot produced in the pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons are larger than that of their nonchlorinated counterparts. The sooting behavior and product distribution can be generally explained in terms of chlorine-catalyzed chemical reaction mechanisms. The pathway to soot from chlorinated methanes and ethylenes with high H:Cl ratio proceeds via the formation of C2H, C2H2, and C2H3 species. For chlorinated hydrocarbons with low H:Cl ratio, the formation of C2 and its contribution to soot formation at high temperatures becomes significant. There is evidence for the importance of CHCl radical and its reactions in the pyrolysis of dichloromethane.

  19. Shock-tube pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons - Formation of soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Hsu, J. P.; Miller, D. L.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Soot formation in pyrolysis of chlorinated methanes, their mixtures with methane, and chlorinated ethylenes were studied behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the attenuation of an He-Ne laser beam. An additional single-pulse shock-tube study was conducted for the pyrolysis of methane, methyl chloride, and dichloromethane. The experiments were performed at temperatures 1300-3000 K, pressures of 0.4-3.6 bar, and total carbon atom concentrations of 1-5 x 10 to the 17th atoms cu cm. The amounts of soot produced in the pyrolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons are larger than that of their nonchlorinated counterparts. The sooting behavior and product distribution can be generally explained in terms of chlorine-catalyzed chemical reaction mechanisms. The pathway to soot from chlorinated methanes and ethylenes with high H:Cl ratio proceeds via the formation of C2H, C2H2, and C2H3 species. For chlorinated hydrocarbons with low H:Cl ratio, the formation of C2 and its contribution to soot formation at high temperatures becomes significant. There is evidence for the importance of CHCl radical and its reactions in the pyrolysis of dichloromethane.

  20. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Miller, David Scott

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  1. The Qishn Formation, Yemen: lithofacies and hydrocarbon habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beydoun, Z.R. (American Univ., Beirut (Lebanon)); Bamahmoud, M.O.; Nani, A.S.O. (Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Sana' a (Yemen, Republic of). Petroleum Exploration and Production Board)

    1993-08-01

    The Barremian-Aptian Qishn Formation of Yemen is broadly described in the context of its role as the lowest widespread transgressive unit of the Cretaceous system in the country and of the two laterally equivalent lithofacies groups that reflect the advance of the Cretaceous sea from east to west. This is undertaken against the background to the tectonic events that preceded its deposition and those that followed it during the remainder of the Cretaceous, so as to better understand its hydrocarbon habitat. (Author)

  2. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811K. In addition, the effect of the inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in selected tests which were conducted using nickel-plated tubes. The results of the tests indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700K. No improvements were obtained when de-oxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. The results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, plating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  3. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  4. Ore-Bearing Formations of the Precambrian in South China and Their Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jurui; WANG Aiguo; RUI Xingjian; LI Chunhai

    2004-01-01

    In the Precambrian System of the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates six ore-bearing formations can be identified: the Cu-Pb-Zn-bearing formations in volcanic rocks of marine facies of the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, CuAu-bearing formations and Pb-Zn-bearing formations in volcanic rocks of marine facies of the Mesoproterozoic, Pb-Znbearing formations in volcaniclastic rock and carbonate rock of the Neoproterozoic, Fe-Mn-bearing formations in the volcaniclastic rock of the Neoproterozoic, and Ni-Cr-serpentine-bearing formations in ophiolite and ultrabasic rock of the Meso- and Neoproterozoic. They were mostly formed in the marginal rift valleys of the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates,where occur stratabound and stratiform ore deposits, thermal deposits and porphyry polymetallic deposits. The six regions with ore-bearing formations have good prospects for ore deposits.

  5. Formation History of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Asano, Ryosuke S

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are some of the major dust components in the interstellar medium (ISM). We present our evolution models for the abundance of PAHs in the ISM on a galaxy-evolution timescale. We consider shattering of carbonaceous dust grains in interstellar turbulence as the formation mechanism of PAHs while the PAH abundance can be reduced by coagulation onto dust grains, destruction by supernova shocks, and incorporation into stars. We implement these processes in a one-zone chemical evolution model to obtain the evolution of the PAH abundance in a galaxy. We find that PAH formation becomes accelerated above certain metallicity where shattering becomes efficient. For PAH destruction, while supernova shock is the primary mechanism in the metal-poor environment, coagulation is dominant in the metal-rich environment. We compare the evolution of the PAH abundances in our models with observed abundances in galaxies with a wide metallicity range. Our models reproduce both the paucity of PAH...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  7. Hydrocarbon Ultrasonic Cleaning Test for Bearings%碳氢超声波清洗轴承试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢阳; 李泽强; 王玉良; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    基于对汽油、煤油和碳氢清洗剂在性能、价格及环保性等方面的对比分析,通过小批量碳氢超声波清洗与汽油人工清洗成品轴承的振动性能对比试验,验证了碳氢超声波替代汽油清洗成品轴承的可行性,为精密轴承采用碳氢超声波清洗技术提供了数据支持。%Based on comparative analysis of performance,price and environmental protection aspects for gasoline,kero-sene and hydrocarbon cleaner,the small batch finished bearings are cleaned by hydrocarbon ultrasonic and gasoline.The vibration performance contrast test verifies feasibility of hydrocarbon ultrasonic substituting for gasoline to clean finished bearings,which provides data support for hydrocarbon ultrasonic cleaning technology for precision bearings.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation under simulated coal seam pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuqin; Wang Yuanyuan; Wang Caihong; Bao Pengcheng; Dang Jinli

    2011-01-01

    Coal seam pyrolysis occurs during coal seam fires and during underground coal gasification.This is an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in China.Pyrolysis in a coal seam was simulated in a tubular furnace.The 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority controlled PAHs were analyzed by HPLC.The effects of temperature,heating rate,pyrolysis atmosphere,and coal size were investigated.The results indicate that the 3-ring PAHs AcP and AcPy are the main species in the pyrolysis gas.The 2-ring NaP and the 4-ring Pyr are also of concern.Increasing temperature caused the total PAH yield to go through a minimum.The lowest value was obtained at the temperature of 600 ℃ Higher heating rates promote PAH formation,especially formation of the lower molecular weight PAHs.The typical heating rate in a coal seam,5 ℃/min,results in intermediate yields of PAHs.The total PAHs yield in an atmosphere of N2 is about 1.81 times that seen without added N2,which indicates that an air flow through the coal seam accelerates the formation of PAHs.An increase in coal particle size reduces the total PAHs emission but promotes the formation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs.

  9. Methane Decomposition and C2 Hydrocarbon Formation under the Condition of DC Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxun He; Miao Hu; Zhiguo Lu

    2004-01-01

    The infrared emission spectra of methane, H, CH and C2 hydrocarbons in natural gas were measured. The processes of methane decomposition and formation of C2 hydrocarbons were studied. The experiment shows that methane decomposition can be divided into three periods as the reaction proceeds.In the first period, a large number of free radicals were formed. While in the last period, the formation of C2 hydrocarbons and the decrease of free radicals were observed. The time and conditions of methane decomposition and formation of C2 hydrocarbons are different.

  10. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  11. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  12. Deposit formation and heat transfer in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to investigate the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of several hydrocarbon fuels under conditions that simulate high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. The rates of carbon deposition in heated copper and nickel-plated copper tubes were determined for RP-1, propane, and natural gas using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect on deposit formation of wall temperature, fuel pressure, and fuel velocity. In addition, the effects of fuel additives and contaminants, cryogenic fuel temperatures, and extended duration testing with intermittent operation were examined. Parametric tests to map the thermal stability characteristics of RP-1, commercial-grade propane, and natural gas were conducted at pressures of 6.9 to 13.8 MPa, bulk fuel velocities of 30 to 90 m/s, and tube wall temperatures in the range of 230 to 810 K. Also, tests were run in which propane and natural gas fuels were chilled to 230 and 160 K, respectively. Corrosion of the copper tube surface was detected for all fuels tested. Plating the inside of the copper tubes with nickel reduced deposit formation and eliminated tube corrosion in most cases. The lowest rates of carbon deposition were obtained for natural gas, and the highest rates were obtained for propane. For all fuels tested, the forced-convection heat transfer film coefficients were satisfactorily correlated using a Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number equation.

  13. Chemical reaction and dust formation studies in laboratory hydrocarbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Rainer; Majumdar, Abhijit; Thejaswini, H. C.

    Plasma chemical reaction studies with relevance to, e.g., Titan's atmosphere have been per-formed in various laboratory plasmas [1,2]. Chemical reactions in a dielectric barrier discharge at medium pressure of 250-300 mbar have been studied in CH4 /N2 and CH4 /Ar gas mixtures by means of mass spectrometry. The main reaction scheme is production of H2 by fragmenta-tion of CH4 , but also production of larger hydrocarbons like Cn Hm with n up to 10 including formation of different functional CN groups is observed. [1] A. Majumdar and R. Hippler, Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 075103 (2007) [2] H.T. Do, G. Thieme, M. Frühlich, H. Kersten, and R. Hippler, Ion Molecule and Dust Particle Formation in Ar/CH4 , Ar/C2 H2 and Ar/C3 H6 Radio-frequency Plasmas, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 45, No. 5-6, 378-384 (2005)

  14. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bernard; Hale, Arthur Herman; Miller, David Scott; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-12-22

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  15. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  16. Main controlling factors for hydrocarbon reservoir formation and petroleum distribution in Cratonic Area of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Cratonic Area of the Tarim Basin is located in the central part of the basin, developing primarily with Cambrian marine source rocks and secondly Middle to Upper Ordovician marine and Carboniferous-Permian transitional facies source rocks. The source rocks were matured in the changeable period and space, forming multiple hydrocarbon generating centers during the periods. The Cratonic Area experienced multiple tectonic orogenies, forming several palaeouplifts. The matching condition between effective hydrocarbon generating centers and the palaeouplifts in various periods is the main control factor for the formation and distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The palaeouplifts have experienced multiple hydrocarbon-filling phases, several periods of modifications and even breakdown. The palaeouplifts and the adjacent slopes around the effective hydrocarbon generating center compose the most favorable places for hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon phase is related with the evolution of the hydrocarbon generating center. In the Tarim Basin's Cratonic Area, reservoirs were mostly formed during late Hercynian. The originally formed hydrocarbon reservoirs which are adjacent to source kitchens and in the good preservation condition are the most favorable prospecting targets. Hydrocarbon is richly accumulated under the regional caprock, surrounding the faulted trends, and over and below the unconformity surfaces. Reservoirs in the Carboniferous sandstone, Ordovician karstic weathered crust and carbonate rock inside the buried hill compose the main intervals for hydrocarbon accumulation. Carboniferous and Silurian sandstone pinchout reservoirs and carbonate lithologic reservoirs with rich fractures and pores are the main targets for further prospecting.

  17. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  18. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  20. In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-14

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation is described herein. The methods may include providing heat to a first section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the first section of the formation. Heat is transferred from the heaters so that at least a first section of the formation reaches a selected temperature. At least a portion of residual heat from the first section transfers from the first section to a second section of the formation. At least a portion of hydrocarbons in the second section are mobilized by providing a solvation fluid and/or a pressurizing fluid to the second section of the formation.

  1. 四川盆地上三叠统须家河组煤系气源岩芳烃地球化学特征%Geochemical characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons of coal-bearing gas source rocks from Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡杰; 张敏

    2013-01-01

      通过对四川盆地须家河组33个煤系气源岩芳烃馏分 GC-MS 分析与研究,揭示出研究区煤系气源岩芳烃的组成特征与典型的煤系源岩存在显著差异。主要表现为芳烃组成中表征高等植物生源输入的卡达烯、惹烯、1,2,5-三甲基萘、1,2,5,6-四甲基萘等化合物含量极低;而三芴系列相对百分含量表现出高硫芴与芴、低氧芴的特征,与典型煤系烃源岩中高氧芴含量之特征差异迥然。造成四川盆地须家河组煤系气源岩芳烃组成的特殊性原因可能与该地区曾经遭受过海侵作用和高热演化有关。%Thirty three coal-bearing gas source rock samples from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Si-chuan Basin were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the concentration of cadalene, retene, 1,2,5-tri-methylnaphthalene and 1,2,5,6-tetramethylnaphthalene derived from terrigenous higher plant organic matter of the coal-bearing gas source rocks are extremely lower than those of the typical coal-bearing source rocks. The relative contents of dibenzothiophenes and fluorenes are higher while the relative content of dibenzofurans is lower com-pared to the high content of dibenzofurans in typical coal-bearing source rocks. The particular distribution may be explained by transgression effect and high maturity.

  2. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Westgate, T. D.; Ward, J. A.; Slater, G. F.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2002-04-01

    Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide, a process which is thought to occur during magma cooling and-more commonly-in hydrothermal systems during water-rock interactions, for example involving Fischer-Tropsch reactions and the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Suggestions that abiogenic hydrocarbons make a significant contribution to economic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been difficult to resolve, in part owing to uncertainty in the carbon isotopic signatures for abiogenic versus thermogenic hydrocarbons. Here, using carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses of abiogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks of the Canadian shield, we show a clear distinction between abiogenic and thermogenic hydrocarbons. The progressive isotopic trends for the series of C1-C4 alkanes indicate that hydrocarbon formation occurs by way of polymerization of methane precursors. Given that these trends are not observed in the isotopic signatures of economic gas reservoirs, we can now rule out the presence of a globally significant abiogenic source of hydrocarbons.

  3. Certain features of the formation of accumulations of hydrocarbons in the Mesozoic sediments of teh Nadym-Tazovsk interfluve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysev, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The role is shown of migration processes in the formation and disposition of accumulations of hydrocarbons relative to the facial-lithological features of the section. Special attention is focused on the process of formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in shelf strata. Certain recommendations are given in regards to the exploration for new hydrocarbon deposits.

  4. Photoirradiation of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twelve isomeric methylbenz[a]anthracene with UVA light: formation of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Chou, Ming W; Yin, Jun J; Howard, Paul C; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants, which require metabolic activation in order to exert biological activities, including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Photoactivation is another activation pathway that can lead to PAH genotoxicity. In this paper, we demonstrate that photoirradiation of a series of representative PAHs, with and without bearing a methyl substituent, with UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate resulted in the formation of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides (a lipid peroxide). The lipid peroxide formation was inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT) (free radical scavenger), NaN3 (singlet oxygen and free radical scavenger), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (superoxide scavenger), but was enhanced by the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) (extends singlet oxygen lifetime). These results suggest that photoirradiation of PAHs by UVA light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation.

  5. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  6. Characteristics of hydrocarbon sources and controlling factors of their formation in Pingliang Formation, West Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to organic geochemistry and organic petrology, the hydrocarbon sources in Pingliang Formation, W. Ordos basin, are systematically evaluated. The organic abundance of hydrocarbon source in this research is higher in the upper part of profiles than In the low, and more in mudstone than in carbonate. Most of organic matters become sapropelic, and few are humlc-aapropelic in the regions of Shibangou and Zhuzisan. According to stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in carbonate rock, boron index and ratios of elements, palaeo-salinity and sedimentary velocity are calculated. The two factors of paleao-salinity and sediment velocity, which control the distribution of organic matters, are discussed.Good relationship is found between water salinity and abundance of organic matter; in contrast, poor correlation is observed between salinity and types of organic matters. The relative sediment velocity in the research regions is also related with organic abundance and types. A low sediment velocity would lead to high abundance and good type of organic matters, and vice versa.

  7. Investigation on Methane Decomposition and the Formation of C2 Hydrocarbons in DC Discharge Plasma byEmission Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建勋; 韩媛媛; 高爱华; 周引穗; 陆治国

    2004-01-01

    The IR emission spectra of methane were measured under DC glow discharge conditions. The distinct difference in time between methane decomposition and C2 hydrocarbons formation was specially pointed out. C2 hydrocarbons formed at the end of methane decomposition. The optimum condition for C2 hydrocarbon formation was studied and the optimum combination between electric current density and methane input quantity was suggested. The appropriate reaction conditions for methane decomposition and C2 hydrocarbons formation are different, so high yield of C2 hydrocarbons will be probably obtained when different conditions are taken.

  8. Pyrolytic formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from steroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Four steroid hormones, namely androsterone, cholesterol, estrone and estradiol, have been pyrolysed at 300, 400 and 500 °C and the pyrolysates from these have been analysed by GC-MS. The results indicate that these formed different products under the pyrolysis and most of them evolved into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during their residence in the pyrolysis chamber at high temperatures. The products from the pyrolysates, at all temperatures, were analysed for similarities and differences ...

  9. Investigation of the plasma processability of natural carbon bearing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    In the south of the Russian Far East, a new perspective source of minerals was pioneered, which is the metal-bearing high carbon rocks of the Ruzhinskaya square. The rocks are rich in crystalline graphite, gold, platinum and carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and diamond-like carbon). The technique of extraction of ultrapure (99.98%) crystalline graphite from these rocks has been developed using hydrometallugical methods. The obtained graphite was used as a raw material for plasma-chemical tests succeeded in the separation of nanodimensional carbon structures, part of which could be inherited from the natural graphite-bearing rocks. The results of investigation will be used in the development of resource-saving technology of minerals extraction.

  10. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  11. Characterization of kerogens from Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Ishikari sogun kyutanso kerojien no netsubunkai GC/MS ni yoru kyarakutarizeshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, N.; Takano, O. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In order to construct a model on expulsion of hydrocarbons from kerogen, it is necessary to have knowledge on composition of generated hydrocarbons. Characterization of the hydrocarbons from kerogens of Eocene Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations was carried out by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Kerogen type classification by microscopic method was also carried out. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contents by Py-GCMS correlates to herbaceous kerogen contents by the microscopic method. Both of phenols content and aromatics content correlate to woody kerogen content. Therefore, coals and coaly shales deposited in transgression periods, which were recognized by depositional phase analysis, are richer in aliphatic-hydrocarbons content than those in regression period. This may be a reflection of environmental changes in paleoclimate and paleobotany. (author)

  12. Some practical aspects of log interpretation of gas-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banthia, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Computerized log interpretation is a standard technique of formation evaluation. Gas can be detected in shaly sandstone formation by combined neutron-density porosity logs, but if the hydrocarbon density is less than 0.8 g/cc, a correction must be made for the hydrocarbon effect on the neutron and density logs. A correction has also to be made for shaliness. A method for obtaining a crossplot porosity value is given. Log interpretation of geopressured gas condensate reservoirs is also discussed. (DLC)

  13. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of t...

  14. Concretion cyclicity of oil- and gas-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.N.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1987-02-01

    The authors find that analysis of the occurrence and abundance of concretions can be used as a method of correlating, subdividing and studying the cyclic and lithofacies makeup of sedimentary oil- and gas-bearing sequences. The cyclicity of Mesozoic sedimentogenesis in West Siberia have been examined. Two indices are used to describe the distribution of concretions: concretion saturation, the number of concentrations per meter of section; and concretion content, the percentage content of concretions in a selected interval of section. On the basis of 550 wells, the authors plotted graphs showing the mean statistical distribution of carbonate concretions in the producing horizons of individual fields. The analysis shows that their distribution is very complicated, but in general the cyclic nature is controlled by the microstructural features of the host rocks. Results are discussed. 15 references, 3 figures.

  15. Formation of hydrocarbons by micro-organisms. [Review with 152 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, C.W. (Queen Elizabeth Coll., London); Lynch, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    A review covers the formation of methane, e.g., by Methanobacterium ruminantium on hydrogen and carbon dioxide substrate in swamps, sewage plants, etc.; ethylene, e.g., from plant pathogens such as Penicillium digitatum in citrus fruits; other short-chain hydrocarbons, e.g., hexa-1,3,5-triyne, formed by the fungus Fomes annosus; longer-chain hydrocarbons, e.g., C/sub 16/-C/sub 33/ alkanes formed by algae and fungi, with the chain lengths dependent upon the carbon source used for growth; isoprenoid hydrocarbons, e.g., squalene, formed by yeasts and fungi; and geochemical aspects, such as the microbial contributions to petroleum formation. 152 references.

  16. Empirical modeling of soot formation in shock-tube pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Clary, D. W.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for empirical modeling of soot formation during shock-tube pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons is developed. The method is demonstrated using data obtained in pyrolysis of argon-diluted mixtures of toluene behind reflected shock waves. The developed model is in good agreement with experiment.

  17. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  18. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H2 FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrower, John; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Friis, Emil Enderup;

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H2 formation...

  20. Zeolite-Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation from Methanol: Density Functional Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fitzgerald

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We report detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations of important mechanisms in the methanol to gasoline (MTG process in a zeolite catalyst. Various reaction paths and energy barriers involving C-O bond cleavage and the first C-C bond formation are investigated in detail using all-electron periodic supercell calculations and recently developed geometry optimization and transition state search algorithms. We have further investigated the formation of ethanol and have identified a different mechanism than previously reported [1], a reaction where water does not play any visible role. Contrary to recent cluster calculations, we were not able to find a stable surface ylide structure. However, a stable ylide structure built into the zeolite framework was found to be possible, albeit a very high reaction barrier.

  1. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from 50 μm were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process.

  2. Normal hydrocarbons as a source of resin formation in the process of obtaining isoprene from isopentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Sire, Y.M.; Vasil' yeva, V.P.; Gitis, K.M.; Rozengart, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on a catalyst of dehydrogenation of olefins of the conversion of isoamylenes and other C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons (isoprene, n-pentenes, piperylene), formed during dehydrogenation of isoamylenes to isoprene. It was found that the yield of heavy products increases on transition from hydrocarbons of iso-structure to normal hydrocarbons, which is due to the greater ease of polycondensation of cyclopentadiene formed from n-pentenes and particularly from piperylene under conditions of dehydrogenation. A study was made by chromato-mass-spectrometry of the composition of heavy products of conversion of piperylene and isoprene. In contrast with the catalysate of isoprene, the catalysate of piperylene contains a significant proportion of hydrocarbons containing a five-membered ring in the molecule (dicyclopentadiene, indane, indene, methylindenes, azilene), this being due to the participation of cyclopentadiene in the formation of heavy products. In the two-stage process of dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoprene 95% normal hydrocarbons are formed on dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoamylenes. (JMT)

  3. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  4. Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1985-02-01

    Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

  5. Contribution of methyl group to secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Qi, Li; Cocker, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The complete atmospheric oxidation pathways leading to secondary organic aerosol remain elusive for aromatic compounds including the role of methyl substitutes on oxidation. This study investigates the contribution of methyl group to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons under low NOx condition by applying methyl carbon labeled aromatic hydrocarbons ((13C2) m-xylene and (13C2) p-xylene). Particle and gas phase oxidation products are analyzed by a series of mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-AMS, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS). The methyl group carbon containing oxidation products partition to the particle-phase at a lower rate than the carbons originating from the aromatic ring as a result of ring opening reactions. Further, the methyl carbon in the original aromatic structure is at least 7 times less likely to be oxidized when forming products that partition to SOA than the aromatic ring carbon. Therefore, oxidation of the methyl group in xylenes exerts little impact on SOA formation in current study. This study provides supporting evidence for a recent finding - a similarity in the SOA formation and composition from aromatic hydrocarbons regardless of the alkyl substitutes.

  6. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C-H films from admixtures of methane with H{sub 2} and He has been investigated by mass espectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanism of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the carburized metal. (Author)

  7. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  8. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  9. Duration of the hydrocarbon fluid formation under thermobaric conditions of the Earth's upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, Elena; Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Deep abiogenic formation of hydrocarbons is an inherent part of the Earth's global carbon cycle. It was experimentally confirmed that natural gas could be formed from inorganic carbon and hydrogen containing minerals at pressure and temperature corresponding to the Earth's upper mantle conditions. Reaction between calcite, wustite and water in the large volume device was studied in several works. It was previously proposed that reaction is possible only after 40 minutes of exposure at high pressure and temperature. In this work similar experiment at P = 60 kbar and T = 1200 K were carried out in "Toroid" type chamber with the 5 seconds duration of thermobaric exposure. Gas chromatographic analysis of the reaction products has shown the presence of hydrocarbon mixture comparable to 5 minutes and 6 hours exposure experiments. Based on this fact it is possible to conclude that the reaction of natural gas formation is instant at least at given thermobaric conditions. This experiment will help to better understand the process of deep hydrocarbon generation, particularly its kinetics.

  10. Formation dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolofsky, Scott A.; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbons released following the Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout were found in deep, subsurface horizontal intrusions, yet there has been little discussion about how these intrusions formed. We have combined measured (or estimated) observations from the DH release with empirical relationships developed from previous lab experiments to identify the mechanisms responsible for intrusion formation and to characterize the DH plume. Results indicate that the intrusions originate from a stratification-dominated multiphase plume characterized by multiple subsurface intrusions containing dissolved gas and oil along with small droplets of liquid oil. Unlike earlier lab measurements, where the potential density in ambient water decreased linearly with elevation, at the DH site it varied quadratically. We have modified our method for estimating intrusion elevation under these conditions and the resulting estimates agree with observations that the majority of the hydrocarbons were found between 800 and 1200 m.

  11. Chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation from phenyl radical pyrolysis and reaction of phenyl and acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, A; Malewicki, T; Brezinsky, K

    2012-03-15

    An experimental investigation of phenyl radical pyrolysis and the phenyl radical + acetylene reaction has been performed to clarify the role of different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) serving as precursors for soot formation. Experiments were conducted using GC/GC-MS diagnostics coupled to the high-pressure single-pulse shock tube present at the University of Illinois at Chicago. For the first time, comprehensive speciation of the major stable products, including small hydrocarbons and large PAH intermediates, was obtained over a wide range of pressures (25-60 atm) and temperatures (900-1800 K) which encompass the typical conditions in modern combustion devices. The experimental results were used to validate a comprehensive chemical kinetic model which provides relevant information on the chemistry associated with the formation of PAH compounds. In particular, the modeling results indicate that the o-benzyne chemistry is a key factor in the formation of multi-ring intermediates in phenyl radical pyrolysis. On the other hand, the PAHs from the phenyl + acetylene reaction are formed mainly through recombination between single-ring aromatics and through the hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition mechanism. Polymerization is the common dominant process at high temperature conditions.

  12. Evaluated Enthalpies of Formation of the Stable Closed Shell C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Jeffrey A.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental data on the enthalpies of formation of chloromethanes, chloroethynes, chloroethenes, and chloroethanes are critically reviewed. Enthalpy of formation values for the C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons are highly cross-linked by various measured reaction equilibria and currently available sets of values are not internally self-consistent. It is shown that the early static bomb combustion calorimetry studies on highly chlorinated compounds generally give enthalpies of formation that are systematically more positive than later values derivable from rotating bomb combustion or equilibria studies. Those previously recommended values which were based mainly on the early static bomb work therefore need substantial revision. On the basis of more recent literature data obtained with rotating bomb combustion calorimetry, together with analyses of literature data on other reaction enthalpies and equilibria involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, an updated self-consistent set of ΔfHo[298.15 K] values for closed shell chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons (25 compounds) is recommended. Data on the enthalpies of vaporization are also reviewed and values of ΔvapH[298.15 K] and ΔvapHo[298.15 K] are recommended. The presently suggested enthalpies of formation for highly chlorinated alkenes and alkanes (particularly C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2HCl5, and C2Cl6) are significantly (8-15 kJ mol-1) more negative than given by most previous evaluators. Values for the chloroethynes are 10-25 kJ mol-1 more positive than given in previous reviews and more limited changes are suggested for other compounds in the series.

  13. On the Role of Carbides in the Formation of Hydrocarbons from Deep Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecht, A.

    2012-12-01

    The origin of hydrocarbons found in rocks has been a matter of dispute for over a century. Scientists of the former Soviet Union favoured an inorganic origin, while in the west an organic origin was thought the most likely. Both hypotheses may be reconciled by considering the origin of carbon compounds from the core upwards or from the Earth surface downwards. Carbides are the key to understanding the development and distribution of global carbon compounds. They are precursors in the formation of hydrocarbons. It has been estimated that the Earth's core is composed of between 2-4% carbon. It is found in metallic form and is substantially denser that the surrounding mantle. Wood has proposed that the inner core is a carbide probably iron carbide(1). This conclusion is consistent with studies of meteorites, shock waves and densities Carbides can be divided into four groups:- (a) Interstitial: -Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta and W. (b) Covalent:- B and Si (c) Intermediate:- Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. (d) Salt like:- Groups I, II, and III. Groups (a) (b) and (c) should be included as candidates for carbides found in the inner core. Such carbides are stable at high temperature and will react with water and/or oxygen to form hydrocarbons and CO or CO2 respectively., carbides can be described as examples of a 'reactive minerals' as we suggested in 2007(2). Carbides which are stable at high temperatures react with water to yield hydrocarbons. This points to an abiotic origin for a range of natural hydrocarbons. A detailed review by Cataldo(3) analysed the relevant evidence for biological vs. inorganic origins. He suggests that metal carbides when hydrolysed yield organic 'matter'. Amongst the carbides suggested are (Cr, Fe, Ni, V, Mn and Co}. These carbides are correlated to the relative abundance of these elements in the solar system. We propose similar reactions based on carbides of calcium and aluminium for the formation of methane hydrate. The reactions are expected to

  14. CLAY MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN SHIHEZI FORMATION FROM THE HUAIBEI COAL-BEARING STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文辉; 许光泉; 刑军

    1998-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in Shihezi Formation of Huaibei coal-bearing strata are determined by X-ray diffraction and Differential Thermal Analyzer, that is restated to the sedimentfaces and climatic changes in the source area, and to a lesser extent, alterations during burial diagenesis. In the Upper Shihezi Formation, the clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in norther npart of the coal field, which was formed in alluvial sediment environment. But in the South ofHuaibei coal field, the clay mineral assemblage consists of mainly illite that reflects the influenceof sea water. The predominately kaolinite and sederite composition of the clay fraction in the lower Shihezi Formation sediments documents less relief and gentle erosion of kaolinite rich soils developing under warm source area. In the lower part of Shihezi Formation, some chlorite is detected, which suggests transformation of illite or kaolinite to chlorite under conditions of burial diagenesis.

  15. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Micelotta, E. R. [Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  16. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  17. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  18. Role of glyoxal in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: gas-phase reaction trumps reactive uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the significance of glyoxal acting as an intermediate species leading to SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation under humid conditions. Rapid SOA formation from glyoxal uptake onto aqueous (NH42SO4 seed particles is observed; however, glyoxal did not partition to SOA or SOA coated aqueous seed during all aromatic hydrocarbon experiments (RH up to 80%. Glyoxal is found to only influence SOA formation by raising hydroxyl (OH radical concentrations. Four experimental approaches supporting this conclusion are presented in this paper: (1 increased SOA formation and decreased SOA volatility in the toluene + NOx photooxidation system with additional glyoxal was reproduced by matching OH radical concentrations through H2O2 addition; (2 glyoxal addition to SOA seed formed from toluene + NOx photooxidation did not increase observed SOA volume; (3 SOA formation from toluene + NOx photooxidation with and without deliquesced (NH42SO4 seed resulted in similar SOA growth, consistent with a coating of SOA preventing glyoxal uptake onto deliquesced (NH42SO4 seed; and (4 the fraction of a C4H9+ fragment (observed by Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, HR-ToF-AMS from SOA formed by 2-tert-butylphenol (BP oxidation was unchanged in the presence of additional glyoxal despite enhanced SOA formation. This study suggests that glyoxal uptake onto aerosol is minor when the surface (and near-surface of aerosols are primarily composed of secondary organic compounds.

  19. Heterogeneity of lithologically-screened hydrocarbon formations governed by carbonate concretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.N.; Lyudofun, F.N.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    The complex structure of sections of thinning of bed-collectors governed by the constant presence of a lens of carbonate-terrigenous rocks is examined. It is indicated that the thinning traps have higher concretion carbonate content than the bed arc. The closer to the lateral lithological screen in the thinning traps, the more the concretion coefficient has a directed changing gradient of increase. The conclusion is drawn that this empirical law can be used at the stage of exploring hydrocarbon formations or for tracing the thinning line of the bed collector.

  20. Active downhole thermal property measurement system for characterization of gas hydrate-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Masafumi; Fujii, Kasumi; Tertychnyi, Vladimir; Shandrygin, Alexander; Popov, Yuri; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Kusaka, Koji; Yasuda, Masato

    2005-07-01

    Gas hydrates dissociate or form when temperature and/or pressure conditions cross the equilibrium border. When we consider gas hydrates as an energy resource, understanding those parameters is very important for developing efficient production schemes. Therefore, thermal measurement is one of the key components of the characterization of the gas hydrate-bearing formation, not only statically but also dynamically. To estimate thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and diffusivity of subsurface formations, the conventional method has been to monitor temperature passively at several underground locations and interpret collected information with assumptions such as steady heat flow or relaxation from thermal disturbance by fluid flow, etc. Because the thermal properties are estimated based on several assumptions, these passive measurement methods sometimes leave a lot of uncertainties. On the other hand, active thermal property measurement, which could minimize those uncertainties, is commonly used in a laboratory and many types of equipment exist commercially for the purpose. The concept of measurement is very simple: creating a known thermal disturbance with a thermal source and then monitoring the response of the specimen. However, simply applying this method to subsurface formation measurement has many technical and logistical difficulties. In this paper, newly developed thermal property measurement equipment and its measurement methodology are described. Also discussed are the theoretical background for the application of the methodology to a gas hydrate-bearing formation through numerical simulation and the experimental results of laboratory mockup in a controlled environment. (Author)

  1. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2007-07-01

    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)newspapernewspapernewspaper newspapernewspaper

  2. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  3. Precious Fossil-Bearing Beds of the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in Western Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lijun; YANG Yajun; ZHANG Lidong; GUO Shengzhe; WANG Wuli; ZHENG Shaolin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the subdivision into three members of the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation in western Liaoning, this paper deals mainly with the division and correlation of precious fossil birdand reptile-bearing beds of the formation in the Dachengzi, Chaoyang, Dapingfang-Meileyingzi and Fuxin-Yixian basins. Among them, the precious fossil-bearing beds in the Dachengzi Basin may be recognized as the Xidagou Bed of the second member and the Yangcaogoudonggou Bed of the third member; those in the Chaoyang Basin may be confirmed as the Shangheshou Bed of the second member and the Dongpochi Bed of the third member; those in the Dapingfang-Meileyingzi Basin are as the Lamagou Bed of the second member, the Huanghuagou Bed of the lower third member and the Yuanjiawa Bed of the upper third member; and those in the Fuxin-Yixian Basin are listed as the Tuanshanzi Bed of the second member and the Pijiagou Bed of the third member. Since these basins are distinctly separated and the bird and reptile fossils are mostly new genera and species, we have to use the associated fossil ostracod assemblages as index to correlate the Xidagou Bed with the Shangheshou Bed and the Lamagou Bed, and to correlate the Yuanjiawa Bed with the Yangcaogoudonggou Bed and the Pijiagou Bed. Primarily, we established the sequence of the precious fossil-bearing beds of the Jiufotang Formation in western Liaoning. They are represented by, in ascending order, the Xidagou Bed of the second member, the Huanghuagou Bed of the lower third member, and the Yuanjiawa Bed of the upper third member. Obviously, this work has significance for the study on the time-space distribution and radiation of birds and dinosaurs during the period of the middle Early Cretaceous.

  4. Decrypting the Formation Conditions of the Basement Carbonate-Bearing Rocks at Nili Fossae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Nili Fossae region is the site of a number of proposed Landing Sites for the Mars 2020 Rover. A distinguishing feature of many of these sites is the access to large exposures of carbonate (Ehlmann et al. 2008). Serpentinization has been proposed as a formation mechanism of these carbonates, including carbonated (Brown et al. 2010, Viviano, et al. 2013) and low temperature, near surface serpentinization. The potential for carbonated serpentization at Nili Fossae links the region to Earth analogs in terrestrial greenstone belts such as the Pilbara in Western Australia, where talc-carbonate bearing komatiite cumulate units of the Dresser Formation overlie the siliceous, stromatolite-bearing Strelley Pool Chert unit (Van Kranendonk and Pirajno, 2004). If a similar relationship exists on Mars, investigations of rocks stratigraphically beneath the carbonate-bearing units at Nili Fossae ("the basement rocks") may provide the best chance to examine well preserved organic material from the Noachian. This hypothesis is testable by Mars 2020. In preparation for the the Mars 2020 landing site, we are examining the thermodynamic relationships that favor formation of serpentine and talc-carbonate and different pressures and temperatures in the crust (Barnes 2007). This will allow us to constrain the low grade metamorphism required to replicate the proposed models of serpentinisation and help us understand the regional metamophic gradient that is critical to furthering our knowledge of the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae. Refs:Barnes, S. J. "Komatiites: Petrology, Volcanology, Metamorphism, and Geochemistry." S.E.G. 13 (2007): 13. Brown, A. J., et al.. "Hydrothermal Formation of Clay-Carbonate Alteration Assemblages in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars." EPSL 297 (2010): 174-82. Ehlmann, B. L. et al. "Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars." Science 322, no. 5909 1828-32. Van Kranendonk, M.J., and F. Pirajno. "Geochemistry of Metabasalts and Hydrothermal

  5. Impact of molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-08-01

    The molecular structure of volatile organic compounds determines their oxidation pathway, directly impacting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This study comprehensively investigates the impact of molecular structure on SOA formation from the photooxidation of 12 different eight- to nine-carbon aromatic hydrocarbons under low-NOx conditions. The effects of the alkyl substitute number, location, carbon chain length and branching structure on the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons are demonstrated by analyzing SOA yield, chemical composition and physical properties. Aromatic hydrocarbons, categorized into five groups, show a yield order of ortho (o-xylene and o-ethyltoluene) > one substitute (ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene) > meta (m-xylene and m-ethyltoluene) > three substitute (trimethylbenzenes) > para (p-xylene and p-ethyltoluene). SOA yields of aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation do not monotonically decrease when increasing alkyl substitute number. The ortho position promotes SOA formation while the para position suppresses aromatic oxidation and SOA formation. Observed SOA chemical composition and volatility confirm that higher yield is associated with further oxidation. SOA chemical composition also suggests that aromatic oxidation increases with increasing alkyl substitute chain length and branching structure. Further, carbon dilution conjecture developed by Li et al. (2016) is extended in this study to serve as a standard method to determine the extent of oxidation of an alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential evaluation of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation in the Sufyan Sag, Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jinqi; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kangjun; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-01

    The Sufyan Sag is one of the low-exploration areas in the Muglad Basin (Sudan), and hydrocarbon potential evaluation of source rocks is the basis for its further exploration. The Abu Gabra Formation consisting of three members (AG3, AG2 and AG1 from bottom to top) was thought to be the main source rock formation, but detailed studies on its petroleum geology and geochemical characteristics are still insufficient. Through systematic analysis on distribution, organic matter abundance, organic matter type, organic matter maturity and characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation, the main source rock members were determined and the petroleum resource extent was estimated in the study area. The results show that dark mudstones are the thickest in the AG2 member while the thinnest in the AG1 member, and the thickness of the AG3 dark mudstone is not small either. The AG3 member have developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Type I kerogen. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG3 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the middle period of Bentiu. In the early period of Darfur, it reached the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion peak. It is in late mature stage currently. The AG2 member developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Types II1 and I kerogen, and has lower organic matter abundance than the AG3 member. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG2 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the late period of Bentiu. In the late period of Darfur, it reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation and its expulsion. It is in middle mature stage currently. The AG1 member developed fair-good source rock mainly with Types II and III kerogen. Throughout the geological evolution history, the AG1 source rock has no effective hydrocarbon generation or expulsion processes. Combined with basin modeling results, we have concluded that the AG3 and AG2 members are the main source rock layers and the Southern Sub-sag is

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation from benzyl radicals: a reaction kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet

    2016-03-21

    The role of resonantly stabilized radicals such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl and benzyl in the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in the high temperature environments has been long known. In this work, the possibility of benzyl recombination to form three-ring aromatics, phenanthrene and anthracene, is explored. A reaction mechanism for it is developed, where reaction energetics are calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and CBS-QB3, while temperature-dependent reaction kinetics are evaluated using transition state theory. The mechanism begins with barrierless formation of bibenzyl from two benzyl radicals with the release of 283.2 kJ mol(-1) of reaction energy. The further reactions involve H-abstraction by a H atom, H-desorption, H-migration, and ring closure to gain aromaticity. Through mechanism and rate of production analyses, the important reactions leading to phenanthrene and anthracene formation are determined. Phenanthrene is found to be the major product at high temperatures. Premixed laminar flame simulations are carried out by including the proposed reactions for phenanthrene formation from benzyl radicals and compared to experimentally observed species profiles to understand their effects on species concentrations.

  8. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.

    2015-03-30

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  9. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from acetylene over nanosized olivine-type silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M; Liu, B S; Hammonds, M; Wang, N; Sarre, P J; Cheung, A S-C

    2012-05-14

    The formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in interstellar and circumstellar environments is not well understood although the presence of these molecules is widely accepted. In this paper, addition and aromatization reactions of acetylene over astrophysically relevant nesosilicate particles are reported. Gas-phase PAHs produced from exposure of acetylene gas to crystalline silicates using pulsed supersonic jet expansion (SJE) conditions were detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The PAHs produced were further confirmed in a separate experiment using a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor in which acetylene was introduced at atmospheric pressure. The gas-phase effluent and solutions of the carbonaceous compounds deposited on the nesosilicate particles were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A mechanism for PAH formation is proposed in which the Mg(2+) ions in the nesosilicate particles act as Lewis acid sites for the acetylene reactions. Our studies indicate that the formation of PAHs in mixed-chemistry astrophysical environments could arise from acetylene interacting with olivine nano-particles. These nesosilicate particles are capable of providing catalytic centres for adsorption and activation of acetylene molecules that are present in the circumstellar environments of mass-losing carbon stars. The structure and physical properties of the particles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques.

  10. In situ direct sampling mass spectrometric study on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toluene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Bikau; Susa, Akio; Miyoshi, Akira; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2007-08-30

    The gas-phase reaction products of toluene pyrolysis with and without acetylene addition produced in a flow tube reactor at pressures of 8.15-15.11 Torr and temperatures of 1136-1507 K with constant residence time (0.56 s) have been detected in an in situ direct sampling mass spectrometric study by using a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique. Those products range from methyl radical to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 522 amu (C(42)H(18)) including smaller species, radicals, polyynes, and PAHs, together with ethynyl, methyl, and phenyl PAHs. On the basis of observed mass spectra, the chemical kinetic mechanisms of the formation of products are discussed. Especially, acetylene is mixed with toluene to understand the effect of the hydrogen abstraction and acetylene addition (HACA) mechanism on the formation pathways of products in toluene pyrolysis. The most prominent outputs of this work are the direct detection of large PAHs and new reaction pathways for the formation of PAHs with the major role of cyclopenta-fused radicals. The basis of this new reaction route is the appearance of different sequences of mass spectra that well explain the major role of aromatic radicals mainly cyclopenta fused radicals of PAHs resulting from their corresponding methyl PAHs, with active participation of c-C(5)H(5), C(6)H(5), C(6)H(5)CH(2) ,and C(9)H(7) in the formation of large PAHs. The role of the HACA only seemed important for the formation of stable condensed PAHs from unstable primary PAHs with zigzag structure (having triple fusing sites) in one step by ring growth with two carbon atoms.

  11. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  12. Xe-bearing hydrocarbon ions: Observation of Xe.acetylene+rad and Xe.benzene+rad radical cations and calculations of their ground state structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kertesz, Miklos; El-Shall, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports evidence for novel types of Xe-bearing hydrocarbon radical cations. The Xe.acetylene+rad radical cation adduct is observed at nearly room temperature using the mass-selected drift cell technique. The irreversible addition of the Xe atom and the lack of back dissociation to HCCH+rad + Xe is consistent with the calculated binding energy of 0.85 eV to be contrasted with the metastable nature of the neutral Xe.acetylene adduct. The observed Xe.benzene+rad radical cation appears to be a weakly bound complex stabilized mainly by ion-induced dipole interaction consistent with a calculated binding energy in the range of 0.14-0.17 eV.

  13. Ore-bearing Formations and Mineral Resource Prospects of the Peripheral Areas of the Tarim Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The tectonic development of the Tarim block has experienced four stages, i. e. Earth's core accretion and block formation in the Precambrian, margin splitting, opening-closing and piecing up in the Early Palaeozoic, rift formation and plate unification in the Late Palaeozoic, and basin-mountain coupling and landform shaping in the Meso-Cenozoic, forming six ore-bearing formations and ore deposits of various genetic types in the Tianshan Mountains, Kunlun Mountains and Altun Mountains. In the peripheral areas of Tarim there are four giant intercontinental metallogenic belts passing through, the Central Tianshan and southwestern Tianshan belts in the former USSR and the Qinling-Qilian-Kunlun and Palaeo-Tethys belts in China. According to the macro-analysis on the nearly one thousand known deposits (occurrences) and geophysical-geochemical anomalies, and the information from reconnaissance in some areas, the region has very good prospects for mineral resources. Some of the metallogenic belts may well become the reserve bases for exploration of mineral resources in China.

  14. On the Formation of Nanobubbles in Vycor Porous Glass during the Desorption of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, A. C.; Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Favvas, E. P.; Vansant, E.; Hankins, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Vycor porous glass has long served as a model mesoporous material. During the physical adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbon vapours, such as dibromomethane, the adsorption isotherm exhibits an hysteresis loop; a gradual ascent is observed at higher pressures during adsorption, and a sharp drop is observed at lower pressures during desorption. For fully wetting fluids, an early hypothesis attributed the hysteresis to mechanistic differences between capillary condensation (adsorption) and evaporation (desorption) processes occurring in the wide bodies and narrow necks, respectively, of ‘ink-bottle’ pores. This was later recognized as oversimplified when the role of network percolation was included. For the first time, we present in-situ small angle x-ray scattering measurements on the hysteresis effect which indicate nanobubble formation during desorption, and support an extended picture of network percolation. The desorption pattern can indeed result from network percolation; but this can sometimes be initiated by a local cavitation process without pore blocking, which is preceded by the temporary, heterogeneous formation of nanobubbles involving a change in wetting states. The capacity of the system to sustain such metastable states is governed by the steepness of the desorption boundary.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H{sub 2} FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, J. D.; Jorgensen, B.; Friis, E. E.; Baouche, S.; Luntz, A. C.; Andersen, M.; Hammer, B.; Hornekaer, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mennella, V., E-mail: thrower@phys.au.dk [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2012-06-10

    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H{sub 2} formation, in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H{sub 2} loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H{sub 2} formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that highly superhydrogenated PAHs could well be formed and could act as efficient catalysts for H{sub 2} formation in the interstellar medium in low UV flux regions.

  16. Importance of Aqueous-phase Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatics in an Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, H. M.; Carlton, A. G.; Vizuete, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, E.; Kamens, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Two new secondary organic aerosol (SOA) modeling frameworks are developed, one based on an aromatic gas and particle-phase kinetic mechanism and another based on a parameterized SOA model used in conjunction with an underlying gas-phase mechanism, both of which simulate SOA formation through partitioning to two stable liquid phases: one hydrophilic containing particle aqueous-phase and the other hydrophobic comprising mainly organic components. The models were evaluated against outdoor smog chamber experiments with different combinations of initial toluene, o-xylene, p-xylene, toluene and xylene mixtures, NOx, non-SOA-forming hydrocarbon mixture, initial seed type, and humidity. Aerosol data for experiments with either ammonium sulfate or initial background seed particles, in the presence of an atmospheric hydrocarbon mixture, NOx and in sunlight under a dry atmosphere (RH = 6 to 10%) show reduced SOA formation when compared to experiments with similar initial gas and particle concentrations at higher relative humidities (RH = 40 to 90%). Both frameworks simulated reasonable fits to the total observed SOA concentrations under all conditions. For both dry and wet experiments with low initial seed, semi-volatile product partitioning in particle organic-phase is mass-transfer limited and is modeled using a dynamic gas-particle partitioning algorithm with accommodation coefficient as the primary pseudo-transport parameter. Further, the modeled SOA product distributions for both frameworks clearly show the importance of the contribution of aqueous-phase SOA particularly under conditions of low initial seed concentrations and high-humidity. For both models, under these conditions, aqueous-phase SOA from uptake of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and related polar products to particle water phase dominates as compared to the partitioning of semi-volatiles to particle organic phase. Interestingly, both the kinetic and parameterized SOA frameworks simulate similar amounts of aqueous

  17. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    CERN Document Server

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  18. Direct hydrocarbons formation from CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, M.H.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Batiot-Dupeyrat, C. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique

    2010-07-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is typically burned to produce heat, the most degraded form of energy. This paper presented a possible way to conserve fossil carbon resources and limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by transforming methane into a chemical feedstock. The Fischer-Tropsch process is one of the possible ways of producing hydrocarbons by reforming CH{sub 4} by CO{sub 2} to obtain a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). However, previous studies have shown that hydrocarbons can by produced directly from a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} mixture by non-thermal plasma, thereby avoiding the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This paper presented the results obtained in a coaxial dielectric discharge barrier (DBD) reactor for hydrocarbon formation by varying either the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio or the input energy. The main products were C{sub 2} to C{sub 4} alkanes. The increasing hydrocarbons to CO ratio with the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} initial ratio suggests a radical type mechanism. It was concluded that a 15 percent hydrocarbon yield can be obtained in a single pass with only a short loss of initial carbon. 1 ref.

  19. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Choi, Jae Min; Kim, Hwanhee; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2015-11-20

    We present the synthesis of novel magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran. The grafting strategy was based on the [alkynyl-iron] cluster in the modified dextrans, which were prepared by click reaction from alkyne-modified dextran and benzyl azide or mono-6-O-deoxy-monoazido β-cyclodextrin. Characterization was then carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Using the developed magnetic nanoparticles, the potential for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene and pyrene by sorption onto the nanomaterials was assessed. In the sorption, pi-stacking interactions of the benzene-derivatized dextran and host-guest chemistry of the β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran were considered to be significant. Furthermore, the polysaccharide derivative-coated magnetic adsorbents could be recovered by an external magnet for reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock evaluation in the Subathu Formation of Marhighat, Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Thakur; N N Dogra

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the fossil spores/pollen colouration. The analyses are based on the classification and hydrocarbon generation potential of plant derived dispersed organic matter present in the sediments. The palynofacies analysis of Subathu Formation in the area reveal moderate to rich organic matter, with amorphous organic matter constituting the bulk of the total organic matter, followed by charcoal, biodegraded organic matter, fungal remains, spores/pollen and structured terrestrial organic matter. The TAI value for the organic matter in these sediments has been ascertained as 3.00. A dominance of the sapropelic facies (amorphous organic matter) and the measured TAI values for the Subathu sediments in the Marhighat area suggests a good source-rock potential for the hydrocarbon generation.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  3. In-situ investigation of martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature was investigated with Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. The investigation reports the stabilization of retained austenite in quenched samples during storage at room temperature and reveals the thermally activated nature...

  4. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-08-15

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  5. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure.

  6. Reduced kinetic mechanism of n-heptane oxidation in modeling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in opposed-flow diffusion flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beijing ZHONG; Jun XI

    2008-01-01

    A reduced mechanism, which could couple with the multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code for quantitative description of a reacting flow, was developed for chemical kinetic modeling of polycyclic aro-matic hydrocarbon formation in an opposed-flow dif-fusion flame. The complete kinetic mechanism, which comprises 572 reactions and 108 species, was reduced to a simplified mechanism that includes only 83 reactions and 56 species through sensitivity analysis. The results computed via this reduced mechanism are nearly indistin-guishable from those via the detailed mechanism, which demonstrate that the model based on this reduced mech-anism can properly describe n-heptane oxidation chem-istry and quantitatively predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (such as benzene, naphthalene, phenan-threne and pyrene) formation in opposed-flow diffusion flames.

  7. Self-Organization and Vesicle Formation of Amphiphilic Fulleromonodendrons Bearing Oligo(poly(ethylene oxide)) Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Zhu, Hongxia; Zhou, Shengju; Xu, Wenlong; Dong, Shuli; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-03-15

    A new series of N-methylfulleropyrrolidines bearing oligo(poly(ethylene oxide))-appended Percec monodendrons (fulleromonodendrons, 4a-f) have been synthesized. The substituted position of the oligo(poly(ethylene oxide)) chain(s) on the phenyl group of the Percec monodendron for 4a-f was varied, which is at the 4-, 2,4-, 3,5-, 3,4,5-, 2,3,4- and 2,4,6- position, respectively. 4a-e are obtained as solids at 25 °C and can self-organize into lamellar phases as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, while 4f appears as a viscous liquid. The substitution patterns of the oligo(poly(ethylene oxide)) chain(s) also significantly influence the solubility of 4a-f, especially in ethanol and water. Formation of self-organized supramolecular structures of 4d and 4e in water as well as 4d in ethanol is evidenced from UV-vis and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Further studies in water using various imaging techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), freeze-fracture TEM (FF-TEM), cryo-TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed the formation of well-defined vesicles for 4d and plate-like aggregates for 4e, indicating that the aggregation behavior of the fulleromonodendrons is highly dependent on their molecular structures. For 4d in ethanol, only irregular aggregates were noticed, indicating the solvent also plays a role on regulating the aggregation behavior. After functionalization with the Percec monodendrons, 4a-f can preserve the intriguing electrochemical properties of pristine C60 as revealed by cyclic voltammetries. The thermotropic properties of 4a-f have also been investigated. It was found that all of them show good thermal stability, but no mesophases were detected within the investigated temperature ranges.

  8. Quartz-Amethyst Hosted Hydrocarbon-Bearing Fluid Inclusions from the Green Ridge Breccia in the Snoqualmie Granite, North Cascades, WA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Feely

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 m in longest dimension. The brecciated granite blocks are cemented by quartz-amethyst euhedra (<10 cm in longest dimension bearing vugs. A notable feature is the presence of centimetric scale amber coloured oil inclusions within the quartz-amethyst crystals. Fluid inclusion studies using Transmitted Light Petrography, UV Microscopy, Microthermometry, Laser Raman Microspectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry record the presence and the fluid composition of three fluid inclusion types hosted by the euhedra: primary Type 1 (liquid rich two-phase (L + V aqueous inclusions and secondary Type 2 bituminous two-phase (S + L inclusions and Type 3 amber coloured oil bearing two-phase immiscible liquid inclusions. The Green Ridge Breccia was the locus for convective hydrothermal fluid flow that formed the quartz-amethyst vugs formed at T~390 °C assuming a trapping pressure of ~1.65 kb. Later, hydrocarbon fluids migrated downwards from the roof source rock (e.g., the Guye Sedimentary Member and were trapped in the euhedra. This was followed by unroofing of the batholith and exposure of the Green Ridge Breccia. This study highlights the potential for other oil migrations into the Snoqualmie Batholith in areas where it forms the basement capped by the Guye Sedimentary Member.

  9. Modeling the Role of Alkanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Their Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computationally efficient method to treat secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from various length and structure alkanes as well as SOA from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict aerosol concentrations ...

  10. Maximum Topological Distances Based Indices as Molecular Descriptors for QSPR. 4. Modeling the Enthalpy of Formation of Hydrocarbons from Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Toropov

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The enthalpy of formation of a set of 60 hydroarbons is calculated on the basis of topological descriptors defined from the distance and detour matrices within the realm of the QSAR/QSPR theory. Linear and non-linear polynomials fittings are made and results show the need to resort to higher-order regression equations in order to get better concordances between theoretical results and experimental available data. Besides, topological indices computed from maximum order distances seems to yield rather satisfactory predictions of heats of formation for hydrocarbons.

  11. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert;

    2016-01-01

    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... porosity values than more shale-rich successions. Diagenetic studies of Pab sandstones reveal that intense mechanical compaction and cementation have reduced primary porosity and reservoir quality. Conversely, dissolution of detrital feldspar grains and volcanic fragments during burial and later uplift...

  12. Role of evaporite withdrawal in the preservation of a unique coal-bearing succession: Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, J.W.F.; Rygel, M.C. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science

    2005-05-01

    The Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation, in the Cumberland Group of Nova Scotia, is widely regarded as the world's best exposure of coal-bearing Carboniferous strata. This 1.5-km-thick coal-bearing unit is famous for upright fossil lycopsid trees, and is preferentially preserved in the Athol syncline in the western Cumberland basin. New seismic profiles show that the Athol syncline is atop a salt weld and that the Joggins Formation thins on the flanks of adjacent evaporite-cored anticlines. These observations indicate that during deposition of the Joggins Formation, at least 1 km of syndepositional subsidence was facilitated by flow of underlying salt into the adjacent anticlines. In contrast, halokinesis was mainly active during the Mississippian in the eastern Cumberland basin (Tatamagouche syncline); minibasins were filled by Mabou Group sediments, whereas the Cumberland Group is thin and lacks significant coals. This basinwide comparison shows that much of the subsidence responsible for the preservation of the coal-bearing Joggins Formation was the result of salt withdrawal at depth.

  13. Coke Formation in a Zeolite Crystal During the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Reaction as Studied with Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joel E; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Attila, Özgün; Fu, Donglong; de Winter, D A Matthijs; Meirer, Florian; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the formation of carbon deposits in zeolites is vital to developing new, superior materials for various applications, including oil and gas conversion processes. Herein, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to spatially resolve the 3D compositional changes at the sub-nm length scale in a single zeolite ZSM-5 crystal, which has been partially deactivated by the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction using (13) C-labeled methanol. The results reveal the formation of coke in agglomerates that span length scales from tens of nanometers to atomic clusters with a median size of 30-60 (13) C atoms. These clusters correlate with local increases in Brønsted acid site density, demonstrating that the formation of the first deactivating coke precursor molecules occurs in nanoscopic regions enriched in aluminum. This nanoscale correlation underscores the importance of carefully engineering materials to suppress detrimental coke formation.

  14. Provenance and diagenesis of the evaporite-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S.M.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; de Souza, P.A.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Fike, D.A.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Glotch, T.D.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, S.S.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Learner, Z.; Malin, M.C.; McSween, H.Y.; Pocock, J.; Ruff, S.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N.J.; Watters, W.A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Impure reworked evaporitic sandstones, preserved on Meridiani Planum, Mars, are mixtures of roughly equal amounts of altered siliciclastic debris, of basaltic provenance (40 ?? 10% by mass), and chemical constituents, dominated by evaporitic minerals (jarosite, Mg-, Ca-sulfates ?? chlorides ?? Fe-, Na-sulfates), hematite and possibly secondary silica (60 ?? 10%). These chemical constituents and their relative abundances are not an equilibrium evaporite assemblage and to a substantial degree have been reworked by aeolian and subaqueous transport. Ultimately they formed by evaporation of acidic waters derived from interaction with olivine-bearing basalts and subsequent diagenetic alteration. The rocks experienced an extended diagenetic history, with at least two and up to four distinct episodes of cementation, including stratigraphically restricted zones of recrystallization and secondary porosity, non-randomly distributed, highly spherical millimeter-scale hematitic concretions, millimeter-scale crystal molds, interpreted to have resulted from dissolution of a highly soluble evaporite mineral, elongate to sheet-like vugs and evidence for minor synsedimentary deformation (convolute and contorted bedding, possible teepee structures or salt ridge features). Other features that may be diagenetic, but more likely are associated with relatively recent meteorite impact, are meter-scale fracture patterns, veins and polygonal fractures on rock surfaces that cut across bedding. Crystallization of minerals that originally filled the molds, early cement and sediment deformation occurred syndepositionally or during early diagenesis. All other diagenetic features are consistent with formation during later diagenesis in the phreatic (fluid saturated) zone or capillary fringe of a groundwater table under near isotropic hydrological conditions such as those expected during periodic groundwater recharge. Textural evidence suggests that rapidly formed hematitic concretions post

  15. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzon, NM; Aukema, KG; Gralnick, JA; Wackett, LP

    2011-06-28

    A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone production as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been renewed interest in advanced biofuel sources such as bacterial hydrocarbon production. Previous studies used solvent extraction of bacterial cultures followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantify ketones and hydrocarbons (Beller HR, Goh EB, Keasling JD, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1212-1223, 2010; Sukovich DJ, Seffernick JL, Richman JE, Gralnick JA, Wackett LP, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3850-3862, 2010). While these analyses are powerful and accurate, their labor-intensive nature makes them intractable to high-throughput screening; therefore, methods for rapid identification of bacterial strains that are overproducing hydrocarbons are needed. The use of high

  16. Formation of positive ions in hydrocarbon containing dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ilarion; Pohoata, Valentin; Jijie, Roxana; Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Rusu, Ioana Alexandra; Topala, Ionut

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices are suitable experimental solutions to generate transitory molecular environments with various applications. In this study we present experimental results regarding the plasma chemistry of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in helium - hydrogen (0.1%) - hydrocarbons (1.2%) mixtures. Four types of hydrocarbon gases were studied: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Discharge diagnosis and monitoring was assured by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Molecular beam mass spectrometry is engaged to sample positive ions populations from two different plasma sources. Dissociation and generation of higher-chain and cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons were discussed as a function of feed gas and discharge geometry. We found a strong influence of these parameters on both molecular mass distribution and recombination processes in the plasma volume.

  17. Evidence from SOFIA Imaging of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation along a Recent Outflow in NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, R. M.; Werner, M.; Sahai, R.; Ressler, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    We report spatially resolved (FWHM ˜ 3.″8-4.″6) mid-IR imaging observations of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7027 taken with the 2.5 m telescope on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Images of NGC 7027 were acquired at 6.3, 6.6, 11.1, 19.7, 24.2, 33.6, and 37.1 μ {{m}} using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The observations reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and warm dust ({T}D˜ 90 K) from the illuminated inner edge of the molecular envelope surrounding the ionized gas and central star. The DustEM code was used to fit the spectral energy distribution of fluxes obtained by FORCAST and the archival infrared spectrum of NGC 7027 acquired by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Best-fit dust models provide a total dust mass of {5.8}-2.6+2.3× {10}-3 {M}⊙ , where carbonaceous large (a = 1.5 μm) and very small (a˜ 12 \\mathringA ) grains, and PAHs (3.1 \\mathringA \\lt a\\lt 12 \\mathringA ) compose 96.5, 2.2, and 1.3% of the dust by mass, respectively. The 37 μm optical depth map shows minima in the dust column density at regions in the envelope that are coincident with a previously identified collimated outflow from the central star. The optical depth minima are also spatially coincident with enhancements in the 6.2 μm PAH feature, which is derived from the 6.3 and 6.6 μm maps. We interpret the spatial anti-correlation of the dust optical depth and PAH 6.2 μm feature strength and their alignment with the outflow from the central star as evidence of dust processing and rapid PAH formation via grain-grain collisions in the post-shock environment of the dense ({n}{{H}}˜ {10}5 {{cm}}-3) photo-dissociation region and molecular envelope.

  18. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.

  19. Nile red detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones in a high-throughput format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Aukema, Kelly G; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-01-01

    A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone production as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust in regions of massive star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Els

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known on earth as a large family of tarry materials naturally present in for example coal and crude oil. In addition, they are also formed in the combustion of all sorts of carbonaceous fuels and hence are found in auto exhaust, cigarette smoke, candle soo

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust in regions of massive star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Els

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known on earth as a large family of tarry materials naturally present in for example coal and crude oil. In addition, they are also formed in the combustion of all sorts of carbonaceous fuels and hence are found in auto exhaust, cigarette smoke, candle

  2. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  3. LOW TEMPERATURE FORMATION OF NITROGEN-SUBSTITUTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANHs)—BARRIERLESS ROUTES TO DIHYDRO(iso)QUINOLINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  4. Role of evaporite withdrawal in the preservation of a unique coal-bearing succession : Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, J.W.F. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Rygel, M.C. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-07-01

    The Langsettian Joggins Formation is well recognized as the world's best exposure of coal-bearing Carboniferous strata. It occurs within the Athol Syncline, a prominent structure in the western Cumberland Basin of Nova Scotia, and is famous for upright fossil lycopsids that reach heights of 5-6 metres. New seismic profiles shot by Devon Canada in 2002, reveal that the Athol Syncline lies over a salt weld and that the Joggins Formation thins on the edge of adjacent evaporite-cored anticlines. These relationships reveal that during deposition of the Joggins Formation, at least 1 km of syndepositional subsidence was made possible by flow of underlying salt into the adjacent anticlines. In contrast, halokinesis was active mainly during the Mississippian in the eastern Cumberland Basin. Mini-basins were filled by Mabou Group sediments. The Cumberland Group is thin and lacks significant coals. This basinwide comparison indicates that salt withdrawal at depth was responsible for much of the subsidence responsible for the preservation of the coal-bearing Joggins Formation.

  5. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  6. Ab initio heats of formation for chlorinated hydrocarbons: Allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Brenda Thies; Thompson, Tyler B.

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular energies at several levels of theory (MP4/6-311G**//MP2/6-31G*, MP4/6-311+G**//MP2/6-31G*,G1, and G2) are used to determine the heats of formation of several chlorinated hydrocarbons (allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride) from atomization and isodesmic reactions. More than one isodesmic reaction was investigated for each molecule. Inconsistencies between the results from isodesmic reactions for a given molecule indicated possible errors in the experimental heats of formation for some of the chlorinated molecules used as references in the isodesmic reactions (in particular 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane). To further examine this possibility we did a multivariate regression for the G2 calculated reaction enthalpies for the 30 isodesmic reactions. In the regression, the heats of formation of the hydrocarbons and CH3Cl were fixed at the experimental values. The heats of formation of all the other chlorinated hydrocarbons were varied. The heats of formation determined using this method were: ΔHf298(CH2Cl2)=-22.6 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CHCl=Cl2)=5.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CCl2=CH2)=-0.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH3)=-27.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(c-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-3.1 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(t-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-2.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CClCH3)=-5.4 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CH-CH2Cl)=-0.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH2-CH3) =-32.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH3-CHCl-CH3 )=-35.9 kcal/mole. The calculated heats of formation were used to derive the following Benson group enthalpy values: C-(Cl)(H)2(Cd)=-15.6 kcal/mole, Cd-(Cl)(H)=-1.3 kcal/mole, and cis-halogen-alkyl =-0.3 kcal/mole.

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Hydrocarbon accumulation in network and its application in the continental rift basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in network was presented on basis of the overall analysis of the formation and evolution characteristics of the continental faulted basin and of the systemic re-search on the major controlling factors on the hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon accumu-lation in network can be defined as hydrocarbon accumulation in a three-dimensional network system which is constituted by the hydrocarbon migration passages under multiple dynamics,following the hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. The research shows that the hydrocarbon accumulation in network is composed of four elements,i.e.,hydrocarbon source (source rock kitchen),hydrocarbon accumulation terminal (trap),network pathway connecting source and terminal (transporting system),and network potential driving hydrocarbon migration in the network pathway (migration dynamics). Compared with other networks,hydrocarbon accumulation in network has three basic characteristics: the irreversible geological process of material and information flow in the network; the loss of material and information in the flow process in the network; the multiple dynamics in the flow process. Interac-tion of all the elements in the geological process can be called hydrocarbon accumulation in network. There are three basic models for hydrocarbon accumulation in network,that is,hydrocarbon accumu-lation in the network source area,hydrocarbon accumulation in the network pathway,and hydrocarbon accumulation in the network terminal. The key in the application of the hydrocarbon accumulation models in network in practice is to confirm the major accumulation stage and the function range of the four elements controlling the hydrocarbon firstly,to predict the profitable accumulation region by su-perposition of the favorable areas confirmed by four elements consequently,and to evaluate the oil-bearing property of the trap as well as confirm drilling targets. This paper takes the Dongying De-pression in the

  9. Microstructural and Chemical Characterization of the Tribolayer Formation in Highly Loaded Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Gachot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc dithiophosphates (ZDDP have been widely applied in automobile industry for over 70 years as a lubricant additive for wear protection. Tribolayers have been described as blue- and brown-colored layers on surfaces observed by microscopical observation or even bare eye presumably as a consequence of layer thickness or chemical composition. However, the reaction pathways of ZDDP tribolayers are still not yet fully understood. In the present study, the difference between the blue- and brown-colored tribolayers has been revealed by high resolution methods in cylindrical roller thrust bearings at relatively high contact pressures of around 1.92 GPa. After running a FE8 standard bearing test with a normal load of 80 kN and a temperature of 60 °C, said tribolayers could be identified on the bearing surfaces. By using Raman spectroscopy, it could be shown that the blue-colored layers are enriched by FeS and ZnS whereas the brown-colored layers show a significant amount of Fe3O4. This is an interesting finding as it clearly shows a correlation between the color appearance of the films and the chemical composition besides potential film thickness variations. Finally, transmission electron microscopy verified the amorphous nature of the formed tribolayer which is in a good agreement with literature.

  10. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  11. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E.

    1996-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  12. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  13. Sedimentary facies and hydrocarbon accumulation in the Third member of Shahejie Formation in Beijing-Tianjin Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X.; Zhang, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The exploration practice in the Beijing-Tianjin area shows that the key point of improving seismic interpretation level in a complex district lies in the high accuracy of seismic work, extraction of available seismic information and the use of the comprehensive interpretation method basing on both structure interpretation and seismic stratigraphy. This paper presents the geological interpretation results of analyzing the Third member of Shahejie Formation in Beijing-Tianjin Depression by using the method stated above. It describes the seismic facies, sedimentary facies as well as the generation, accumulation and distribution of hydrocarbons, and points out that the lower part of the member is a subaqueous fan and point bar deposit, while the middle part is a fan-delta deposit. According to the thermo-evolution-profile and TTI estimated, it is assumed that the lower part of the member is source rock with sandstone development and is also a very good reservoir rock because of having two sets of source rock reservoir and seal rock. Having structures such as Jiuzhou anticline and its down dip and Liuquan fault structure, it is favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. 4 figures.

  14. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  15. Formation of Combustible Hydrocarbons and H2 during Photocatalytic Decomposition of Various Organic Compounds under Aerated and Deaerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of “green energy” production.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a sandbank plant formation: ecology and potential for hydrocarbon oil mycorrhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Ferreira de Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of contamination related to the exploration, production, storage, transport, distribution and disposal of petroleum, and its products, carry risks that threaten fragile coastal environments, little studied and, thus, in need of attention from the scientific community. On the other hand, symbiont mechanisms essential for the very existence of many plant species, and their relation to contaminated soils, remain unknown. Despite the identification of several species of AMF halophytes soil communities in sandbanks, one can infer their bioremediation potential from studies in other types of soil, which, however, report the same genera of fungi as participants in mycorrhizoremediation processes of polluted soil. This study focuses on the application of biotechnology using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF in soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  17. Surface films of short fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks studied by molecular dynamics simulations: Spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Angel; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M; Verdes, Pedro V; Sarmiento, Félix

    2009-01-15

    Using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) it has been recently demonstrated that linear fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks (FnHm) self-assemble in water/air interfaces forming elongated and circular hemimicelles. Those structures have been observed for diblocks with at least eight fluorinated carbons. Based on the lack of a collapse pressure for F6H16, and due to the fact that no stable surface pressure values are reached under compression, it has been concluded that these molecules do not form stable monolayers. It has been also suggested that F6H16 and shorter diblocks desorb from the water surface under compression. It is not easy to accept that a significant concentration of so hydrophobic molecules can be stable in aqueous solution even when the employed experimental techniques were not able to clearly detect a well defined structure on the interface. In the present work the adsorption and arrangement of F6H16 and F6H10 at the water surface are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a function of the available area per molecule. Starting from a random mixture, the spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles is observed for both systems when the area per molecule is higher than approximately 50 A(2). For intermediate areas two pseudo-phases, one rich in hydrocarbons and the other with higher fluorocarbon concentration, are formed. For the systems with less than approximately 30 A(2) available per molecule the formation of multilayers is observed. This is the first time that the dynamics and structure of perfluoroalkane (PFA) films, and in particular of hemimicelles on a liquid surface, are observed and characterized at atomic level.

  18. Enthalpies of Formation of Noble Metal Binary Alloys Bearing Rh or Ir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The modified embedded atom method proposed by authors has been applied to calculating the enthalpies of formationof random alloys and the ordered intermetallic compounds for noble metal binary systems bearing Rh or lr. The presentresults are in good agreement with those of Miedema theory, available experiments and the first-principles quantummechanics calculations. The present results indicate that Cu-Rh, Cu-lr, Ag-Rh, Ag-lr, Au-Rh, Au-lr, Pd-Rh and Pd-lrsystems are repulsive, however, Ni-Rh, Ni-lr, Pt-lr, Pt-Rh and Rh-lr systems form solid solutions and Ni-Rh, Ni-lrand Pt-Rh show ordering tendency.

  19. Water defluoridation by hydrotalcite and takovite and subsequent formation of new fluoride-bearing phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Guo, Qingshan

    2013-01-01

    Hydrotalcite, takovite and their calcination products were used to remove fluoride from water at various molar ratios of initial fluoride to solid (F(initial):hydrotalcite or F(initial):takovite) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0, and their theoretical fluoride uptake limit. X-Ray powder diffraction and 19F magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were used to characterize the solid samples and to investigate the fluoride removal mechanisms. Water defluoridation by uncalcined and calcined hydrotalcite attributes mainly to the intercalation of F- into their interlayers and adsorption of F- onto their external surfaces. The fluoride removal percent of calcined hydrotalcite are higher than those of uncalcined hydrotalcite at F(initial):hydrotalcite ratios varying between 0.1 and 1.5, whereas the situation is the reverse at a ratio of 2.0 in the 30 d sorption runs. It was induced by the precipitation of fluoride-bearing nordstrandite and sellaite during a long contact of high concentration fluoride solution with uncalcined hydrotalcite. In contrast, the sorption of fluoride by uncalcined and calcined takovite occurs predominantly on their external surfaces. Fluoride-bearing gibbsite or nordstrandite and NiF2 were formed as the fluoride solutions were treated by uncalcined takovite in the 30 d runs, which enhanced its defluoridation effect. The fluoride removal efficiency of calcined takovite is much lower than uncalcined takovite and calcined hydrotalcite, because the expected restoration of original layered structure of takovite did not happen during the reaction of calcined takovite with the fluoride solution.

  20. Unique behaviour of dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complexes bearing pincer ligand towards catalytic formation of ammonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Arashiba, Kazuya; Kuriyama, Shogo; Sasada, Akira; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    It is vital to design effective nitrogen fixation systems that operate under mild conditions, and to this end we recently reported an example of the catalytic formation of ammonia using a dinitrogen...

  1. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  2. FORMATION OF GOLD-BEARING HYDROFRACTURING BRECCIA BODIES IN TECTONIC LENSES: A CASE STUDY ON SHUANGWANG GOLD DEPOSIT, SHAANXI, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Macro-microscopic tectonic analysis and lithologic features show that the gold-bearing breccia bodies in the Shuangwang gold deposit, for hydrofracturing of the deep-sourced and alkali-rich fluids in the Devonian sodic rock series, are identified as hydrofracturing breccia bodies. Since the Indosinian,intracontinental collisional orogenesis results in multiple fracturings and magmatic emplacements in the Qinling area. Deep-sourced fluids resulting from deep fractures and granitoid magmatic intrusion are of a supercritical nature. Joint action between the fluid-rock system and structures leads to hydroffacturing and ore formation of the gold deposit.Firstly, the progressive coaxial compression caused the competent sodic rock series and the incompetent pelitic rock series to be deformed and partitioned. Lens-like weak-strain domains are hence formed and distributed at the approximate equidistance zones and the linear strong-strain zones,respectively. Subsequently, the progressive non-coaxial shearing and right-lateral and high-angle oblique thrusting lead to the most developed fracture system in the core of the weak-strain domain to turn from compression to extension and to link up with the deep fracture systems. The periodical huge pressure decline in the pumping center causes the deep-sourced confined fluids to develop periodic tectonic pumping, hydrofracturing and precipitation-healing in the sodic rock series. The gold-bearing hydrofracturing breccia bodies are hence ultimately formed at near-equidistance tectonic lenses. On the basis of the above model, the predicted concealed gold-bearing hydrofracturing breccia bodies have been preliminarily validated by latest drillings.

  3. Formation of drug-bearing vesicles in mixed colloids of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P.; Mang, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hofmann, A.F.; Schteingart, C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Alkan-Onyuksel, H.; Ayd, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used small-angle neutron scattering to study drug interactions with mixed colloids of bile salt and phosphatidylcholine. Because the mixed colloids form liposomes spontaneously, this system is a model for drug-bile interactions that are important in understanding the efficacy of oral drug formulations and in advanced applications for liposome drug delivery systems. The authors studied particle formation in incorporation of enzymatic products formed in the gut and the effects of cholesteric drugs and taxol on vesicle formation. The studies show that particle morphology is not affected by inclusion of most cholesteric drugs and taxol, and is not affected by incorporation of the products of enzymatic action. The findings suggest that particle form is important for the physiological function of bile and they are beginning to show which drugs affect liposome formation.

  4. Evidence from SOFIA Imaging of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation along a Recent Outflow in NGC 7027

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, R M; Sahai, R; Ressler, M E

    2016-01-01

    We report spatially resolved (FWHM$\\sim3.8-4.6"$) mid-IR imaging observations of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7027 taken with the 2.5-m telescope aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Images of NGC 7027 were acquired at 6.3, 6.6, 11.1, 19.7, 24.2, 33.6, and 37.1 $\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST).The observations reveal emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and warm dust ($T_D\\sim90$ K) from the illuminated inner edge of the molecular envelope surrounding the ionized gas and central star. The DustEM code was used to fit the spectral energy distribution of fluxes obtained by FORCAST and the archival infrared spectrum of NGC 7027 acquired by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Best-fit dust models provide a total dust mass of $5.8^{+2.3}_{-2.6}\\times10^{-3}$ $\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$, where carbonaceous large ($a=1.5$ $\\mu$m) and very small ($a \\sim12\\AA$) grains, and PAHs ($...

  5. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  6. Geochemical Characterization of Coal Bearing Bara Formation at Lakhra Anticline, Jamshoro, Sindh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daahar Hakro, A.A.A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bara formation is rich in coal resources at lakhra coalfield and it is well exposed in the core of lakhra anticline. Major elements of twenty four samples of Bara formation at two sections of lakhra anticline were analyzed through X-ray fluorescence. The investigation of major elements ratio (Si, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, K, Mn, Mg, Fe+3, P & S , and their correlation coefficient (r2 show the Bara formation is formed of silica sand particles of terrigenous origin, the particles were deposited in ‘near shore to deltaic environmental conditions’. The deposition of sediments took place at a fast rate. The source of sediments was not far away and its close proximity is established by the less maturity of sediments. The prevailing humid climatic conditions might have allowed extensive vegetation, which generate possible organic source material for coal of lakhra coalfield. High organic content and high accumulation rate are potential causes of occurrence of sulfur in sediments, samples.

  7. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  8. Hydrocarbon sources and stages of reservoir formation in Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Kuqa depression bears not only plenty of natural gas, but also a large amount of condensate and smallquantity of crude oil. Based on the geochemical correlationbetween the Jurassic and Triassic terrestrial hydrocarbonsource rock, this paper confirms that the natural gas in Kuqadepression belongs to coal-type gas and the main gas sourcerock is attributed to the middle to lower Jurassic coal seriesformation, while the main oil source rock is the upper Tri-assic lacustrine mudstone. The authors indicated that Kuqadepression was slowly subsided in Mesozoic, but rapidlywent down in Late Tertiary, which made the Jurassic and Triassic source rock suddenly deep-buried and rapidlyevolved to high and over-mature phase since 5 Ma. The Triassic source rock is postponed to the Early Miocene dur-ing 23-12 Ma when entering the oil-generating peak, whilethe Jurassic is suspended to the latest 5 Ma, especially since2.5 Ma to the dry gas-generating period, which is one of thecharacteristics of the source rock thermal evolution in Kuqadepression. This paper presents a two-stage trapping andlate gas trapping model in Kuqa depression whose charac-teristics are: The main oil and gas reservoirs have differentsources. The oil reservoir is formed early while the gas reservoir is formed lately. During the early stage, it, mainly as oil, takes long distance lateral migration, while in the later stage, it, mainly as gas, takes the vertical migration and also has lateral migration. The trap formed in different time on the south and north sides of the depression and evolved into a distributional pattern with oil in the south part and gas in the north, also oil on the outer ring and gas on the inner ring. This paper points out that the late trapping of the natural gas in Kuqa depression is favorable for the preservation of large gas fields.

  9. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    potential light element that could be incorporated into Mercury's core. The goal of this study is to determine the carbon concentration at graphite saturation in various silicon-iron bearing metals relevant to possible mercurian core compositions. Future experiments will include the addition of sulfur into these metals.

  10. Measuring Star-Formation Rates of AGNs and QSOs using a new calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey

    Understanding the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion is one of the key questions in galaxy formation theory. This relation is important for understanding why at present the mass in galaxy bulges (on scales of kpc) correlates so tightly with the mass of galaxy central supermassive blackholes (on scales of AU). Feedback from supermassive black hole accretion may also be responsible for heating or expelling cold gas from galaxies, shutting off the fuel for star-formation and additional black hole growth. Did bulges proceed the formation of black holes, or vice versa, or are they contemporaneous? Therefore, understanding the exact rates of star-formation and supermassive black hole growth, and how they evolve with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. It has previously been nearly impossible to study simultaneously both star-formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies because the emission from black hole accretion contaminates nearly all diagnostics of star-formation. The "standard" diagnostics for the star-formation rate (the emission from hydrogen, UV emission, midIR emission, far-IR emission, etc) are not suitable for measuring star-formation rates in galaxies with actively accreting supermassive blackholes. In this proposal, the researchers request NASA/ADP funding for an archival study using spectroscopy with the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure simultaneously the star-formation rate (SFR) and bolometric emission from accreting supermassive blackholes to understand the complex relation between both processes. The key to this study is that they will develop a new calibrator for SFRs in galaxies with active supermassive black holes based on the molecular emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which emit strongly in the mid-IR (3 - 20 micron) and are very strong in spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The PAH molecules exist near photo-dissociation regions, and

  11. 鄂尔多斯盆地延长组下组合油气来源及成藏模式%Hydrocarbon origin and reservoir forming model of the Lower Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相博; 刘显阳; 周世新; 刘化清; 陈启林; 王菁; 廖建波; 黄军平

    2012-01-01

    通过生物标志化合物对比、流体包裹体分析及盆地模拟研究,对鄂尔多斯盆地延长组长9与长10油层组的油源、成藏期次及成藏模式进行了探讨.陇东与姬塬地区长9油层组的原油分为2种类型,第Ⅰ类来源于长7烃源岩,第Ⅱ类来源于长9烃源岩;陕北地区长10油层组的原油主要来源于长9烃源岩.陇东与姬塬地区长9油藏均发生过2期油气充注,但前者在第1期(中侏罗统直罗组沉积期)就达到了油气充注的高峰期,而后者在第2期(下白垩统志丹组沉积期)才达到油气充注高峰期;陕北长10油层组也存在2期成藏,但2期油气呈连续充注,大致从中侏罗统直罗组沉积早期一直持续到下白垩统志丹组沉积中后期.长9与长10油藏有“上生下储”、“侧生旁储”及“自生自储”3种成藏模式.图10参22%According to the comparison of biomarkers in source rocks and crude oil, fluid inclusion analysis, and basin modeling, this paper discusses the oil source, hydrocarbon accumulation period and reservoir forming model of the Chang 9 and Chang 10 oil-bearing formations, Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. The crude oil of Chang 9 in the Longdong and Jiyuan areas can be divided into two types, type I crude oil originated from the source rocks within Chang 7, while type II crude oil came from the source rocks within Chang 9. The crude oil of Chang 10 in Northern Shaanxi originated mainly from the source rocks of Chang 9. The Chang 9 oil reservoirs in both the Longdong and Jiyuan areas experienced two periods of hydrocarbon injection. The former reached the peak period of hydrocarbon injection in the first period (the depositional period of Middle Jurassic Zhiluo Formation), while the latter in the second period (the depositional period of Lower Cretaceous Zhidan Formation). There are two periods of continuous hydrocarbon injection in Chang 10 of Northern Shaanxi, generally from the early depositional period of

  12. The formation of IIE iron meteorites investigated by the chondrule-bearing Mont Dieu meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosbroek, N.; Debaille, V.; Pittarello, L.; Goderis, S.; Humayun, M.; Hecht, L.; Jourdan, F.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Vanhaecke, F.; Claeys, Ph.

    2015-07-01

    A 435 kg piece of the Mont Dieu iron meteorite (MD) contains cm-sized silicate inclusions. Based on the concentration of Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ir (8.59 ± 0.32 wt%, 25.4 ± 0.9 ppm, 61 ± 2 ppm, 7.1 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively) in the metal host, this piece can be classified as a IIE nonmagmatic iron. The silicate inclusions possess a chondritic mineralogy and relict chondrules occur throughout the inclusions. Major element analysis, oxygen isotopic analysis (Δ17O = 0.71 ± 0.02‰), and mean Fa and Fs molar contents (Fa15.7 ± 0.4 and Fs14.4 ± 0.5) indicate that MD originated as an H chondrite. Because of strong similarities with Netschaëvo IIE, MD can be classified in the most primitive subgroup of the IIE sequence. 40Ar/39Ar ages of 4536 ± 59 Ma and 4494 ± 95 Ma obtained on pyroxene and plagioclase inclusions show that MD belongs to the old (~4.5 Ga) group of IIE iron meteorites and that it has not been perturbed by any subsequent heating event following its formation. The primitive character of MD sheds light on the nature of its formation process, its thermal history, and the evolution of its parent body.

  13. Spatially Resolved 3 um Spectroscopy of IRAS 22272+5435 Formation and Evolution of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Dust in Proto-Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, M; Hayano, Y; Iye, M; Kamata, Y; Kanzawa, T; Kobayashi, N; Minowa, Y; Saint-Jacques, D J; Takami, H; Takato, N; Terada, H

    2003-01-01

    We present medium-resolution 3 um spectroscopy of the carbon-rich proto-planetary nebula IRAS 22272+5435. Spectroscopy with the Subaru Telescope adaptive optics system revealed a spatial variation of hydrocarbon molecules and dust surrounding the star. The ro-vibrational bands of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at 3.0 um are evident in the central star spectra. The molecules are concentrated in the compact region near the center. The 3.3 and 3.4 um emission of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons is detected at 600--1300 AU from the central star. The separation of spatial distribution between gas and dust suggests that the small hydrocarbon molecules are indeed the source of solid material, and that the gas leftover from the grain formation is being observed near the central star. The intensity of aliphatic hydrocarbon emission relative to the aromatic hydrocarbon emission decreases with distance from the central star. The spectral variation is well matched to that of a laboratory analog thermally ...

  14. Formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in interstellar ice analogs by cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Pilling, S.; Andrade, D. P. P.; Da Silveira, E.F.; Rothard, H.; Domaracka, A.; Boduch, P.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of double and triple C-C bonds from the processing of pure c-C6H12 (cyclohexane) and mixed H2O:NH3:c-C6H12 (1:0.3:0.7) ices by highly-charged, and energetic ions (219 MeV O^{7+} and 632 MeV Ni^{24+}) is studied. The experiments simulate the physical chemistry induced by medium-mass and heavy-ion cosmic rays in interstellar ices analogs. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accel\\'erat\\'eur National d'Ions Lourds) ...

  15. Model compound study of the pathways for aromatic hydrocarbon formation in soot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.; Solum, M. S.; Pugmire, R. J.; Jiang, Y. J.; Fletcher, T. H.; Univ. of Utah; Brigham Young Univ.

    2007-09-01

    As a follow-up of previous work on the flame pyrolysis of biphenyl and pyrene, a more detailed analysis of the pyrolytic products has been done using additional NMR data obtained on the whole soot sample correlated with detailed high-resolution and GC mass spectrometry data on the solvent-extracted portion of the same samples. These latter data complement the earlier NMR data with details of the pre-sooting structures, referred to as 'young soot', in pyrolyzed biphenyl samples collected at 1365, 1410, and 1470 K and pyrene at 1410 and 1470 K. The data reveal the roles played by free-radical-assisted polymerization reactions as well as the hydrogen-abstraction carbon-addition (HACA) reactions for the biphenyl pyrolysis. The mass spectroscopy data of pyrene describe a much different set of reactions due to polymerization which employs free-radical reactions of the pyrene due primarily to hydrogen abstraction followed by the formation of biaryl linkages at mass numbers up to five times that of the parent pyrene. Conceptual schema of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation pathways to materials detected in the soot extracts.

  16. Model compound study of the pathways for aromatic hydrocarbon formation in soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall E. Winans; Nancy A. Tomczyk; Jerry E. Hunt; Mark S. Solum; Ronald J. Pugmire; Yi Jin Jiang; Thomas H. Fletcher [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    A previous study was conducted to determine the early sooting pathways of biphenyl and pyrene. Soot/pah samples from biphenyl were collected in a fuel-rich flat-flame burner at temperatures of 1365, 1410, and 1470 K and from pyrene at 1410 and 1470K. A more detailed analysis of the pyrolitic products has been performed using additional NMR data obtained on the whole soot sample correlated with detailed high resolution as well as GC mass spectrometry data on the solvent extracted portion of the same samples. These latter data complement the earlier NMR data with details of the pre-sooting structures, referred to as 'young soot.' The data reveal the roles played by free radical assisted polymerization reactions as well as the hydrogen abstraction carbon addition (HACA) reactions for the biphenyl pyrolysis. The mass spectroscopy data of pyrene describe a much different set of reactions due to polymerization which employs free radical reactions of the pyrene due primarily to hydrogen abstraction followed by the formation of biaryl linkages at mass numbers up to five times that of the parent pyrene. Conceptual schema of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation pathways to materials detected in the soot extracts. 21 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitrogen oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. In total, while only 39% percent of the aromatic species react via the low-NOx pathway, 72% of the aromatic SOA is formed via this mechanism. Predicted SOA concentrations from aromatics in the Eastern United States and Eastern Europe are actually largest during the summer, when the [NO]/[HO2] ratio is lower. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Compared to recent observations, it would appear there are additional pathways beyond those

  18. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  19. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: martin.evans@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  20. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Santiago Formation, Oriente Basin, SE of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibor, J.; Hochuli, J. P. A.; Winkler, W.; Toro, J.

    2008-03-01

    The Santiago Formation (Late Hettangian-Sinemurian), described in the area of Santiago in the Oriente Basin of eastern Ecuador, consists of three distinct sedimentary members. The Santiago River Member is composed of limestones and calcareous sandstones. The Yuquianza Member is a monotonous sequence of black shales. The Patuca Member consists of a sequence of sandstones, greywackes, and shales, intercalated with lava flows and dikes. The fine-grained sediments of the three members are characterized by a high content of particulate organic matter (POM). Palynofacies and rock-eval analyses indicate the predominance of kerogen types II and III, with HI values that indicate a moderate to low source potential. At the type locality, the organic matter is thermally mature and locally overmatures.

  1. Depositional environment and source potential of Jurassic coal-bearing sediments (Gresten Formation, Hoflein gas/condensate field, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Bechtel, A.; Kuffner, T.; Rainer, T.; Gratzer, R.; Sauer, R.; Sperl, H. [Mount University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Coal-bearing Jurassic sediments (Gresten Formation; Lower Quartzarenite Member) are discussed as source rocks for gas and minor oil in the basement of the Alpine-Carpathian frontal zone (e.g. Hoflein gas/condensate field). Core material has therefore been analysed to characterize depositional environment and source potential of the Lower Quartzarenite Member (LQM). Geochemical data from the Hoflein condensate are used to establish a Source-condensate correlation. The LQM was deposited in a flood basin with transitions to a delta-plain environment. Coal originated in frequently flooded mires and evolved within an oxygenated and acidic environment. It is inferred from geochemical data that organic matter from aquatic macrophytes and gymnosperms contributed to coal formation. Wildfires were abundant and oxidation of plant remains occurred frequently. This resulted in the formation of dull coal with very high inertinite contents. Bituminous shales were formed in deeper waters under dysoxic conditions. Apart from abundant algae and micro-organisms, it is concluded that there was an increased contribution of higher land plants relative to macrophytes to the biomass of the shales. Despite high inertinite contents, coal within the LQM has a significant oil potential. Bituminous shales contain a Type III-II kerogen. According to pyrolysis-gas chromatography data, coal and shale generate a high wax paraffinic oil. The organic matter is immature to marginal mature (0.55% Rr). Bituminous shales are considered a potential source for the Hoflein condensate. Coal may be the source for gas and minor oil in the Klement Field, but is not the source for the condensate.

  2. A New Star-Formation Rate Calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features and Application to High Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shipley, Heath V; Rieke, George H; Brown, Michael J I; Moustakas, John

    2016-01-01

    We calibrate the integrated luminosity from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features at 6.2\\micron, 7.7\\micron\\ and 11.3\\micron\\ in galaxies as a measure of the star-formation rate (SFR). These features are strong (containing as much as 5-10\\% of the total infrared luminosity) and suffer minimal extinction. Our calibration uses \\spitzer\\ Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) measurements of 105 galaxies at $0 < z < 0.4$, infrared (IR) luminosities of $10^9 - 10^{12} \\lsol$, combined with other well-calibrated SFR indicators. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the extinction-corrected \\ha\\ luminosity over the range of luminosities in our calibration sample. The scatter is 0.14 dex comparable to that between SFRs derived from the \\paa\\ and extinction-corrected \\ha\\ emission lines, implying the PAH features may be as accurate a SFR indicator as hydrogen recombination lines. The PAH SFR relation depends on gas-phase metallicity, for which we supply an empirical correction for...

  3. Enhanced reactivity of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to birnessite in soil: reaction kinetics and nonextractable residue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woong; Lee, Seunghwan; Ryu, Hyerim; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kang, Ki-Hoon

    2008-05-01

    Phenanthrene and pyrene were not transformed by birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the presence of phenol. The phenoxy radicals generated from phenol by birnessite did not act as a mediator for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical reaction under the studied conditions. In contrast, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene were remarkably sensitive to birnessite. The disappearance patterns of the test compounds both in the aqueous phase and soil followed first-order kinetics, with a linear relationship found between the rate constants and the surface area of birnessite. Moreover, the data indicated that the reaction was faster in the presence of soil than in the aqueous phase probably because of the presence of hydroxyl groups in soil organic matter. Sequential solvent extraction was not successful in the recovery of 9-hydroxyphenanthrene from the birnessite-treated soil samples, and capillary electrophoresis data suggest the formation of nonextractable residues of the compound in soil. In addition, the acute toxicity determined by Microtox declined approximately 8.3 times in the soil samples treated with birnessite compared to untreated samples, demonstrating that the toxic compound was no longer present as its parent form.

  4. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  6. Petrography of gypsum-bearing facies of the Codó Formation (Late Aptian, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson D.S. Paz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An original and detailed study focusing the petrography of evaporites from the Late Aptian deposits exposed in the eastern and southern São Luís-Grajaú Basin is presented herein, with the attempt of distinguishing between primary and secondary evaporites, and reconstructing their post-depositional evolution. Seven evaporites phases were recognized: 1. chevron gypsum; 2. nodular to lensoidal gypsum or anhydrite; 3. fibrous to acicular gypsum; 4. mosaic gypsum; 5. brecciated gypsum or gypsarenite; 6. pseudo-nodular anhydrite or gypsum; and 7. rosettes of gypsum. The three first phases of gypsum display petrographic characteristics that conform to a primary nature. The fibrous to acicular and mosaic gypsum were formed by replacement of primary gypsum, but their origin took place during the eodiagenesis, still under influence of the depositional setting. These gypsum morphologies are closely related to the laminated evaporites, serving to demonstrate that their formation was related to replacements that did not affect the primary sedimentary structures. The pseudo-nodular anhydrite or gypsum seems to have originated by mobilization of sulfate-rich fluids during burial, probably related to halokinesis. The rosettes of gypsum, which intercept all the other gypsum varieties, represent the latest phase of evaporite formation in the study area, resulting from either intrastratal waters or surface waters during weathering.Neste trabalho, é apresentado um estudo original e detalhado enfocando os aspectos petrográficos dos evaporitos de depósitos aptianos superiores expostos no sul e leste da Bacia de São Luís-Grajaú. O objetivo é o estabelecimento de critérios que permitam distinguir entre evaporitos primários e secundários, além da reconstrução de sua evolução pós-deposicional. Sete fases de evaporitos foram reconhecidas: 1. gipsita em chevron; 2. gipsita ou anidrita nodular a lenticular; 3. gipsita fibrosa a acicular; 4. gipsita em

  7. Formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in interstellar ice analogs by cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; da Silveira, E F; Rothard, H; Domaracka, A; Boduch, P

    2012-01-01

    The formation of double and triple C-C bonds from the processing of pure c-C6H12 (cyclohexane) and mixed H2O:NH3:c-C6H12 (1:0.3:0.7) ices by highly-charged, and energetic ions (219 MeV O^{7+} and 632 MeV Ni^{24+}) is studied. The experiments simulate the physical chemistry induced by medium-mass and heavy-ion cosmic rays in interstellar ices analogs. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accel\\'erat\\'eur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited onto a polished CsI substrate previously cooled to 13 K. In-situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry at different ion fluences. Dissociation cross section of cyclohexane and its half-life in astrophysical environments were determined. A comparison between spectra of bombarded ices and young stellar sources indicates that the initial composition of grains in theses environments should contain a mixture of H2O, NH3, CO (or CO2), simple al...

  8. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  9. The Formation and Distribution of the Marine Hydrocarbon Source Rock in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiyuan; WANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    There are significant differences in type and distribution between marine source rock and continental source rock. According to the lithology, the Cambrian-Ordovician source rock in the Tarim basin is divided into two types: the carbonate source rock and the mud source rock. The two sets of source rocks are developed mainly in three sets of formations, Lower-Middle Cambrian carbonate source rock and mud source rock, Lower-Middle Ordovician mud source rock and Upper Ordovician lime mud source rock. The stratigraphic and areal distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the altitude and the sedimentary facies respectively. The mud source rock is developed in slope-semi deep sea environment. The source rock developed in the slope sedimentary environment is related with the anoxic environment and the one developed in semi deep sea has a close relationship with the up-flowing sea water. The carbonate source rock is developed mainly in platform slope of highstand systems tract and it is usually intimately associated with the salt rock. The Lower-Middle Cambrian carbonate source rock is developed mainly in the Bachu, Tazhong, Taugguzibasi and Yingmaili areas. The Lower-Middle Cambrian mud source rock is mainly developed in the areas east of the line of Kunan 1-Tadong 1. The Lower-Middle Ordovician mud source rock is developed mainly in the east slope of the Manjiaer depression. The carbonate source rock of Early Ordovician is developed mainly in the platform slope of highstand systems tract, such as the south margin of Tabei, the north slope of Tazhong, the Bachu area and Keping area.

  10. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, Corrado; Forni, Francesca; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Palmeri, Rosaria; Webster, James D.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.

    2011-11-01

    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent mafic-magma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes.

  11. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  12. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Martino C.; Forni, F.; Frezzotti, M.L.; Palmeri, R.; Webster, J.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lucchi, F.; Tranne, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 crust of Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent maficmagma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  13. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Jehol fossil-bearing formations in SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Zhang, H.; Hemming, S. R.; Fang, Y.; Mesko, G. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Jehol Biota, defined as the characteristic Eosestheria-Ephemeropsis-Lycoptera assemblage, is known to be widely distributed in East Asia. The fossils of the Jehol Biota are magnificent, exquisitely preserved and extraordinarily diverse. Since the 1990s, abundant and varied fossils, including plants, insects, salamanders, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, choristoderes, birds, mammals and freshwater invertebrates, have been discovered from the Dabeigou, Yixian and Jiufotang Formations in Inner Mongolia, and Liaoning and Hebei Provinces of NE China. Each of these Jehol fossil-bearing formations has preserved a distinct assemblage of invertebrate and vertebrate fossils. Based on major invertebrates groups, the Jehol Biota has been divided into three developing stages and a hypothesis about its distribution and spread has been proposed. There is a clear progression towards greater diversity through the three phases and it corresponds to a progressive paleogeographic expansion through time. In addition to their extensive distribution in Inner Mongolia and NE China, other strata that contain Jehol related fossils have been identified in the central and most provinces of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia and Siberia. However, the detailed correlation between the classic Jehol outcrops and the less-studied localities requires further work, including high-resolution ages. We are analyzing sixteen volcanic samples from Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces to establish a high-precision chronostratigraphy for the less-studied localities across SE China and adjacent regions. Our work will provide important data to test the timing and the duration of three phases of the Jehol radiation. Furthermore, the age results will allow us to understand the temporal relationship among the Jehol localities and test if the later phases of the Jehol radiation had broader geographic distributions, as inferred from existing collections.

  14. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  15. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  16. Effect of Composition on the Formation of Sigma during Single-Pass Welding of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, M. J.; Anderson, T. D.; Robino, C. V.; Dupont, J. N.; Michael, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    A series of 64 Mo-bearing stainless steel compositions ranging from 0 to 10 wt pct Mo and over a broad range of Ni and Cr contents were analyzed over a variety of cooling rates. Alloys were created using the arc button melting process, and laser welds were prepared on each alloy at constant power and travel speeds ranging from 4.2 to 42 mm/s. The presence of the σ-sigma intermetallic was observed in several primary γ-austenite alloys with Mo contents ≥2.5 wt pct Mo and in several primary δ-ferrite alloys with Mo contents ≥6 wt pct Mo. However, its formation cannot be explained by the eutectic solidification reaction previously explored in this class of materials by the present authors. Instead, σ-sigma was determined to form by the eutectoid decomposition of δ-ferrite ( δ → γ + σ) in the as-solidified arc melt buttons in both primary γ-austenite and primary δ-ferrite alloys. The high cooling rates in the laser welds (estimated to range from 104 °C/s to 105 °C/s) largely prevented this transformation from occurring, resulting in the retention of metastable δ-ferrite to room temperature. A correlation was observed between the composition of the δ-ferrite in the microstructure and the calculated onset temperature of sigma stability. By combining multicomponent liquidus projections and isothermal sections, a good correlation of δ-ferrite compositions that decompose to γ-austenite + σ-sigma upon cooling is presented. It is suggested that the absence of the chi ( χ) phase, often observed in a similar composition range at high Mo contents, could be attributed to the extremely low carbon content in these alloys.

  17. Formation, phase composition, texture and catalytic properties of Co-MgO-alumino-calcium catalysts in synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Bruk, I.A.; Mal' tsev, V.V.; Iem, K.C.; Yakerson, V.I.; Golosman, Y.Z.; Mamayeva, I.A.; Kalacheva, N.B.; Danyushevskii, V.Y.; Nissenbaum, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the mechanism of formation of catalysts; a special feature of this mechanism is the interaction of components (calcium aluminates and basic carbonates of cobalt and magnesium); the carrier with a developed surface and the active component distributed on this surface are formed during this process. Catalysts show maximum selectivity in synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ with a degree of reduction of the metal of 65-84% and a dispersion (according to chemisorption of CO) of 6 x 10/sup -3/ - 10 x 10/sup -3/. Maximum yield of liquid hydrocarbons (114.1 g/nm/sup 3/) was obtained in the pressure of a system of 33Co-3MgO-64 talum treated with hydrogen at 550/sup 0/C.

  18. Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun, Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.

  19. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  20. TOWARD THE FORMATION OF CARBONACEOUS REFRACTORY MATTER IN HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON-RICH ATMOSPHERES OF EXOPLANETS UPON MICROMETEOROID IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangi, Beni B.; Kim, Yong S.; Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bauschlicher Jr, Charles W. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We report on laboratory simulation experiments mimicking the chemical processing of model atmospheres of exoplanets containing C3 and C4 hydrocarbons at moderate temperatures of 400 K upon interaction of catalytic surfaces of micrometeoroids. By utilizing an ultrasonic levitator device and heating singly levitated particles under simulated microgravity conditions, Raman spectroscopy is utilized as a non-invasive tool to probe on line and in situ the conversion of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons to refractory carbonaceous matter on the surfaces of levitated particles. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and electron microscopic imaging were also conducted to gain further insight into the elementary composition and structures of the refractories formed. Our results provide compelling evidence that in the presence of a catalytic surface, which can be supplied in the form of micrometeoroids and atmospheric dust particles, hydrocarbon gases present in the atmospheres of exoplanets can be converted to refractory, carbon-rich carbonaceous matter of mainly graphitic structure with a carbon content of at least 90% at elevated temperatures. This finding might explain the low methane to carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}–CO) ratio in the hot Neptune GJ 436b, where the abundant methane photochemically converts to higher order hydrocarbons and ultimately to refractory graphite-like carbon in the presence of a silicon surface.

  1. Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Facies of Lower Oligocene Yacheng Formation in Deepwater Area of Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea:Implications for Coal-Bearing Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Ren; Hua Wang; Ming Sun; Huajun Gan; Guangzeng Song; Zhipeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    For unveiling coal-bearing source rocks in terrestrial-marine transitional sequences, the sequence stratigraphic framework and sedimentary facies of Lower Oligocene Yacheng Formation of Qiongdongnan Basin were investigated using seismic profiles, complemented by well bores and cores. Three third-order sequences are identified on the basis of unconformities on basin margins and cor-relative conformities in the basin center, namely SQYC3, SQYC2 and SQYC1 from bottom to top. Coal measure in Yacheng Formation of Qiongdongnan Basin were deposited within a range of facies asso-ciations from delta plain/tidal zone to neritic sea, and three types of favourable sedimentary facies as-sociations for coal measure were established within the sequence stratigraphic framework, including braided delta plain and alluvial fan, lagoon and tidal flat, and fan delta and coastal plain facies associa-tions. Results shown that, in the third-order sequences, coal accumulation in landward areas (such as delta plain) of the study area predominantly correlates with the early transgressive systems tract (TST) to middle highstand systems tract (HST), while in seaward areas (such as tidal flat-lagoon) it correlates with the early TST and middle HST. The most potential coal-bearing source rocks formed where the accommodation creation rate (Ra) and the peat-accumulation rate (Rp) could reach a state of balance, which varied among different sedimentary settings. Furthermore, intense tectonic subsidence and fre-quent alternative marine-continental changes of Yacheng Formation during the middle rift stage were the main reasons why the coal beds shown the characteristics of multi-beds, thin single-bed, and rapidly lateral changes. The proposed sedimentary facies associations may aid in predicting distribution of coal-bearing source rocks. This study also demonstrates that controlling factors analysis using sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology may serve as an effective approach for coal-bearing

  2. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties : Influence of cobalt chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm form

  3. Area of coal-bearing Mesaverde Formation and Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin assessment area, Colorado (psmvbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...

  4. Distribution and geological significance of 17α(H)-diahopanes from different hydrocarbon source rocks of Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG WenZheng; YANG Hua; HOU LiHui; LIU Fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on GC-MS testing data of many saturated hydrocarbon samples, 17α(H)-30 diahopanes (C30*) are extensively distributed in the lacustrine hydrocarbon source rocks of the Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, but show remarkable differences in relative abundance among various source rocks. Generally, Chang 7 high-quality source rock (oil shale) developed in deep lake anoxic environment shows lower C30* content, whereas Chang 6-9 dark mudstone developed in shallow to semi-deep lake, sub-oxidiz- ing environment shows relatively high to high C30* value. Particularly, Chang 7 and Chang 9 black mudstones in Zhidan region in the northeast of the lake basin show extremely high C30* value. A com- parative analysis was made based on lithology, organic types and various geochemical parameters indicative of redox environment, and the results indicate that environmental factors such as redox set- tings and lithology are key factors that control the C30* relative abundance, while organic types and maturity may be minor factors. High to extremely high C30* values are indicative of sub-oxidizing envi- ronment of fresh-brackish water and shallow to semi-deep lake. Therefore, research on C30* relative content and distribution in lacustrine hydrocarbon source rocks in the Yanchang Formation, especially on the difference in C30* between Chang 7 high-quality source rocks (oil shale) and Chang 6-91 source rocks (dark mudstone), will provide an important approach for classification of Mesozoic lacustrine crudes and detailed oil-source correlation in the basin.

  5. Distribution and geological significance of 17α(H)-diahopanes from different hydrocarbon source rocks of Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on GC-MS testing data of many saturated hydrocarbon samples, 17α(H)-C30 diahopanes (C30*) are extensively distributed in the lacustrine hydrocarbon source rocks of the Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, but show remarkable differences in relative abundance among various source rocks. Generally, Chang 7 high-quality source rock (oil shale) developed in deep lake anoxic environment shows lower C30* content, whereas Chang 6-9 dark mudstone developed in shallow to semi-deep lake, sub-oxidizing environment shows relatively high to high C30* value. Particularly, Chang 7 and Chang 9 black mudstones in Zhidan region in the northeast of the lake basin show extremely high C30* value. A comparative analysis was made based on lithology, organic types and various geochemical parameters indicative of redox environment, and the results indicate that environmental factors such as redox settings and lithology are key factors that control the C30* relative abundance, while organic types and maturity may be minor factors. High to extremely high C30* values are indicative of sub-oxidizing environment of fresh-brackish water and shallow to semi-deep lake. Therefore, research on C30* relative content and distribution in lacustrine hydrocarbon source rocks in the Yanchang Formation, especially on the difference in C30* between Chang 7 high-quality source rocks (oil shale) and Chang 6-91 source rocks (dark mudstone), will provide an important approach for classification of Mesozoic lacustrine crudes and detailed oil-source correlation in the basin.

  6. Construction of Taigu Tunnel in Water- bearing Formation%太峪隧道含水地层施工研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高延平

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:太峪隧道含水地层整体性较差,施工难度大,施工存在较大安全隐患.正确认识该套地层以及研究适宜的支护衬砌参数,保证隧道工程通过该套地层隧道施工的安全合理.研究结论:(1)太峪隧道含水地层成因复杂,地层具有一定的压密性,但作为下更新统地层却胶结程度差,丰富的地下水对隧道施工影响很大.(2)该隧道地质条件复杂且赋存地下水,施工中必须严格注意围岩及涌水量的变化,随时调整施工方案,以保证施工安全.(3)对未来其他项目可能会遇到类似地层的施工应审慎对待,切不可轻视,做到有备无患.%Research purposes: The integrity of the water - bearing formation in the Taigu Tunnel was poor and it was difficult to construct a tunnel in this area with great potential safety hazard. Correctly recognizing this stratum and studying the appropriate parameters for lining support were crucial to safe construction of the tunnel in water - bearing formation.Research conclusions: (1) The origin of the water - bearing formation in the Taigu Tunnel was complex. The water -bearing formation had a certain compaction property, but it was poor in cementation as the lower Pleistocene stratum, with big influence of rich underground on the construction of the tunnel. (2 ) As the geological condition of the tunnel was complicated with much underground water, the construction plan would be adjusted according to the situation of the surrounding rocks and the volume of water bursting so as to ensure the construction safety. (3 ) The more attention should be paid to the construction in the similar formations in future for the construction safety.

  7. Uranium-bearing lignite and its relation to the White River and Arikaree formations in northwestern South Dakota and adjacent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, N.M.; Bachman, G.O.; Zeller, H.D.

    1954-01-01

    In northwestern South Dakota and adjacent areas uranium-bearing lignite beds occur at many horizons in the Hell Creek formation of late Cretaceous age and the overlying Ludlow, Tongue River, and Sentinel Butte members of the Fort Union formation of Paleocene age. Uranium analyses of 275 surface and auger samples and about 1,000 core samples show that many of the lignite beds contain 0. 005 to 0. 02 percent uranium with concentrations of 0. 05 to 0.10 percent uranium in the lignite ash. Analytical data indicate that the region contains an aggregate of at least 47,500, 000 tons of lignite with an average grade of slightly more than .0. 008 percent containing 3, 900 tons of uranium. Almost a fifth of the estimated reserves are adapted to strip mining and are in beds averaging about 4 feet in thickness. Uranium concentrations of this magnitude in lignite indicate that these deposits upon the development of proper utilization techniques and processes may be an important future source of uranium. Recent discoveries of ore-grade deposits of autunite-bearing lignite and secondary uranium minerals in carbonaceous sandstone at Cave Hills and Slim Buttes indicate that northwestern South Dakota and adjacent areas may containimportant reserves of uranium-ore. The stratigraphic units containing the uraniferous lignite beds have a combined thickness of about 1, 500 feet and are unconformably overlapped by 300 feet or more of tuffaceous sandstone and bentonitic claystone of the White River and Arikaree formations of Oligocene and Miocene age. The stratigraphically highest lignite beds in the local sequence have the greatest concentration of uranium,, and the uranium content is greatest at the top of thick lignite beds, diminishing progressively downward to a vanishing point in their lower parts. Variations in permeability of the rock overlying the mineralized lignite beds seem to be reflected in the intensity of uranium mineralization. Most of the known uranium-bearing lignite

  8. Mechanisms for the formation of exhaust hydrocarbons in a single cylinder spark-ignition engine, fueled with deuterium-labeled ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.; Jackson, R.A. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science; Bennett, P.J. [BP Oil, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Combustion studies in engines have investigated the chemistry leading to the formation in the exhaust of aromatic hydrocarbons from deuterium-labeled isomeric xylenes. These fuels were: ortho-xylene-d{sub 0} and ortho-xylene=d{sub 10} (1:1); para-xylene-d{sub 0} and para-xylene-d{sub 10} (1:1); and meta-xylene-2,4,5,6-d{sub 4}. Isotopic distributions within the exhausted hydrocarbons establish the postflame chemistry involved. There is an isotope effect in the consumption of residual fuel in the postflame region. The residual fuel from each experiment exhibits minimal H-D exchange. Toluene is an intermediate in the formation of ethylbenzene, and is produced through X{sup {sm_bullet}} atom (X{sup {sm_bullet}} = H or D) displacement of methyl radicals from the xylene fuel. Benzene is formed by direct demethylation, but there are other routes. Styrene from o- and p-xylene fuels is formed intramolecularly, probably involving xylylene and methylcycloheptatetraene intermediates. Ethyltoluene is formed by combination of methyl and methylbenzyl radicals.

  9. Fluvial transport potential of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth from the late Jurassic Morrison Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Peterson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shed dinosaur teeth are commonly collected microvertebrate remains that have been used for interpretations of dinosaur feeding behaviors, paleoecology, and population studies. However, such interpretations may be biased by taphonomic processes such as fluvial sorting influenced by tooth shape: shed teeth, removed from the skull during life, and teeth possessing roots, removed from the skull after death. As such, teeth may behave differently in fluvial systems due to their differences in shape. In order to determine the influence of fluvial processes on the preservation and distribution of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth, the hydrodynamic behaviors of high-density urethane resin casts of shed and root-bearing Allosaurus and Camarasaurus teeth were experimentally tested for relative transport distances at increasing flow velocities in an artificial fluviatile environment. Results show that tooth cast specimens exhibited comparable patterns of transport at lower velocities, though the shed Camarasaurus teeth transported considerably farther in medium to higher flow velocities. Two-Way ANOVA tests indicate significant differences in the mean transport distances of tooth casts oriented perpendicular to flow (p < 0.05 with varying tooth morphologies and flow velocities. The differences exhibited in the transportability of shed and root-bearing teeth has important implications for taphonomic reconstructions, as well as future studies on dinosaur population dynamics, paleoecology, and feeding behaviors.

  10. Identification methods of coal-bearing source rocks for Yacheng Formation in the western deepwater area of South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jinfeng; ZHANG Yingzhao; WANG Hua; WANG Yahui; GAN Huajun; HE Weijun; SUN Ming; SONG Guangzeng

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the fact that the coal-beds are with the characteristics of multi-beds, thin single-bed, rapid lateral changes and deep burial, coal-bearing source rocks are difficult to be identified and predicted, especially in the lower exploration deepwater area. In this paper, a new integrative process utilizing geology and geophysics is proposed for better predicting the distribution of coal-bearing source rocks. Coal-beds were identified by the logging responses of“three higher, three lower, and one expand”and carbargilite were recognized by the characteristics of“four higher and one lower”. Based on the above logical decision, coal-beds and carbargilite can be distinguished automatically by cluster analysis of logging curves in verticality. Within the constraints of well-seismic calibration, the coal-beds group also can be detected in horizontality by the integrated representation of“negative phase, higher Q, lower impedance and lower frequency”within the seismic data. However, the distribution of coal-bearing source rocks utilizing geophysical methodology may do not conform to the geological rules of coal accumulation. And then the main geological controlling factors of coal accumulation are comprehensively analyzed as follows:(1) Paleotopography and tectonic subsidence determine the planar range of terrestrial-marine transitional facies markedly;(2) The relative sea level changes affect the accommodation space and shoreline migration, and limit the vertical range of coal-beds. More specifically, the relationship between the accommodation creation rate and the peat accumulation rate is a fundamental control on coal accumulation. The thickest and most widespread coals form where those two factors reached a state of balance;(3) The supply of autochthonous clasts and the distance between deposition places and paleovegetation accumulated area are the critical factor to form abundant coal, which means that if deposition area is close to paleouplift, there

  11. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  12. New Insight into the Formation Mechanism of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids from N-Alkyl Imidazoles and Halogenated Hydrocarbons: A Polar Microenvironment Induced and Autopromoted Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xueli; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Chengbu; Zhang, Dongju

    2017-02-09

    To illustrate the formation mechanism of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) from N-alkyl imidazoles and halogenated hydrocarbons, density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a representative system, the reaction of N-methyl imidazole with chloroethane to form 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl) IL. The reaction is shown to proceed via an SN2 transition state with a free energy barrier of 34.4 kcal/mol in the gas phase and 27.6 kcal/mol in toluene solvent. The reaction can be remarkably promoted by the presence of ionic products and water molecules. The calculated barriers in toluene are 22.0, 21.7, and 19.9 kcal/mol in the presence of 1-3 ionic pairs of [Emim]Cl and 23.5, 21.3, and 19.4 kcal/mol in the presence of 1-3 water molecules, respectively. These ionic pairs and water molecules do not participate directly in the reaction but provide a polar environment that favors stabilizing the transition state with large charge separation. Hence, we propose that the synthesis of imidazolium-based ILs from N-alkyl imidazoles and halogenated hydrocarbons is an autopromoted process and a polar microenvironment induced reaction, and the existence of water molecules (a highly polar solvent) in the reaction may be mainly responsible for the initiation of reaction.

  13. 深部热流体对油气成藏的影响%Influences of Deeply Sourced Thermal Fluid on the Formation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波; 陶明信; 王万春

    2001-01-01

    Deeply sourced thermal fluid is a kind of supercritical fluidcomposed of several constituents. Rising upward, it can transmit energy and material, and regulate and redistribute them in the inner Earth. For the formation of oil and gas, hypogene hydrothermal fluid can increase the paleotemperature of depositional basin, accelerate the evolution history of source rocks and enlarge the volume of effective source rocks. It can also extract and enrich dispersive organic matter in sediments because of its higher dissolving and diffusing capacity, and obviously contribute hydrogen to hydrocarbon generation. So the deeply sourced thermal fluid provides part of material resources for hydrocarbon generation. In addition, the reaction between thermal fluid and surrounding rocks can improve their porosity and permeability. This is favorable for the migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. Moreover, that the higher pressure and water content of thermal fluid can significantly retard the thermal destruction of hydrocarbon is advantageous to the preservation of oil and gas.%深部热流体是一种由多元组分构成的超临界流体,其上升活动可使地球内部的物质与能量发生调整或再分配。对油气而言,深部热流体携带的高热能可使沉积盆地的古地温升高,加快烃源岩的热演化进程,增加有效烃源岩的体积,促进烃类的生成;在上升过程中,因其具很强的溶解和扩散能力,故可萃取、富集沉积物中的分散有机质,同时又对生烃产生显著的加氢作用,从而为油气的形成补充物源。此外,热流体与围岩储层发生化学反应,可改善储层的孔渗条件,有利于油气的聚集成藏,而且因其具有较高的压力和含水量,可抑制烃类的热裂解而有利于油气的保存。

  14. Fluvial transport potential of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth from the late Jurassic Morrison Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E; Coenen, Jason J; Noto, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Shed dinosaur teeth are commonly collected microvertebrate remains that have been used for interpretations of dinosaur feeding behaviors, paleoecology, and population studies. However, such interpretations may be biased by taphonomic processes such as fluvial sorting influenced by tooth shape: shed teeth, removed from the skull during life, and teeth possessing roots, removed from the skull after death. As such, teeth may behave differently in fluvial systems due to their differences in shape. In order to determine the influence of fluvial processes on the preservation and distribution of shed and root-bearing dinosaur teeth, the hydrodynamic behaviors of high-density urethane resin casts of shed and root-bearing Allosaurus and Camarasaurus teeth were experimentally tested for relative transport distances at increasing flow velocities in an artificial fluviatile environment. Results show that tooth cast specimens exhibited comparable patterns of transport at lower velocities, though the shed Camarasaurus teeth transported considerably farther in medium to higher flow velocities. Two-Way ANOVA tests indicate significant differences in the mean transport distances of tooth casts oriented perpendicular to flow (p dinosaur population dynamics, paleoecology, and feeding behaviors.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Biotite-Rich Schist Reacting with B-Bearing Fluids at Upper Crustal Conditions and Correlated Tourmaline Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orlando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid–rock interaction experiments between a biotite-rich schist (from Mt. Calamita Formation, Elba Island, Italy and B-bearing aqueous fluids were carried out at 500–600 °C and 100–130 MPa. The experiments have been carried out in order to reproduce the reaction, which would have produced tourmalinisation of the biotite schist, supposedly by circulation of magmatic fluids issued from leucogranitic dykes. The reacting fluids were either NaCl-free or NaCl-bearing (20 wt % aqueous solutions, with variable concentration of H3BO3 (0.01–3.2 M. The experimental results show that tourmaline (belonging to the alkali group crystallise under high-temperature and upper crustal conditions (500–600 °C, 100–130 MPa when H3BO3 concentration in the system is greater than 1.6 M. The composition of tourmaline is either dravitic (Mg-rich or schorlitic (Fe-rich, depending if an NaCl-bearing or NaCl-free aqueous solution is used. In the first case, a significant amount of Fe released from biotite dissolution remains in the Cl-rich solution resulting from the experiment. By contrast, when pure water is used, Na/K exchange in feldspars makes Na available for tourmaline crystallisation. The high concentration of Fe in the residual fluid has an important metallogenic implication because it indicates that the interaction between the saline B-rich fluid of magmatic derivation and biotite-rich schists, besides producing tourmalinisation, is capable of mobilising significant amounts of Fe. This process could have produced, in part or totally, the Fe deposits located close to the quartz–tourmaline veins and metasomatic bodies of the Mt. Calamita Formation. Moreover, the super-hot reservoir that likely occurs in the deepest part of the Larderello–Travale geothermal field would also be the site of an extensive reaction between the B-rich fluid and biotite-bearing rocks producing tourmaline. Thus, tourmaline occurrence can be a useful guide during deep

  16. Crossed beam investigation of elementary reactions relevant to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-like molecules in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R. I.; Asvany, O.; Lee, Y. T.

    2000-04-01

    The reactions of ground state carbon atoms, C( 3P j), with benzene, C 6H 6, and phenyl radicals, C 6H 5, with methylacetylene, CH 3CCH, were investigated in crossed beam experiments at collision energies of 21.8 and 140 kJ mol -1 to investigate elementary reactions relevant to the formation and chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in extraterrestrial environments. The C( 3P j) reaction proceeds via complex formation and gives a cyclic, seven-membered C 7H 5 doublet radical plus atomic hydrogen. This pathway has neither an entrance nor exit barrier, and is exothermic. Together with the experimental verification of the carbon versus hydrogen exchange under single collision conditions, the findings have an important impact on the chemistry of aromatic molecules in interstellar clouds and outflow of carbon stars. Even in the coldest molecular clouds ( T=10 K), the benzene molecule can be destroyed upon reaction with carbon atoms, whereas they are resistant toward an attack of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Since the aromatic benzene unit is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial, PAH-like material, our results suggest that PAHs might react with carbon atoms as well. On the other side, the reaction of C 6H 5 radicals with methylacetylene to form phenylmethylacetylene is direct. Since an entrance barrier inhibits the reaction in cold molecular clouds and in the atmospheres of hydrocarbon rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn and satellites such as Titan, this reaction is expected to play a role in PAH synthesis only in high temperature interstellar environments, such as circumstellar outflows of carbon stars.

  17. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  18. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  19. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  20. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  1. UVA photoirradiation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induction of reactive oxygen species and formation of lipid peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-03-14

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors.

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Oligo(ethylene glycol)-Bearing Cellulose Oligomers for in Situ Formation of Hydrogels with Crystalline Nanoribbon Network Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Takatoshi; Sawada, Toshiki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Serizawa, Takeshi

    2016-11-29

    Enzymatic synthesis of cellulose and its derivatives has gained considerable attention for use in the production of artificial crystalline nanocelluloses with unique structural and functional properties. However, the poor colloidal stability of the nanocelluloses during enzymatic synthesis in aqueous solutions limits their crystallization-based self-assembly to greater architectures. In this study, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-bearing cellulose oligomers with different OEG chain lengths were systematically synthesized via cellodextrin phosphorylase-catalyzed oligomerization of α-d-glucose l-phosphate monomers against OEG-bearing β-d-glucose primers. The products were self-assembled into extremely well-grown crystalline nanoribbon network structures with the cellulose II allomorph, potentially due to OEG-derived colloidal stability of the nanoribbon's precursors, followed by the in situ formation of physically cross-linked hydrogels. The monomer conversions, average degree of polymerization, and morphologies of the nanoribbons changed significantly, depending on the OEG chain length. Taken together, our findings open a new avenue for the enzymatic reaction-based facile production of novel cellulosic soft materials with regular nanostructures.

  3. Sedimentary facies and depositional model of shallow water delta dominated by fluvial for Chang 8 oil-bearing group of Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 陆永潮; 吴吉元; 邢凤存; 刘璐; 马义权; 饶丹; 彭丽

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of southwestern Ordos Basin’s sedimentary characteristics, internal architectural element association styles and depositional model was illustrated through core statistics, well logging data and outcrop observations in Chang 8 oil-bearing group. This analysis indicates that shallow water delta sediments dominated by a fluvial system is the primary sedimentary system of the Chang 8 oil-bearing group of the Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin. Four microfacies with fine grain sizes are identified: distributary channels, sheet sandstone, mouth bar and interdistributary fines. According to the sandbody’s spatial distribution and internal architecture, two types of sandbody architectural element associations are identified: amalgamated distributary channels and thin-layer lobate sandstone. In this sedimentary system, net-like distributary channels at the delta with a narrow ribbon shape compose the skeleton of the sandbody that extends further into the delta front and shades into contiguous lobate distribution sheet sandstone in the distal delta front. The mouth bar is largely absent in this system. By analyzing the palaeogeomorphology, the palaeostructure background, sedimentary characteristics, sedimentary facies types and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies during the Chang 8 period, a distinctive depositional model of the Chang 8 shallow water fluvial-dominated delta was established, which primarily consists of straight multi-phase amalgamated distributary channels in the delta plain, net-like distributary channels frequently diverting and converging in the proximal delta front, sheet sandstones with dispersing contiguous lobate shapes in the distal delta front, and prodelta or shallow lake mudstones.

  4. Early diagenetic growth of carbonate concretions in the upper Doushantuo Formation in South China and their significance for the assessment of hydrocarbon source rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mineralogical and textural characteristics and organic carbon composition of the carbonate concretions from the upper Doushantuo Formation (ca. 551 Ma) in the eastern Yangtze Gorge area reveal their early diagenetic (shallow) growth in organic-rich shale. High organic carbon content (up to 10%) and abundance of framboidal pyrites in the hosting shale suggest an anoxic or euxinic depositional environment. Well-preserved cardhouse clay fabrics in the concretions suggest their formation at 0-3 m burial depth, likely associated with microbial decomposition of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane. Gases through decomposition of organic matter and/or from methanogenesis created bubbles and cavities, and anaerobic methane oxidation at the sulfate reduction zone resulted in carbonate precipitation, filling in bubbles and cavities to form spherical structures of the concretions. Rock pyrolysis analyses show that the carbonate concretions have lower total organic carbon (TOC) content but higher effective carbon than those in the host rocks. This may be caused by enclosed organic matter in pores of the concretions so that organic matter was protected from further modification during deep burial and maintained high hydrocarbon generating potential even in over-matured source rock. As a microbialite sensu latu, concretions have special growth conditions and may provide important information on the microbial activities in depositional and early burial environments.

  5. Unexpected Scholl Reaction of 6,7,13,14-Tetraarylbenzo[k]tetraphene: Selective Formation of Five-Membered Rings in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhi; Narita, Akimitsu; Osella, Silvio; Zhang, Wen; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Beljonne, David; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-03-02

    Cyclodehydrogenation is a versatile reaction that has enabled the syntheses of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We now describe a unique Scholl reaction of 6,7,13,14-tetraarylbenzo[k]tetraphene, which "unexpectedly" forms five-membered rings accompanying highly selective 1,2-shift of aryl groups. The geometric and optoelectronic nature of the resulting bistetracene analogue with five-membered rings is comprehensively investigated by single-crystal X-ray, NMR, UV-vis absorption, and cyclic voltammetry analyses. Furthermore, a possible mechanism is proposed to account for the selective five-membered-ring formation with the rearrangement of the aryl groups, which can be rationalized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The theoretical results suggest that the formation of the bistetracene analogue with five-membered rings is kinetically controlled while an "expected" product with six-membered rings is thermodynamically more favored. These experimental and theoretical results provide further insights into the still controversial mechanism of the Scholl reaction as well as open up an unprecedented entry to extend the variety of PAHs by programing otherwise unpredictable rearrangements during the Scholl reaction.

  6. A predictive model for the transport of copper by HCl-bearing water vapour in ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems: Implications for copper porphyry ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdisov, Art. A.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; van Hinsberg, V. J.

    2014-03-01

    The solubility of copper chloride and metallic copper in low-density homogenous HCl-bearing aqueous fluids was investigated experimentally at temperatures between 350 and 550 °C. Analysis of the resulting data and those on the solubility of copper chloride reported in Archibald et al. (2002) for temperatures between 280 and 320 °C suggests that at temperatures <450 °C, the solubility of copper chloride is controlled by a species having a Cu:Cl ratio of 1:1. The data also suggest that the solubility of copper chloride is controlled by the formation of hydrated copper clusters, i.e., CuCl:(H2O)n, and increases exponentially with H2O fugacity rather than linearly, as previously assumed. The hydration number (n) of the predominant cluster increases systematically with increasing pressure, and each of the gaseous solutions investigated at temperatures <450 °C contains a mixture of clusters with different hydration numbers that predominate at different pressures. A model is proposed for the quantitative evaluation of the stability of these clusters based on the observation that the Gibbs free energy of formation of the clusters determined from the experimental data shows a strong linear correlation with reciprocal temperature. This model reliably predicts the fugacity of copper in chlorine-bearing water vapour determined from solubility and liquid-vapour partitioning reported in the literature. At temperatures above 450 °C, the stoichiometry of the dominant form of the dissolved copper chloride changes from copper monochloride (Cu:Cl = 1:1) to copper dichloride (Cu:Cl = 1:2) and the hydration numbers of the corresponding clusters are constant for the range of temperatures and pressures investigated. We did not manage to determine the valence state of copper in these species, and therefore interpreted our stability data separately for two alternative sets of hydration clusters, namely; one containing monovalent copper (CuCl:HCl or CuCl2H), and the other containing

  7. Modeling the formation, decay, and partitioning of semivolatile nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitronaphthalenes) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Kamens, R.M.; Strommen, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest that th...

  8. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  9. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  10. Effect of SO2 concentration on SOA formation in a photorreactor from a mixture of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and HONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; Santiago, Manuel; García Diego, Cristina; Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Martínez-Tarifa, Adela

    2010-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important urban atmospheric pollutant, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur. In the atmosphere, SO2 can react with OH radicals to form sulfuric acid, which can condense to form acidic aerosol. Sulfuric acid particles act as an acid catalyst for some heterogeneous carbonyl reactions like hydration, polymerization or acetals formation, which may lead to a large increase on SOA mass. In order to evaluate the effect of the SO2 concentration on SOA formation, 3 experiments were performed during the campaign carried out by CIEMAT on the EUPHORE facility (CEAM, Valencia, Spain) during June- July 2008. The objective of the campaign was to evaluate the effect of different experimental conditions on SOA formation from the photooxidation of some anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs using HONO as oxidant. Experiment on 6/17/08 was selected as base case (no SO2 was introduced) and experiments 6/26/08 and 7/1/08 were selected as high SO2 (2600 ug/m3) and low SO2 (60 ug/m3) concentration experiments respectively. In the three experiments a mixture of toluene, 1,3,5-TMB (trimethylbenzene), o-xylene and octane was selected as the parent VOCs. Single and coupled to mass spectroscopy gas cromatography (GC and GC/MS), as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to measure the initial VOCs and oxidant concentrations decay and the formation of gas phase oxidation products through the experiments. Aerosol size distribution and concentration were measured with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and TEOM (tapered element oscillating monitor) respectively. In addition, analysis of the organic and inorganic aerosol content was also performed via filter sampling followed by GC/MS and ionic chromatography (for organic and inrganic content respectively). Comparing the filters collected in the three experiments, clearly the largest mass aerosol formation is observed

  11. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.

    2017-05-01

    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  13. The Origin of the Terra Meridiani Sediments: Volatile Transport and the Formation of Sulfate Bearing Layered Deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry, sedimentology, and geology of the Meridiani sedimentary deposits are best explained by eolian reworking of the sublimation residue of a large scale ice/dust deposit. This large ice deposit was located in close proximity to Terra Meridiani and incorporated large amounts of dust, sand, and SO2 aerosols generated by impacts and volcanism during early martian history. Sulfate formation and chemical weathering of the initial igneous material is hypothesized to have occurred inside of the ice when the darker mineral grains were heated by solar radiant energy. This created conditions in which small films of liquid water were created in and around the mineral grains. This water dissolved the SO2 and reacted with the mineral grains forming an acidic environment under low water/rock conditions. Subsequent sublimation of this ice deposit left behind large amounts of weathered sublimation residue which became the source material for the eolian process that deposited the Terra Meridiani deposit. The following features of the Meridiani sediments are best explained by this model: The large scale of the deposit, its mineralogic similarity across large distances, the cation-conservative nature of the weathering processes, the presence of acidic groundwaters on a basaltic planet, the accumulation of a thick sedimentary sequence outside of a topographic basin, and the low water/rock ratio needed to explain the presence of very soluble minerals and elements in the deposit. Remote sensing studies have linked the Meridiani deposits to a number of other martian surface features through mineralogic similarities, geomorphic similarities, and regional associations. These include layered deposits in Arabia Terra, interior layered deposits in the Valles Marineris system, southern Elysium/Aeolis, Amazonis Planitia, and the Hellas basin, Aram Chaos, Aureum Chaos, and Ioni Chaos. The common properties shared by these deposits suggest that all of these deposits share a common

  14. Formation Depth Estimation of Coesite-Bearing Eclogite in Dabie UHPM Zone,China:Constrained by Isotopic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Tiping

    2004-01-01

    The formation depth of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone influences not only our understanding of formation mechanism and evolution processes of collision orogenic belt, but also the studies on earth's interior and geodynamic processes. In this study, the isotopic data of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie UHPM zone are discussed to give constraints on the formation depth in the Dabie UHPM zone. The εSr of eclogite in the Dabie UHPM zone varies from 18 to 42, and the εNd varies from -6.1 to -17, both of them show the characters of isotopic disequilibrium. The oxygen isotope studies indicate that the protoliths of these UHPM rocks have experienced oxygen isotope exchange with meteoric water (or sea water) before metamorphism and no significant changes in the processes of metamorphism on their oxygen isotope composition have been recorded in these rocks. Except for one sample from Bixiling, all samples of eclogite from Dabie UHPM zone show the 3He/4He ratios from 0.79×10-7 to 9.35×10-7, indicating the important contribution of He from continental crust. All Sr, Nd, O and He isotopic studies indicate that the UHPM rocks retain the isotopic characteristics of their protoliths of crust origin. No significant influence of mantle materials has been found in these metamorphic rocks. Trying to explain above isotopic characteristics, some researchers assume that the speeds of dipping thrust and uplifting of rocks were both very high. In this condition, there will not be enough time for isotopic exchange between crust protolith and mantle materials. Therefore, we can not see the tracer of mantle materials in these UHPM rocks. However, this assumption can not be justified with available knowledge. Firstly, it was estimated that the whole process of UHPM took at least 15 Ma. During such a long period, and at the metamorphic temperature of ≥700 ℃, the protolith of crust origin can not escape from isotopic exchange with mantle materials

  15. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  16. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE IRON CONTENT ON FORMATION OF IRON-BEARING PHASES IN FOUNDRY ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gorbachiova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The microstructure and microhardness of aluminum and silumin аК12 with iron content of 0 to 12 mas.% produced by sand casting and mol casting have been investigated. For the Al–Si–Fe and Al–Si–Fe–Mn systems the portions of the liquidus surfaces, which correspond to commercial silumin compositions, have been calculated using the updated thermodynamic model of the Al– Si–Fe system and COST–507 database. The area of primary crystallization of the iron-containing a and b phases is assessed for the commercial silumin. It has been proved that manganese promotes the formation of the iron-containing a-phase in the commercial silumin.

  17. The geometry and lithology of the Cima Sandstone Lentil: a paleoseep-bearing interbed in the Moreno Formation, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. V.; Schwartz, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Cima Sandstone Lentil outcrops over a relatively small area on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in central California. Here this unit can be found in the Panoche Hills in the northern portion of the field area and the Tumey Hills in the southern portion of the field area. The Cima Sandstone resides within the 800m Moreno Formation that spans the Maastrichtian to the Danian. The Moreno Formation comprises four members, which are the Dosados Member, the Tierra Loma Member, the Marca Shale Member, and the Dos Palos Shale Member (of which the Cima Sandstone is an interbed). The Cima Sandstone contains numerous large carbonate mounds, concretions, and pavements, indicating paleoseep activity. The Cima Sandstone has never been studied in detail, but recent interest in sandstone injectites as well as interest in paleoseeps has prompted us to examine this interbed more carefully. The Cima is an immature sandstone composed primarily of quartz along with small amounts of micas and feldspars as well as varying amounts of glauconite. These minerals are generally cemented by carbonate but, occasionally, iron oxide cement is present locally. Much variation exists within the Cima Sandstone Lentil and we seek to characterize and understand this variation. One of the most obvious sources of variability is the thickness of the unit itself. The thickness ranges from near 60m in the northern Panoche Hills to only 9m in the Tumey Hills. Induration also varies noticeably, from well cemented in the north, to unconsolidated in the south. Similarly, the sandstone is grain-supported and houses some depositional structures in the northern outcrops but becomes largely matrix-supported and lacking bedding in the southern outcrops. Preliminary data suggests that proximity to carbonate concretions, fluid conduits, and underlying injectites may have some influence over grain size and sorting.

  18. Flower-bud formation in explants of photoperiodic and day-neutral Nicotiana biotypes and its bearing on the regulation of flower formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.S.; Lang, A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1993-05-15

    The capacity to form flower buds in thin-layer explants was studied in Nicotiana of several species, cultivars, and lines of differing in their response to photoperiod. This capacity was found in all biotypes examined and could extend into sepals and corolla. It varied depending on genotype, source tissue and its developmental state, and composition of the culture medium, particularly the levels of glucose, auxin, and cytokinin. It was greatest in the two day-neutral plants examined, Samsun tobacco and Nicotiana rustica, where it extended from the inflorescence region down the vegetative stem, in a basipetally decreasing gradient; it was least in the two qualitative photoperiodic plants studied, the long-day plant Nicotiana silvestris and the short-day plant Maryland Mammoth tobacco, the quantitative long-day plant Nicotiana alata and the quantitative short-day plant Nicotiana otophora line 38-G-81, where it was limited to the pedicels (and, in some cases, the sepals). Regardless of the photoperiodic response of the source plants, the response was the same in explants cultured under long and short days. The capacity to form flow buds in explants is present in all Nicotiana biotypes studied supports the idea that it is regulated by the same mechanism(s), regardless of the plant's photoperiodic character. However, flower formation in the explants is not identical with de novo flower formation in a hitherto vegetative plant: it is rather the expression of a floral state already established in the plant, although it can vary widely in extent and spatial distribution. Culture conditions that permit flower-bud formation in an explant are conditions that maintain the floral state and encourage its expression; conditions under which no flower buds are formed reduce this state and/or prevent its expression. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, south-west Libya: An organic geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Anwari, T. A.; Batten, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    A detailed organic geochemical study of 20 core and cuttings samples collected from the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, in the south-western part of Libya has demonstrated the advantages of pyrolysis geochemical methods for evaluating the source-rock potential of this geological unit. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results indicate a wide variation in source richness and quality. The basal Hot Shale samples proved to contain abundant immature to early mature kerogen type II/III (oil-gas prone) that had been deposited in a marine environment under terrigenous influence, implying good to excellent source rocks. Strata above the Hot Shale yielded a mixture of terrigenous and marine type III/II kerogen (gas-oil prone) at the same maturity level as the Hot Shale, indicating the presence of only poor to fair source rocks.

  20. Secondary organic aerosol formation from xylenes and mixtures of toluene and xylenes in an atmospheric urban hydrocarbon mixture: Water and particle seed effects (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Haofei; Parikh, Harshal M.; Chen, Eric H.; Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Rosen, Elias P.; Wang, Wenxing; Kamens, Richard M.

    2011-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photooxidation of o-, p-xylene, and toluene with xylene mixtures was investigated in the UNC dual outdoor smog chambers. Experiments were performed with different initial background aerosol concentrations and levels of relative humidity (RH) in the environment of an eleven component mixture of non-SOA-forming dilute urban hydrocarbon mixture, oxides of nitrogen and sunlight. Post-nucleation was observed in most of the experiments in the 14-20 nm range except under the conditions with high background aerosol (>5 μg m -3) and with low o-xylene concentrations (o-xylene varied from 0.8% to 6.5% depending on the RH and initial seed concentrations. p-Xylene had a lower SOA yield compared with o-xylene and the yields in experiments with toluene and xylene mixtures ranged from 1.1% to 10.3%. SOA yield was found to be positively correlated with the particle water (H 2Op) content. A new condensed aromatic kinetic mechanism employing uptake of organics in H 2Op as a key parameter was applied to all the experiments and the simulations showed reasonable fits to the observed data.

  1. Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Field

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil and natural gas development during winter in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3 production. Contrasting O3 distributions were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes in 2011 compared to none in 2012. During 2011 wintertime O3 episodes at two sites near Boulder Wyoming, situated ∼5 km apart, were observed to sometimes differ. In 2012 the lack of O3 episodes coincided with a reduction in ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC. Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most active in promoting O3 formation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural gas; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of condensate range NMHC, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.

  2. Employing CO2 as reaction medium for in-situ suppression of the formation of benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of simulated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Choi, Dongho; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes a strategic principle to enhance the thermal efficiency of pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW). An environmentally sound energy recovery platform was established by suppressing the formation of harmful organic compounds evolved from pyrolysis of MSW. Using CO2 as reaction medium/feedstock, CO generation was enhanced through the following: 1) expediting the thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of the MSWs and 2) directly reacting VOCs with CO2. This particular influence of CO2 on pyrolysis of the MSWs also led to the in-situ mitigation of harmful organic compounds (e.g., benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) considering that CO2 acted as a carbon scavenger to block reaction pathways toward benzenes and PAHs in pyrolysis. To understand the fundamental influence of CO2, simulated MSWs (i.e., various ratios of biomass to polymer) were used to avoid any complexities arising from the heterogeneous matrix of MSW. All experimental findings in this study suggested the foreseeable environmental application of CO2 to energy recovery from MSW together with disposal of MSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M. [Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock).

  4. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  5. Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  6. Silica- and sulfate-bearing rock coatings in smelter areas: Products of chemical weathering and atmospheric pollution I. Formation and mineralogical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Nathalie M.; Schindler, Michael; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2012-05-01

    Black rock-coatings occur in proximity to smelters and roast yards of the Greater Sudbury area, Ontario, Canada and contain information about the past interactions between surface minerals, and gaseous and particulate atmospheric components, many of which were pollutants. Rock-coatings were collected from various locations within the Sudbury area and are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Acidic fumigations and rain, the result of vast quantities of SO2 released from smelting, increased the chemical weathering rate of exposed rocks in the Sudbury area. Non-stoichiometric dissolution of the silicate minerals under acidic conditions resulted in the accumulation of silicic acid and the subsequent formation of a silica-gel type coating. The silica gel transformed overtime into amorphous silica, opal (opal C and opal-CT) and cristobalite. Dissolution of the underlying rock and also of metal-bearing particles by sulfuric acid resulted in the in situ formation of metal-sulfate-rich layers on the interfaces between the atmosphere and the silica-rich coating (atmosphere-coating interface, ACI) and between the silica-rich coating and the underlying rock (rock-coating interface, RCI). These metal-sulfate-rich layers contain nanometer aggregates of Fe-Cu-sulfate-hydroxide, goldichite, mereiterite, guildite, butlerite and antlerite. The silica-rich matrix also contains a mix of detrital grains from adjacent rocks and soils (feldspar, quartz, hematite, chlorite, montmorillonite) and non-dissolved smelter-derived nano- to micro-size particulates (metal-silicates, metal-oxides, C-spheres). The apparent disequilibrium between the embedded particles and the Fe-Cu-sulfates suggests that trapped nanoparticles were encapsulated into pores which prevented their equilibration with acidic metal-sulfate-bearing fluids. An XPS depth

  7. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Wood; William Quinlan

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  8. Foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  9. Foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  10. Effect of hydrocarbon to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging in tight sandstone reservoirs and method for hydrocarbon correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2017-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of the T2 distribution in the presence of hydrocarbon to properly interpret pore size distribution from NMR logging. The NMR T2 spectrum is associated with pore throat radius distribution under fully brine saturated. However, when the pore space occupied by hydrocarbon, the shape of NMR spectrum is changed due to the bulk relaxation of hydrocarbon. In this study, to understand the effect of hydrocarbon to NMR logging, the kerosene and transformer oil are used to simulate borehole crude oils with different viscosity. 20 core samples, which were separately drilled from conventional, medium porosity and permeability and tight sands are saturated with four conditions of irreducible water saturation, fully saturated with brine, hydrocarbon-bearing condition and residual oil saturation, and the corresponding NMR experiments are applied to acquire NMR measurements. The residual oil saturation is used to simulate field NMR logging due to the shallow investigation depth of NMR logging. The NMR spectra with these conditions are compared, the results illustrate that for core samples drilled from tight sandstone reservoirs, the shape of NMR spectra have much change once they pore space occupied by hydrocarbon. The T2 distributions are wide, and they are bimodal due to the effect of bulk relaxation of hydrocarbon, even though the NMR spectra are unimodal under fully brine saturated. The location of the first peaks are similar with those of the irreducible water, and the second peaks are close to the bulk relaxation of viscosity oils. While for core samples drilled from conventional formations, the shape of T2 spectra have little changes. The T2 distributions overlap with each other under these three conditions of fully brine saturated, hydrocarbon-bearing and residual oil. Hence, in tight sandstone reservoirs, the shape of NMR logging should be corrected. In this study, based on the lab experiments, seven T2 times of 1ms, 3ms, 10ms, 33ms

  11. Walking paths to and from a goal differ: on the role of bearing angle in the formation of human locomotion paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sreenivasa

    Full Text Available The path that humans take while walking to a goal is the result of a cognitive process modulated by the perception of the environment and physiological constraints. The path shape and timing implicitly embeds aspects of the architecture behind this process. Here, locomotion paths were investigated during a simple task of walking to and from a goal, by looking at the evolution of the position of the human on a horizontal (x,y plane. We found that the path while walking to a goal was not the same as that while returning from it. Forward-return paths were systematically separated by 0.5-1.9m, or about 5% of the goal distance. We show that this path separation occurs as a consequence of anticipating the desired body orientation at the goal while keeping the target in view. The magnitude of this separation was strongly influenced by the bearing angle (difference between body orientation and angle to goal and the final orientation imposed at the goal. This phenomenon highlights the impact of a trade-off between a directional perceptual apparatus-eyes in the head on the shoulders-and and physiological limitations, in the formation of human locomotion paths. Our results give an insight into the influence of environmental and perceptual variables on human locomotion and provide a basis for further mathematical study of these mechanisms.

  12. Formation of S-bearing Species by VUV/EUV Irradiation of H2S-containing Ice Mixtures: Photon Energy and Carbon Source Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Nuevo, M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Fung, H.-S.; Ip, W.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H2S and CO2:H2S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS2, OCS, SO2, etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H2S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO2:H2S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H2S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS2 differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS2 was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H2S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO2 occurred only in CO2:H2S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H2S2, and CS2 were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H2S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments.

  13. FORMATION OF S-BEARING SPECIES BY VUV/EUV IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}S-CONTAINING ICE MIXTURES: PHOTON ENERGY AND CARBON SOURCE EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Nuevo, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Wu, C.-Y. R. [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States); Fung, H.-S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Ip, W.-H. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS{sub 2}, OCS, SO{sub 2}, etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H{sub 2}S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS{sub 2} differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS{sub 2} was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H{sub 2}S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO{sub 2} occurred only in CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H{sub 2}S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments.

  14. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  15. 南海北部陆缘盆地群新生代构造过程与油气运聚规律%CENOZOIC GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND THEIR BEARING ON HYDROCARBON MIGRATION AND ACCUMULATION IN THE CONTINENTAL MARGINAL BASIN GROUP OF THE NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪才; 李三忠; 刘鑫; 索艳慧; 戴黎明; 程世秀; 许立青

    2013-01-01

    The northern continental marginal basin group of the Southern China Sea, which includes the Yinggehai Basin, the Beibuwan Basin, the Qiongdongnan Basin, the Pearl River Mouth Basin and the Taixi'nan Basin, are located in a very complex geological setting. The formation and evolution of these basins are closely related to the surrounding geological processes. This paper reconstructed the paleo-geo-graphical framework of some key time boundaries since 55 Ma, based on which simply discussion was paid to the migration and accumulation of oil and gas in the area. Following conclusions are reached. (1) The interaction among the Pacific Plate, the Eurasia Plate and the India-Australia Plate affects the formation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbon in this area. (2) Source rocks are gradually getting younger, as the source rocks and the Mohos are getting deeper from west to east in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Qiongdongnan Basin and Yinggehai Basin. At the same time, heat flows as well as the potentials of hydrocarbon generation increased. Similar trend of mantle depths are observed in the Beibuwan Basin, the Pearl River Mouth Basin and the Qiongdongnan Basin from north to south. (3) Oil and gas are enriched in the Yinggehai Basin, Qiongdongnan Basin and southern Perl River Mouth Basin while the geological activities are weak, the subsidence is small and the crust is thin ( the Moho depths are less than 24km) so that the geothermal gradients and the heat flows are high in this region. Such conditions can keep the organic matters remained mature or over-mature, which are favorable for the formation of gas source rocks. (4) The hydrocarbon in the Qiongdongnan Basin and the Pearl River Mouth Basin is more prospective than that in the other basins. Especially, the Qiongdongnan Basin and the southern Pearl River Mouth Basin are likely to be the important gas producing area while the northern Pearl River Mouth Basin bears higher oil producing potential.%南海北部陆

  16. An Approach to Predicting Hydrocarbon with High Precision Gravity and Seismic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiwen

    1996-01-01

    @@ There are two ways for predicting hydrocarbon reservoirs with gravity data. One is related to the indirect prediction techniques used to delineate hydrocarbon-bearing structures with dense grids of survey and high-precision gravity data. The other is direct prediction technique based on high precision gravity data, which is used to measure negative anomalies resulted from significant density changes of porous formations when saturated with different kinds of liquid. The density change of porous formations may be as high as -0.3 × 103 to -0.1 × 103kg/m3 when saturated with oil instead of water and -0.6× 103 to -0.2 × 103 kg/m3 when saturated with gas instead of water.

  17. The effects of cooking on wire and stone barbecue at different cooking levels on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in beef steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fatih; Yuzer, M Onur

    2016-07-15

    The effects of type of barbecue (wire and stone) and cooking levels (rare, medium, well-done and very well-done) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in beef steak were investigated. Varying levels of IQx (up to 0.29 ng/g), IQ (up to 0.93 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 0.75 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 4.95 ng/g), PhIP (up to 6.24 ng/g) and AαC (up to 0.20 ng/g) were determined, while MeAαC was not detected. The total HCA amounts in wire barbecued samples were higher than stone barbecued samples. Total HCA contents of the samples ranged between nd and 13.52 ng/g. In terms of PAHs, varying levels of BaA (up to 0.34 ng/g), Chry (up to 0.28 ng/g), BbF (up to 0.39 ng/g), BkF (up to 0.90 ng/g), BaP (up to 0.29 ng/g) and Bghip (up to 0.43 ng/g) were determined, while DahA and IncdP were not detected. The total PAH amounts in stone barbecued samples were higher than those of wire barbecued samples. Total PAH amounts of the samples ranged between nd and 2.63 ng/g.

  18. Blocking the ZZ Domain of Sequestosome1/p62 Suppresses Myeloma Growth and Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Induces Dramatic Bone Formation in Myeloma-Bearing Bones In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramachi, Jumpei; Silbermann, Rebecca; Yang, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Guo, Jianxia; Anderson, Judith L.; Zhou, Dan; Feng, Rentian; Myint, Kyaw-Zeyar; Maertz, Nathan; Beumer, Jan H.; Eiseman, Julie L.; Windle, Jolene J.; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Roodman, G. David; Kurihara, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We reported that p62 (sequestosome 1) serves as a signaling hub in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) for the formation of signaling complexes, including NFκB, p38MAPK, and JNK, that are involved in the increased osteoclastogenesis and multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth induced by BMSC that are key contributors to myeloma bone disease (MMBD), and demonstrated that the ZZ-domain of p62 (p62-ZZ) is required for BMSC enhancement of MMBD. We recently identified a novel p62-ZZ inhibitor, XRK3F2, that inhibits MM cell growth and BMSC growth enhancement of human MM cells. In the current study we evaluate the relative specificity of XRK3F2 for p62-ZZ, characterize XRK3F2’s capacity to inhibit growth of primary MM cells and human MM cell lines, and test the in vivo effects of XRK3F2 in the immunocompetent 5TGM1 MM model. We found that XRK3F2 induces dramatic cortical bone formation that is restricted to MM containing bones and blocked the effects and upregulation of TNFα, an OBL differentiation inhibitor that is increased in the MM bone marrow microenvironment and utilizes signaling complexes formed on p62-ZZ, in BMSC. Interestingly, XRK3F2 had no effect on non-MM bearing bone. These results demonstrate that targeting p62 in MM models has profound effects on MMBD. PMID:26286116

  19. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2001-05-01

    molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

  1. Characteristics and main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation in Ordovician Yingshan Formation in Yubei area,Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地玉北地区奥陶系鹰山组油藏成藏特征及主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭广辉; 邱华标; 余腾孝; 刘少杰; 郝建龙

    2014-01-01

    Poor understanding of the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation is the major constraint of petroleum exploration in Yubei area of Tarim Basin at present .The characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation in Yubei 1 fault belt were studied .Oil reservoirs in the Ordovician Yingshan Formation in Yubei-1 wellblock are of karst-fractured vuggy type controlled by unconformity and related with paleo-karst of carbonate rocks .The reservoir spaces of the Yingshan Formation carbonates consist of pores ,vugs and fractures,and the reservoirs can be divided into 3 types,namely fractured-vuggy type, fractured type and vuggy type ,of which the fractured-vuggy type is the most significant in this area .The reservoir distribu-tion is mainly controlled by the karst of carbonate rocks .The reservoirs are characterized by strong heterogeneity ,vertical superimposition and lateral connection in large area ,as well as uneven oil-bearing property .The Yingshan Formation reser-voirs experienced multiple phases of hydrocarbon accumulation ,of which the Late Hercynian was the major one .Hydrocar-bon accumulation in the study area was jointly controlled by oil sources , reservoir , carrier system and cap rock .The oil sources were the foundation of hydrocarbon accumulation .The three-dimensional carrier network consisting of faults and un-conformities provided high quality pathway for hydrocarbon migration .The reservoir distribution controlled the formation of the pools and their scales .Mudstone intervals in the Lower and Middle Bachu Formation provided regional seals for the preservation of oil and gas .Based on the analysis of reservoir characteristics and controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumu -lation,we established a hydrocarbon accumulation pattern for the Yingshan Formation reservoirs in Yubei area .%油气成藏主控因素不明是目前制约玉北地区油气勘探的主要原因。玉北1断裂带成藏特征研究表明,玉北1井区奥陶系鹰山组油藏为

  2. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  3. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  4. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  5. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  6. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  7. Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in binary mixtures: Effects on gene expression and DNA adduct formation in precision-cut rat liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Y.C.M.; Pushparajah, D.S.; Herwijnen, M.H.M. van; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Maas, L.M.; Ioannides, C.; Schooten, F.J. van; Delft, J.H.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Although exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs mostly through mixtures, hazard and risk assessment are mostly based on the effects caused by individual compounds. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether interactions between PAHs occur, focusing on gene expr

  8. Processes controlling water and hydrocarbon composition in seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Karlsen, Dag A.; Sturz, Anne; Backer-Owe, Kristian; Banks, David A.; Planke, Sverre

    2007-01-01

    Water-, mud-, gas-, and petroleum-bearing seeps are part of the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) in Southern California. Seeps in the Davis-Schrimpf seep field (˜14,000 m2) show considerable variations in water temperature, pH, density, and solute content. Water-rich springs have low densities (98 vol%). Halogen geochemistry of the waters indicates that mixing of deep and shallow waters occurs and that near-surface dissolution of halite may overprint the original fluid compositions. Carbon isotopic analyses suggest that hydrocarbon seep gases have a thermogenic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of petroleum in a water-dominated spring, composed of 53% saturated compounds, 35% aromatics, and 12% polar compounds. The abundance of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and immature biomarkers suggests a hydrothermal formation of the petroleum, making the SSGS a relevant analogue to less accessible hydrothermal seep systems, e.g., the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California.

  9. 鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组油气成藏期次%Classification of hydrocarbon accumulation phases of the Yanchang Formation in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 任战利; 史政; 赵筱燕; 于强; 吴晓青

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地富县—正宁地区延长组砂岩储层主要成岩作用有压实作用、胶结作用、溶蚀作用和裂隙作用,成岩自生矿物以绿泥石、自生石英和方解石为主.根据油气包裹体寄主成岩矿物的形成时间序列,识别出两期油气包裹体:第1期油气包裹体主要分布在石英、长石粒内愈合的、未切穿次生加大边的微裂隙及石英次生加大边内侧;第2期油气包裹体分布在晚期微裂隙和晚期亮晶方解石胶结物中.油气包裹体均一温度分布呈双峰型:早期峰值温度为110~120℃;晚期峰值温度为140~150℃.对油气包裹体均一温度、盐度、密度分析表明,研究区延长组油气为“一期两幕”成藏,且具有“边致密,边成藏”的特点.结合研究区延长组热演化史及储层伊利石K-Ar同位素定年结果研究表明,研究区主要油气成藏期为早白垩世(距今95~120Ma).%The main diagenesis of the Yanchang Formation sandstone reservoirs in the Fuxian-Zhengning area, Ordos Basin, includes compaction, cementation, corrosion and fracturation, and diagenetic authigenic minerals in these reservoirs are dominated by chlorite, authigenetic quartz and calcite. Two phases of hydrocarbon inclusions have been identified according to the time sequence of the formation of host diagenetic minerals, the earlier one composed of mostly brine inclusions that contain gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons either occurs along healed microfractures wrapped up by secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, or is trapped at the bottom of secondary growth edges of quartz or feldspar, while the later one mostly consisting of gas-liquid or liquid hydrocarbon inclusions occurs along the late-formed microfractures or in sparry calcite cements. Homogenization temperatures measured from brine inclusions associated with hydrocarbon ones show a bimodal distribution in the ranges with 110~120'C and 140~150'C as peak temperatures

  10. Reaction of niobium and tantalum neutral clusters with low pressure, unsaturated hydrocarbons in a pickup cell: From dehydrogenation to Met-Car formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.-G.; Xie, Y.; Dong, F.; Bernstein, E. R.

    2006-10-01

    Neutral niobium and tantalum clusters (Nbn and Tan) are generated by laser ablation and supersonic expansion into a vacuum and are reacted in a pickup cell with various low pressure (˜1mTorr) unsaturated hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and toluene) under nearly single collision conditions. The bare metal clusters and their reaction products are ionized by a 193nm laser and detected by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Partially and fully dehydrogenated products are observed for small (n⩽m) and large (n⩾m) neutral metal clusters, respectively, with m ranging from 2 to 5 depending on the particular hydrocarbon. In addition to primary, single collision products, sequential addition products that are usually fully dehydrogenated are also observed. With toluene used as the reactant gas, carbon loss products are observed, among which Nb8C12 and Ta8C12 are particularly abundant, indicating that the Met-Car molecule M8C12 can be formed from the neutral metal cluster upon two collisions with toluene molecules. The dehydrogenation results for low pressure reactions are compared with those available from previous studies employing flow tube (high pressure) reactors. Low pressure and high pressure cluster ion reactions are also compared with the present neutral metal cluster reactions. Reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons and metal surfaces are discussed in terms of the present neutral cluster results.

  11. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  12. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  13. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  14. Gas reservoir characteristics of the second member of Xujiahe Formation and prediction of favorable gas bearing zones in Penglai area,central Sichuan Basin%川中蓬莱地区须二段气藏特征及有利含气区预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖锦; 王贵文

    2012-01-01

    川中蓬莱地区须二段显示出了良好的天然气勘探潜力,但由于储层孔隙结构和测井响应特征较为复杂,直接影响了其勘探开发效果。为了寻找须二段天然气有利聚集区,综合利用钻井岩心和薄片等资料,对成藏要素,即生、储、盖、运、圈、保的自身条件及其匹配关系等进行了探讨与总结,并对有利含气区进行了预测。结果表明:研究区须二段气藏具有充足的油气来源,且位于油气运移的有利方向,上覆的须三段泥岩为其有效区域盖层;具有有利的生、储、盖组合及良好的保存条件;研究区总体位于有利的构造-沉积相带,沉积作用是储层发育的基础,成岩作用是决定储层质量的关键,裂缝是决定储层产能的重要条件。对须二段有利含气区的预测研究可为其下一步天然气勘探提供地质依据,同时也有助于类似气藏有利含气区预测的研究。%The second member of Xujiahe Formation in Penglai area of central Sichuan Basin is of great potential for gas exploration,but on the other hand,the reservoir is also characterized by low porosity and low permeability,complicated pore structure and well logging response characteristics,so the exploration and development effect is influenced by these existing problems.In order to improve the oil and gas exploration degree and to find more high-quality reservoirs and favorable gas bearing zones,this paper studied the generation,storage,capping,migration,trapping and preservation of the second member of Xujiahe Formation together with their matching relationship with each other,and predicted the favorable gas bearing zones by making full use of drilling,logging,cores and slices data based on the previous research results.The research results show that:① the source rocks are of great potential for hydrocarbon-generating,and Penglai area is located in the superior place for gas accumulation with effective trap;② the mudstone of

  15. Isotopic evidence of TSR origin for natural gas bearing high H2S contents within the Feixianguan Formation of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; ZHANG Shuichang; LIANG Yingbo; DAI Jinxing; LI Jian

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern area of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is the area with the maximal reserve of natural gas containing higher hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that has been found among the petroliferous basins of China, with the proven and controlled gas reserve of more than 200 billion cubic meters. These gas pools, with higher H2S contents averaging 9%, some 17%, are mainly distributed on structural belts of Dukouhe, Tieshanpo, Luojiazhai, Puguang, etc., while the oolitic-shoal dolomite of the Triassic Feixianguan Fm. (T1f) is the reservoir. Although many scholars regard the plentiful accumulation of H2S within the deep carbonate reservoir as the result of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR), however, the process of TSR as well as its residual geological and geochemical evidence is still not quite clear. Based on the carbon isotopic analysis of carbonate strata and secondary calcite, etc., together with the analysis of sulfur isotopes within H2S, sulphur, gypsum, iron pyrites, etc., as well as other aspects including the natural gas composition, carbon isotopes of hydrocarbons reservoir petrology, etc., it has been proved that the above natural gas is a product of TSR. The H2S, sulphur and calcite result from the participation of TSR reactions by hydrocarbon gas. During the process for hydrocarbons being consumed due to TSR, the carbons within the hydrocarbon gas participate in the reactions and finally are transferred into the secondary calcite, and become the carbon source of secondary calcite, consequently causing the carbon isotopes of the secondary calcite to be lower (-18.2‰). As for both the intermediate product of TSR, i.e. sulfur, and its final products, i.e. H2S and iron pyrites, their sulfur elements are all sourced from the sulfate within the Feixianguan Fm. During the fractional processes of sulfur isotopes, the bond energy leads to the 32S being released firstly, and the earlier it is released, the lower δ34S values for the generated sulphide (H2S

  16. Balancing the Rates of New Bone Formation and Polymer Degradation Enhances Healing of Weight-Bearing Allograft/Polyurethane Composites in Rabbit Femoral Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-03

    and Pelo, S. Cranial reshaping using methyl methacrylate: technical note. J Craniofac Surg 20, 184, 2009. 13. Moreira Gonzalez, A., Jackson, I.T...trabecular bone from the femur, and some factors affecting the shear strength of the cement bone interface. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 92, 19, 1978. Epub 1978...bearing protocol. Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Balti more, MD, 2010. 54. Kim, S.S., Sun Park, M., Jeon, O., Yong Choi, C., and Kim, B.S. Poly(lactide

  17. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  18. Crossed-beam reaction of carbon atoms with hydrocarbon molecules. V. Chemical dynamics of n-C4H3 formation from reaction of C(3Pj) with allene, H2CCCH2(X 1A1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R. I.; Mebel, A. M.; Chang, A. H. H.; Lin, S. H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1999-06-01

    The crossed molecular beams technique was employed to investigate the reaction between ground state carbon atoms, C(3Pj), and allene, H2CCCH2(X 1A1), at two averaged collision energies of 19.6 and 38.8 kJ mol-1. Product angular distributions and time-of-flight spectra of C4H3 were recorded. Forward-convolution fitting of the data yields weakly polarized center-of-mass angular flux distributions isotropic at lower, but forward scattered with respect to the carbon beam at a higher collision energy. The maximum translational energy release and the angular distributions combined with ab initio and RRKM calculations are consistent with the formation of the n-C4H3 radical in its electronic ground state. The channel to the i-C4H3 isomer contributes less than 1.5%. Reaction dynamics inferred from the experimental data indicate that the carbon atom attacks the π-orbitals of the allenic carbon-carbon double bond barrierless via a loose, reactant-like transition state located at the centrifugal barrier. The initially formed cyclopropylidene derivative rotates in a plane almost perpendicular to the total angular momentum vector around its C-axis and undergoes ring opening to triplet butatriene. At higher collision energy, the butatriene complex decomposes within 0.6 ps via hydrogen emission to form the n-C4H3 isomer and atomic hydrogen through an exit transition state located 9.2 kJ mol-1 above the products. The explicit identification of the n-C4H3 radical under single collision represents a further example of a carbon-hydrogen exchange in reactions of ground state carbon atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons. This channel opens a barrierless route to synthesize extremely reactive hydrocarbon radicals in combustion processes, interstellar chemistry, and hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, as well as Triton.

  19. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  20. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  1. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history

  2. Methane Conversion to C2 Hydrocarbons Using Glow Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Miao; CHEN Jierong

    2007-01-01

    The infrared emission spectra of methane, H', CH and C2 hydrocarbons in natural gas were measured. The process of methane decomposition and C2 hydrocarbons formation was investigated. The experiment showed that the time and conditions of methane decomposition and C2 hydrocarbons formation were different. Methane conversion rate increased with the increase in the current and decrease in the amount of methane. Furthermore, an examination of the reaction mechanisms revealed that free radicals played an important role in the chain reaction.

  3. Formation mechanism and model for sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Pilong; PANG; Xiongqi; CHEN; Dongxia; ZHANG; Shanwen

    2004-01-01

    The Bohai Bay basin comprises some very important and well documented subtle traps known in China, which have been the major exploration focus and have become a major petroleum play since the 1990s. However, recent exploration showed that the oil-bearing properties of some sand lens reservoirs may vary significantly and the accumulation mechanisms for these lithological subtle traps are not well understood. Based on statistical analysis of oil-bearing properties for 123 sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin and combined with detailed anatomy of typical sand lens reservoirs and NMR experiments, it has been shown that the structural and sedimentary factors, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions of the surrounding source rocks, as well as the petrophysical properties of sand lens reservoirs are the main controlling factors for the formation of sand lens reservoirs. The formation of a sand lens reservoir depends on the interaction between the hydrocarbon accumulation driving force and the resistance force. The driving force is made up of the differential capillary pressure between sandstones and sources rocks and the hydrocarbon diffusion force, and as well as the hydrocarbon expansion force. The resistance force is the friction resistance force for hydrocarbons and water to move through the pore throats of the sand lens. The sedimentary environment, source rock condition and sand reservoir properties can change from unfavorable to favorable depending on the combination of these factors. When these three factors all reach certain thresholds, the sand lens reservoirs may begin to be filled by hydrocarbons. When all of these conditions become favorable for the formation of sand lens reservoirs, the reservoir would have high oil saturation. This approach has been applied to evaluating the potential of petroleum accumulation in the sand lens reservoirs in the third member of the Neogene Shahejie Formation in the Jiyang Sub-basin.

  4. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  5. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Current Situation and Application in Coal- Generated Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; XU Hongdong

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics and research methods of terrigenous organic hydrocarbon - generated source rock in coal measures are studied in this thesis. After abundance of organic matters, pyrolysis parameter of rocks and hydrocarbon generated capacity of macerals are basically discussed in coal measures of the Cretaceous Muleng- Chengzihe formation in Suibin depression in Sanjang basin, the hydrocarbon generated grade in coal- generated source rock is ascertained in this depression. At last, we think that it is a main attack prospect in coal - generated hydrocarbons study in the future to research the macerals of coal measures organic source rock and to build a criterion to classify the coal- generated hydrocarbons in Northeast region.

  8. Steep Decline and Low Hydrocarbon Recovery in Fractured Shale: What and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Barber, T.; Gao, Z.; Gao, X.; Ewing, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the technological advances of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States have led to a dramatic increase in hydrocarbon (gas and oil) production from shale formations, changing the energy landscape in the US and worldwide. Since 2005, the surge in tight oil production from shale formations has provided tremendous optimism regarding future United States hydrocarbon production, unexpectedly becoming the fastest-growing frontier of unconventional resources. According to the Energy Information Administration's newly released report in 2014, US oil output from tight oil prospects will almost double from the 2012 level of 2.5 million barrels per day, to 4.8 by 2019. However, total gas recovery from the Barnett play was reported to be only12-30%, and the tight-oil recovery rate from shale formations is even lower at 5-10%. The main barrier to sustainable development of US shale, the pore structure of the nanopores storing and transporting hydrocarbons, has been quietly ignored. We have studied pore structure, edge-accessible porosity, and how wettability is associated with mineral and organic kerogen phases, from four complementary tests: vacuum saturation with vacuum-pulling on dry shale followed with tracer introduction, tracer diffusion into fluid-saturated shale, fluid and tracer imbibition into partially-saturated shale, and Wood's metal intrusion followed with SEM imaging and elemental mapping. The first three tests use tracer-bearing fluids (API brine or n-decane), with tracer distribution on shale mapped with micro-scale laser ablation-ICP-MS analyses. These innovative approaches indicate the limited accessibility (several millimeters from shale sample edge) and connectivity of nanopores in shales under atmospheric condition, which is linked to the steep initial (e.g., 1st year) decline and low overall recovery because of the limited connection of hydrocarbon molecules in the shale matrix to the stimulated fracture network.

  9. The formation conditions of enstatite chondrites: Insights from trace element geochemistry of olivine-bearing chondrules in Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We report in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses of silicate phases in olivine-bearing chondrules in the Sahara 97096 (EH3) enstatite chondrite. Most olivine and enstatite present rare earth element (REE) patterns comparable to their counterparts in type I chondrules in ordinary chondrites. They thus likely share a similar igneous origin, likely under similar redox conditions. The mesostasis however frequently shows negative Eu and/or Yb (and more rarely Sm) anomalies, evidently out of equilibrium with olivine and enstatite. We suggest that this reflects crystallization of oldhamite during a sulfidation event, already inferred by others, during which the mesostasis was molten, where the complementary positive Eu and Yb anomalies exhibited by oldhamite would have possibly arisen due to a divalent state of these elements. Much of this igneous oldhamite would have been expelled from the chondrules, presumably by inertial acceleration or surface tension effects, and would have contributed to the high abundance ...

  10. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  11. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  12. Macroporous polymer foams by hydrocarbon templating

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Venkatram Prasad; Martin, Ivan; Langer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Porous polymeric media (polymer foams) are utilized in a wide range of applications, such as thermal and mechanical insulators, solid supports for catalysis, and medical devices. A process for the production of polymer foams has been developed. This process, which is applicable to a wide range of polymers, uses a hydrocarbon particulate phase as a template for the precipitation of the polymer phase and subsequent pore formation. The use of a hydrocarbon template allows for enhanced control ov...

  13. Chemical variation from biolipids to sedimentary organic matter in modern oceans and its implication to the geobiological evaluation of ancient hydrocarbon source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongmei; MA Xiangru; LIU Deng; YANG Xiaofen; LI Jihong

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of organic matter in modern marine Water columns greatly favors the geobiologcal evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks.Biolipids could make great contribution to petroleum hydrocarbons due to their comparable chemical components and the slightly refractory characteristics of biolipids during the microbial/thermal degradation.A variety of environmental factors such as temperature.CO2 and salinity could affect the biochemical contents in microorganisms.As a result,microorganisms living in a changing environmental condition might have a difierent contribution to the petroleum formation.Organic carbon flux is shown to bear a positive correlation with the primary productivity only within a certain range of biomass volumes in a specific biohabitat.Furthermore,organic matter is degraded much quickly in a water column with oxic conditions.Therefore,the anoxic condition,along with the enhanced biological productivity,would be one of the significant factors in the formation of high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks.The formation of biofilms and microbial mats favors the preservation of sedimentary organic matter by decreasing the degradation rate of organic matter.Identification of biofilms and microbial mats in sedimentary rocks will thus greatly help to understand the depositional processes of organic matter finally preserved in hydrocarbon source rocks.

  14. Formation and destruction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the flaring of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of the combustion in an enclosed flare of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill. The results demonstrate that at 1,000°C and long combustion, several synthesis reactions lead to the formation of 4 to 6 rings of PAHs. This formation also involves the formation of compounds such as benzo(g,h,iperylene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and dibenzo(a,hanthracene not present in raw biogas. However, the compounds most likely to form in combustion are benzo (a anthracene and benzo (b fluoranthene. The only exception is chrysene which is significantly destroyed. The experience has proved the total lack of formation of PAHs with only 2 and 3 aromatic rings.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photochemistry in the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes: formation of water in C-rich objects and of C-bearing molecules in O-rich objects

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, Marcelino; Guelin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism based on the penetration of interstellar ultraviolet photons into the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes around AGB stars is proposed to explain the non-equilibrium chemistry observed in such objects. We show through a simple modelling approach that in circumstellar envelopes with a certain degree of clumpiness or with moderately low mass loss rates (a few 10^(-7) solar masses per year) a photochemistry can take place in the warm and dense inner layers inducing important changes in the chemical composition. In carbon-rich objects water vapor and ammonia would be formed with abundances of 10^(-8) - 10(^-6) relative to H2, while in oxygen-rich envelopes ammonia and carbon-bearing molecules such as HCN and CS would form with abundances of 10^(-9) - 10^(-7) relative to H2. The proposed mechanism would explain the recent observation of warm water vapor in the carbon-rich envelope IRC +10216 with the Herschel Space Observatory, and predict that H2O should be detectable in other carbon-rich o...

  17. Reaction between H2, CO, and H2S over Fe,Ni metal in the solar nebula: Experimental evidence for the formation of sulfur-bearing organic molecules and sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanova, Ignasi

    2000-07-01

    Detailed laboratory studies have been carried out in order to simulate the interaction between nanometer-sized kamacite metal particles and different gas mixtures consisting of H2:H2S (250:0.1), H2:CO (250:1) and H2:CO:H2S (250:1:0.1) under nebular-type conditions (5x10-4 atm and 473 K). Reaction of H2+H2S with kamacite particles for 1000 h leads to the formation of pyrrhotite. Incorporation of CO into the gaseous reactant mixture results in the formation of both sulfide and carbide phases. At the same time, amorphous carbon is deposited onto the metal particles and organic molecules are evolved, namely hydrocarbons and thiols in the C1-C5 and C1-C2 range, respectively. Carbon deposition and production of organics are enhanced with respect to experiments performed with H2+CO, where a carbide phase is formed. There is no evidence for the existence of sulfur poisoning effects on the metal-catalysed hydrogenation of CO through Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions in nebular environments. In fact, it is experimentally demonstrated that sulfur-containing organic species could be synthesized by such reactions from nebular gas.

  18. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  19. 黄河口凹陷渤中34区明化镇组下段油气输导体系%Hydrocarbon migration of Bozhong34 in Lower Minghuazhcn Formation, Huanghekou sag, offshore Bohai sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新涛; 牛成民; 黄江波; 曾萱; 涂丹凤

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of migration system and its relationship with the distribution of middle shallow hydrocarbon reservoir in the Bozhong34 block of the Huanghekou sag in the offshore Bohai Bay Basin show that, the faults and sandbodies dominate the hydrocarbon migration system in the block. The distribution of sandbodies and faults are not the only factor that controls hydrocarbon enrichment in the study area. The spatial and temporal configurations of faults and sandbodies also control the effectiveness of migration system, thus determine the formation and occurrence of the oil reservoirs in the middle shallow layers. Through the static model of faults and sandbodies, the contact area of faults and sandbodies is important parameter controlling oil-gas filling degree, reserves abundance, and oil column height. Moreover, it guides the well position of Bozhong34-B and reservoir prediction. Quantitative study about configurations of faults and sandbodies with petroleum accumulation model has important value in theory and field application for expanding exploration space and locating the potential reservoir.%通过对渤海湾盆地黄河口凹陷渤中34区输导体系特征及其与中浅层油气成藏规律关系的研究表明,对油气运移起重要作用的输导体系主要有断层和砂体,油气的富集受控于断层和砂体的分布,且断层与砂体耦合接触关系既决定了输导体系的有效性,也决定了浅层明化镇组下段(明下段)油气藏的形成与分布.通过建立断层与砂体耦合接触半定量静态模型,证实断层与砂体的接触面积是影响油气充满度、储量丰度和油柱高度的重要参数,指导了渤中34-B构造的井位部署,渤中34-B-3D井砂体的含油气性预测结果与实钻吻合较好.实践证实,断层与砂体耦合接触关系半定量描述方法对成熟探区开拓勘探空间、寻找潜在油气藏具有重要的理论和应用价值.

  20. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  1. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  2. Geochemical correlation and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Kern River ash bed and related tephra layers: Implications for the stratigraphy of petroleum-bearing formations in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, D.; Negrini, R.M.; Golob, E.M.; Miller, D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Fleck, R.J.; Hacker, B.; Erendi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Kern River ash (KRA) bed is a prominent tephra layer separating the K and G sands in the upper part of the Kern River Formation, a major petroleum-bearing formation in the southern San Joaquin Valley (SSJV) of California. The minimum age of the Kern River Formation was based on the tentative major-element correlation with the Bishop Tuff, a 0.759??0.002 Ma volcanic tephra layer erupted from the Long Valley Caldera. We report a 6.12??0.05 Ma 40Ar/39Ar date for the KRA, updated major-element correlations, trace-element correlations of the KRA and geochemically similar tephra, and a 6.0??0.2 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age for a tephra layer from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center in Nevada. Both major and trace-element correlations show that despite the similarity to the Bishop Tuff, the KRA correlates most closely with tephra from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center. This geochemical correlation is supported by the radiometric dates which are consistent with a correlation of the KRA to the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak center but not to the Bishop Tuff. The 6.12??0.05 Ma age for the KRA and the 6.0??0.2 Ma age for the tephra layer from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center suggest that the upper age of the Kern River Formation is over 5 Ma older than previously thought. Re-interpreted stratigraphy of the SSJV based on the new, significantly older age for the Kern River Formation opens up new opportunities for petroleum exploration in the SSJV and places better constraints on the tectonostratigraphic development of the SSJV. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  3. 鄂尔多斯盆地吴旗油区早侏罗世古地貌特征与油气富集关系%Palaeogeomorphological features and their bearings on the hydrocarbon accumulation in the Wuqi oil field, Ordos Basin during the Lower Jurassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雷; 施泽进; 李恕军; 陈建文; 田亚铭

    2014-01-01

    沉积时期的古地形、古地貌是控制沉积相发育与分布的一个重要因素,其在一定程度上也控制着后期油气圈闭的类型与分布。通过补偿印模法恢复了吴旗油区前侏罗纪古地貌形态,确定局部构造特征,开展有利储集相带预测。研究区油藏分布主要受控于古地貌形态,深切延长组的古河谷是油气运移的主要通道,古地形高部位为油气运移的主要方向,古河谷附近的砂体为油气富集的有利场所,上覆的沼泽相泥岩形成了良好的岩性遮挡条件。%The palaeogeomorphological features during the depositional periods are interpreted as important factors to control the development and distribution of sedimentary facies,and to a certain extent,to control the types and distribution of oil traps in the Wuqi oil field,Ordos Basin. In this study,the compensation impression method is employed to reconstruct the pre-Jurassic palaeogeomorphological features,clarify the local structural features,and predict the favourable reservoir facies zones. The palaeogeomorphological features controlling the distribution of oil pools in the study area include the palaeovalleys incised into the Yanchang Formation as main channels for the migration of hydrocarbons;topographic highs as the main direction for the migration of hydrocarbons;the sandstones along the palaeovalleys as the favourable localitites for the accumulation of hydrocarbons,and the overlying marsh mudstones as good lithologic barrier.

  4. Enhancing effects of salt formation on catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for asymmetric hydrogenation of isoquinolinium salts by dinuclear halide-bridged iridium complexes bearing chiral diphosphine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yusuke; Yamaji, Kenta; Higashida, Kosuke; Sathaiah, Kandula; Iimuro, Atuhiro; Mashima, Kazushi

    2015-01-26

    Asymmetric hydrogenation of 1- and 3-substituted and 1,3-disubstituted isoquinolinium chlorides using triply halide-bridged dinuclear iridium complexes [{Ir(H)(diphosphine)}2 (μ-Cl)3 ]Cl has been achieved by the strategy of HCl salt formation of isoquinolines to afford the corresponding chiral 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities after simple basic work-up. The effects of salt formation have been investigated by time-course experiments, which revealed that the generation of isoquinolinium chlorides clearly prevented formation of the catalytically inactive dinuclear trihydride complex, which was readily generated in the catalytic reduction of salt-free isoquinoline substrates. Based on mechanistic investigations, including by (1) H and (31) P{(1) H} NMR studies and the isolation and characterization of several intermediates, the function of the chloride anion of the isoquinolinium chlorides has been elucidated, allowing us to propose a new outer-sphere mechanism involving coordination of the chloride anion of the substrates to an iridium dihydride species along with a hydrogen bond between the chloride ligand and the N-H proton of the substrate salt. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dendrimeric template of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II repeat motifs bearing Asp→Asn mutation exhibits heme binding and β-hematin formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Kumari

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum (Pf employs a crucial PfHRPII catalyzed reaction that converts toxic heme into hemozoin. Understanding heme polymerization mechanism is the first step for rational design of new drugs, targeting this pathway. Heme binding and hemozoin formation have been ascribed to PfHRPII aspartate carboxylate-heme metal ionic interactions. To investigate, if this ionic interaction is indeed pivotal, we examined the comparative heme binding and β-hematin forming abilities of a wild type dendrimeric peptide BNT1 {harboring the native sequence motif of PfHRPII (AHHAHHAADA} versus a mutant dendrimeric peptide BNTM {in which ionic Aspartate residues have been replaced by the neutral Asparaginyl residues (AHHAHHAANA}. UV and IR data reported here reveal that at pH 5, both BNT1 and BNTM exhibit comparable heme binding as well as β-hematin forming abilities, thus questioning the role of PfHRPII aspartate carboxylate-heme metal ionic interactions in heme binding and β-hematin formation. Based on our data and information in the literature we suggest the possible role of weak dispersive interactions like N-H···π and lone-pair···π in heme binding and hemozoin formation.

  6. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  7. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of ophiolite-bearing tectono-sedimentary mélanges in accretionary wedges by gravity driven submarine erosion: Insights from analogue models and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavieille, Jacques; Molli, Giancarlo; Genti, Manon; Dominguez, Stephane; Beyssac, Olivier; Taboada, Alfredo; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Lu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Tung

    2016-10-01

    Orogenic wedges locally present chaotic tectonostratigraphic units that contain exotic blocks of various size, origin, age and lithology, embedded in a sedimentary matrix. The occurrence of ophiolitic blocks, sometimes huge, in such "mélanges" raises questions on (i) the mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of oceanic basement rocks into an accretionary wedge and (ii) the mechanisms allowing exhumation and redeposition of these exotic elements in "mélanges" during wedge growth. To address these questions, we present the results of a series of analogue experiments performed to characterize the processes and parameters responsible for accretion, exhumation and tectonosedimentary reworking of oceanic basement lithospheric fragments in an accretionary wedge. The experimental setup is designed to simulate the interaction between tectonics, erosion and sedimentation. Different configurations are applied to study the impact of various parameters, such as irregular oceanic floor due to structural inheritance, or the presence of layers with contrasted rheology that can affect deformation partitioning in the wedge (frontal accretion vs basal accretion) influencing its growth. Image correlation technique allows extracting instantaneous velocity field, and tracking of passive particles. By retrieving the particle paths determined from models, the pressure-temperature path of mélange units or elementary blocks can be discussed. The experimental results are then compared with observations from ophiolite-bearing mélanges in Taiwan (Lichi and Kenting mélanges) and Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) Thermometry data on rocks from the northern Apennines (Casanova mélange). A geological scenario is proposed following basic observations. The tectonic evolution of the retroside of doubly vergent accretionary wedges is mainly controlled by backthrusting and backfolding. The retro wedge is characterized by steep slopes that are prone to gravitational

  9. Formation of negative hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH+ + Ar and OH+ + acetone collisions: a general process for H-bearing molecular species

    CERN Document Server

    Juhász, Zoltán; Rangama, Jimmy; Bene, Erika; Sorgunlu-Frankland, Burcu; Frémont, François; Chesnel, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the formation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) occurs in a wide class of atomic and molecular collisions. In our experiments, H- emission from hydroxyl cations and acetone molecules was observed in keV-energy collisions. We show that hydride (H-) anions are formed via direct collisional fragmentation of molecules, followed by electron grabbing by fast hydrogen fragments. Such general mechanism in hydrogen-containing molecules may significantly influence reaction networks in planetary atmospheres and astrophysical media and new reaction pathways may have to be added in radiolysis studies.

  10. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  11. 准噶尔盆地西北缘风城组白云岩成因及油气富集因素%Dolomites genesis and hydrocarbon enrichment of the Fengcheng Formation in the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯有良; 张义杰; 王瑞菊; 张光亚; 吴卫安

    2011-01-01

    Using the data of cores, well logging interpretations, seismic sections and experimental geochemistry, this paper analyzes the sedimentary environment, genesis, and distribution of dolomites, as well as the hydrocarbon enrichment factors of dolomite reservoirs in the Permian Fengcheng Formation. According to attitude and structure, the dolomites of the Fengcheng Formation are divided into lamina dolomites, thin-bed dolomites, and spotted dolomites. They are mainly the penecontemporaneous and epigenetic dolomites, the former was deposited in a saline semi-deep lake, while the latter results from the dolomitization of lime mud that was deposited in a saline semi-deep lake during the diagenetic stage. The dolomites are distributed at the palaeoslopes formed by volcano eruption and movement of thrust faults and the main dolomite reservoir spaces are dissolved pores and fractures. The factors controlling hydrocarbon enrichment are fractures and structural background.%利用钻井、岩心、地震、测井及地球化学资料,分析准噶尔盆地西北缘二叠系风城组白云岩沉积环境、成因、分布规律及白云岩储集层油气富集高产因素.风城组白云岩按产状和沉积构造可分为纹层状泥质白云岩、薄层状白云岩和斑状白云岩,主要为准同生白云岩和后生白云石化白云岩.准同生白云岩形成于半深湖咸水环境;后生白云石化白云岩是发育在半深湖咸水环境下的碳酸盐岩灰泥在成岩期经后生白云石化作用形成.白云岩主要分布在火山喷发或逆冲断裂活动形成的古地貌斜坡上.白云岩储集层的储集空间主要为溶蚀孔隙和裂隙.白云岩储集层富集高产的控制因素是裂缝及构造背景.

  12. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  13. Formation of nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing molecules from radiolysis of nitrous oxide ices - implications for Solar system and interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; da Silveira, E. F.; Fulvio, D.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.

    2017-03-01

    The radiolysis of pure N2O ice at 11 and 75 K by 90 MeV 136Xe23 + ion irradiation has been studied by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Six daughter molecular species have been observed: NO2, (NO)2, N2O3, N2O4, N2O5, and O3. The chemical evolution of the new molecules formed in the sample was followed by the measurement of the column densities of the precursor and products as a function of the beam fluence. This procedure allows the determination of their formation and dissociation cross-sections. Other processes monitored by FTIR were sublimation (non-existent at 11 K, but present at 75 K) and ice compaction by the ion beam. Comparison between results obtained for the 11 and 75 K ices shows that formation and destruction cross-sections are higher (for light products) or much higher (for heavy products) at 75 K. This enhancement of chemical activity at higher temperature should not be attributed to higher projectile ionization rate but rather to a higher mobility of the radiolysis products in an ice undergoing slow sublimation. Although N2O ice has not yet been observed in space, it is reasonable to expect its occurrence since N and O are very abundant and reactive. Furthermore, if this ice is actually absent, the knowledge of the chemical-physical processes induced by ion irradiation on N2O ice at low temperature is necessary to explain its depletion.

  14. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  15. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  16. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  17. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-02-01

    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  19. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  20. Modalités de formation des veines de quartz aurifère du district d'El Callao (Venezuela) : études texturales et des inclusions fluides The El Callao district (Venezuela) gold-bearing quartz veins mode of formation: textural and fluid inclusion studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Aurélie; Chauvet, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Les veines de quartz aurifères du district d'El Callao (bouclier Guyanais, Venezuela) se composent essentiellement de quartz en peigne, plus ou moins recristallisés. Plusieurs générations ont été définies, démontrant ainsi que leur formation résulte d'ouvertures successives. L'étude des inclusions fluides associées à ces différentes générations de quartz montre que des fluides à CO2-H2O-sels-(±CH4), de faible salinité, accompagnent la formation de ces veines. Gold-bearing quartz veins from th...

  1. 海底扩散体系含天然气水合物沉积物制样方法与装置%A method and apparatus for formation sample of gas hydrates bearing sediments in marine diffusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏厚振; 韦昌富; 颜荣涛; 吴二林; 陈盼

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate is one of the most important potential energy sources distributing in the seabed and continental permafrost; at the same time, the dissociation of hydrate in hydrates bearing layers is a triggering factor of global climate change and geologic hazards. The method and apparatus for formation sample is a basic issue for researching on hydrates-bearing sediments(HBS), which require homogeneity of the sample according with in-situ formation mode as soon as possible. Most marine hadrate formed in diffusion system, which means the gas transferred to the hydrate occur zone by diffusion in water and formed hydrate.Gas-bearing water is moved in cycles by constant-flow pump in this method and apparatus; and gas solubility in water is enlarged through stirred by magnetic stirring apparatus; soil sample could be saturated with gas-bearing water in short time; and then reduce the temperature of soil sample, Gas dissolved in water associates with water to form hydrate filling in the pore of soil sample equably. The experiments show that 1 day is spent to form the hydrates-bearing sediments used by silt and CO2 sample. Homogeneity is testified through observing and testing water-contents of different positions in formed sample. Thereby , heterogeneity caused by hydrate distribution in pore of sample and cost time too long is dissolved well; technological basis is provided for physico-mechanical experiments of hydrates bearing sediments.%天然气水合物是分布在海洋和大陆多年冻土中的一种具有巨大商业开发价值的新型战略性替代能源.同时,含天然气水合物地层中水合物的分解将带来严重的地质灾害和气候问题的关注.试验室内开展含天然气水合物沉积物物理力学性质研究需要首先解决的是制样问题,即在试验室内快速形成符合现场原位形成模式的试样,并且水合物均匀分布于土样孔隙中.海洋天然气水合物主要是在扩散体系中形成的,即溶

  2. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  3. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  4. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  5. Global kinetic rate parameters for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolyis of catechol, a model compound representative of solid fuel moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.B. Ledesma; N.D. Marsh; A.K. Sandrowitz; M.J. Wornat [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2002-12-01

    To obtain kinetic parameters on PAH formation relevant to solid fuels combustion, pyrolysis experiments have been conducted with catechol, a model fuel representing entities in coal and biomass. Catechol pyrolysis experiments were performed in a tubular-flow reactor at temperatures of 500-1000{sup o}C and at a residence time of 0.4 s. PAH products were identified and quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detection and by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. A pseudo-unimolecular reaction kinetic model was used to model the experimental yield/temperature data of 15 individual aromatics and of combinations of PAH grouped by structural class and ring-number. The modeling of the individual species' yields showed that the pseudo-unimolecular model agreed very well with the experimental data. E{sub a} values ranged from 50 to 110 kcal mol{sup -1}, generally increasing as the size of the aromatic product increased from one to five aromatic rings. The pseudo-unimolecular model also performed well in modeling the experimental yields of PAH grouped by structural class and ring number. The global kinetic analysis results for PAH grouped by ring number revealed that E{sub a} values increased in the following order: 2-ring {lt} 3-ring {lt} 4-ring {lt} 5-ring {lt} 6-ring. Their yields followed the reverse order: 2-ring {lt} 3-ring {lt} 4-ring {lt} 5-ring {lt} 6-ring. These trends of increasing E{sub a} and decreasing yield, as ring number is increased, are consistent with a mechanism for PAH growth involving successive ring buildup reactions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Origin of natural sulphur-bearing immiscible inclusions and H2S in oolite gas reservoir, Eastern Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Dehan; XIAO; Xianming; XIONG; Yongqiang; GENG; Ansong; TIAN; Hui; PENG; Ping'an; SHEN; Jiagui; WANG; Yunpeng

    2006-01-01

    Based on results of microscopic observation and laser Raman analysis about fluid inclusions, multiple special forms of immiscible inclusions that contain sulphur, liquid hydrocarbon, bitumen, etc. were discovered in samples collected from the H2S gas reservoir-containing carbonates in the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation in the Jinzhu-Luojia area, Kai County, Sichuan Province. Based on the lithology and burial history of the strata involved as well as measurement results of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions, bitumen reflectivity, etc., it is concluded that the H2S in the gas reservoir resulted from the thermal reaction between hydrocarbons in reservoir and CaSO4 in the gypsum-bearing dolostone section at the high temperature (140℃―170℃) oil-cracked gas formation stage in Late Cretaceous. Thereafter, research on a great number of immiscible inclusions in the reservoir reveals that elemental sulphur resulted from oxidation of part of the earlier-formed H2S and further reaction between sulphates, hydrocarbons and H2S in geological fluids in H2S-bearing gas reservoir at a temperature of 86℃―89℃ and a pressure of 340×105Pa and during the regional uplift stage as characterized by temperature decrease and pressure decrease in Tertiary. Meanwhile, gypsum, anhydrite and calcite formed at this stage would trap particles like elemental sulphur and result in a variety of special forms of immiscible inclusions, and these inclusions would contain information concerning the complexity of the fluids in the reservoir and the origin of H2S and natural sulphur in the gas reservoir.

  7. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  8. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  10. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  11. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  12. Characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈平

    1995-01-01

    Light hydrocarbons named in the present paper refer to the natural gas-associated light oil and condensate 46 light oil and condensate samples from 11 oil-bearing basins of China were collected and their carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions were analysed in terms of their total hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons and a part of aromatic fractions, and gas-source materials and their sedimentary environments were discussed based on the above-mentioned data and the geological background of each area. From the view of carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of total hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbons, it is revealed that the condensate related to coal-bearing strata is enriched in 13C and D while that related to the source material of type I-II is enriched in 12C. In general, the isotopic composition of carbon is mainly attributed to the inheriting effect of their source materials, whereas that of hydrogen principally reflects the correlationship between hydrogen isotopes and the sedimentary envi

  13. Effects of hydrocarbon physical properties on caprock’s capillary sealing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new mechanics formula of caprock’s capillary sealing ability has been established in this paper, in which the boundary layer resistance was considered and characterized by starting pressure gradient. The formula shows that capillary sealing ability of caprock is determined not only by the capillary force of rock and the buoyancy of hydrocarbon column, but also by the starting pressure gradient of hydrocarbons and the thickness of caprock. The buoyancy of hydrocarbon column, the starting pressure gradient of hydrocarbon, and the capillary force of caprock are affected by hydrocarbon density, hydrocarbon viscosity, and hydrocarbon-water interface tension respectively. Based on hydrocarbon property data of reservoirs of Jiyang Depression and equations from literature, the effects of hydrocarbon density, hydrocarbon viscosity, and hydrocarbon-water interface tension on the sealing ability of caprock are analyzed. Under formational conditions, the sealing ability of oil caprock can vary up to dozens times because of the variations of the oil density, oil viscosity, and oil-water interface tension. Thus, the physical characters of hydrocarbon should be considered when evaluating the capillary sealing ability of caprocks. Study of the effects of physical characters on sealing ability of caprock can provide guidance to exploring special physical property hydrocarbon resources, such as viscous oils, and hydrocarbon resources in special pressure-temperature environments.

  14. Simulation experiments on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were made on 58 sediment samples from four sites(1244,1245,1250 and 1251) of ODP204 at five temperature points(25,35,45,55 and 65℃) to simulate methane production from hydrate-bearing sediments.Simulation results from site 1244 show that the gas components consist mainly of methane and carbon dioxide,and heavy hydrocarbons more than C2+ cannot be detected.This site also gives results,similar to those from the other three,that the methane production is controlled by experimental temperatures,generally reaching the maximum gas yields per gram sediment or TOC under lower temperatures(25 and 35 ℃).In other words,the methane amount could be related to the buried depth of sediments,given the close relation between the depth and temperature.Sediments less than 1200 m below seafloor are inferred to still act as a biogenic gas producer to pour methane into the present hydrate zone,while sedimentary layers more than 1200 m below seafloor have become too biogenically exhausted to offer any biogas,but instead they produce thermogenic gas to give additional supply to the hydrate formation in the study area.

  15. Simulation experiments on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG JianMing; CAO ZhiMin; CHEN JianWen; ZHANG Min; LI Jin; YANG GuiFang

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were made on 58 sediment samples from four sites (1244, 1245, 1250 and 1251) of ODP204 at five temperature points (25, 35, 45, 55 and 65℃) to simulate methane production from hy drate-bearing sediments. Simulation results from site 1244 show that the gas components consist mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, and heavy hydrocarbons more than C2+ cannot be detected.This site also gives results, similar to those from the other three, that the methane production is con trolled by experimental temperatures, generally reaching the maximum gas yields per gram sediment or TOC under lower temperatures (25 and 35℃). In other words, the methane amount could be related to the buried depth of sediments, given the close relation between the depth and temperature. Sediments less than 1200 m below seafioor are inferred to still act as a biogenic gas producer to pour methane into the present hydrate zone, while sedimentary layers more than 1200 m below seafloor have become too biogenically exhausted to offer any biogas, but instead they produce thermogenic gas to give ad ditional supply to the hydrate formation in the study area.

  16. Relationship between Volcanic Rocks and Hydrocarbon Accumulation during Dominant Period of Basin Formation in Liaohe Depression%主成盆期火山岩与油气成藏关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振岩; 仇劲涛; 王璞珺; 李湃; 张培先; 刘鑫; 郝涛; 聂桂民

    2011-01-01

    The dominant period of basin formation is defined as the period with the strongest tectonic movements,the largest extent of subsidence and the best development of source rocks.The sedimentary period of the 3rd member(Shasan,E2s3) and 4th member(Shasi,E2s4) of Shahejie Formation is the dominant period for basin formation.There were many episodes of volcanic movements during Cenozoic in Liaohe Depression,forming distribution of volcanic rocks with many series and types,which changes with the tectonic center and has the less strong activity in the earlier stages.The volcanic movements in the dominant period of Liaohe depression are abnormally strong and the appearances of volcanic rocks are frequent.The reservoirs which are altered by structural fractures and the corrosion and dissolution by formation water are favorable for oil and gas accumulation.The superposition in plane and the alternation in profile provide enough provision conditions of oil and gas sources for volcanic rock reservoirs.Furthermore,the volcanic rocks from dominant period of basin are of large thickness,widespread distribution and various traps and accumulation types,owning many advantages for oil and/or gas accumulation in many respects.The volcanic rock reservoirs for oil and/or gas in the areas of Huangshatuo and Oulituozi are typical representations among the above favorable reservoirs.The volcanic rocks from the dominant period of basin formation with favorable combination of oil and/or gas accumulation,enriching the content of oil and /or gas accumulation and the types of oil and /or gas exploration,are the important field for hydrocarbon discovery and exploration.%裂陷盆地的主成盆期是构造活动性最强、沉降幅度最大、烃源岩发育最好的时期,辽河坳陷的主成盆期是E2s4~E2s3时期。辽河坳陷新生代发生了多期火山活动,形成了多套、多类型的火山岩分布,火山活动总体上具有早强晚弱、平面上具有随沉降中

  17. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  18. Damper bearing rotordynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1990-01-01

    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  19. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  20. Green Methodologies to Test Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The definition and the economic viability of the best development strategy of a hydrocarbon reservoir mainly depend on the quantity and type of fluids and on the well productivity. Well testing, consisting in producing hydrocarbon to the surface while measuring the pressure variations induced in the reservoir, has been used for decades to determine the fluid nature and well potential. In exploration and appraisal scenarios the hydrocarbons produced during a test are flared, contributing to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Approach: Due to more stringent environmental regulations and a general need for reduced operating expenses, the current industry drivers in today’s formation evaluation methodologies demand short, safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly test procedures, especially when conventional tests are prohibitively expensive, logistically not feasible or no surface emissions are allowed. Different methods have been proposed or resuscitated in the last years, such as wireline formation tests, closed chamber tests, production/reinjection tests and injection tests, as viable alternatives to conventional well testing. Results: While various short-term tests, test procedures and interpretation methods are apparently available for conducting successful tests without hydrocarbon production at the surface, clarity is lacking for specific applications of these techniques. An attempt to clarify advantages and limitations of each methodology, particularly with respect to the main testing target is pursued in this study. Specific insight is provided on injection testing, which is one of the most promising methodology to replace traditional well testing in reservoir characterization, except for the possibility to sample the formation fluids. Conclusion/Recommendations: Not a single one method but a combination of more methodologies, in particular injection testing and wireline formation testing, is the most promising

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  2. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  3. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N

    2010-01-01

    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  4. 煎炸对肉制品中杂环胺及多环芳香烃化合物含量的影响及其控制措施%Effect Factors of Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Heterocyclic Amines in Fried Meat and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓霞; 彭增起; 冯云

    2009-01-01

    Fried meat is one common food.However,in the frying process,strong carcinogen will be produced such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,heterocyclic amines and harm to human health. This article studied the formation conditions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heterocyclic amines in fried meat.and list the conffol measures.%煎炸是最常用的烹调方法之一.肉类食品在煎炸过程中能产生杂环胺,多环芳香烃等强致癌物,对人体健康存在极大的危害.本文就影响煎炸肉制品中杂环胺及多环芳香烃化合物形成的因素进行了分析,并提出具体的控制措施.

  5. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  6. Petroleum migration and mixing in the northwestern Junggar Basin (NW China): constraints from oil-bearing fluid inclusion analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Cao; Suping Yao [Nanjing University (China). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Zhijun Jin [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Beijing (CN)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Abundant oil-bearing fluid inclusions are present in four reservoir sandstone samples from the slope and fault zone areas in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin (NW China). Free oil in intergranular pores, adsorbed oil on grain surfaces, and petroleum in inclusions hosted by mineral grains of these samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical results indicate similar biomarker distributions in the three bitumen fractions of the samples collected from the slope area, which correlate well with characteristic of the source rocks in the Lower Permian Fengcheng Formation. This is in contrast to the fault zone, where the three bitumen fractions vary significantly in their geochemical signatures, suggesting that all of the three Permian source sequences rocks (including the Lower Permian Jiamuhe and Fengcheng formations, and the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe Formation) have been mature and contributed to the oils in the fault zone. The presence of an unresolved hydrocarbon hump and a full range of unaltered n-alkanes in the gas chromatograms of samples collected from the fault zone indicate an earlier hydrocarbon biodegradation and subsequent injection of fresh oils, distinctly different from that in the slope area. Petrographic and microthermometric investigations of oil-bearing fluid inclusions suggest a single oil charge in the slope area (to the Lower Triassic reservoir, occurring during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time). In the fault zone, oil migration and mixing took place mainly during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic and Cretaceous, followed by gas migration in the Tertiary period. The different petroleum migration and mixing histories in the slope and fault zones are attributed to the effect of fault-controlled oil and gas migration. (author)

  7. Hydrocarbon Accumulation Models and the Main Controlling Factors for the Lower Member of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Wu-Ding area of the Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地吴定地区延长组下部油气成藏模式与主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波; 周康; 郭强; 白奋飞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the integrated studies of the sedimentary facies,oil-source correlation,formation pressure structure and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions,this paper researches the hydrocarbon accumulation models and the main controlling factors for the lower member of Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Wuqi-Dingbian area of the Ordos Basin.The result shows that the formations Chang 7 and Chang 9 are the two sets of fine source rocks which possess good hydrocarbon generation potential in the region.Oil-source correlation shows hydrocarbon in the Chang 7 and Chang 9 formations mainly derives from the source rock Chang 7 in the Wuqi-Dingbian area,and the Chang 9 formation follows.Hydrocarbon generating pressurization is the main drive force for petroleum migration in the Chang 7 formation of the region.The area with high values in the background of low values in excess pressure difference for Chang 7 and Chang 8 is the main locus for hydrocarbon accumulation in the lower member of the Yanchang formation.The main sedimentary facies of the Yanchang formation in the research region is deltaic front subaqueous distributary channels and debouch bars;which may serve as reservoir space with generally higher porosity and permeability.The Chang 8 and Chang 9 reservoirs are characterized by episodic injection and continuous accumulation,and both of the reservoirs belong to hydrocarbon accumulation assemblages under source rocks.Comprehensive analysis suggests that the distribution of the upper Jurassic reservoirs is mainly controlled by three major factors of near sources,low pressure and good facies.%在综合沉积相、油源对比、地层压力结构、包裹体均一温度等方面的基础上,对鄂尔多斯盆地吴起-定边地区延长组下部油气成藏模式与主控因素进行了研究,认为研究区发育长7和长9两套烃源岩,油源对比显示吴定地区长8、长9油气主要来源于长7烃源岩,长9烃源岩次之;延长组长7生烃

  8. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  9. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  10. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  11. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  12. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  13. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  14. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱佳楠

    2005-01-01

    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.

  15. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  16. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  17. Hydrocarbon potential of Blantyre-Mount Emu Region (Darling Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinelnikov, Andrei

    1995-09-01

    Currently available geologic and seismic data demonstrates a significant hydrocarbon potential within the Darling Basin, Australia . This region`s tectonic evolution has resulted in complex geological structures in which a wide range of hydrocarbon traps can be interpreted. This interpretation of seismic data shows that there are at least two reflectors (stratigraphic surfaces) considered favourable for the formation of stratigraphic traps. Seismic data and the structural maps presented lead to a new interpretation of Devonian traps. (author). figs., refs.

  18. Molecular geochemistry of Eocene Pinghu Formation coal-bearing source rocks in the Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin%西湖凹陷始新统平湖组煤系烃源岩分子地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱扬明; 周洁; 顾圣啸; 李颖

    2012-01-01

    GC/MS analytical data of 60 saturated and aromatic fractions revealed that saturated hydrocarbons from Pinghu Formation coal-bearing source rocks in the Xihu Depression of the East China Sea Shelf Basin are characterized by abundant diterpenoid compounds originated from resins of coniferous trees and dominant Cd in steranes(>45%). Moreover, aromatic fractions are abnormally rich in terrigenous biomarkers, such as retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene, indicating a predominant source of organic matter derived from terrigenous higher plants. Compared with coals and carbonaceous mudstones, dark mudstones show a relatively higher content of C27 sterane and a bimodal distribution in n-alkanes, suggesting a certain proportion of aquatic organism contributions in the organic matter source. Source rocks as a whole are believed to be deposited in an oxic limnetic-facies environment, as reflected by high Pr/Ph ratios ranging mostly from 3. 5 to 8. 5 and abundant dibenzofuranes. However, some dark mudstones show relatively lower Pr/Ph values (round 1.5), suggesting a weakly reducing to suboxic semi-deep lake setting. Coals and carbonaceous mudstones can be distinguished from dark mudstones by a higher relative concentration of C29 sterane (>80%) and lower gammacerane /C30 ho-pane ratio (<0. 05).%60个饱和烃和芳烃组分的GC-MS分析资料表明,东海盆地西湖凹陷平湖组煤系烃源岩饱和烃中富含源于针叶树脂的二萜烷类生物标志物,甾烷中普遍以C29化合物占优势(>45%),芳烃组分中惹烯、1,7-二甲基菲等陆源标志物含量异常高,这些结果反映该煤系烃源岩的成烃母质主要来源于陆源高等植物.相对于煤及碳质泥岩,暗色泥岩中C27甾烷有较高含量,且正构烷烃呈双峰型分布,说明其有机质生物源中永生生物占有一定比例.该煤系烃源岩的Pr/Ph值大多分布在3.5~8.5,二苯并呋喃类化合物较多,指示这套烃源层主要形成于氧化性较强的湖沼相

  19. Geochemistry of hydrocarbons of the Terek-Caspian trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Terek-Caspian oil and gas bearing basin of the Eastern Ciscaucasia, oil deposits occur in a wide stratigraphic range of rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section, from the Jurassic, at depths from 5800 to 200 m. In the sedimentary section, carbonate and terrigenous Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Miocene oil-mother rocks are distinguished. Organic matter from them have different geochemical characteristics and different maturity to realize the generation potential. The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of potential petroleum-bearing rocks and hydrocarbon fluids from the Terek-Sunzha folded zone of the Terek-Caspian Trough, including lithological, chemical-bituminological, pyrolytic, chromatographic and chromatographic-mass spectrometry investigations. A detailed description of hydrocarbon fluids at the molecular level and genetic correlations of oil-oil and oil-organic matter are given. Specific features of the oil deposits of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section are noted. Among the studied bitumens, the chromatographic characteristics of the extractable organic matter from the Khadum carbonate-clayey deposits and oils from the Cretaceous and Neogene reservoirs are most similar. The composition of a complex natural mixture of hydrocarbons from various sources, with different maturation during the geological history of the region, does not allow making unambiguous conclusions about the source or sources of hydrocarbons for the deposits of the Terek-Caspian Trough.

  20. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  2. Magnetic Bearing Consumes Low Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Energy-efficient linear magnetic bearing maintains a precise small separation between its moving and stationary parts. Originally designed for cryogenic compressors on spacecraft, proposed magnetic bearing offers an alternative to roller or gas bearing in linear motion system. Linear noncontacting bearing operates in environments where lubricants cannot be used.

  3. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  4. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  7. Geochemistry of oil in fluid inclusions in a middle Proterozoic igneous intrusion: implications for the source of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, A. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences; Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Inst. of Marine Science; Volk, H.; George, S.C. [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Ridley, J. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2004-08-01

    The ca. 1280 Ma dolerite sill within the Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in the Roper Superbasin, Australia, contains evidence for at least two episodes of hydrocarbon migration represented, respectively, by solid bitumen with a ketone-rich extract, and a mixture of a high maturity gas-condensate and a lower maturity oil within oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The ketone isomers are formed by flash pyrolysis of kerogen during the intrusion of the dolerite sill [Org.Geochem. 21(1994) 829] and represent the first and oldest phase of hydrocarbon migration. The gas condensate and oil were subsequently trapped as a mixture within fluid inclusions at diagenetic temperatures and pressures of around 110 {sup o}C and 250 bars, significantly after cooling of the sill and likely during the Neoproterozoic reactivation of the Roper Superbasin. Either (1) these fluids migrated together and mixed in the reservoir or (2) an earlier oil charge was flushed by a later condensate charge and the oil-condensate mixture was trapped within single fluid inclusions. Oil inclusions occur chiefly within albitised zones of labradorite laths within the dolerite matrix, and within transcrystalline microfractures cutting vein calcite and rarely vein quartz. Oil inclusions trapped in the vein calcite are accompanied by hypersaline Ca/Mg brines. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of oil extracted from inclusions within the dolerite matrix shows that the oil is non-biodegraded and was therefore trapped relatively quickly within the host minerals. Trace amounts of biomarkers indicate that the inclusion oil is of a biogenic origin and excludes any abiotic processes that are apparent sources of hydrocarbons in many crystalline rocks. Monomethylalkanes, pentacyclic terpanes chiefly comprising hopanes and diahopanes, and very low concentrations of steranes and diasteranes indicate input from cyanobacterial organic matter with a minor contribution from eukaryotes. The hydrocarbons are likely derived from

  8. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  10. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  11. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  12. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing fluid inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2006-06-01

    We report detailed molecular geochemistry of oil-bearing fluid inclusions from a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The presence of abundant biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before the Great Oxidation Event is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis than previously thought and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. It also implies that eukaryotes survived several extreme climatic events, including the Paleoproterozoic “snowball Earth” glaciations. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Paleoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution of life through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

  13. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  14. The Little Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战峰; 乐伟国

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A little bear has a magic stick.It can make his wishes come true. One day,the little bear is walking in the forest.He sees a bird.It is flying in the sky.It has two beautiful wings."I want two beautiful wings.I wish I can fly like a bird,"he says to the magic stick.Two beautiful wings come out from his back and he can fly like a bird now.He is very happy.

  15. Modular gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  16. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  18. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  19. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  20. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.

  1. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  2. Tribological thin films on steel rolling element bearing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ryan David

    Tribological thin films are of interest to designers and end-users of friction management and load transmission components such as steel rolling element bearings. This study sought to reveal new information about the properties and formation of such films, spanning the scope of their technical evolution from natural oxide films, to antiwear films from lubricant additives, and finally engineered nanocomposite metal carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (MC/a-C:H) films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the near-surface material (depth gear oil additives. Site-specific thinning of cross-section cone surface sections for TEM analyses was conducted using the focused ion beam milling technique. Two types of oxide surface films were characterized for the cones tested in mineral oil only, each one corresponding to a different lubrication severity. Continuous and adherent antiwear films were found on the cone surfaces tested with lubricant additives, and their composition depended on the lubrication conditions. A sharp interface separated the antiwear film and base steel. Various TEM analytical techniques were used to study the segregation of elements throughout the film volume. The properties of nanocomposite tantalum carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (TaC/a-C:H) thin films depend sensitively on reactive magnetron sputtering deposition process conditions. TaC/a-C:H film growth was studied as a function of three deposition parameters in designed experiments: acetylene flow rate, applied d.c. bias voltage, and substrate carousel rotation rate. Empirical models were developed for the following film characteristics to identify process-property trend relationships: Ta/C atomic ratio, hydrogen content, film thickness. TaC crystallite size, Raman spectrum, compressive stress, hardness, and elastic modules. TEM measurements revealed the film base structure consisted of equiaxed cubic B1-TaC crystallites (< 5 nm) suspended in an a-C:H matrix. At the nanometer-scale, the

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Some limitations in applying classical EHD film-thickness formulae to a high-speed bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Elastohydrodynamic film thickness was measured for a 20 mm ball bearing using the capacitance technique. The bearing was thrust loaded to 90, 448, and 778 N. The corresponding maximum stresses on the inner race were 1.28, 2.09, and 2.45 GPa. Test speeds ranged from 400 to 14,000 rpm. Film thickness measurements were taken with four different lubricants: (1) synthetic paraffinic; (2) synthetic paraffinic with additives; (3) neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester; and (4) synthetic cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon traction fluid. The test bearing was mist lubricated. Test temperatures were 300, 338, and 393 K. The measured results were compared to theoretical predictions and are presented.

  5. Characterisation of C–F Polymer Film Formation on the Air-Bearing Surface Etched Sidewall of Fluorine-Based Plasma Interacting with AL2O3–TiC Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonggot Limcharoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available C–F polymer redeposition is generated on the etched sidewall of the patterned air-bearing surface (ABS. This C–F polymer is a by-product from fluorine-based plasma using a Surface Technology Systems multiplex-pro air-bearing etch (ABE. The morphology of the re-deposition and the composite element was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The chemical bonding results were characterised via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflected infrared spectroscopy and visible Raman spectroscopy. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a modification of AlF3 re-deposition to C–F polymer re-deposition, which is easily stripped out by an isopropyl alcohol-based solution. The benefit of this research is the removal of the re-deposition in the resist strip process without additional cleaning process steps.

  6. Formation of a Phyllosilicate-, K-feldspar-, and Sulfate-Bearing Hematite Ridge on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, Under Hydrothermal, Acid-Sulfate Conditions: Process and Mineralogical Analog for the Hematite Ridge on Mt. Sharp, Gale Crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Adams, M. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Fraeman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is currently moving upslope on Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater toward a hematite-bearing ridge. This hematite exposure was originally detected in CRISM spectra and subsequently mapped as part of a ~200 m wide, 6.5 km long ridge extending roughly parallel to the base of Mt. Sharp. CRISM spectra in the region suggest that hematite, smectite, and hydrated sulfates occur as secondary phases in lower layers of Mt. Sharp, separated by an unconformity from overlying anhydrous strata. A potential process and mineralogical analog is a hematite-bearing and weathering-resistant stratum (ridge) is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone on Mauna Kea (MK) volcano, Hawaii. The MK ridge is the product of hydrothermal alteration of basaltic precursors under acid-sulfate conditions. We are acquiring chemical and mineralogical (VNIR, Mid-IR, and backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission XRD) data on the MK ridge area that correspond to rover and orbiting spacecraft measurements at Gale Crater and elsewhere. The hematite-bearing stratum does not have detectable sulfate minerals by XRD, and hematite is variably present as up to mm-sized black crystals which, together with associated trioctahedral smectite and K-feldspar (from XRD), imply hydrothermal conditions. Adjacent to the MK hematite-bearing stratum are sulfates (jarosite and alunite) that are evidence for aqueous alteration under acid-sulfate conditions, and more soluble sulfates are absent but such phases would not persist if formed because of annual precipitation. Dioctahedral smectite is associated with red hematite and alunite-rich samples. The black and red hematite zones have the highest and lowest MgO/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O ratios, respectively. Hematite, smectite, jarosite, and K-feldspar have been detected by Curiosity XRD downslope from the Mt. Sharp hematite ridge. MK field work and samples were obtained with PISCES partnership and OMKM, MKMB, BLNR, and KKMC permissions.

  7. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  8. Origin and character of gaseous hydrocarbons in the hydrate and non-hydrate charged sediments on the Norway - Svalbard margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaular, Espen Nesheim

    2011-05-15

    Gas incubated in clathrate water-structures, stabilizes the hydrogen bonded substance termed gas hydrate. In the marine environment vast amount of carbon is stored as gas hydrates within the temperature and pressure zone these ice-like structures are stable. Natural gas hydrate mapping and characterization is important basic research that brings about critical knowledge concerning various topics. Natural gas hydrates is a vital part of the carbon cycle, it is a potential energy resource (and thereby a potential climate agent) and it is a potential geo-hazard. One of the goals the GANS initiative aimed at exploring, was the hydrate bearing sediment of the Norway -Svalbard margins, to investigate the character and expansion of natural gas hydrates. Part of the investigation was to define how the gas in the hydrated sediment was produced and where it came from. As a result this thesis addresses the matter of light hydrocarbon characterization and origin in two Norwegian hydrate deposits. On cruises to Vestnesa on the Svalbard margin and to Nyegga in the mid-Norwegian margin, samples of hydrate charged and non-hydrate charged sediments were obtained and analyzed. Through compositional and isotopic analyses the origin of the hydrate bound gas in the fluid escape feature G11 at Nyegga was determined. The hydrate incubated methane is microbial produced as well as parts of the hydrate bound ethane. The compositional analysis in both the Nyegga area and at the Vestnesa Ridge points at thermogenic contributions in the sediment interstitials and pore water. The two hydrate bearing margins show large differences in hydrocarbon content and microbial activity in the pockmarks investigated. The gravity cores from the penetrated pockmark at Vestnesa showed low hydrocarbon content and thus suggest ceased or periodic venting. The fluid flow escape features at Nyegga show large variety of flux rates based on ROV monitoring and headspace analysis of the sediment and pore water. The

  9. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  10. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  11. Trend of Self-bearing Motors(Magnetic Bearings)

    OpenAIRE

    上野, 哲; Satoshi, UENO; 立命館大学

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a trend of a self-bearing motor that combines the functions of a motor and active magnetic bearing. The self-bearing motor has advantages, such as miniaturization, low cost, and high speed rotation in addition to the advantages of the active magnetic bearing. Various types of self-bearing motors such as a radial type, axial type, permanent magnet type, induction type, and reluctance type, have been proposed. In this paper, technologies and applications of the self-bearin...

  12. Leakage-free journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, O.; Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept of a journal bearing is developed which prevents side leakage of the lubricant, thus eliminating the need for sealing and collecting this leakage. The cooling of the bearing is accomplished by the prevailing circumferential flow. An analysis is performed and solutions are given for the bearing geometries and inlet pressures required to achieve the above purpose.

  13. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of lower oligocene deposits in the Maragh Trough, Se Sirt Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, R. [Wintershall Libya, Tripoli (Libya)

    2001-04-01

    The main phase of rifting the Sirt Basin (Libya) had ceased by the mid-Cretaceous but later Alpine-related tectonic pulses in the late Eocene resulted in northward tilting of the basin. In the Maragh Trough (SE Sirt basin), a regional unconformity consequently separates Eocene carbonates from the overlying Oligocene succession. The unconformity marks a change from Eocene fully-marine sedimentation to more mixed, shallow-marine type deposition in the Oligocene. A regional transgression re-established fully marine conditions in the Miocene. Deeply-buried (Triassic) source rocks in the Maragh Trough reached peak oil generation during the Oligocene. Two potential reservoir intervals have been identified: upper Eocene rudstones of the Augila Formation, and unconformably-overlying sandstones of the Lower Oligocene Arida Formation. Mid-Oligocene shales provide a regional seal. Facies distributions and reservoir properties are related to rift-related structural highs. Despite the absence of a nearby source kitchen, Upper Eocene carbonates have been found to be oil-bearing in the Maragh Trough at wells D1- and F1-96. This indicates that hydrocarbons have migrated along graben-bounding faults from deeply-buried source rocks to platform and sub-platform areas. Traps are of combined structural and stratigraphic type. (author)

  14. Presence of catagenetically screened oil formations in the Pripyatskiy trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.; Masyukov, V.V.; Nazarova, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on comprehensive study of geological-geophysical and petrographic data, an examination is made of the effect of secondary formations and carbonate collectors in the zone of water-oil contact on the formation of catagenetically screened hydrocarbon formations.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  16. Correlating biodegradation to magnetization in oil bearing sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Stacey; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Sephton, Mark A.; Aldana, Milagrosa; Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo; Bayona, German; Williams, Wyn

    2013-07-01

    A relationship between hydrocarbons and their magnetic signatures has previously been alluded to but this is the first study to combine extensive geochemical and magnetic data of hydrocarbon-associated samples. We report a detailed study that identifies a connection between magnetic mineralogy and oil biodegradation within oil-bearing sedimentary units from Colombia, Canada Indonesia and the UK. Geochemical data reveal that all the oil samples are derived from mature type-II kerogens deposited in oxygen-poor environments. Biodegradation is evident to some extent in all samples and leads to a decrease in oil quality through the bacterially mediated conversion of aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents. The percentage of oil components and the biodegradation state of the samples were compared to the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic mineralogy. A distinct decrease in magnetic susceptibility is correlated to decreasing oil quality and the amount of extractable organic matter present. Further magnetic characterization revealed that the high quality oils are dominated by pseudo-single domain grains of magnetite and the lower quality oils by larger pseudo-single domain to multidomain grains of magnetite and hematite. Hence, with decreasing oil quality there is a progressive dominance of multidomain magnetite as well as the appearance of hematite. It is concluded that biodegradation is a dual process, firstly, aliphatic hydrocarbons are removed thereby reducing oil quality and secondly, magnetic signatures are both created and destroyed. This complex relationship may explain why controversy has plagued previous attempts to resolve the connection between magnetics and hydrocarbon deposits. These findings reinforce the importance of bacteria within petroleum systems as well as providing a platform for the use of magnetization as a possible exploration tool to identify subsurface reservoirs and a novel proxy of hydrocarbon migration.

  17. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  18. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. The controlling factors and distribution prediction of H2S formation in marine carbonate gas reservoir, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Generally, there are some anhydrites in carbonate reservoir, as H2S is also familiar in carbonate oil and gas reservoirs. Nowadays, natural gas with high H2S concentration is usually considered as TSR origin,so there is close relationship between H2S and anhydrite. On the contrary, some carbonate rocks with anhydrite do not contain H2S. Recently, researches show that H2S isonly a necessary condition of H2S formation. The reservoir porosity, sulfate ion content within formation water, reservoir temperature,oil/gas and water interface, hydrocarbon and some elements of reservoir rock have great controlling effects on the TSR occurrence. TSR deoxidizes hydrocarbon into the acidic gas such as H2S and CO2,and the H2S formation is controlled by TSR occurrence, so the relationship among reaction room, the contact chance of sulfate ion and hydrocarbon, the reservoir temperature has great influence on the TSR reaction. H2S has relatively active chemical quality, so it is still controlled by the content of heavy metal ion. Good conditions of TSR reaction and H2S preservation are the prerequisite of H2S distribution prediction. This paper builds a predictive model based on the characteristic of natural gas reservoir with high H2S-bearing. In the porosity reservoir with anhydrite, the formation water is rich in sulfate and poor in heavy metal ion. Oil and gas fill and accumulate in the gas reservoir with good preservation conditions, and they suffered high temperature later, which indicates the profitable area of natural gas with high H2S-bearing.

  20. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Pragenau, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  1. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  2. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  3. An apparatus for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-03-23

    The installation for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv) with the formation of a mixture of H2 and C02 is a catalyst chamber (KK) filled with longitudinally disposed thin pipes (with thin walls) or with pipe units made of dolomite, MgO or potassium aluminate. These pipes have a multilayered coating (Pk) on their internal and external surfaces (Pv), which contain catalytically active components. Such pipes or pipe units form a honeycombed structure with through longitudinal channels. The catalyst chamber itself is made of a ceramic material and has a heating winding outside for heating the catalyst. To save fuel and to increase the efficiency (KPD) of the heating device, the catalyst chamber is in turn enclosed by two additional shells filled with heat conducting packings which are easily penetrated by the gases being processed. The hydrocarbon vapors or gaseous fuel from the natural gas or methane and the steam are fed through the above cited heat exchange layers with packings into the facial part of the catalytic chamber, in which the conversion of the hydrocarbons occurs with the production of H2 and C02. From the catalyzer layer the mixture of gases and steam goes through a refrigerator into a trap for the steam excess and when it is necessary, into a C02 absorber and then, pure H2 is discharged from the latter. Such a catalytic installation is convenient to use for producing pure H2 from natural gas, methane, propane or kerosene.

  4. New observational constraints on hydrocarbon chemistry in Saturn's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi; Moses, Julianne I.; West, Robert; Guerlet, Sandrine; Jouchoux, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Until now there have been only a few observations of hydrocarbons and photochemical haze in the region where they are produced in Saturn's upper atmosphere. We present new results on hydrocarbon abundances and atmospheric structure based on more than 40 stellar occultations observed by the Cassini/UVIS instrument that we have combined with results from Cassini/CIRS to generate full atmosphere structure models. In addition to detecting CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6, we detect benzene (C6H6) in UVIS occultations that probe different latitudes and present the first vertical abundance profiles for this species in its production region. Benzene is the simplest ring polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and a stepping stone to the formation of more complex molecules that are believed to form stratospheric haze. Our calculations show that the observed abundances of benzene can be explained by solar-driven ion chemistry that is enhanced by high-latitude auroral production at least in the northern spring hemisphere. Condensation of benzene and heavier hydrocarbons is possible in the cold polar night of the southern winter where we detect evidence for high altitude haze. We also report on substantial variability in the CH4 profiles that arise from dynamics and affects the minor hydrocarbon abundances. Our results demonstrate the importance of hydrocarbon ion chemistry and coupled models of chemistry and dynamics for future studies of Saturn's upper atmosphere.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  6. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  7. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  8. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions from the Palaeoproterozoic:A review of biogeochemical results from time-capsules 》2.0 Ga old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon C. GEORGE; Adriana DUTKIEWICZ; Herbert Volk; John RIDLEY; David J.MOSSMAN; Roger BUICK

    2009-01-01

    The observation of oil inclusions trapped prior to 2.0 Ga in Palaeoproterozoic rocks and the ability to obtain detailed molecular geochemical information from them provide a robust way for understanding the early biogeochemical evolution of the Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI) in ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada were trapped in quartz and feld-spar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The 2.1 Ga FA Formation sandstone of the Franceville Basin in Gabon that hosts the Oklo natural fission re-actors has also been discovered to contain abundant Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing FIs. This oil occurs within H2 and CO2-dominated inclusions trapped in syntaxial quartz overgrowths and intragranular and transgranular microfractures in detrital quartz, and was most likely trapped 2.1-1.98 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of both FI oils reveal a wide range of compounds, including n-alkanes, isopre-noids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring bio-markers including terpanes, hopanes, methylhopanes, steranes and diasteranes. To ensure a reliable interpretation of oil inclusions, a comprehensive series of outside-rinse blanks and procedural system blanks was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative amounts of the hydro-carbons in these blanks were compared to the FI extracts, so as to provide confidence limits on the experimental integrity of each compound class. Maturity ratios based on reliably detected compound classes show that the FI oils were generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. The presence of biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited prior to 2.0 Ga is consistent with early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this

  9. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions from the Palaeoproterozoic:A review of biogeochemical results from time-capsules >2.0 Ga old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon; C.; GEORGE; Adriana; DUTKIEWICZ; Herbert; VOLK; John; RIDLEY; David; J.; MOSSMAN; Roger; BUICK

    2009-01-01

    The observation of oil inclusions trapped prior to 2.0 Ga in Palaeoproterozoic rocks and the ability to obtain detailed molecular geochemical information from them provide a robust way for understanding the early biogeochemical evolution of the Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI) in ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada were trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The 2.1 Ga FA Formation sandstone of the Franceville Basin in Gabon that hosts the Oklo natural fission reactors has also been discovered to contain abundant Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing FIs. This oil occurs within H2O and CO2-dominated inclusions trapped in syntaxial quartz overgrowths and intragranular and transgranular microfractures in detrital quartz, and was most likely trapped 2.1-1.98 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of both FI oils reveal a wide range of compounds, including n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers including terpanes, hopanes, methylhopanes, steranes and diasteranes. To ensure a reliable interpretation of oil inclusions, a comprehensive series of outside-rinse blanks and procedural system blanks was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative amounts of the hydrocarbons in these blanks were compared to the FI extracts, so as to provide confidence limits on the experimental integrity of each compound class. Maturity ratios based on reliably detected compound classes show that the FI oils were generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. The presence of biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited prior to 2.0 Ga is consistent with early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this

  10. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  11. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  13. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-12

    Determination of bond dissociation energies and heats of formation of hydrocarbon radicals and carbenes requires knowledge of their structures, but this is not provided by standard mass spectrometric studies; what is needed is high-resolution spectroscopy, often best achieved at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Nearly 60 reactive organic molecules were investigated in the period from 1988--1998.

  14. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  15. The Origin of Carbon-Bearing Volatiles in a Continental Hydrothermal System in the Great Basin: Water Chemistry and Isotope Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems on Earth are active centers in the crust where organic molecules can be synthesized biotically or abiotically under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions [1-3]. Not only are volatile species (CO, CO2, H2, and hydrocarbons) a reflection of deep-seated hydrothermal alteration processes, but they also form an important component of biological systems. Studying carbon-bearing fluids from hydrothermal systems is of specific importance to understanding (bio-)geochemical processes within these systems. With recent detection of methane in the martian atmosphere [4-7] and the possibility of its hydrothermal origin [8, 9], understanding the formation mechanisms of methane may provide constraints on the history of the martian aqueous environments and climate.

  16. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  17. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  18. On bacterial role in hydrocarbon generation mechanism,Banqiao Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁冠; 钟宁宁; 侯读杰; 黄光辉; 于志海; 杨池银; 廖前进

    1995-01-01

    Terrestrial organic matter is a main primary source material for oil and gas generation in theEogene Shahejie Formation in Banqiao Sag,bacterial degradation and reworking of sedimentary organic matterwould be conducive to the enhancement of its sapropelification level and to the early generation of immatureoil.Bacteria-derived short-chain alkanes are a major material base for the light hydrocarbon formation ofcondensate and crude oil in Banqiao Sag,certain thermal maturation,formation temperature and pressure areexternal conditions for the condemate formation.The establishment of hydrocarbon generation model shouldbe favorable to the resource prediction of deep-lying high-mature and shallow-lying immature oils and gases.

  19. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  20. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  1. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  2. Prototype testing of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1987-01-01

    The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

  3. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  4. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-30

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  5. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  6. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  8. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  9. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  10. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  11. Magnetic molecules derived from hydrogenation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Vergés, J A; Louis, E; Pastor-Abia, L; SanFabian, E

    2008-01-01

    Present routes to produce magnetic organic-based materials adopt a common strategy: the use of magnetic species (atoms, polyradicals, etc.) as building blocks. We explore an alternative approach which consists of selective hydrogenation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) (Hartree-Fock and DFT) and multi-configurational (CISD and MCSCF) calculations on coronene and corannulene, both hexa-hydrogenated, show that the formation of stable high spin species is possible. The spin of the ground states is discussed in terms of the Hund rule and Lieb's theorem for bipartite lattices (alternant hydrocarbons in this case). This proposal opens a new door to magnetism in the organic world.

  12. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    , overpressured reservoirs caused by thermal generation of gas, typical of basin-centered gas accumulations, are not common in the Travis Peak Formation. Signifi cant overpressure was found in only one Travis Peak sandstone reservoir in 1 of 24 oil and gas fi elds examined across eastern Texas and northern Louisiana. The presence of gas-water contacts is perhaps the most defi nitive criterion indicating that a gas accumulation is conventional rather than a ?sweet spot? within a basin-centered gas accumulation. Hydrocarbon-water contacts within Travis Peak sandstone reservoirs were documented in 17 fi elds and probably occur in considerably more fi elds across the productive Travis Peak trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana. All known hydrocarbon-water contacts in Travis Peak reservoirs in eastern Texas, however, occur within sandstones in the upper 500 ft of the formation. Although no gas-water contacts have been reported within the lower three-fourths of the Travis Peak Formation in northeastern Texas, gas production from that interval is limited. The best available data suggest that most middle and lower Travis Peak sandstones are water bearing in northeastern Texas. Insuffi cient hydrocarbon charge relative to permeability of Travis Peak reservoirs might be responsible for lack of overpressure and basin-centered gas within the Travis Peak Formation. Shales interbedded with Travis Peak sandstones in eastern Texas are primarily oxidized fl ood-plain deposits with insuffi cient organic-carbon content to be signifi cant sources of oil and gas. The most likely source rocks for hydrocarbons in Travis Peak reservoirs are two stratigraphically lower units, the Jurassic-age Bossier Shale of the Cotton Valley Group, and laminated, lime mudstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Hydrocarbon charge, therefore, might be suffi cient for development of conventional gas accumulations, but it is insuffi cient for

  13. Evaluation of radiogallium-labeled, folate-embedded superparamagnetic nanoparticles in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Leila Hosseini-Salekdeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Elevated expression of the folate receptor (FR occurs in many human malignancies. Thus, folate targeting is widely utilized in drug delivery purposes specially using nano-radioactive agents. Aims: In this work, we report production and biological evaluation of gallium-67 labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, embedded by folic acid ( 67 Ga-SPION-folate complex especially in tumor-bearing mice for tumor imaging studies. Settings and Design: The structure of SPION-folate was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and foureir transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The radiolabeled SPION-folate formation was confirmed by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC. Tumor induction was performed by the use of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon injection in rodents as reported previously. Materials and Methods: [ 67 Ga]-SPION-folate was shown to possess a particle size of ≈5-10 nm using instrumental methods followed by ITLC test. Biocompatibility of the compound was investigated using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay followed by stability tests and tumor accumulation studies in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice after subcutaneous (s.c. application. Statistical Analysis Used: All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD and the data were compared using Student t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P95% radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumor:blood, tumor:bone and tumor:muscle ratios of 4.23, 4.98 and 11.54 respectively after 24 h. Conclusions: Due to the nano-scale size and high-penetrative property of the developed folate-containing nano-complex, this system can be an interesting drug delivery modality with therapeutic applications and folate receptor-targeting behavior, while possessing paramagnetic properties for thermotherapy.

  14. A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, Berk; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad; Avci, Recep

    2011-10-01

    A custom-made stainless steel column was designed to contain various materials that would trap the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives during the processes of fungal fermentation ultimately yielding preparative amounts of volatile organic substances (VOCs). Trapping materials tested in the column were Carbotrap materials A and B (Supelco) as well as bentonite-shale from the oil bearing areas of Eastern Montana, the former allowed for the effective and efficient trapping of VOCs from purged cultures of Hypoxylon sp. Trapping efficiencies of various materials were measured by both gravimetric as well as proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopy with the Carbotraps A and B being 99% efficient when tested with known amounts of 1,8-cineole. Trapped fungal VOCs could effectively be removed and recovered via controlled heating of the stainless steel column followed by passage of the gases through a liquid nitrogen trap at a recovery rate of ca 65-70%. This method provides for the recovery of mg quantities of compounds normally present in the gas phase that may be needed for spectroscopy, bioassays and further separation and analysis and may have wide applicability for many other biological systems involving VOCs. Other available Carbotraps could be used for other applications.

  15. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  16. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  17. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  18. High-Performance Ball Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

    1995-01-01

    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  19. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  20. High-Performance Ball Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

    1995-01-01

    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  1. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  2. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  3. Synthesis of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J. (Centre de Recherche sur la Geologie de l' Uranium and GS-CNRS CREGU, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

    Hydrocarbon fluid inclusions have been synthesized in halogenide and sulfate crystals at low temperature (<100C) and atmospheric pressure. Water-immiscible hydrocarbon droplets were either trapped separately or with an aqueous and/or a vapor phase. Impurities on the crystal surface were verified by infrared microspectrometry, and the similarity between the initial liquid and the liquid trapped in the inclusion was documented by Raman microspectrometry for nonfluorescent compounds. This inclusion type represents a new tool for understanding inclusion-formation phenomena and for the calibration of techniques used in hydrocarbon fluid-inclusion analysis ({mu}FT-IR, {mu}Raman, {mu}UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry); these inclusions allow one to obtain microthermometric calibration curves with a high precision at low temperature.

  4. Identification of some novel tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A.A.; Pehk, T.Y.; Vorobieva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K. (Institute of Geology and Exploitation of Combustible Minerals, Moscow (USSR))

    1988-01-01

    A new group of tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons of molecular formula C{sub 19}H{sub 32} has been found in the Jurassic oils and condensates of the Central Kara-Kum (Turkmenia, U.S.S.R.). The structure of the hydrocarbons has been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. Of the compounds identified 4,8-dimethyl-13-isopropyltetracyclo(6.6.0.0{sup 1,11}O{sup 3,7})- and 5,14-dimethyl-10-isopropyltetracyclo = (6.4.1.1.{sup 1,9}O{sup 4,13})tetradecanes are present in the highest concentrations. Some ideas are put forward about the source and the reactions involved in the formation of the hydrocarbons under natural conditions by the enzymic C{sub 5} cyclization of aliphatic isoprenoids.

  5. Main Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Paleozoic in Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.

  6. Small hydrocarbon molecules in cloud-forming Brown Dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bilger, Camille; Helling, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    We study the abundances of complex carbon-bearing molecules in the oxygen-rich dust- forming atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and giant gas planets. The inner atmospheric re- gions that form the inner boundary for thermochemical gas-phase models are investigated. Results from Drift-phoenix atmosphere simulations, which include the feedback of phase- non-equilibrium dust cloud formation on the atmospheric structure and the gas-phase abun- dances, are utilised. The resulting element depletion leads to a shift in the carbon-to-oxygen ratio such that several hydrocarbon molecules and cyanopolycyanopolyynene molecules can be present. An increase in surface gravity and/or a decrease in metallicity support the increase in the partial pressures of these species. CO, CO2, CH4, and HCN contain the largest fraction of carbon. In the upper atmosphere of low-metallicity objects, more carbon is contained in C4H than in CO, and also CH3 and C2H2 play an increasingly important role as carbon-sink. We determine chemical relaxation...

  7. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  8. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  9. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  10. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  11. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  12. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  13. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  14. Synergistic effects of a photooxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and copper on photosynthesis and plant growth: evidence that in vivo formation of reactive oxygen species is a mechanism of copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, T S; Marder, J B; Tripuranthakam, S; Dixon, D G; Greenberg, B M

    2001-06-01

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are often cocontaminants in industrialized environments, yet little is known about either the extent or mechanisms of their cotoxicity. To address this shortfall, the combined effects of an oxygenated PAH, 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (1,2-dhATQ), and a heavy metal, Cu2+, on photosynthesis and growth of the duckweed (Lemna gibba) were evaluated. Using assays of chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosystem I activity, 1,2-dhATQ inhibited electron transport at the cytochrome b6/f complex. Conversely, Cu2+ alone (at low concentrations) had little effect on photosynthesis. When Cu2+ was combined with 1,2-dhATQ, an increase in transient and steady-state chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching occurred relative to 1,2-dhATQ alone. Treatment of isolated thylakoid membranes with 1,2-dhATQ inhibited whole-chain linear electron transport, measured as O2 consumption using methyl viologen as the electron acceptor. However, Cu2+ plus 1,2-dhATQ resulted in active O2 consumption with or without methyl viologen as an electron acceptor. From these data, we conclude that 1,2-dhATQ renders the plastoquinone pool to a highly reduced state by inhibiting at cytochrome b6/f. Then, Cu2+ is able to mediate the transfer of electrons from reduced plastoquinone to O2, forming reactive oxygen species. At the whole-organism level, when Cu2+ and 1,2-dhATQ were mixed at concentrations that resulted in the above-mentioned impacts on photosynthesis, synergistic inhibition of plant growth was observed. This suggests a catalytic mechanism of toxicity for redox active metals, a process that could be instrumental in explaining their impacts at low concentrations.

  15. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  16. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  17. Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

  18. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  19. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  20. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  1. Crossed beam reaction of cyano radicals with hydrocarbon molecules. IV. Chemical dynamics of cyanoacetylene (HCCCN; X 1Σ+) formation from reaction of CN(X 2Σ+) with acetylene, C2H2(X 1Σg+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L. C. L.; Asvany, O.; Chang, A. H. H.; Balucani, N.; Lin, S. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.; Osamura, Y.

    2000-11-01

    The chemical reaction dynamics to form cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X 1Σ+), via the radical-neutral reaction of cyano radicals, CN(X 2Σ+;ν=0), with acetylene, C2H2(X 1Σg+), are unraveled in crossed molecular beam experiments at two collision energies of 21.1 and 27.0 kJ mol-1. Laboratory angular distributions and time-of-flight spectra of the HCCCN product are recorded at m/e=51 and 50. Experiments were supplemented by electronic structure calculations on the doublet C3H2N potential energy surface and RRKM investigations. Forward-convolution fitting of the crossed beam data combined with our theoretical investigations shows that the reaction has no entrance barrier and is initiated by an attack of the CN radical to the π electron density of the acetylene molecule to form a doublet cis/trans HCCHCN collision complex on the 2A' surface via indirect reactive scattering dynamics. Here 85% of the collision complexes undergo C-H bond rupture through a tight transition state located 22 kJ mol-1 above the cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X 1Σ+) and H(2S1/2) products (microchannel 1). To a minor amount (15%) trans HCCHCN shows a 1,2-H shift via a 177 kJ mol-1 barrier to form a doublet H2CCCN radical, which is 46 kJ mol-1 more stable than the initial reaction intermediate (microchannel 2). The H2CCCN complex decomposes via a rather loose exit transition state situated only 7 kJ mol-1 above the reaction products HCCCN (X 1Σ+) and H(2S1/2). In both cases the geometry of the exit transition states is reflected in the observed center-of-mass angular distributions showing a mild forward/sideways peaking. The explicit identification of the cyanoacetylene as the only reaction product represents a solid background for the title reaction to be included in reaction networks modeling the chemistry in dark, molecular clouds, outflow of dying carbon stars, hot molecular cores, as well as the atmosphere of hydrocarbon rich planets and satellites such as the Saturnian moon Titan.

  2. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  3. Genetic expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, D W; Robinson, J R; Niwa, A; Kumaki, K; Poland, A P

    1975-04-01

    Monooxygenases require NADPH and molecular oxygen during the metabolism of numerous endogenous hydrophobic substrates and carcinogenic and toxic exogenous chemicals. The complexity of these membrane-bound multicomponent drug-metabolizing enzyme systems is reviewed. What "aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity" actually represents is reviewed and discussed. At least two forms of the hydroxylase activity exist and we suggest that they are associated with different molecular species of membrane-bound CO-binding hemoprotein (i.e., they are associated with different enzyme active-sties). At least two, and probably more than two, nonlinked loci are responsible for the genetic expression of new cytochrome P1450 formation and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction--and the stimulation of 10 other monooxygenase "activities"--in the mouse treated with certain aromatic hydrocarbons. The individual variability of hydroxylase activity in an inbred and in a random-bred strain of micr is illustrated. The basal hydroxylase activity appears to be inherited differently from the aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible hydroxylase activity. The potent inducer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin can stimulate increases in these hepatic monooxygenase activities and p1450 formation in so-called "nonresponsive" mice, whereas inducers such as beta-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene cannot. Thus, the genetically "nonresponsive" micr apparently possess the structural and regulatory genes necessary for expression of these inducible monooxygenase activities and associated new formation of cytochrome P1450. We suggest that a mutation has occurred in the "nonresponsive" inbred strains that results in production of an inducer-binding receptor having a diminished affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Mature and Hydrocarbon Generation-expulsion Histories of Terrestrial Faces Source Rock in Sichuan Basin%四川盆地陆相烃源岩成熟史及生排烃史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯动军; 肖开华

    2015-01-01

    为了综合评价四川盆地陆相烃源岩,应用含油气盆地数值模拟技术,定量恢复了研究区主要烃源岩层系的成熟和生排烃史。首先,分别建立了盆地的热力学、生烃动力学模式、机制及相关地质模型,其次,选取古热流值、沉积水表面温度、古水深作为模拟参数,对四川盆地重点研究区20多口井进行了模拟。研究表明:四川盆地陆相系烃源岩具有3个生烃高峰期和两个排烃高峰期,成熟及生烃史总体表现为“分区演化、差异成熟、西早东晚”。层位上须三、须五段生、排烃量较大,其次为下侏罗统和须一段,总的排烃效率以须一段和须五段较高。平面上川西地区生烃量最大,其次为川北—川东北地区和川中地区。研究认为:以须家河组和中、下侏罗统为烃源岩的油气系统分别是川西地区和川北—川东北地区油气勘探的主要目标。%In order to evaluate terrestrial faces source rock in Sichuan Basin,we quantitatively recovered the mature and hydro-carbon generation-expulsion histories of the main hydrocarbon source in research area by the numerical simulation technology of oil and gas bearing basin. First,we established the thermodynamic,hydrocarvon-generation dynamic model,mechanis-m and geologic model of the basin. Then,we simulated more than 20 wells in the important areas of the basin with ancient heat flow,sediment water interface and paleobathymetric data being input parameters. The results show that terrestrial faces source rock in Sichuan Basin have three hydrocarbon-generation peaks and two hydrocarbon-expulsion peaks. The character of mature and hydrocarbon-generation histories can be summarized as subregion evolution,diversity maturation and west earlier than east. The quantity of hydrocarbon generation-expulsion in Segment 3 and 5 Xujiahe Formation is that in lower Jurassic and 3 segment Xujiahe Formation. Total hydrocarbon

  5. 江汉盆地江陵凹陷南缘古新统沙市组四段含盐岩系沉积特征及其沉积环境意义%Sedimentary characteristics and its environmental significance of salt-bearing strata of the Member 4 of Paleocene Shashi Formation in southern margin of Jiangling Depression, Jianghan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春连; 刘成林; 胡海兵; 毛劲松; 沈立建; 赵海彤

    2012-01-01

    Based on drilling core and experimental analyses, the authors studied the sedimentary characteristics of salt-bearing strata of the Member 4 of Paleocene Shashi Formation in southern margin of Jiangling Depression of Jianghan Basin. The sedimentation of salt lake is characterized by multi-period, continuous and periodically alternating of fresh and salt water. Therefore, it has become the important research focus to study palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment. The salt-bearing strata of the Member 4 of Shashi Formation in southern margin of Jiangling Depression is composed of non-sandstone, mainly peperite of evaporate mineral, carbonate mineral, terrigenous clay and fine detrital mineral. The layer thickness can be a few millimeter to a few dozen centimeters. The accumulated bed thickness is up to a few dozen centimeters to a few meters. Through comparison analysis of Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Co, Ni, V, Cu content and Sr/Ba, Mg/Ca, V/(V+Ni), Ni/Co, Cu/Zn ratio, the sedimentary characteristics and sedimentary environment of salt-bearing strata are studied systematically. It shows that the lake environment in the Yanjian Member of Shashi Formation is perennial relative deep delamination salt lake, which can be classified as brackish-water lake, semi-salt-water lake, salt-water lake and brine lake. The lake depth becomes shallow from downward to upward. Primary glauberite, typically warm facies saline minerals, is widely developed in this formation. The Fe2O3/FeO ratio represents drought climate. This feature reveals that the Paleocene Shashi Formation in southern margin of Jiangling Depression of Jianghan Basin is characterized by a drought and warm palaeoclimate.%通过钻井岩心观察及室内测试分析等方法,对江汉盆地江陵凹陷南缘古新统沙市组四段含盐岩系的沉积特征进行了研究.该时期研究区盐湖的特点是:成盐多期次、沉积连续、淡化—成化周期性交替,因而成为恢复古气候和古环境的重要研究对

  6. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  7. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. [Pertamina Exploration and Production, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  8. Bit Selection of Tight Gravel-bearing Sandstone Formation in Dongsheng Gas Field%东胜气田致密含砾砂岩地层钻头选型∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓华; 王翔; 杨大足; 张永清

    2016-01-01

    东胜气田整体岩性致密坚硬,研磨性强,钻头磨损严重,机械钻速低。为此,根据声波时差与地层岩石力学特性参数关系及岩石可钻性与声波时差的相关性,建立了东胜气田岩石可钻性级值计算模型,确定了岩石可钻性规律,并结合钻头磨损情况,进行钻头选型及设计优化,同时对优化后的钻头进行了现场应用。研究结果表明,东胜气田地层可钻性级值4~8,属中⁃硬地层,地层研磨性强;优化后的钻头可使全井机械钻速提高84%以上,单井使用钻头减少9只,节约成本63万元,收到了较好的效果。%Due to high density, hardness and abrasiveness of rocks in Dongsheng Gas Field, the bit is worn out and the rate of penetration is low�In order to solve this problem, a rock drillability value calculation model is built based on the relation between acoustic time and formation rock mechanics characteristic parameter and correla⁃tion between rock drillability and acoustic time, thereby the rock drillability pattern is determined, and bit selec⁃tion and design optimization are conducted based on bit wear and the optimized bit is applied on the site�Analysis results show that, formation rock drillability of Dongsheng Gas Field is 4 to 8, indicating the formation is a medi⁃um⁃hard formation with high abrasiveness; the optimized bit can improve the rate of penetration by more than 84%and less bits are used in each well to reduce the cost of RMB 630, 000 Yuan, achieving better results.

  9. Self-Organization during Friction of Slide Bearing Antifriction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif S. Gershman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the peculiarities of self-organization behavior and formation of dissipative structures during friction of antifriction alloys for slide bearings against a steel counterbody. It shows that during self-organization, the moment of friction in a tribosystem may be decreasing with the load growth and in the bifurcations of the coefficient of friction with respect to load. Self-organization and the formation of dissipative structures lead to an increase in the seizure load.

  10. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  11. Gas bearing operates in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  12. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  13. Segmented Hybrid Gasostatic Bearing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research-development of methods of numerical optimization rotatable support pads gasostatic hybrid bearing. In the world‘s aerospace engineering the gas-dynamic bearings are currently most common. They are characterized by the supporting layer of different designs, which ensures the workability of the rotors during starts and stops. The main problem of this bearing type, apart from the construction complexity is the wear of this supporting layer. Gas-static bearing has no such defect, since there is no physical contact between solid surfaces. This study presents the results of the hybrid bearing’s calculation, combining both technologies. The slotted nozzle of non-conventional shape that mirrors the solution of Reynolds equation’s isoline is studied. The dependences of the main parameters on the speed of the shaft’s rotation are discussed. The aerodynamic resistance of pads for different regimes of operation is investigated.

  14. Bear study, Karluk Lake, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Based on observations, 117 bears were estimated to live in the Karluk Lake area. The estimate was lower than estimates from 1952, and 1954-1955. Annual loss to...

  15. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  16. Nonlinear Control of Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khac Duc Do; Dang Hoe Nguyen; Thanh Binh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, recent results controling nonlinear systems with output tracking error constraints are applied to the design of new tracking controllers for magnetic bearings. The proposed controllers can force the rotor to track a bounded and sufficiently smooth refer-ence trajectory asymptotically and guarantee non-contactedness be-tween the rotor and the stator of the magnetic bearings. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed con-trollers.

  17. Hibernating bears as a model for preventing disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; McGee, M.E.; Harvey, K.B.; Vaughan, M.R.; Robbins, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The hibernating bear is an excellent model for disuse osteoporosis in humans because it is a naturally occurring large animal model. Furthermore, bears and humans have similar lower limb skeletal morphology, and bears walk plantigrade like humans. Black bears (Ursus americanus) may not develop disuse osteoporosis during long periods of disuse (i.e. hibernation) because they maintain osteoblastic bone formation during hibernation. As a consequence, bone volume, mineral content, porosity, and strength are not adversely affected by annual periods of disuse. In fact, cortical bone bending strength has been shown to increase with age in hibernating black bears without a significant change in porosity. Other animals require remobilization periods 2-3 times longer than the immobilization period to recover the bone lost during disuse. Our findings support the hypothesis that black bears, which hibernate for as long as 5-7 months annually, have evolved biological mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of disuse on bone porosity and strength. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  20. 3D textural evidence for the formation of ultra-high tenor precious metal bearing sulphide microdroplets in offset reefs: An extreme example from the Platinova Reef, Skaergaard Intrusion, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Le Vaillant, Margaux; Keays, Reid R.; Fisher, Louise A.; Prasser, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The Platinova Reef in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a type of layered-intrusion-hosted, precious metal-enriched, stratiform, disseminated sulphide deposit referred to as "offset reefs". These typically show platinum-group element (PGE) enrichment immediately below a major increase in the abundance of Cu-rich sulphides, with a prominent peak in Au enrichment exactly at that transition between the PGE-rich and the Cu-sulphide-rich zones. The reasons for the relative sequence of offsets in metal peaks, and the occasionally very high metal tenors have been subject to great debate. Here we use an integrated approach of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), SEM, synchrotron and desktop microbeam XRF mapping, and thin section petrography to comprehensively classify the textural relations of the precious metal-bearing sulphides of the Platinova Reef as an extreme end member example of an exceedingly high tenor offset deposit. Our results show that in the zones of PGE enrichment, precious metal minerals (PMMs) are intimately associated with Cu sulphide globules, mostly located at, or close to, silicate and oxide boundaries. The textures are identical in zones enriched in Pd and Au, and thus we do not see any evidence for different processes forming the different zones. The PMM:Cu sulphide ratio in each globule varies significantly but overall the size of the globules increases from the Pd-rich, through the Au-rich, and into the Cu zone, with a significant corresponding decrease in PM tenor. As such, this records a progression of exceedingly high tenor, microdroplets of sulphide, which progressively get larger up through the section, and decrease in tenor proportionally to their size. Cumulus droplets of Cu sulphide became enriched in metals, and were trapped in situ without significant transport from their point of nucleation. The transition to larger sulphides represents a change from sulphides nucleated and trapped in situ, to

  1. Effect of VN precipitates on formation of grain boundary and intragranular ferrite in a high N-V bearing steel; V-N tenkako no ryukai oyobi ryunai ferrite hentai ni oyobosu austenite chu no VN sekishutsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, A.; Oi, K.; Kawabata, F.; Amano, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    The enhancement of ferrite nucleation owing to vanadium nitride (VN) precipitated in the austenite phase was studied for a 0.14%C- 1.45%Mn-0.06%V-0.009%N steel and the isothermal ferrite transformation behavior associated with VN precipitation was also quantitatively discussed. Vanadium nitrides precipitate on the austenite grain boundary in preference to the grain interior and increase the density of grain boundary ferrites. On the other hand, VN precipitates in austenite grain interior are less effective to intragranular ferrite nucleation. The calculation based on the classical nucleation theory shows that the activation energy of VN precipitates for a critical ferrite nucleus formation is one-fifth lower than that in case of no precipitate. The ferrite nucleation potency of VN precipitates is kept high even in higher temperature range above 700degreeC. (author)

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements as a Proxy for Hydrocarbon Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewafy, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Werkema, D.; Revil, A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Skold, M.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements have been commonly used in paleoclimate studies, as a proxy for environmental pollution such as heavy metal contamination, and for delineating zones of oil seeps related to hydrocarbon exploration. Few studies have assessed the use of MS measurements for mapping zones of oil pollution. In this study, we investigated the variation in magnetic susceptibility across a hydrocarbon contaminated site undergoing biodegradation. Our objective was to investigate if MS measurements could be used as a proxy indicator of intrinsic bioremediation linked to the activity of iron reducing bacteria. An improved understanding of the mechanisms generating geophysical signatures associated with microbial enzymatic activity could permit the development of geophysical imaging technologies for long-term, minimally invasive and sustainable monitoring of natural biodegradation at oil spill sites. We used a Bartington MS probe to measure MS data along fifteen boreholes within contaminated (both free phase and dissolved phase hydrocarbon plumes) and clean areas. Our results show the following: (1) an enhanced zone of MS straddling the water table at the contaminated locations, not observed at the clean locations; (2) MS values within the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; (3) the MS values within the vadoze zone above the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; 4) the zone of high MS is thicker within the free product plume compared to the dissolved product plume. We suggest that the zone of enhanced MS results from the precipitation of magnetite related to the oxidation of the hydrocarbons coupled to iron reduction. Our data documents a strong correlation between MS and hydrocarbon concentration. We conclude that recognition of these zones of enhanced magnetite formation allows for the application of MS measurements as a: (1) low cost, rapid monitoring

  3. Thermochemistry of Hydrocarbons. Back to Extended Hückel Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voityuk, Alexander A

    2008-11-11

    A modified Extended Hückel method that provides accurate values of heats of formation and structural parameters of hydrocarbons is described. The results are reported for an extensive set of molecules and radicals belonging to different classes. The calculated heats of formation for 120 molecules and 26 radicals are close to the experimental data with the mean absolute error of 1.90 kcal/mol. The internal consistency of the calculated data allows reliable prediction of the reaction enthalpy for various hydrocarbon transformations. The proposed scheme is computationally very efficient, and the calculation of a large system requires only a few seconds on a PC. A computer program for the calculation is provided in the Supporting Information .

  4. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  5. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  6. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  7. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  8. Control of facies/potential on hydrocarbon accumulation:a geological model for Iacustrine rift basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dongxia; Pang Xiongqi; Zhang Shanwen; Wang Yongshi; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    The formation and distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations are jointly controlled by"stratigraphic facies"and"fluid potential",which can be abbreviated in"control of facies/potential on hydrocarbon accumulation".Facies and potential control the time-space distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation macroscopically and the petroliferous characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation microscopically.Tectonic facies and sedimentary facies control the time-space distribution.Lithofacies and petrophysical facies control the petroliferous characteristics.Favorable facies and high porosity and permeability control hydrocarbon accumulation in the lacustrine rift basins in China.Fluid potential is represented by the work required,which comprises the work against gravity,pressure,interfacial energy and kinetic energy.Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation are controlled by the joint action of multiple driving forces,and are characterized by accumulation in the area of low potential.At the structural high,low geopotential energy caused by buoyancy control anticlinal reservoir.The formation of lithological oil pool is controlled by low interfacial energy caused by capillary force.Low compressive energy caused by overpressure and faulting activity control the formation of the faulted block reservoir.Low geopotential energy of the basin margin caused by buoyancy control stratigraphic reservoir.The statistics of a large number of oil reservoirs show that favorable facies and low potential control hydrocarbon accumulation in the rift basin.where over 85% of the discovered hydrocarbon accumulations are distributed in the trap with favorable facies and lOW potentials.The case study showed that the prediction of favorable areas by application of the near source-favorable facies-low potential accumulation model correlated well with over 90% of the discovered oil pools' distribution of the middle section of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay

  9. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our

  10. 北部湾盆地涠西南凹陷油气运聚成藏特征%Characteristics of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Weixinan sag of Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颂; 杨小晏

    2012-01-01

    Weixinan sag in Beibuwan Basin is a faulted lake basin in type. In hydrocarbon migration and accumulation process, the faults can connect the source rocks with reservoirs. The unconformities result in contact and connection between the different formations which provide hydrocarbon lateral migration paths for the adjacent traps to form accumulations. The distribution characteristics of hydrocarbon in Weixinan sag can be described as "rift connecting the source rocks, hdrocarbon migrating along the ridge, source rocks from both sides, multiple accumulations in a single structure and oil-bearing in full sag" , and formed a hydrocarbon accumulation zone of multiple reservoirs and accumulations with same source.%北部湾盆地涠西南凹陷是个断陷湖盆,在油气运聚体系中,断裂可以起到沟通烃源岩的作用,将烃源岩和储层连通在一起;不整合面造成不同层系的接触与连通,从而为其附近发育的各种圈闭提供油气侧向运移的通道,并形成油气藏.涠西南凹陷已发现的油气分布特征总体上呈“断裂沟源、断脊运移、两面控藏、复式聚集、满凹含油”的油气分布格局,形成了一个“一源多储、复式聚集、连片含油”的油气聚集区.

  11. 梨树断陷沙河子组地层水特征与成藏关系%Relationship of Shahezi Formation strata water characteristic and hydrocarbon accumulation in Lishu fault depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军; 吕嵘; 叶书锋

    2015-01-01

    Formation water is the groundwater that always coexists with oil and gas, it is affected by the sedimentary environment, the lfuid lfow and other factors, and has an important relationship with the generation, migration, assemblage and accumulation of oil and gas. This paper focuses on the total degree of mineralization, metamorphic coefficient, desulfuration coefficient and carbonate equilibrium coefficient of strata water in Shahezi Formation , Lishu fault depression South-east slope belt . The analysis of these chemical characteristics shows that low parameters are consistent with the known reservoir distribution. Moreover, strata water has favorable sealing conditions, which is advantageous to accumulate and preserve the oil and gas. On the whole, four areas including SW9,HS4 have the potential for exploration.%地层水是与油气共存的地下水,它受沉积环境、流体流动等多种因素影响,与油气的生成、运移、聚集和成藏有着重要联系。对梨树断陷东南斜坡带沙河子组地层水总矿化度、变质系数、脱硫系数、碳酸盐平衡系数等化学特性参数的分析表明,参数低值区与已知油气藏分布吻合,东南斜坡带沙河子组地层水封闭条件较好,有利于油气聚集和保存,十屋9、河山4等区域具有勘探潜力。

  12. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  13. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  14. Eaton's reagent-mediated domino π-cationic arylations of aromatic carboxylic acids to Iasi-red polymethoxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: products with unprecedented biological activities as tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinet, Alina; Gautret, Philippe; Hijfte, Nathalie Van; Ledé, Bertrand; Hénichart, Jean-Pierre; Bîcu, Elena; Darbost, Ulrich; Rigo, Benoît; Daïch, Adam

    2014-08-04

    A rapid domino π-cationic arylation of aromatic carboxylic acids, mediated by Eaton's reagent, has been developed for the synthesis of Iasi-red polymethoxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This route is currently the easiest method to obtain such popular PAH compounds, which bear in addition numerous methoxy groups. The domino process was generalized, the structure of the obtained red products and the mechanism of their formations were elucidated, and some of their photophysical properties were determined. Newly synthesized polymethoxylated-PAHs were tested for their interaction with tubulin polymerization as well as for their cytotoxicity on a panel of NCI-60 human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, one of these rubicene derivatives exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro, including inhibition of leukemia, colon, melanoma, CNS, and ovarian cancer cell lines with GI50 values in the low nanomolar range (GI50 < 10 nM). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  16. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  17. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  18. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  19. Structural and Spectral Studies on the Ni(Ⅱ) Complexes of 1,5-Diazacyclooctane (DACO) Bearing Heterocyclic Pendants: Formation of a Two-dimensional Network Via Hydrogen Bonds and π-π Stacking Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Miao(杜淼); DU,Miao; XU,Qiang(徐强); XU,Qiang; GUO,Ya-Mei (郭亚梅); GUO,Ya-Mei; WENG,Lin-Hong(翁林红); WENG,Lin-Hong; BU,Xian-He (卜显和); BU,Xian-He

    2001-01-01

    A penta-coordinated Ni(II) complex with a 1,5-diazacyclooctane (DACO) ligand functionazed by two imidazole donor pendants, [NiiL1Cl] (ClO4)'HH2O (1) (where L1 = 1,5-bis (imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-1,S-diazacyclooctane) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, elemental analyses, conductance, thermal analyses and UV-Vis techniques. Complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic crystal system, P-1 space group with a = 0.74782(7), b = 1.15082(10), c = 1.237s1(11) nm, a=82.090(2), β=73.011(2), γ=83.462(2)°, V= 1.00603(16) nn3, Mr = 486.00, Z=2,Dc=1.604 g/cm3, final R=0.0435, and wR=0.1244. The structures of 1 and its related complexes show that in all the three mononuclear complexes, each Ni(Ⅱ) center is penta-coordinated with a near regular square pyranid (RSP) to distorted square-pyramidal (DSP) coordination environment due to the boat/chair configuration of DACO ring in these complexes, and the degree of distortion increases with the augment of the size of the heterocyclic pendants. In addition, the most striking feature of complex 1 resides in the formation of a two-dimensional network structure through hydrogen bonds and stabilized by π-π stacking. The solution behaviors of the Ni(ⅡI) complexes are also discussed in detail.

  20. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was unlikely, but may rather have been a secondary phenomenon. As most glomerulonephritis subgroups were seen and as some of the hydrocarbons produced more than one subgroup, the microscopic findings in a patient cannot be used as a clue to the causation of his disease. By the same reason, the lack of a specific histological pattern in patients with glomerulonephritis assumed to have been caused by hydrocarbon exposure is not contradictive.

  1. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  2. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  4. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  5. Thermal Evolution of Organic Matter and Secondary Hydrocarbon Generation from Upper Paleozoic Coal Deposits in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphism and hydrocarbon generation from the Upper Paleozoic coal-bearing strata in Northern China have been widely studied by Chinese geologists since the 1990s.Based on a large amount of data of Ro values, combined with geological background, we have systematically analyzed the thermal evolutionary characteristics of organic matter and the stages of hydrocarbon generation from the Permo-Carboniferous coal deposits and discussed the condition of secondary hydrocarbon generation.The distribution range of secondary hydrocarbon generation in Northern China is thus determined.It is shown that the coal ranks of the Upper Paleozoic coal deposits are higher in the southern and western belts than those in the northern and eastern belts.Really significant secondary hydrocarbon generation is mainly related to the thermal evolution of organic matter during the Himalayan Period.Profitable areas for secondary hydrocarbon generation should be buried at 3000-4000 m up to the present.Maturity of the Permo-Carboniferous source rocks is not very high.It is suggested that the Bohai Bay depression is favourable for secondary hydrocarbon generation and has good oil and gas prospects.

  6. Magnetic bearings with zero bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  7. 欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理及其对油气运移的影响%Formation Mechanism of the Undercompacting Mudstone's Roof and Floor and Their Influence on Hydrocarbon Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 汪斌

    2012-01-01

    欠压实泥岩顶底板是指比中部欠压实泥岩较致密的泥岩表层,是趋于正常压实的泥岩层,发育于低渗透率的厚层泥岩的上、下部位.以低速渗流定律为理论基础,从微观机理上分析欠压实泥岩顶底板的形成过程,提出穿过欠压实泥岩顶底板流体运移阻力的计算公式.当含顶底板泥岩作为盖层时,分为连续沉积型、抬升型和压裂型3种.压裂型泥岩盖层的封闭能力等于底板排替压力与达到顶板破裂的剩余压力之和,其他两种盖层的封闭能力就等于盖层顶底板的排替压力之和.当含顶底板泥岩作为源岩时,在连续型源岩中,油气排放的方向主要取决于泥岩顶底板渗透性地层的发育程度;在压裂型源岩中,大量油气沿裂缝向上排烃.此外,源岩的排烃方向还受断层的控制.通过欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理的研究,有助于评价泥岩盖层的封烃能力,了解泥质烃源岩油气初次运移的方向.%Undercompacting mudstone's roof and floor (UMRF) are the mudstone surface layers that are tighter than the central undercompaction, and are close to the normal compacting mudstone. UMRF develops in upper and lower parts of thick-layered mudstone with low permeability. This paper, by the Laws of Low-speed Flow, analyzed formation process of the UMRF from the microscopic mechanism, and proposed the resistance force formula of the fluid passing UMRF. The mudstone with the UMRF as a cap rock, can be divided into three types; the continuous sedimentary type, the uplift type and the fracture type. The sealing ability of the fracture type mudstone cap rock is equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs overpressure when it breaks down. The other two types of mudstone cap rocks' sealing abilities are equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs displacement pressure. When the mudstone with the UMRF as a source rock, in the continuous type, the expulsion direction

  8. Formation evolution and control of hydrocarbon accumulation in north part of Tianjing mountain in Long-men%龙门山北段天井山构造演化及其对油气聚集的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卿; 李忠权; 张玮; 刘爱疆; 曾吉和; 崔文玲

    2013-01-01

    龙门山褶皱冲断带位于四川克拉通以东,被围限在扬子、华北和羌塘三大陆块拼贴构造间.以全工区地震精细解释为基础,结合野外调查,选取近东西向的剖面06fsc0003-02tjs1111线,利用平衡剖面法恢复天井山构造带的造山过程.结果表明:天井山构造带的演化可划分为伸展拉张成盆阶段(震旦纪—中三叠世末)、陆隆伸展演化阶段(晚三叠世—中侏罗世末)、挤压抬升剥蚀阶段(晚侏罗世—现今)3期.根据生储盖组合和油气运移条件,认为自元古代以来最大主应力性质发生多次改变,控制构造变形、生储盖组合分布及厚度、断裂特征和油气运聚.印支期冲断带下盘(现今天井山背斜前翼下部)发育形成于印支期晚期的冲起构造,其内断层发育,将二叠系、志留系及寒武系烃源岩与二叠系储层和圈闭串通,有利于烃类的运聚,且有飞仙关组泥岩作为直接盖层,保存条件较好,是油气集聚的有利部位.该研究能够加深对龙门山褶皱冲断带油气分布预测的认识,对油气勘探具有指导意义.%Interpretation of the whole work area seismologic, combined with well drilling and field survey, we selected east-west profile of line 06fsc0003—02tjsllll. The evolution of Tianjing Mountain region can be regarded as being divided into four stages: stretching basin—formation (Sinian-Terminal Middle Triassic), continental emergence stretching evolution stage (Late Triassic-Terminal Middle Jurassic), lifting and denudation stage (Late Jurassic-Terminal Early Cretaceous) and reformation succession stage (LateCretaceous-Present). The conditions about the migration of oil and gas and the combinations of source rock, reservoir and cap rock are analyzed. The faults are believed to be developed which existed in the heading side which was formed in the later period of Indonesia epoch. Due to the existence of faults, the oil trapsand resource rock is connected, which

  9. The optimized log interpretation method and sweet-spot prediction of gas-bearing shale reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maojin; Bai, Ze; Xu, Jingjing

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas is one of the most important unconventional oil and gas resources, and its lithology and reservoir type are both different from conventional reservoirs [1,2]. "Where are shale reservoirs" "How to determine the hydrocarbon potential" "How to evaluate the reservoir quality", these are some key problems in front of geophysicists. These are sweet spots prediction and quantitative evaluation. As we known, sweet spots of organic shale include geological sweet spot and engineering sweet spot. Geophysical well logging can provide a lot of in-site formation information along the borehole, and all parameters describing the sweet spots of organic shale are attained by geophysical log interpretation[2]. Based on geological and petrophysical characteristics of gas shale, the log response characteristics of gas shales are summarized. Geological sweet spot includes hydrocarbon potential, porosity, fracture, water saturation and total gas content, which can be calculated by using wireline logs[3]. Firstly, the based-logging hydrocarbon potential evaluation is carried out, and the RBF neural network method is developed to estimate the total organic carbon content (TOC), which was proved more effective and suitable than empirical formula and ΔlogR methods [4]. Next, the optimized log interpretation is achieved by using model-searching, and the mineral concentrations of kerogen, clay, feldspar and pyrite and porosity are calculated. On the other hand, engineering sweet spot of shale refers to the rock physical properties and rock mechanism parameters. Some elastic properties including volume module, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are correspondingly determined from log interpretation, and the brittleness index (BI), effective stress and pore pressure are also estimated. BI is one of the most important engineering sweet spot parameters. A large number of instances show that the summarized log responses can accurately identify the gas-bearing shale, and the proposed RBF

  10. Comprehensive geochemical identification of highly evolved marine hydrocarbon source rocks: Organic matter, paleoenvironment and development of effective hydrocarbon source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENGER; LIU Wenhui; XU Yongchang; CHEN Jianfa; HU Kai; GAO Changlin

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the developing environments of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Ordos Basin and evaluated carbonate rocks as hydrocarbon source rocks and their distributions on account of the fact that China's marine carbonate rocks as hydrocarbon source rocks are characterized by the intensive thermal evolution and relatively low abundance of organic matter, by taking the Lower Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin for example and in light of the calculated enrichment coefficients of trace elements, the profile analysis of trace element contents, ratios of relevant elements, and stable isotopic compositions and their three-dimensional diagrammatization in combination with the necessary organic parameters. As for the Ordos Basin, TOC=0.2% is an important boundary value. Studies have shown that in the strata TOC>0.2%, V/(V+Ni)>0.50, Zr/Rb<2, Rb/K(×104)>30, Z>122, Th/U>0.80, Zn and Mo are enriched with a positive δ13Ccarb excursion. All these indicated a stagnant and stratified sedimentary environment that has low energy, anoxia and high salinity in bottom water. In these strata the geological conditions are good for the preservation of organic matter, hence favoring the development of hydrocarbon source rocks. These strata have δ13Corg<-28‰ (Ⅰ-Ⅱtype) and high hydrocarbon-generated potential. The Klimory and Wulalik formations show certain regularities in those aspects, therefore, they can be regarded as the potential effective hydrocarbon source rocks. In the strata TOC≤0.2%, Zr/Rb>1, V/(V+Ni)<0.50, Rb/K<30, Th/U<0.80, Cu, Zn, etc are depleted, and δ13Corg values range from -24‰ to -28‰. All these facts showed that most of the carbonate rocks or mudstones were formed in high-energy oxidizing environments, thus unfavorable to the development of hydrocarbon source rocks. It is feasible to make use of the geochemical method to comprehensively assess the highly evolved marine carbonates rocks as potential hydrocarbon source rocks and

  11. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  12. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  14. Hydrocarbon source rocks in marine clastic of the Middle-Upper Ordovician Queerquek Formation in the eastern Tarim Basin, China%塔里木盆地东部中-上奥陶统却尔却克组海相碎屑岩中的有效烃源岩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志勇; 张水昌; 李建军; 张宝民; 顾乔元; 卢玉红

    2011-01-01

    对塔里木盆地东部中-上奥陶统却尔却克组碎屑岩中多个泥岩样品的热解有机碳分析、英东2井岩心详细描述及多条二维地震剖面的综合解释表明,在巨厚的却尔却克组碎屑岩地层的中下部存在一套累计厚度约100m的海相烃源岩.这套烃源岩总有机碳含量可达1.23%;具有较高的自然伽马值和低电阻率值;在地震剖面上具明显的强相位反射特征.该套烃源岩在塔里木盆地东部均有分布,向东、西两方向分别超覆尖灭于罗西台地边缘和古城-轮古东台地边缘,在南北方向上,分别断失在车尔臣断裂、孔雀河断裂发育处,其中西北缘超覆在孔雀河斜坡处.却尔却克组海相烃源岩是在海侵背景下,大规模海底扇发育间歇期,水体相对安静时沉积的一套深水陆棚-盆地相泥岩.%Hydrocarbon source rocks usually occurred in a marine carbonate environment in Tarim Basin during Ordovician, no effective source rocks have been found in the Middle-Upper Ordovician thick marine clastic. The analysis of pyrolyzed organic carbon in some mudstones systematically sampled from the Queerquek Formation in the eastern Tarim Basin, the detailed observation and description of cores from the Queerquek Formation of Well Yingdong-2, and the comprehensive interpretation of various 2-dimensional seismic sections indicated that a suite of marine hydrocarbon source rocks with a total accumulated thickness of nearly 100m occurs at the middle and lower parts of the Middle-Upper Ordovician thick Queerquek marine clastic. This suite of source rocks, which has TOC as high as 1.23%, is electronically characterized by a higher natural gamma-ray value and lower electric resistivity, indicating a relatively pure mudstone, and is obviously of high amplitude reflection in seismic sections. Widely distributed in the eastern Tarim Basin, these source rocks overlapped and pinched out eastward in the Luoxi platform margin and westward in

  15. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United Stat