WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon bearing formation

  1. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  2. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  3. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  4. Method for thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-13

    In a thermal recovery procedure for hydrocarbons from an underground formation, an oxygen-containing gas is injected through at least one input well into the formation. A part of the hydrocarbons in the formation is then ignited and an oxidation front is created. This front moves under the influence of the injected gas to at least one production well in the formation. The temperature in the burning front is higher than approximately 200/sup 0/C but lower than approximately 350/sup 0/C. (4 claims)

  5. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  6. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladford, J.

    1996-07-18

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. (author) figs.

  7. Bearing-Only Formation Control for Cascade Multirobots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation control method is proposed, which is used to queue multirobots in a single-direction cascade structure. In the cascade formation, each robot is a follower for the previous robot and a leader for the next robot, and the robots in the middle act as both leader and follower. The follower robot can only observe the bearing information of the leader robot. The observability of the cascade leader-follower formation is studied, which shows that the bearing-only observation meets the observability conditions required for the nonlinear system. Based on the bearing-only observations, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF is employed for the state estimation of the leader and the follower robots at all levels, which enables the real-time movement control of the follower robots via the input-output feedback control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can efficiently control the formation of multirobots as desired.

  8. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  9. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ...

  11. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  12. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of a carbonaceous gas, e.g. methane, dissolved in a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict hydrocarbon potential of the earth formation under the body of water, the formation being a source of carbonaceous gas, comprises at a known geographic location sampling the water at a selected flow rate and at a selected depth; continuously vacuum separating the water into liquid and gas phases; separating a selected carbonaceous gas from interfering gas species in the presence of an air carrier vented to atmosphere at a known flow rate; and quantitatively oxidizing the selected gas and then cryogenically trapping an oxidant thereof in the presence of said air carrier to provide for an accurate isotopic examination. (author)

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  15. Timing of Formation of a Wassonite-bearing Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, A. W.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rubin, A. E.; Choi, B.-G.; Messenger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Wassonite, ideally stoichiometric TiS, is a titanium monosulfide recently discovered in the Yamato 691 EH3 enstatite chondrite. Wassonite grains were located within the mesostasis of a single barred olivine chondrule. Such chondrules likely formed in the solar nebula by melting of fine grained precursor dust. The reduced nature of enstatite chondrites, and the wassonite-bearing chondrule in particular, may suggest precursor materials included Ti-bearing troilite, metallic Fe-Ni, and possibly graphite. Under the reducing conditions present in enstatite chondrites S can partition more readily into silicate melt, leading to raised Ti content of the residual Fe-FeS melt. By the time sulfide crystallized from the melt, the Ti concentration was high enough to form small grains of pure TiS - wassonite. As a mineral not previously observed in nature wassonite and its host chondrule may provide additional constraints on physical and chemical conditions in the solar nebula at a specific time and location relevant to planetary formation. Enstatite chondrites and Earth share similar isotopic compositions of Cr, Ni, Ti, O and N. Understanding the formation conditions of enstatite chondrite chondrules may therefore have wider relevance for terrestrial planet accretion and other early inner solar system processes. Here we present preliminary results of an investigation of the Al-Mg systematics of the only known wassonite-bearing chondrule. The goal of this study is to determine whether this chondrule's formation was contemporaneous with other enstatite chondrite chondrules and to establish its place in the broader timeline of solar system events.

  16. Seismic Response of Deep Hydrocarbon Bearing Reservoirs: examples from Oso Field and implications for Future Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwasusi, A. B.; Hussey, V.; Goulding, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oso Field (OML 70) produces approximately 100 TBD of condensate from Miocene age shelfal sand reservoirs at approximately 10,000 feet below sea level. The field was discovered in 1967 while testing a deeply buried fault closure. Reservoirs are normally pressured, exceed 1 Darcy in permeability and range from 50 to 600 feet in thickness.There are seismic amplitudes associated with the shallower reservoirs on the existing conventional 3D dataset; however there are no anomalies associated with the deeper, condensate accumulations.The paper explores the physical rock and fluid properties associated with the Oso reservoirs and the resulting seismic responses. Modelled results have been calibrated with the actual seismic signatures for the water and hydrocarbon bearing zones. Results indicate that the deeper reservoirs exhibit a classic Class II AVG seismic response and that the use of longer offset and angle stack data can help predict the occurrence of these types of reservoirs. Examples of similar accumulations will be shared.Mobil Producing Nigeria is conducting a full reprocessing effort of the existing 3D dataset over the Joint Venture acreage with a goal of identifying and exploiting additional accumulations with Class II AVG seismic response. Preliminary results of the reprocessing over known accumulations will be presented

  17. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  18. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  20. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  1. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Lilia, E.; Cristalli, A.

    1986-01-01

    Gaseous 0-terphenyl, 1-phenylnaphthalene, and 9-phenylanthracene were submitted to gamma rays. The yields of cyclization products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, show that at least one twentieth of the intermediates formed undergo intramolecular reaction. (author)

  2. Application of FUZZY mathematics in the interpretation of logging data to evaluate high productivity oil-bearing formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the construction of the mathematic models, membership function and the FUZZY matrix for a formation evaluation in the digital processing of well logging data are demonstrated. The study of FUZZY operators and an analysis of their effectiveness is emphasized. W type operators, FUZZY factors, and productivity equations for different geological conditions are also suggested in this paper. The programs given by the author, as expressed in this paper, can give as comprehensive evaluation of the oil-bearing formation and its geological parameters, and can give the productivity (ton/day), the type of the reservoir formation, locate the high productive formation and the degree of credit of such an evaluation, as well. All these will give bases for decision making. These results have been applied in the digital processing of well logging data interpretation in Nanhai, Dongpu, and Liahoe oil fields, and good results are obtained. Thus the designed process provides a new technique for the interpretation of a complex hydrocarbon bearing formation and the current technique of data processing of the logging data will be advanced to a new level.

  3. Further insight into the mechanism of hydrocarbon layer formation below the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M; Rohde, V

    2006-01-01

    The surface loss probability of hydrocarbon radicals was measured below the roof baffle of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor using the cavity technique. Hydrocarbon layers are mainly formed by sticking of hydrocarbon radicals with high surface loss probabilities of about 0.2 and close to unity. In addition to sticking, re-erosion by atomic hydrogen plays an important role in layer formation. The temperature dependence of layer formation was measured with heated and cooled long term samples from 77 to 475 K. The layer growth rate is larger by a factor of about 40 at 77 K compared with room temperature, while it is lower by a factor of about 70 at 475 K than at room temperature due to enhanced re-erosion. Implications of the results for predictions of tritium retention in future fusion devices and hydrocarbon layer formation on mirror surfaces are discussed

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a tracer of star formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Spoon, HWW; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 mum are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from ( mainly) far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and are thus a measure of star

  5. A method for removing sulfur bearing compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled benzine fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyukhova, T.P.; Bolotskaya, I.A.; Mikhaylova, L.A.; Sadykov, A.N.; Shitovkin, N.T.; Vlasov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the known method for removing sulfurorganic compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled gasoline fraction through their adsorption using natural zeolite, in order to increase the degree of purification, clinoptilolite (Kp), which contains SiO2 and A12O3 in a molar ratio of 10.6 to 16.7 is used as the natural zeolite. The purification of the paraffinous hydrocarbons through clinoptilolite adsorption as compared with mordenite adsorption makes it possible to increase the degree of their purification of ethylmercaptane and dimethylsulfide. The effectiveness of clinoptilolite is also confirmed in removing mercaptanes and sulfides from directly distilled gasoline fractions.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  7. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  8. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  9. Geochemical correlations between uranium and other components in U-bearing formations of Ogcheon belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.S.; Chon, H.T.

    1980-01-01

    Some components in uranium-bearing formations which consist mainly of black shale, slate and low grade coal-bearing formation of Ogcheon Belt were processed statistically in order to find out the geochemical correlations with uranium. Geochemical enrichment of uranium, vanadium and molybdenum in low grade coal-bearing formations and surrounding rocks is remarkable in the studied area. Geochemical correlation coefficient of uranium and molybdenum in the rocks displays about 0.6 and that of uranium and fixed carbon about 0.4. Uranium and vanadium in uranium-bearing low grade coals denote very high correlation with fixed carbon, which is considered to be responsible for enrichment of metallic elements, especially molybdenum. Close geochemical correlation of uranium-molybdenum couple in the rocks can be applied as a competent exploration guide to low grade uranium deposits of this area. (author)

  10. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

  11. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E de la; Tabares, F L

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H Film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs

  13. Zeolite-Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation from Methanol: Density Functional Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fitzgerald

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We report detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations of important mechanisms in the methanol to gasoline (MTG process in a zeolite catalyst. Various reaction paths and energy barriers involving C-O bond cleavage and the first C-C bond formation are investigated in detail using all-electron periodic supercell calculations and recently developed geometry optimization and transition state search algorithms. We have further investigated the formation of ethanol and have identified a different mechanism than previously reported [1], a reaction where water does not play any visible role. Contrary to recent cluster calculations, we were not able to find a stable surface ylide structure. However, a stable ylide structure built into the zeolite framework was found to be possible, albeit a very high reaction barrier.

  14. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member...... facies A and diagenetic facies B do not develop accumulation conditions with low accumulation dynamics in the late accumulation period for very low permeability. At more than 3000 m burial depth, a larger proportion of turbidite reservoirs are oil charged due to the proximity to the source rock. Also...

  15. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Some studies on the formation of excited states of aromatic solutes in hydrocarbons and other solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, G A [Leeds Univ. (UK). Cookridge High Energy Radiation Research Centre

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of the author and his co-workers on the radiation-induced formation of excited states of aromatic compounds in solution. The experimental methods used are surveyed and in particular the method of measuring the yields of triplet and singlet excited states of the solute are described. The problems discussed are: (1) the effect of solvent on the yields of excited states, (2) formation of excited states in cyclohexane and other alicyclic hydrocarbons, (3) the formation of excited states in benzene and (4) the identification of T-T absorption spectra.

  17. Extensional Tectonics and Sedimentary Architecture Using 3-D Seismic Data: An Example from Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mumbai Offshore Basin, West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D. K.; Bhowmick, P. K.; Mishra, P.

    2016-12-01

    In offshore sedimentary basins, analysis of 3-D seismic data tied with well log data can be used to deduce robust isopach and structure contour maps of different stratigraphic formations. The isopach maps give depocenters whereas structure contour maps give structural relief at a specific time. Combination of these two types of data helps us decipher horst-graben structures, sedimentary basin architecture and tectono-stratigraphic relations through Tertiary time. Restoration of structural cross sections with back-stripping of successively older stratigraphic layers leads to better understand tectono-sedimentary evolution of a basin. The Mumbai (or Bombay) Offshore Basin is the largest basin off the west coast of India and includes Bombay High giant oil/gas field. Although this field was discovered in 1974 and still producing, the basin architecture vis-à-vis structural evolution are not well documented. We take the approach briefly outlined above to study in detail three large hydrocarbon-bearing structures located within the offshore basin. The Cretaceous Deccan basalt forms the basement and hosts prodigal thickness (> 8 km at some localities) of Tertiary sedimentary formations.A two stage deformation is envisaged. At the first stage horst and graben structures formed due to approximately E-W extensional tectonics. This is most spectacularly seen at the basement top level. The faults associated with this extension strike NNW. At the second stage of deformation a set of ENE-striking cross faults have developed leading to the formation of transpressional structures at places. High rate of early sedimentation obliterated horst-graben architecture to large extent. An interesting aspect emerges is that the all the large-scale structures have rather low structural relief. However, the areal extent of such structures are very large. Consequently, these structures hold commercial quantities of oil/gas.

  18. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  19. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  20. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C 2 and C 3 hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C-H films from admixtures of methane with H 2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanism of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the carburized metal. (Author)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOOT IN PREMIXED ETHANE FLAMES. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot has been investigated in atmospheric-pressure, laminar, ethane/oxygen/argon premixed flames as a function of mixture equivalence ratio. Mole fraction profiles of major products, trace aromatics, ...

  2. Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-20

    The N≡N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  4. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Micelotta, E. R. [Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  5. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  6. Formation of microspheres under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on titanium samples in hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuev, D. A.; Khorkov, K. S.; Ivashchenko, A. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the original method of laser synthesis of microspheres which contain titanium carbide. The formation of microspheres is carried out by the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the surface of titanium in the reaction medium - the ultimate hydrocarbon. The resulting microspheres have a high surface smoothness, a narrow particle size distribution, an average size of 1-3 μm. They can be used in applications of additive engineering, powder metallurgy as the main raw material, or as an alloying additive.

  7. Floristic characters of the upper coal-bearing formation in the Transcarpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syabryaj, S. [Institute of Geological Sciences NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The results of palynological studies of samples from outcrops, boreholes and mines in the Transcarpathians are presented. Megafloral remains from the Ilnitsa suite show the age of the upper coal-bearing formation to be Romanian. The palynological analysis allows the reconstruction of changes in the plant cover during the Romanian, and the determination of the climatic and palaeogeographic conditions. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  9. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Apparatus for use in predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In a relatively quick, convenient and highly accurate technique for the determination of a carbonaceous gas, normally methane, contained in water samples collected at depth from a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict the hydrocarbon-containing potential of the earth formation, carbonaceous gaseous constituents liberated from the water are carried via an air stream to flow into and through an isotope trapping network where collection in microlitre amounts occurs. The isotope capture apparatus comprises a box-like structure formed from a series of panel members, front panel member intersecting the bottom panel member near the centre of the latter and carrying interconnected gas trapping and stripping sections, the structure also comprising a detachable lid connectable by means, for protection of sections. (author)

  11. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  12. Hydrocarbon Seeps Formations: a Study Using 3-D Seismic Attributes in Combination with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.

    2011-12-01

    Analyzing the magnitude of oil discharges from natural hydrocarbon seeps is important in improving our understanding of carbon contribution as oil migrates from deeper sediments to the water column, and then eventually to the atmosphere. Liquid hydrocarbon seepage in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is associated with deep cutting faults, associated with vertical salt movement, that provide conduits for the upward migration of oil and gas. Seeps transform surface geology and generate prominent geophysical targets that can be identified on 3-D seismic data as seafloor amplitude anomalies maps that correlate with the underlying deep fault systems. Using 3D seismic data, detailed mapping of the northern GOM has identified more than 21,000 geophysical anomalies across the basin. In addition to seismic data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have proven to be a reliable tool for localizing natural seepage of oil. We used a Texture Classifier Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) to process more than 1200 SAR images collected over the GOM. We quantified more than 900 individual seep formations distributed along the continental shelf and in deep water. Comparison of the geophysical anomalies with the SAR oil slick targets shows good general agreement between the distributions of the two indicators. However, there are far fewer active oil slicks than geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably associated with gas seepage. By examining several sites where the location of active venting can be determined by submersibles observations, we found that the active oily vents are often spatially offset from the most intense geophysical targets (i.e. GC600, GC767, GC204, etc). In addition to the displacement of the oil by deep sea currents, we propose that during the 100K years of activity, the location of the vents on the seafloor probably migrate as carbonate cementation reduces the permeability of the upper sediment. Many of the geophysical targets may represent

  13. Method and apparatus for determining characteristics of clay-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Ruhovets, N.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to methods and apparatus for determining characteristics of clay-bearing geological formations by radioactivity well logging. In its broadest aspect, the invention comprises the steps of determining the volume of clay contained in the earth formations; determining a first property of the formations functionally related to the volume of clay; and determining a second property functionally related to the first property, the second property indicating potential clay swelling. In particular, the volume of clay is determined using electrical signals generated in response to the energy and frequency of detected radiations. The method is carried out with a well logging instrument that includes a high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer that traverses a borehole, whereby natural radiation strikes a scintillation crystal contained therein

  14. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.; Arias, P.G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Park, S.; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho; Lu, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  15. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.

    2015-03-30

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  16. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  17. Kinetic particularities of strained alicyclic compounds formation in catalytic methanol to hydrocarbon transformation process

    OpenAIRE

    Doluda V.; Brovko R.; Giniatullina N.; Sulman M.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons is a complex chemical process, accompanied by chain parallel chemical transformation reactions. The most valuable products of the methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation reaction are the strained hydrocarbons — cyclopropane derivatives. These compounds can be used as a high-energy fuel, and also as a valuable chemical raw material. However, the yield of strained compounds in methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation ...

  18. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  19. Thallium isotope variations in an ore-bearing continental igneous setting: Collahuasi Formation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Ihlenfeld, C.; Oates, C. J.; Coggon, R.

    2010-08-01

    Thallium is a highly incompatible element and a large fraction of the bulk silicate Earth Tl budget is, therefore, expected to reside in the continental crust. Nonetheless, the Tl isotope systematics of continental rocks are essentially unexplored at present. Here, we present new Tl isotope composition and concentration data for a suite of 36 intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the vicinity of porphyry Cu deposits in the Collahuasi Formation of the Central Andes in northern Chile. The igneous lithologies of the rocks are variably affected by the hydrothermal alteration that accompanied the formation of the Cu deposits. The samples display Tl concentrations that vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 3.2 μg/g, whilst ɛ 205Tl ranges between -5.1 and +0.1 (ɛ 205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from a standard in parts per 10 4). These variations are primarily thought to be a consequence of hydrothermal alteration processes, including metasomatic transport of Tl, and formation/breakdown of Tl-bearing minerals, which are associated with small but significant Tl isotope effects. The Tl abundances show excellent correlations with both K and Rb concentrations but no co-variation with Cu. This demonstrates that Tl displays only limited chalcophile affinity in the continental crust of the Collahuasi Formation, but behaves as a lithophile element with a distribution that is primarily governed by partitioning of Tl + into K +-bearing phases. Collahuasi samples with propylitic alteration features, which are derived from the marginal parts of the hydrothermal systems, have, on average, slightly lighter Tl isotope compositions than rocks from the more central sericitic and argillic alteration zones. This small but statistically significant difference most likely reflects preferential retention of isotopically heavy Tl in alteration phases, such as white micas and clays, which formed during sericitic and argillic alteration.

  20. On the Formation of Nanobubbles in Vycor Porous Glass during the Desorption of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, A. C.; Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Favvas, E. P.; Vansant, E.; Hankins, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Vycor porous glass has long served as a model mesoporous material. During the physical adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbon vapours, such as dibromomethane, the adsorption isotherm exhibits an hysteresis loop; a gradual ascent is observed at higher pressures during adsorption, and a sharp drop is observed at lower pressures during desorption. For fully wetting fluids, an early hypothesis attributed the hysteresis to mechanistic differences between capillary condensation (adsorption) and evaporation (desorption) processes occurring in the wide bodies and narrow necks, respectively, of ‘ink-bottle’ pores. This was later recognized as oversimplified when the role of network percolation was included. For the first time, we present in-situ small angle x-ray scattering measurements on the hysteresis effect which indicate nanobubble formation during desorption, and support an extended picture of network percolation. The desorption pattern can indeed result from network percolation; but this can sometimes be initiated by a local cavitation process without pore blocking, which is preceded by the temporary, heterogeneous formation of nanobubbles involving a change in wetting states. The capacity of the system to sustain such metastable states is governed by the steepness of the desorption boundary.

  1. Depositional environments of the uranium bearing Cutler Formations, Lisbon Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Steele-Mallory, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cutler Formation in Lisbon Valley, San Juan County, Utah, is composed predominantly of fluvial arkosic sandstones, siltstones, shales, and mudstones that were deposited by meandering streams that flowed across a flood plain and tidal flat close to sea level. Two types of channel deposits are recognized from their sedimentary structures: meandering and distributary. The flood plain was occasionally transgressed by a shallow sea from the west, resulting in the deposition of several thin limestones and marine sandstones. The marine sandstones were deposited as longshore bars. Wind transported sand along the shoreline of the shallow sea, forming a coastal dune field. Marine sandstones and eolian sandstones are more common in the upper Cutler in the southern part of the area, whereas in the central and northern part of the area the formation is predominantly fluvial. Crossbed orientation indicates that Cutler streams flowed S. 67 0 W. on the average, whereas marine currents moved sediment S. 36 0 E. and N. 24 0 W., and wind transported sand S. 80 0 E. The uranium in the Cutler is found in the central and northern part of the area, in the upper part of the formation, in small fluvial sandstone bodies that were deposited predominantly in a distributary environment. No uranium is known in the marine or eolian sandstones. Petrographically, the uranium-bearing sandstones are identical to other Cutler fluvial sandstones except that they contain less calcite and more clay and are slightly coarser grained. Ore formation has modified the host sandstones very little

  2. Depositional environments of the uranium-bearing Cutler Formations, Lisbon Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John A.; Steele-Mallory, Brenda A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cutler Formation in Lisbon Valley, San Juan County, Utah, is composed predominantly of fluvial arkosic sandstones, siltstones, shales, and mudstones that were deposited by meandering streams that flowed across a flood plain and tidal flat close to sea level. Two types of channel deposits are recognized from their sedimentary structures: meandering and distributary. The flood plain was occasionally transgressed by a shallow sea from the west, resulting in the deposition of several thin limestones and marine sandstones. The marine sandstones were deposited as longshore bars. Wind transported sand along the shoreline of the shallow sea, forming a coastal dune field. Marine sandstones and eolian sandstones are more common in the upper Cutler in the southern part of the area, whereas in the central and northern part of the area the formation is predominantly fluvial. Crossbed orientation indicates that Cutler streams flowed S. 67? W. on the the average, whereas marine currents moved sediment S. 36? E. and N. 24? W., and wind transported sand S. 800 E. The uranium in the Cutler is found in the central and northern part of the area, in the upper part of the formation, in small fluvial sandstone bodies that were deposited predominantly in a distributary environment. No uranium is known in the marine or eolian sandstones. Petrographically, the uranium-bearing sandstones are identical to other Cutler fluvial sandstones except that they contain less calcite and more clay and are slightly coarser grained. Ore formation has modified the host sandstones very little.

  3. Uraniferous concentrations in the Francevillian of Gabon: their association with fossil hydrocarbon-bearing ore deposits of the lower Proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Weber, Francis

    1981-01-01

    The Francevillian U deposits of Gabon are located in one of the oldest non metamorphic sedimentary series of the Lower Proterozoic 2150 M.Y. old. The uraniferous mineralization 2050 M.Y. old is strongly related to organic matter concentrated in oil-bearing structures after migration. No geological event remobilized the mineralizations since their settling [fr

  4. Uranium in minerals of gold-bearing formations of the North-Eastern part of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinsky, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium concentration in 2190 mineral grains from 23 gold-bearing veins of different age deposits in the North-Eastern part of the USSR have been determined using f-radiography. The deposits studied are referred to two formation types: gold-silver epithermal and gold-quartz mesothermal. Differences in physico-chemical conditions of deposite formation of the above formation types are emphasized by the differences in uranium concentration in the vein minerals: 1.0-1.4 g/tU in the first type and 0.4 g/tU in the second one. Uranium content in minerals of gold-bearing veins as compared to minerals of other deposits is characterized by the lowest concentrations. In all gold-bearing veins hydrooxides of iron and hydromica are the main concentrators of uranium. Hypergene stage plays dominating role in uranium accumulation

  5. Lowering of the critical concentration for micelle formation in aqueous soap solutions by action of truly dissolved hydrocarbon at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markina, Z.N.; Kostova, N.Z.; Rebinder, P.A.

    1970-03-01

    The effect of dissolved hydrocarbons (octane, benzene, and ethylbenzene) on critical micelle concentration of aqueous solutions of sodium salts of fatty acids from caproate to sodium myristate at various temperatures was studied. Experimental results showed that formation of micelles is promoted by presence of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase. Such solutions have below normal critical micelle concentration. The change in critical micelle concentration decreases with increase in length of hydrocarbon chain in the soap molecule and with decrease of hydrocarbon solubility in pure water. The nature of the hydrocarbon also affects the forms and dimension of the micelle. Aromatic hydrocarbons increase micelle volume and greatly decrease C.M.C., while aliphatic hydrocarbons decrease C.M.C. slightly. (12 refs.)

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  9. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-08-15

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  10. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-01-01

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  11. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Min Choi, Jae

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran. The grafting strategy was based on the [alkynyl-iron] cluster in the modified dextrans, which were prepared by click reaction from alkyne-modified dextran and benzyl azide......, the potential for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene and pyrene by sorption onto the nanomaterials was assessed. In the sorption, pi-stacking interactions of the benzene-derivatized dextran and host–guest chemistry of the β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran were considered...

  12. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  13. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  14. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  15. In-situ investigation of martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Martensite formation in AISI 52100 bearing steel at sub-zero Celsius temperature was investigated with Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. The investigation reports the stabilization of retained austenite in quenched samples during storage at room temperature and reveals the thermally activated nature...

  16. On the role of resonantly stabilized radicals in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation: pyrene and fluoranthene formation from benzyl-indenyl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Rahman, Ramees K; Raj, Abhijeet

    2017-07-26

    Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol -1 . The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H 2 -loss was studied to determine the possible products. The rate-of-production analysis was conducted to determine the most favourable reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation. The premixed laminar flames of toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were simulated using a well-validated hydrocarbon fuel mechanism with detailed PAH chemistry after adding the proposed reactions to it. The computed and experimentally observed species profiles were compared to determine the effect of the new reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation on their concentration profiles. The role of benzyl and indenyl combination in PAH formation and growth is highlighted.

  17. Photochemically consumed hydrocarbons and their relationship with ozone formation in two megacities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Wang, J.; Liu, S.; Shao, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Shiu, C.; Lai, C.

    2010-12-01

    Two on-site continuous measurements of ozone and its precursors in two megacities of China were carried out in an urban site of Beijing and a suburban site near Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to estimate precursor consumption and to assess its relationship with oxidant (O3+NO2) formation level. An observation-based method (OBM) with the precursor consumption concept was adopted to assess the relationship between oxidant production and amounts of photochemically consumed non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this approach, the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylenes was used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing, as well as the amounts of photochemically consumed NMHCs by reacting with OH. By trying to correlate the observed oxidant with the observed NMHC concentration, the two areas both revealed nearly no to low correlation between them. However, it existed fair to good correlations (R2=0.68 for Beijing, 0.53 for PRD) between the observed oxidant level and the degree of photochemical processing (ethylbenzene/m,p-xylenes). Furthermore, after taking the approach of consumption to estimate the consumed amounts of NMHCs, an interesting finding reveals that the definite correlation existed between the observed oxidant level and the total consumed NMHCs. The good correlations (R2=0.83 for Beijing, 0.81 for PRD) implies that the ambient oxidant level correlated to the amount of consumed NMHCs. The results of the two megacities in China by using the OBM with the precursor consumption concept can provide another pathway to explore the relationship between photochemically produced oxidant and consumed precursors, and will be helpful to validate model results and to reduce uncertainty of model predictions. However, the method has some room for uncertainty, as injection of fresh precursor emissions and additional boundary ozone involved, etc. could affect the estimation of consumed NMHCs and observed oxidant levels. Assistance of approaches in assessing the

  18. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  19. Quartz-Amethyst Hosted Hydrocarbon-Bearing Fluid Inclusions from the Green Ridge Breccia in the Snoqualmie Granite, North Cascades, WA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Feely

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 m in longest dimension. The brecciated granite blocks are cemented by quartz-amethyst euhedra (<10 cm in longest dimension bearing vugs. A notable feature is the presence of centimetric scale amber coloured oil inclusions within the quartz-amethyst crystals. Fluid inclusion studies using Transmitted Light Petrography, UV Microscopy, Microthermometry, Laser Raman Microspectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry record the presence and the fluid composition of three fluid inclusion types hosted by the euhedra: primary Type 1 (liquid rich two-phase (L + V aqueous inclusions and secondary Type 2 bituminous two-phase (S + L inclusions and Type 3 amber coloured oil bearing two-phase immiscible liquid inclusions. The Green Ridge Breccia was the locus for convective hydrothermal fluid flow that formed the quartz-amethyst vugs formed at T~390 °C assuming a trapping pressure of ~1.65 kb. Later, hydrocarbon fluids migrated downwards from the roof source rock (e.g., the Guye Sedimentary Member and were trapped in the euhedra. This was followed by unroofing of the batholith and exposure of the Green Ridge Breccia. This study highlights the potential for other oil migrations into the Snoqualmie Batholith in areas where it forms the basement capped by the Guye Sedimentary Member.

  20. Conditions of uranium-bearing calcite formation in ore-enclosing sediments of the Semizbaj deposit (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Maksimova, I.G.; Dojnikova, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation into uranium-bearing calcite, forming the cement of gravelly-sandy rocks of the Semizbaj uranium deposit. Core sampling in prospecting boreholes were used to establish geological conditions, place and time of uranium-bearing calcite formation. Calcite was investigated by optical, electron-microscope and radiographic methods. It is shown that uranium in calcite doesn't form its own mineral phase and exists in scattered state. Uranium in calcite-bearing minerals is present in isomorphic form. Uranium content in calcite was equal to 0.009-0.15 %. It is proposed that mineralization, formed in sedimentary rocks by processes of ground-stratum oxidation, is the source of uranium, enriching calcite. refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.

  2. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  3. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  4. Provenance and diagenesis of the evaporite-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S.M.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; de Souza, P.A.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Fike, D.A.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Glotch, T.D.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, S.S.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Learner, Z.; Malin, M.C.; McSween, H.Y.; Pocock, J.; Ruff, S.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N.J.; Watters, W.A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Impure reworked evaporitic sandstones, preserved on Meridiani Planum, Mars, are mixtures of roughly equal amounts of altered siliciclastic debris, of basaltic provenance (40 ?? 10% by mass), and chemical constituents, dominated by evaporitic minerals (jarosite, Mg-, Ca-sulfates ?? chlorides ?? Fe-, Na-sulfates), hematite and possibly secondary silica (60 ?? 10%). These chemical constituents and their relative abundances are not an equilibrium evaporite assemblage and to a substantial degree have been reworked by aeolian and subaqueous transport. Ultimately they formed by evaporation of acidic waters derived from interaction with olivine-bearing basalts and subsequent diagenetic alteration. The rocks experienced an extended diagenetic history, with at least two and up to four distinct episodes of cementation, including stratigraphically restricted zones of recrystallization and secondary porosity, non-randomly distributed, highly spherical millimeter-scale hematitic concretions, millimeter-scale crystal molds, interpreted to have resulted from dissolution of a highly soluble evaporite mineral, elongate to sheet-like vugs and evidence for minor synsedimentary deformation (convolute and contorted bedding, possible teepee structures or salt ridge features). Other features that may be diagenetic, but more likely are associated with relatively recent meteorite impact, are meter-scale fracture patterns, veins and polygonal fractures on rock surfaces that cut across bedding. Crystallization of minerals that originally filled the molds, early cement and sediment deformation occurred syndepositionally or during early diagenesis. All other diagenetic features are consistent with formation during later diagenesis in the phreatic (fluid saturated) zone or capillary fringe of a groundwater table under near isotropic hydrological conditions such as those expected during periodic groundwater recharge. Textural evidence suggests that rapidly formed hematitic concretions post

  5. Design of Gravity Survey Network using Fractal Theory to Delineate Hydrocarbon bearing Jabera Structure, Vindhyan Basin, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, V. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.

    2006-12-01

    A gravity survey network was designed using fractal dimension analysis to delineate a domal structure (Jabera dome) reported in southeastern part of the Vindhyan basin, Central India. This area is also regarded as a `high risk-high reward' frontier area for hydrocarbon exploration in previous studies, hence our aim was to delineate shape and lateral extent of the reported domal structure. Based on the synthetic grid, designed using the concept of fractal dimension, gravity data is collected in Jabera-Damoh area of Vindhyan basin. The collected data is random, but the data density is significant, hence the data points are sorted in a way so that they are close to the synthetic grid points of given grid interval. After sorting the data, again the fractal dimension analysis using box counting method has been carried out to avoid the aliasing in the data due to interpolation and also to know the optimum number of data points sufficient for desired quality of Bouguer anomaly maps. Optimization of number of stations takes care of time and cost involved in the survey and the detectibility limit ensures that the data collected is good enough to resolve the target body under study. The fractal dimension analysis gives clue to select these parameters. It showed that it is always preferable to have well distributed station locations instead of clustering the observation points at some geologically known feature because clustering of data points below required station spacing is not going to add much information where as equally distributed observation points add the information. The study area lies in a difficult terrain of Vindhayn basin, hence according to the accessibility, fractal dimension analysis of the real data sorted approximately at regular grid intervals on 2,3, and 4 km has been done and using the concept of optimum gridding interval Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are prepared. The preliminary depth values of the major interfaces in the area were obtained

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE FORMATION OF NITROGEN-SUBSTITUTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANHs)—BARRIERLESS ROUTES TO DIHYDRO(iso)QUINOLINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  7. Influence of infiltrated water on the change of formation water and oil permeability of crude oil bearing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubric, S

    1970-09-01

    A brief desription is given of the causes of permeability reduction of oil-bearing rocks, due to well damage during the drilling and well completion or when working over wells. The physical properties of 2-phase flow (crude oil-water) and the possibility of increasing the existing permeability of the formation, because of the water infiltrated from the well into the crude oil layer, are described in detail. Field examples show that there are such cases, and that the artificially increased existing permeability of water-bearing rocks can be reduced and even brought to normal, if the adjacent formation zone layer is treated with surfactants (e.g., Hyflo dissolved in crude oil).

  8. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  9. Formation of radical cations in a model for the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Andreas F.; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W.

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that electrophilic radical cations are the major ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic forms of benz[a]anthracene (BA), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), we have focused on a chemical model of metabolism which parallels and duplicates known or potential metabolites of some polycyclic hydrocarbons formed in cells. Studies of this model system show that radical cations are hardly formed, if at all, in the case of BA or DBA but are definitely formed in the cases of the carcinogen BP as well as the non-carcinogenic hydrocarbons, pyrene and perylene. We conclude that the carcinogenicities of BA, DBA, BP, pyrene, and perylene are independent of one-electron oxidation to radical cation intermediates

  10. Carbon structures formation in low current high voltage electrical discharge in hydrocarbon vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, A T; Jaworek, A

    2011-01-01

    The properties of carbon fibers and other carbon structures produced from hydrocarbon vapours decomposed in electrically generated plasma at atmospheric pressure are studied in this paper. The electrical discharge was generated between a stainless steel needle and a plate made of nickel alloy. The carbon fiber has grown at the tip of the needle electrode, while other microflower-like deposits were built at the plate. The physical properties of carbon fibers were investigated by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and EDS methods.

  11. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  12. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  13. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  14. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  15. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... determinants of its reservoir properties. Thus, thick, vertically connected and laterally continuous sand packets have moderate-to-high mean porosities (10–13 %) in fluviodeltaic, shoreface, shelf delta, submarine channel, and fan-lobe facies associations while deeper shelf and basin floor sand bodies yield...... significantly lower porosities (4–6 %). Overall, in the Pab arenites, porosity values increase with increasing grain size and better sorting. The varying sand-shale ratios encountered in different sectors of the Pab outcrop are also petrophysically important: Sequences displaying high ratios yield higher bulk...

  16. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  17. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  18. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E

    1997-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  19. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E.

    1996-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  20. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    2016-01-01

    Temperature programmed desorption has been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature of 1000K. Large fluences of hydrogen leave...... large abundances, alongside H2[2]. To investigate the the abstraction and adsoption patterns of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12 (a PAH), we used temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000 K H or D atoms...

  1. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  2. Thermodynamics of inclusion formation and its influence on the corrosion behavior of Cu bearing duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo; Park, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Tae; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the thermodynamics of inclusion formation and its influence on the corrosion behavior of Cu bearing duplex stainless steels, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests, a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions, and thermodynamic calculations of the formation of inclusions were carried out. While the resistance to general corrosion of the noble copper contained alloy-1.5Cu in a deaerated 2 M H 2 SO 4 was higher than that of the alloy-BASE, the resistance to pitting corrosion of copper contained alloy-1.5Cu in a deaerated 0.5 N HCl + 1 N NaCl and 30 mass% NaCl was lower than that of the alloy-BASE due to an increase of interface areas between inclusions and matrix acting as preferential pit initiation sites. The thermodynamic calculation for the formation of Cr-containing oxide inclusions was in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  3. Using the characteristics of the structure of the upper Frasnian salt bearing formation in prospecting for oil deposits in the Pripyat depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeroshina, D.M.; Kislik, V.Z.; Sinichka, A.M.; Vysotskiy, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using the structure of the upper Frasnian salt bearing formation to establish ancient depressions and uplifts. A gradual wedge out of the lower strata of rock salt towards the domes of the ancient uplifts occurs. It is recommended that several reflecting levels be built up in the base of the salt bearing formation to record the behavior of these strata.

  4. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal : a possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooten, G.K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study addressed the issue of sources of hydrocarbons for benthic sediments in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) with particular reference to the application of forensic geology to identify end members and to explain the geologic setting and processes affecting the system. Native coals and natural seep oils have been questioned in the past decade as possible sources of background hydrocarbons because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Native coal has also been dismissed as a pollution source because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low to be consistent with GOA sediments. The authors present evidence that perhaps native coal has been prematurely dismissed as a pollution source because BRCF coals do not represent adequately the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation which have much higher PAH:TOC ratios. The patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals indicate a genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analysis of the coal suggests it is a significant source of PAH, and it was cautioned that source models that do not include this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the background hydrocarbon signature in the Gulf of Alaska. 32 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Method and apparatus for nuclear heating of oil-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspaw, D.I.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for using heat generated by absorption of radiation from nuclear waste materials to reduce the viscosity of petroleum products contained within a subsurface earth formation. The nuclear waste material is positioned in a salt water formation underlying the subsurface earth formation so that the radiation emitted by the material heats the salt water formation. conduction and convection transfer the heat to the subsurface earth formation, raising the temperature and thereby reducing the viscosity of the petroleum products. To prevent radioactive contamination within the salt water formation, the nuclear waste material may be encapsulated in a material selected to absorb alpha and beta radiation

  6. Molecular mechanisms in the pyrolysis of unsaturated chlorinated hydrocarbons: formation of benzene rings. 1. Quantum chemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2013-05-23

    Analogues of important aromatic growth mechanisms in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion systems are extended to chlorinated systems. We consider the addition of C2Cl2 to both C4Cl3 and C4Cl5 radicals at the M06-2X/6-311+G(3df,3p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, and we demonstrate that these reaction systems have much in common with those of nonchlorinated species. In particular, we find that these radicals appear to lead preferentially to fulvenes, and not to the observed aromatic products, as is found in nonchlorinated systems. We have therefore also considered nonradical C4/C2 channels by way of Diels-Alder cyclization of C4Cl4/C2Cl2 and C4H2Cl2/C2HCl pairs to describe aromatic formation. While the latter pair readily leads to the formation of partially chlorinated benzenes, the fully chlorinated congeners are sterically prohibited from ring closing directly; this leads to a series of novel rearrangement processes which predict the formation of hexachloro-1,5-diene-3-yne, in addition to hexachlorobenzene, in good agreement with experiment. This suggests, for the first time, that facile nonradical routes to aromatic formation are operative in partially and fully chlorinated pyrolysis and combustion systems.

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Formation of combustible hydrocarbons and H2 during photocatalytic decomposition of various organic compounds under aerated and deaerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Kułagowska, Aleksandra; Morawski, Antoni W

    2014-11-26

    A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air) was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of "green energy" production.

  9. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  10. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on HOPG and their catalytic abilities of H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and temperature programmed desorption techniques have been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature......). Both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques have been used. Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000K H or D atoms. STM images show brigth spots on the coronene monolayers after hydrogenation indicating...... calcutions have also been made on desorption of H from a fully hydrogenated coronene molecule. The desorption DFT calculation reveals a favourable desorption route and stable configurations consistent with our TPD measurements[5]. References [1] Tielens, A., Reviews of Modern Physics, 85 (2013) 1021-1081 [2...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a sandbank plant formation: ecology and potential for hydrocarbon oil mycorrhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Ferreira de Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of contamination related to the exploration, production, storage, transport, distribution and disposal of petroleum, and its products, carry risks that threaten fragile coastal environments, little studied and, thus, in need of attention from the scientific community. On the other hand, symbiont mechanisms essential for the very existence of many plant species, and their relation to contaminated soils, remain unknown. Despite the identification of several species of AMF halophytes soil communities in sandbanks, one can infer their bioremediation potential from studies in other types of soil, which, however, report the same genera of fungi as participants in mycorrhizoremediation processes of polluted soil. This study focuses on the application of biotechnology using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF in soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  12. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the formation of sewage sludge toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what degree polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determines sewage sludge toxicity in relation to Heterocypris incongruens. Six differing sewage sludges with increasing contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were selected for the present study. As well as total PAH content, the content of the potentially bioavailable fraction was also determined in the sewage sludges using a method of mild-solvent extraction (with n-butanol). The PAH content was also calculated in the sewage sludge pore water by the equilibrium partitioning method. The total PAH content in the sewage sludges studied were in the range 3.60 to 27.95 mg kg -1 . The contribution of the n-butanol extracted fraction was in the range 38.7 to 75.4%. In the group of individual PAHs, 4- and 5-ring compounds had the highest content in the potentially bioavailable group. H. incongruens mortality in the range 6.7 to 100%, depending both on the sewage sludge and the dose applied. An increase of the sewage sludge dose usually resulted in an increase in toxicity. At the highest dose, a 100% mortality of H. incongruens was found in half of the sludges. The lowest dose, irrespective of the sludge type, caused over 40% growth inhibition. However, the results obtained did not allow for the establishing of an unambiguous relationship between various sludge toxicity levels and the content of potentially bio-available PAHs. In some cases only, the extraction using n-butanol explained the high difference in toxicity despite a slight differentiation in the PAH content

  14. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    , are observed. Because of relatively high H2 destruction rates in these regions, the presently accepted formation routes on dust grains cannot exclusively account for the observed abundances [1]. Therefore, new formation routes are needed and lately attention has been drawn towards molecules called polycyclic...

  15. Formation of Nitriles in the Interstellar Medium via Reactions of Cyano Radicals, CN(X2Σ+), with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, N.; Asvany, O.; Huang, L. C. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.; Osamura, Y.; Bettinger, H. F.

    2000-12-01

    Crossed molecular beam experiments of cyano radicals, CN(X2Σ+, ν=0), in their electronic and vibrational ground state reacting with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene, C2H2(X1Σ+g), ethylene, C2H4(X1Ag), methylacetylene, CH3CCH(X1A1), allene, H2CCCH2(X1A1), dimethylacetylene, CH3CCCH3(X1A1'), and benzene, C6H6 (X1A1g), were performed at relative collision energies between 13.3 and 36.4 kJ mol-1 to unravel the formation of unsaturated nitriles in the outflows of late-type AGB carbon stars and molecular clouds. In all reactions, the CN radical was found to attack the π electron density of the hydrocarbon molecule with the radical center located at the carbon atom; the formation of an initial addition complex is a prevalent pathway on all the involved potential energy surfaces. A subsequent carbon-hydrogen bond rupture yields the nitriles cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'), 1-methylcyanoacetylene, CH3CCCN (X1A1), cyanoallene, H2CCCH(CN) (X1A'), 3-methylcyanoacetylene, HCCCH2CN(X1A'), 1,1-cyanomethylallene, H2CCC(CN)(CH3) (X1A'), and cyanobenzene, C6H5CN (X1A1). In case of acetylene and ethylene, a second reaction channel involves a [1, 2]-H atom shift in the initial HCCHCN and H2CCH2CN collision complexes prior to a hydrogen atom release to form cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), and vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'). Since all these radical-neutral reactions show no entrance barriers, have exit barriers well below the energy of the reactant molecules, and are exothermic, the explicit identification of this CN versus H atom exchange pathway under single collision conditions makes this reaction class a compelling candidate to synthesize unsaturated nitriles in interstellar environments holding temperatures as low as 10 K. This general concept makes it even feasible to predict the formation of nitriles once the corresponding unsaturated hydrocarbons are identified in the interstellar medium. Here HCCCN, C2H3CN, and CH3CCCN have been already observed

  16. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A; Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; McClay, Carolyn B; Garshelis, David L

    2012-03-01

    Even mildly hypothermic body or limb temperatures can retard healing processes in mammals. Despite this, we observed that hibernating American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) elicit profound abilities in mounting inflammatory responses to infection and/or foreign bodies. In addition, they resolve injuries during hibernation while maintaining mildly hypothermic states (30-35 °C) and without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating. We describe experimental studies on free-ranging bears that document their abilities to completely resolve cutaneous cuts and punctures incurred during or prior to hibernation. We induced small, full-thickness cutaneous wounds (biopsies or incisions) during early denning, and re-biopsied sites 2-3 months later (near the end of denning). Routine histological methods were used to characterize these skin samples. All biopsied sites with respect to secondary intention (open circular biopsies) and primary intention (sutured sites) healed, with evidence of initial eschar (scab) formation, completeness of healed epidermis and dermal layers, dyskeratosis (inclusion cysts), and abilities to produce hair follicles. These healing abilities of hibernating black bears are a clear survival advantage to animals injured before or during denning. Bears are known to have elevated levels of hibernation induction trigger (delta-opioid receptor agonist) and ursodeoxycholic acid (major bile acid within plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine) during hibernation, which may relate to these wound-healing abilities. Further research as to the underlying mechanisms of wound healing during hibernation could have applications in human medicine. Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  17. Sub-basalt Imaging of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mesozoic Sediments Using Ray-Trace Inversion of First-Arrival Seismic Data and Elastic Finite-Difference Full-Wave Modeling Along Sinor-Valod Profile of Deccan Syneclise, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Karabi; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2018-03-01

    Imaging below the basalt for hydrocarbon exploration is a global problem because of poor penetration and significant loss of seismic energy due to scattering, attenuation, absorption and mode-conversion when the seismic waves encounter a highly heterogeneous and rugose basalt layer. The conventional (short offset) seismic data acquisition, processing and modeling techniques adopted by the oil industry generally fails to image hydrocarbon-bearing sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments hidden below the basalt and is considered as a serious problem for hydrocarbon exploration in the world. To overcome this difficulty of sub-basalt imaging, we have generated dense synthetic seismic data with the help of elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling using staggered-grid scheme for the model derived from ray-trace inversion using sparse wide-angle seismic data acquired along Sinor-Valod profile in the Deccan Volcanic Province of India. The full-wave synthetic seismic data generated have been processed and imaged using conventional seismic data processing technique with Kirchhoff pre-stack time and depth migrations. The seismic image obtained correlates with all the structural features of the model obtained through ray-trace inversion of wide-angle seismic data, validating the effectiveness of robust elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling approach for imaging below thick basalts. Using the full-wave modeling also allows us to decipher small-scale heterogeneities imposed in the model as a measure of the rugose basalt interfaces, which could not be dealt with ray-trace inversion. Furthermore, we were able to accurately image thin low-velocity hydrocarbon-bearing Mesozoic sediments sandwiched between and hidden below two thick sequences of high-velocity basalt layers lying above the basement.

  18. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  19. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  20. Cancer cell–derived microparticles bearing P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 accelerate thrombus formation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace M.; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Lacroix, Romaric; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lombardo, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Recent publications have demonstrated the presence of tissue factor (TF)–bearing microparticles (MPs) in the blood of patients suffering from cancer. However, whether these MPs are involved in thrombosis remains unknown. We show that pancreatic and lung cancer cells produce MPs that express active TF and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Cancer cell–derived MPs aggregate platelets via a TF-dependent pathway. In vivo, cancer cell–derived MPs, but not their parent cells, infused into a living mouse accumulate at the site of injury and reduce tail bleeding time and the time to occlusion of venules and arterioles. This thrombotic state is also observed in mice developing tumors. In such mice, the amount of circulating platelet-, endothelial cell–, and cancer cell–derived MPs is increased. Endogenous cancer cell–derived MPs shed from the growing tumor are able to accumulate at the site of injury. Infusion of a blocking P-selectin antibody abolishes the thrombotic state observed after injection of MPs or in mice developing a tumor. Collectively, our results indicate that cancer cell–derived MPs bearing PSGL-1 and TF play a key role in thrombus formation in vivo. Targeting these MPs could be of clinical interest in the prevention of thrombosis and to limit formation of metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:19667060

  1. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  2. Modeling unburned hydrocarbon formation due to absorption/desorption processes into the wall oil film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.K.; Assanis, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as a result of continuing air pollution problems, very stringent regulations are being enforced to control emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) from premixed-charge, spark-ignition engines. A number of attempts have been reported on modeling sources of HC emissions using various analytical tools. Over the past decade, the development of multi-dimensional reacting flow codes has advanced considerably. Perhaps the most widely used multi-dimensional engine simulation code is KIVA-II, which was developed at Lost Alamos National Laboratory. The ability to deal with moving boundary conditions caused by the piston movement is built in this code. This code also includes models for turbulent fluid flow, turbulent interaction between spray drops and gas, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and fuel spray. A standard k-ε turbulence model is used for gas flow. The fuel spray model is based on the stochastic particle technique, and includes sub-models for droplet injection, breakup, collision and coalescence, and evaporation

  3. Paleoweathering features in the Sergi Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous), northeastern Brazil, and implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Cristina; Mizusaki, Ana M.; Pimentel, Nuno; Faccini, Ubiratan F.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Paleoweathering in the Sergi Formation has been classified and analyzed to ascertain its origin and relationship with stratigraphic evolution. The Sergi Formation belongs to the pre-rift sequence of the Recôncavo Basin (northeastern Brazil) and comprises a complex association of eolian and fluvial sandstones and lacustrine mudstones. This formation can be subdivided into three depositional sequences bounded by regional unconformities. Four paleoweathering types, each one related to a distinct origin, have been described in the Sergi Formation: (1) textural mottling, which is distinguished by alternating rock colors as a result of the iron oxide mobilization within mineral phases that evolved under alternating oxidation (yellowish, brownish and reddish shades) and reduction (grayish or greenish hues) conditions; (2) non-textural mottling, which displays a discoloration pattern that is independent of the original rock texture; (3) carbonate concentrations, usually related to carbonate nodule formation, which display a massive internal structure that reveals their origin through continuous growth or crystallization; and (4) banded carbonates (silicified), associated with the beginning of regular surface formation due to the chemical precipitation of carbonates within lacustrine environments. Both mottling color motifs and carbonate accumulation usually represent groundwater oscillation rather than pedogenesis. Only carbonate intraclasts and banded carbonate (silicified) have their origin ascribed to pedogenesis sensu stricto, although the carbonate intraclasts do not represent soil deposits in situ, but calcretes eroded from areas close to channels, and the banded carbonates (silicified) have strong diagenetic modifications. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that fluvial and meteoric water have controlled paleoweathering evolution as well as deposition, yet both aspects are ruled by the same mechanisms (relief, sedimentation rate and, above all, climate).

  4. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of

  5. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  6. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  8. Measuring Star-Formation Rates of AGNs and QSOs using a new calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey

    Understanding the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion is one of the key questions in galaxy formation theory. This relation is important for understanding why at present the mass in galaxy bulges (on scales of kpc) correlates so tightly with the mass of galaxy central supermassive blackholes (on scales of AU). Feedback from supermassive black hole accretion may also be responsible for heating or expelling cold gas from galaxies, shutting off the fuel for star-formation and additional black hole growth. Did bulges proceed the formation of black holes, or vice versa, or are they contemporaneous? Therefore, understanding the exact rates of star-formation and supermassive black hole growth, and how they evolve with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. It has previously been nearly impossible to study simultaneously both star-formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies because the emission from black hole accretion contaminates nearly all diagnostics of star-formation. The "standard" diagnostics for the star-formation rate (the emission from hydrogen, UV emission, midIR emission, far-IR emission, etc) are not suitable for measuring star-formation rates in galaxies with actively accreting supermassive blackholes. In this proposal, the researchers request NASA/ADP funding for an archival study using spectroscopy with the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure simultaneously the star-formation rate (SFR) and bolometric emission from accreting supermassive blackholes to understand the complex relation between both processes. The key to this study is that they will develop a new calibrator for SFRs in galaxies with active supermassive black holes based on the molecular emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which emit strongly in the mid-IR (3 - 20 micron) and are very strong in spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The PAH molecules exist near photo-dissociation regions, and

  9. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mateus

    Full Text Available New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in Lower Cretaceous, triggered by a rejuvenated temperature gradient assisted by the early developed permeability conditions; and a late flow possibly driven by local pressure gradients, after complete cooling of dolerite dykes/sills. The early maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons have significant consequences in the design of exploration models to be applied in Paraná Basin.

  10. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  11. Research of hard-to-recovery and unconventional oil-bearing formations according to the principle «in-situ reservoir fabric»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Д. Алексеев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia and the world due to the depletion of old highly productive deposits, the role of hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbons is increasing. Thanks to scientific and technical progress, it became possible to involve in the development very low permeable reservoirs and even synthesize oil and gas in-situ. Today, wells serve not only for the production of hydrocarbons, but also are important elements of stimulation technology, through which the technogenic effect on the formation is carried out in order to intensify inflows. In this context, the reservoir itself can be considered as a raw material for the application of stimulation technologies, and the set of wells through which it is technologically affected is a plant or a fabric whose intermediate product is the stimulated zone of the formation and the final product is reservoir hydrocarbons. Well-established methods for studying hydrocarbon deposits are limited to the definition of standard geological parameters, which are commonly used for reserves calculations (net pay, porosity, permeability, oil and gas saturation coefficient, area, but they are clearly insufficient to characterize the development possibilities using modern stimulation technologies. To study objects that are promising for the production of hydrocarbons, it is necessary to develop fundamentally new approaches that make it possible to assess the availability of resources depending on the technologies used, and to improve the methods for forecasting and evaluating the properties of the stimulated zone of the formation. «In-situ reservoir fabric» is a collective term that combines a combination of technologies, research and methodological approaches aimed at creating and evaluating a stimulated zone of the formation by applying modern methods of technogenic impact on objects containing hard-to-recover and «unconventional» hydrocarbons in order to intensify inflows from them hydrocarbons. In 2015

  12. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  15. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    potential light element that could be incorporated into Mercury's core. The goal of this study is to determine the carbon concentration at graphite saturation in various silicon-iron bearing metals relevant to possible mercurian core compositions. Future experiments will include the addition of sulfur into these metals.

  16. Oil-bearing inclusions in vein quartz and kalcite and, bitumens in veins: Testament to multiple phases of hydrocarbon migration in the Barrandian basin (lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, V.; Dobeš, P.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír; Stejskal, M.; Kroužek, J.; Chudoba, J.; Matějovský, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 285-297 ISSN 0264-8172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3012703; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrocarbon * fluid inclusion * bitumen Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010

  17. The Earth's core: its composition, formation and bearing upon the origin of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    The density of the outer core is about 3% smaller than pure iron, which implies that the core contains a substantial amount of one or more low atomic mass elements. New experimental data on the solubility of FeO in molten iron are compatible with oxygen being the other element. At atmospheric pressure FeO is extensively soluble in iron at 2500 0 C, completely miscible above 2800 0 C. Also the solubility of FeO in molten iron is considerably increased at higher pressures. The density measurements can be explained if the core contains about 35% FeO; the new data show this to be possible. A model for the formation of the core based on a high FeO content in the Bulk Earth can be explained if the Earth accreted from a mixture of two components: A, a highly reduced, metal-rich devolatilized assemblage and B, a highly oxidized, volatile-rich assemblage similar to Cl chondrites. The formation of these components in the solar nebula is discussed. The large amount of FeO now inferred to be present in the Earth was mainly produced during accretion by oxidation of metallic iron from component A by water from component B. (U.K.)

  18. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  19. Direct formation of gasoline hydrocarbons from cellulose by hydrothermal conversion with in situ hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Mehrotra, Anil Kumar; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    A new process based on aqueous-phase dehydration/hydrogenation (APD/H) has been developed to directly produce liquid alkanes (C 7–9 ), which are the main components of fossil gasoline, from cellulose in one single batch reactor without the consumption of external hydrogen (H 2 ). In this new process, part of the cellulose is first converted to in situ H 2 by steam reforming (SR) in the steam gas phase mainly; and, in the liquid water phase, cellulose is converted to an alkane precursor, such as 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). In the final reaction step, in situ H 2 reacts with HMF to form liquid alkanes through APD/H. Accordingly, this new process has been named SR(H 2 )-APD/H. Experimental results show that the volumetric ratio of the reactor headspace to the reactor (H/R) and an initial weakly alkaline condition are the two key parameters for SR(H 2 )-APD/H. With proper H/R ratios (e.g., 0.84) and initial weakly alkaline conditions (e.g., pH = 7.5), liquid alkanes are directly formed from the SR(H 2 )-APD/H of cellulose using in situ H 2 instead of external H 2 . In this study, compared with pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose at the same temperatures with same retetion time, SR(H 2 )-APD/H greatly increased the liquid alkane yields, by approximately 700 times and 35 times, respectively. Based on this process, direct formation of fossil gasoline from renewable biomass resources without using external H 2 becomes possible. -- Highlights: ► A process of producing gasoline alkanes from cellulose was proposed and studied. ► Alkane precursors and in situ H 2 were formed simultaneously in a single reactor. ► Alkanes subsequently formed by reactions between in situ H 2 and alkane precursors. ► The yields were 700 and 35 times higher than pyrolysis and hydrothermal conversion.

  20. Fungal oxidative dissolution of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite and the role of metabolites in manganese oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanzhi; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2013-04-01

    Microbially mediated oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides influences the cycling of metals and remineralization of carbon. Despite the prevalence of Mn(II)-bearing minerals in nature, little is known regarding the ability of microbes to oxidize mineral-hosted Mn(II). Here, we explored oxidation of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite (MnCO3 ) and characteristics of ensuing Mn oxides by six Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi. All fungal species substantially enhanced rhodochrosite dissolution and surface modification. Mineral-hosted Mn(II) was oxidized resulting in formation of Mn(III/IV) oxides that were all similar to δ-MnO2 but varied in morphology and distribution in relation to cellular structures and the MnCO3 surface. For four fungi, Mn(II) oxidation occurred along hyphae, likely mediated by cell wall-associated proteins. For two species, Mn(II) oxidation occurred via reaction with fungal-derived superoxide produced at hyphal tips. This pathway ultimately resulted in structurally unique Mn oxide clusters formed at substantial distances from any cellular structure. Taken together, findings for these two fungi strongly point to a role for fungal-derived organic molecules in Mn(III) complexation and Mn oxide templation. Overall, this study illustrates the importance of fungi in rhodochrosite dissolution, extends the relevance of biogenic superoxide-based Mn(II) oxidation and highlights the potential role of mycogenic exudates in directing mineral precipitation. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  2. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.-H.; Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M 3 C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M 3 C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism

  3. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: martin.evans@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  4. Mechanism of Phase Formation in the Batch Mixtures for Slag-Bearing Glass Ceramics - 12207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey V.; Stefanovsky, Olga I.; Malinina, Galina A. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Slag surrogate was produced from chemicals by heating to 900 deg. C and keeping at this temperature for 1 hr. The product obtained was intermixed with either sodium di-silicate (75 wt.% waste loading) or borax (85 wt.% slag loading). The mixtures were heat-treated within a temperature range of 25 to 1300 deg. C. The products were examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The products prepared at temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C contained both phase typical of the source slag and intermediate phases as well as phases typical of the materials melted at 1350 deg. C such as nepheline, britholite, magnetite and matrix vitreous phase. Vitrification process in batch mixtures consisting of slag surrogate and either sodium di-silicate or sodium tetraborate runs through formation of intermediate phases mainly silico-phosphates capable to incorporate Sm as trivalent actinides surrogate. Reactions in the batch mixtures are in the whole completed by ∼1000 deg. C but higher temperatures are required to homogenize the products. If in the borate-based system the mechanism is close to simple dissolution of slag constituents in the low viscous borate melt, then in the silicate-based system the mechanism was found to be much complicated and includes re-crystallization during melting with segregation of newly-formed nepheline type phase. (authors)

  5. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  6. Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Tao [Department of Geophysics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Qingsong [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Chan, Lungsang [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Xianghua; Cheng, Tongjin [Wuxi Institute of Petroleum Geology, SNOPEC, Jiangsu Wuxi 214151 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility k, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M{sub 36}) and a dry well (M{sub 46}) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both k and magnetization (saturation magnetization J{sub s} and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization J{sub rs}) of oil-bearing formation have been dramatically enhanced. Further grain size estimation reveals that the background samples (samples both in M{sub 46} and outside the oil-bearing formation in M{sub 36}) contain coarser-grained magnetic particles (circa 30{mu}m) of detrital origin. In contrast, the alteration of hydrocarbon produces finer-grained (circa 25nm) magnetic particles. The new constraints on grain sizes and its origin of the hydrocarbon-related magnetic particles improve our understanding of the mechanism of formation of these secondary finer-grained particles, even though the precise nature of this process is still unknown. (author)

  7. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  8. Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering & Reservoir Simulation Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-08

    Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.

  9. Structure of formations on the NaCl monocrystal surface following simultaneous irradiation of it by hydrocarbon molecule flow and Ne/sup +/ ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevyanchenko, A S; Palatnik, L S; Martynov, I S; Seryugin, A L; Gritsyna, V V; Koval' , A G; Kiyan, T S; Fogel' , Ya M [Khar' kovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-07-01

    The structure of a film growing on the surface of NaCl crystal with a simultaneous irradiation of the film with molecules of hydrocarbons and Ne ions has been investigated. At the first stage of formation the film has a net structure of graphite with an abnormally large internet distance. At the subsequent stage of growing hollow spherulites are formed in the film, their walls having the structure of the third phase of carbon - carbine and dendrites - crystals with the structure of NaCl forming inside of the growing film.

  10. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  11. Comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in Arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; McKinney, Melissa A; Tomy, Gregg T; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in Arctic marine wildlife. The present study examined the in vitro depletion of major PFOS precursors, N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top Arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat (Rattus rattus) serving as a general mammalian model and positive control. Rat assays showed that N-EtFOSA (38 nM or 150 ng mL(-1)) to FOSA metabolism was >90% complete after 10 min, and at a rate of 23 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Examining all species in a full 90 min incubation assay, there was >95% N-EtFOSA depletion for the rat active control and polar bear microsomes, ∼65% for ringed seals, and negligible depletion of N-EtFOSA for beluga whale. Concomitantly, the corresponding in vitro formation of FOSA from N-EtFOSA was also quantitatively rat≈polar bear>ringed seal>beluga whale. A lack of enzymatic ability and/or a rate too slow to be detected likely explains the lack of N-EtFOSA to FOSA transformation for beluga whale. In the same assays, the depletion of the FOSA metabolite was insignificant (p>0.01) and with no concomitant formation of PFOS metabolite. This suggests that, in part, a source of FOSA is the biotransformation of accumulated N-EtFOSA in free-ranging Arctic ringed seal and polar bear. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  14. Host-guest chemistry of dendrimer-drug complexes: 7. Formation of stable inclusions between acetylated dendrimers and drugs bearing multiple charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Zhang, Jiahai; Wu, Qinglin; Xu, Tongwen; Cheng, Yiyun

    2012-03-15

    Drug molecules bearing multiple charges usually form precipitates with cationic dendrimers, which presents a challenge during the preparation of dendrimer inclusions for these drugs. In the present study, fully acetylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were proposed as stable vehicles for drug molecules bearing two negative charges such as Congo red and indocyanine green. NMR techniques including (1)H NMR and (1)H-(1)H NOESY were used to characterize the host-guest chemistry of acetylated dendrimer and these guest molecules. The cationic PAMAM dendrimer was found to form a precipitate with Congo red and indocyanine green, but the acetylated one avoided the formation of cross-linking structures in aqueous solutions. NOESY studies revealed the encapsulation of Congo red and indocyanine green within the interior cavities of PAMAM dendrimers at mild acidic conditions and acetylated dendrimers show much stronger ability to encapsulate the guest molecules than cationic ones. Also, UV-vis-NIR studies suggest that acetylated dendrimers significantly improve the photostability of indocyanine green and prevent the formation of indocyanine green J-aggregates in aqueous solutions. The present study provides a new insight into dendrimer-based host-guest systems, especially for those guest molecules bearing multiple charges. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  16. Hydraulic and Mechanical Effects from Gas Hydrate Conversion and Secondary Gas Hydrate Formation during Injection of CO2 into CH4-Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, N.; Deusner, C.; Kossel, E.; Schicks, J. M.; Spangenberg, E.; Priegnitz, M.; Heeschen, K. U.; Abendroth, S.; Thaler, J.; Haeckel, M.

    2014-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into CH4-hydrate-bearing sediments has the potential to drive natural gas production and simultaneously sequester CO2 by hydrate conversion. The process aims at maintaining the in situ hydrate saturation and structure and causing limited impact on soil hydraulic properties and geomechanical stability. However, to increase hydrate conversion yields and rates it must potentially be assisted by thermal stimulation or depressurization. Further, secondary formation of CO2-rich hydrates from pore water and injected CO2 enhances hydrate conversion and CH4 production yields [1]. Technical stimulation and secondary hydrate formation add significant complexity to the bulk conversion process resulting in spatial and temporal effects on hydraulic and geomechanical properties that cannot be predicted by current reservoir simulation codes. In a combined experimental and numerical approach, it is our objective to elucidate both hydraulic and mechanical effects of CO2 injection and CH4-CO2-hydrate conversion in CH4-hydrate bearing soils. For the experimental approach we used various high-pressure flow-through systems equipped with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI and ERT). One particular focus was the design of triaxial cell experimental systems, which enable us to study sample behavior even during large deformations and particle flow. We present results from various flow-through high-pressure experimental studies on different scales, which indicate that hydraulic and geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are drastically altered during and after injection of CO2. We discuss the results in light of the competing processes of hydrate dissociation, hydrate conversion and secondary hydrate formation. Our results will also contribute to the understanding of effects of temperature and pressure changes leading to dissociation of gas hydrates in ocean and permafrost systems. [1] Deusner C, Bigalke N, Kossel E

  17. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  18. Pacoma: Performance assessment of the confinement of medium-active and alpha-bearing wastes. Assessment of disposal in a clay formation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Klos, R.A.; Martin, J.S.; Laurens, J.M.; Winters, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the PACOMA assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of intermediate level and alpha-bearing wastes in a hypothetical repository situated in the clay formations below the Harwell site in the United Kingdom. The assessment includes: best estimate calculations, uncertainty analyses, sensitivity analyses and model comparisons. Results of the radiological impact calculations are in the form of doses and risks to individuals and time-integrated doses to populations, for a normal evolution scenario and a number of altered evolution scenarios. The calculated risks to individuals are well below the limit recommended by the ICRP, and the calculated collective dose over the first 10,000 years after disposal is zero. Thus the radiological impact of the disposal intermediate level and alpha-bearing wastes in a clay formation is predicted to be small. The uncertainty analyses showed that, for the normal evolution scenario, the range of predicted risks to individuals is very wide. However, these results must be treated with caution because a formal methodology for eliciting judgments about model parameter values was only applied in the case of geosphere data. The sensitivity analyses and model comparisons indicated the need for improved models and data for water and radionuclide movement in the near-surface environment

  19. Free radical EPR in delineating oil bearing zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Kumar, V.; Das, T.K.; Gundu Rao, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    Presence of naturally occurring gamma ray activity has long been detected in oil/gas wells is invariably carried out for formation evaluation. Similarly, presence of free radicals in oil bearing formations has also been known for quite sometime. Present paper deals with a systematic study of detecting these free radicals in oil wells and correlations of these with x-ray and other logs for identification of hydrocarbon bearing zones. Present study attempts to establish EPR as as inexpensive and reliable tool in comparison with gamma ray and neutron density logs recorded in exploratory oil wells. EPR studies have been carried out in an exploratory well between depth intervals 1600 m-1400 m located in south of existing producing field in Bombay Offshore region. Based on these results, an EPR log has been prepared and compared with gamma ray and neutron density logs. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Experimental Investigation of Biotite-Rich Schist Reacting with B-Bearing Fluids at Upper Crustal Conditions and Correlated Tourmaline Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orlando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid–rock interaction experiments between a biotite-rich schist (from Mt. Calamita Formation, Elba Island, Italy and B-bearing aqueous fluids were carried out at 500–600 °C and 100–130 MPa. The experiments have been carried out in order to reproduce the reaction, which would have produced tourmalinisation of the biotite schist, supposedly by circulation of magmatic fluids issued from leucogranitic dykes. The reacting fluids were either NaCl-free or NaCl-bearing (20 wt % aqueous solutions, with variable concentration of H3BO3 (0.01–3.2 M. The experimental results show that tourmaline (belonging to the alkali group crystallise under high-temperature and upper crustal conditions (500–600 °C, 100–130 MPa when H3BO3 concentration in the system is greater than 1.6 M. The composition of tourmaline is either dravitic (Mg-rich or schorlitic (Fe-rich, depending if an NaCl-bearing or NaCl-free aqueous solution is used. In the first case, a significant amount of Fe released from biotite dissolution remains in the Cl-rich solution resulting from the experiment. By contrast, when pure water is used, Na/K exchange in feldspars makes Na available for tourmaline crystallisation. The high concentration of Fe in the residual fluid has an important metallogenic implication because it indicates that the interaction between the saline B-rich fluid of magmatic derivation and biotite-rich schists, besides producing tourmalinisation, is capable of mobilising significant amounts of Fe. This process could have produced, in part or totally, the Fe deposits located close to the quartz–tourmaline veins and metasomatic bodies of the Mt. Calamita Formation. Moreover, the super-hot reservoir that likely occurs in the deepest part of the Larderello–Travale geothermal field would also be the site of an extensive reaction between the B-rich fluid and biotite-bearing rocks producing tourmaline. Thus, tourmaline occurrence can be a useful guide during deep

  1. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  2. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  3. Modeling the formation, decay, and partitioning of semivolatile nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitronaphthalenes) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Kamens, R.M.; Strommen, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest that th...

  4. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  6. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  7. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  8. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H2 FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrower, John; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Friis, Emil Enderup

    2012-01-01

    , in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H2 loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H2 formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic...

  9. Mineralogical and chemical assessment of concrete damaged by the oxidation of sulfide-bearing aggregates: Importance of thaumasite formation on reaction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A. [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Duchesne, J., E-mail: josee.duchesne@ggl.ulaval.ca [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Fournier, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton (CRIB), Universite Laval, 1065 ave de la Medecine, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Durand, B. [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1740 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, Canada J3X 1S1 (Canada); Rivard, P. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Shehata, M. [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Damages in concrete containing sulfide-bearing aggregates were recently observed in the Trois-Rivieres area (Quebec, Canada), characterized by rapid deterioration within 3 to 5 years after construction. A petrographic examination of concrete core samples was carried out using a combination of tools including: stereomicroscopic evaluation, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. The aggregate used to produce concrete was an intrusive igneous rock with different metamorphism degrees and various proportions of sulfide minerals. In the rock, sulfide minerals were often surrounded by a thin layer of carbonate minerals (siderite). Secondary reaction products observed in the damaged concrete include 'rust' mineral forms (e.g. ferric oxyhydroxides such as goethite, limonite (FeO (OH) nH{sub 2}O) and ferrihydrite), gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite. In the presence of water and oxygen, pyrrhotite oxidizes to form iron oxyhydroxides and sulphuric acid. The acid then reacts with the phases of the cement paste/aggregate and provokes the formation of sulfate minerals. Understanding both mechanisms, oxidation and internal sulfate attack, is important to be able to duplicate the damaging reaction in laboratory conditions, thus allowing the development of a performance test for evaluating the potential for deleterious expansion in concrete associated with sulfide-bearing aggregates.

  10. Mineralogical and chemical assessment of concrete damaged by the oxidation of sulfide-bearing aggregates: Importance of thaumasite formation on reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.; Duchesne, J.; Fournier, B.; Durand, B.; Rivard, P.; Shehata, M.

    2012-01-01

    Damages in concrete containing sulfide-bearing aggregates were recently observed in the Trois-Rivières area (Quebec, Canada), characterized by rapid deterioration within 3 to 5 years after construction. A petrographic examination of concrete core samples was carried out using a combination of tools including: stereomicroscopic evaluation, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. The aggregate used to produce concrete was an intrusive igneous rock with different metamorphism degrees and various proportions of sulfide minerals. In the rock, sulfide minerals were often surrounded by a thin layer of carbonate minerals (siderite). Secondary reaction products observed in the damaged concrete include “rust” mineral forms (e.g. ferric oxyhydroxides such as goethite, limonite (FeO (OH) nH 2 O) and ferrihydrite), gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite. In the presence of water and oxygen, pyrrhotite oxidizes to form iron oxyhydroxides and sulphuric acid. The acid then reacts with the phases of the cement paste/aggregate and provokes the formation of sulfate minerals. Understanding both mechanisms, oxidation and internal sulfate attack, is important to be able to duplicate the damaging reaction in laboratory conditions, thus allowing the development of a performance test for evaluating the potential for deleterious expansion in concrete associated with sulfide-bearing aggregates.

  11. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  12. Laboratory Studies on the Formation of Carbon-Bearing Molecules in Extraterrestrial Environments: From the Gas Phase to the Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, C. S.; Guo, Y.; Gu, X.; Zhang, F.; Bennett, C. J.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in interstellar ices and in the gas phase of the interstellar medium is of paramount interest to understand the astrochemical evolution of extraterrestrial environments (1). This research also holds strong implications to comprehend the chemical processing of Solar System environments such as icy planets and their moons together with the atmospheres of planets and their satellites (2). Since the present composition of each interstellar and Solar System environment reflects the matter from which it was formed and the processes which have changed the chemical nature since the origin (solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, cosmic ray exposure, photolysis, chemical reactions), a detailed investigation of the physicochemical mechanisms altering the pristine environment is of paramount importance to grasp the contemporary composition. Once these underlying processes have been unraveled, we can identify those molecules, which belonged to the nascent setting, distinguish molecular species synthesized in a later stage, and predict the imminent chemical evolution of, for instance, molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments under controlled physicochemical conditions (temperature, pressure, chemical composition, high energy components) present ideal tools for simulating the chemical evolution of interstellar and Solar System environments. Here, laboratory experiments can predict where and how (reaction mechanisms; chemicals necessary) in extraterrestrial environments and in the interstellar medium complex, carbon bearing molecules can be formed on interstellar grains and in the gas phase. This paper overviews the experimental setups utilized in our laboratory to mimic the chemical processing of gas phase and solid state (ices) environments. These are a crossed molecular beams machine (3) and a surface scattering setup (4). We also present typical results of each setup (formation of amino acids, aldehydes, epoxides

  13. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  14. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  15. Electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography in identifying the plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formation: a case study in Rho (Milan - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2009-09-01

    Resistivity and induced polarization surveying were originally developed for mineral exploration but are now finding new applications in the field of environmental and engineering geophysics. The present article reports the results of a geophysical survey performed with the aim of identifying a plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formations of the Pandania plain. The tested site is characterized by three sand and gravel aquifers containing a quantity of clay particles which influence the overall bulk resistivity and chargeability. According to data obtained using shallow boreholes, mainly dense non-aqueous phase liquids were found as contaminants in the first and second aquifer. The aforementioned geo-electrical methods were applied in both two- and three-dimensional approaches. Steel and copper electrodes were used in the process of field data acquisition and the results of the survey were compared. The geophysical survey revealed some anomalies that could be explained by the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in the soil medium. The concept of normalized chargeability facilitates the interpretation of detected induced polarization anomalies. The shape of the plume was inferred from maps of resistivity and chargeability to a depth of 25 m below the surface of the ground.

  16. Bill project putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of hydrocarbons, and bearing various applications related to energy and to the environment, adopted on new reading by the National Assembly - Nr 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Roy, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    While considering objectives of limitation of temperature increase, and in order to limit the use of fossil energies likes conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, the exploitation of which would result in an increase of CO 2 emissions, France has to modify its rules related to hydrocarbon extraction. This bill project therefore aims at programming the end of the exploration and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons. As mentioned, some articles of this bill project concern energy regulation, or can be a transposition of a European directive. This document presents the final version of each article adopted by the National Assembly

  17. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  18. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  19. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2018-03-01

    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  20. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  1. The Orosirian-Statherian banded iron formation-bearing sequences of the southern border of the Espinhaço Range, Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Rosière, Carlos A.; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-01-01

    The Serra da Serpentina and the Serra de São José groups are two distinct banded iron formation-bearing metasedimentary sequences along the eastern border of the southern Espinhaço Range that were deposited on the boundary between the Orosirian and Statherian periods. The Serra da Serpentina Group (SSG) has an Orosirian maximum depositional age (youngest detrital zircon grain age = 1990 ± 16 Ma) and consists of fine clastic metasediments at the base and chemical sediments, including banded iron formations (BIFs), on the top, corresponding to the Meloso and Serra do Sapo formations, respectively, and correlating with the pre-Espinhaço Costa Sena Group. The SSG represents sedimentary deposition on an epicontinental-epeiric, slow downwarping sag basin with little tectonic activity. The younger Serra de São José Group (SJG) is separated from the older SSG by an erosional unconformity and was deposited in a tectonically active continental rift-basin in the early stages of the opening of the Espinhaço Trough. The Serra do São José sediments stretch along the north-south axis of the rift and comprise a complete cycle of transgressive sedimentary deposits, which were subdivided, from base to top, into the Lapão, Itapanhoacanga, Jacém and Canjica formations. The Itapanhoacanga Formation has a maximum depositional age of 1666 ± 32 Ma (Statherian), which coincides with the maximum depositional age (i.e., 1683 ± 11 Ma) of the São João da Chapada Formation, one of the Espinhaço Supergroup's basal units. The Serra de São José Rift and the Espinhaço Rift likely represent the same system, with basal units that are facies variations of the same sequence. The supracrustal rocks have undergone two stages of deformation during the west-verging Brasiliano orogeny that affected the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton and generated a regional-scale, foreland N-S trending fold-thrust belt, which partially involved the crystalline basement. Thrust faults have

  2. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock)

  3. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors in urogenital sinus mesenchyme mediate the inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kinarm; Moore, Robert W.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    In utero exposure of male C57BL/6 mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents prostatic epithelial buds from forming in the ventral region of the urogenital sinus (UGS) and reduces the number of buds that form in the dorsolateral region. This inhibition of budding is aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) dependent and appears to be the primary cause of lobe-specific prostate abnormalities in TCDD-exposed mice. TCDD can inhibit prostatic epithelial bud formation by acting directly on the UGS in vitro, but whether it does so via AHR in UGS mesenchyme, epithelium, or both was unknown. To address this issue, UGS mesenchyme and epithelium from gestation day (GD) 15 wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were isolated, recombined, and cultured in vitro for 5 days with 10 -8 M 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and either 10 -9 M TCDD or vehicle. Prostatic epithelial buds were viewed by light microscopy after removal of mesenchyme. Effects depended greatly on which portions of the mesenchyme were used: TCDD had little if any effect when whole UGS epithelium (UGE) was recombined with ventral plus dorsolateral mesenchyme, tended to reduce bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and dorsolateral mesenchyme, and severely reduced bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and ventral mesenchyme (VM). [VM + UGE] recombinants prepared from wild-type and AHR knockout (Ahr -/- ) mice were then cultured with DHT to determine the site of action of TCDD. AHR null mutation alone had no effect on budding. TCDD severely inhibited prostatic epithelial bud formation in recombinants that contained mesenchymal AHR, whereas bud formation was not inhibited by TCDD in recombinants lacking mesenchymal AHR, regardless of epithelial AHR status. These results demonstrate that UGS mesenchyme and not UGS epithelium is the site of action of TCDD. Therefore, the initial events responsible for abnormal UGS (and ultimately prostate) development occur within the UGS mesenchyme, and changes in gene expression

  5. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  6. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  7. Seismic properties of fluid bearing formations in magmatic geothermal systems: can we directly detect geothermal activity with seismic methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Scott, Samuel; Quintal, Beatriz; Caspari, Eva; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Seismic methods are amongst the most common techniques to explore the earth's subsurface. Seismic properties such as velocities, impedance contrasts and attenuation enable the characterization of the rocks in a geothermal system. The most important goal of geothermal exploration, however, is to describe the enthalpy state of the pore fluids, which act as the main transport medium for the geothermal heat, and to detect permeable structures such as fracture networks, which control the movement of these pore fluids in the subsurface. Since the quantities measured with seismic methods are only indirectly related with the fluid state and the rock permeability, the interpretation of seismic datasets is difficult and usually delivers ambiguous results. To help overcome this problem, we use a numerical modeling tool that quantifies the seismic properties of fractured rock formations that are typically found in magmatic geothermal systems. We incorporate the physics of the pore fluids, ranging from the liquid to the boiling and ultimately vapor state. Furthermore, we consider the hydromechanics of permeable structures at different scales from small cooling joints to large caldera faults as are known to be present in volcanic systems. Our modeling techniques simulate oscillatory compressibility and shear tests and yield the P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation factors of fluid saturated fractured rock volumes. To apply this modeling technique to realistic scenarios, numerous input parameters need to be indentified. The properties of the rock matrix and individual fractures were derived from extensive literature research including a large number of laboratory-based studies. The geometries of fracture networks were provided by structural geologists from their published studies of outcrops. Finally, the physical properties of the pore fluid, ranging from those at ambient pressures and temperatures up to the supercritical conditions, were taken from the fluid physics

  8. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport potential.

  9. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  10. An investigation of the composition of gases sampled by formation testers during drilling and well development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamkina, L.S.; Snezhko, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of studying samples taken by formation testers during the drilling and development of wells that penetrate Foraminifera, Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits at the fields of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is correlated. The compositions of gases taken from oil bearing, water bearing and gas bearing deposits in exploratory and operating wells are compared. Recommendations are given for determining (estimating) the phase state of hydrocarbons in the cross section based on results from an investigation of the composition of gas taken during the drilling process. A corresponding interpretation method is proposed.

  11. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  12. Walking paths to and from a goal differ: on the role of bearing angle in the formation of human locomotion paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sreenivasa

    Full Text Available The path that humans take while walking to a goal is the result of a cognitive process modulated by the perception of the environment and physiological constraints. The path shape and timing implicitly embeds aspects of the architecture behind this process. Here, locomotion paths were investigated during a simple task of walking to and from a goal, by looking at the evolution of the position of the human on a horizontal (x,y plane. We found that the path while walking to a goal was not the same as that while returning from it. Forward-return paths were systematically separated by 0.5-1.9m, or about 5% of the goal distance. We show that this path separation occurs as a consequence of anticipating the desired body orientation at the goal while keeping the target in view. The magnitude of this separation was strongly influenced by the bearing angle (difference between body orientation and angle to goal and the final orientation imposed at the goal. This phenomenon highlights the impact of a trade-off between a directional perceptual apparatus-eyes in the head on the shoulders-and and physiological limitations, in the formation of human locomotion paths. Our results give an insight into the influence of environmental and perceptual variables on human locomotion and provide a basis for further mathematical study of these mechanisms.

  13. FORMATION OF S-BEARING SPECIES BY VUV/EUV IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}S-CONTAINING ICE MIXTURES: PHOTON ENERGY AND CARBON SOURCE EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Nuevo, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Wu, C.-Y. R. [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States); Fung, H.-S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Ip, W.-H. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS{sub 2}, OCS, SO{sub 2}, etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H{sub 2}S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS{sub 2} differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS{sub 2} was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H{sub 2}S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO{sub 2} occurred only in CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H{sub 2}S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H{sub 2}S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments.

  14. Organophosphate esters in East Greenland polar bears and ringed seals: Adipose tissue concentrations and in vitro depletion and metabolite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Adelle; Willmore, William G; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    East Greenland is a contamination "hot spot" for long-range transported anthropogenic chemicals, including organophosphate esters (OPEs). High concentrations of OPEs have been reported in arctic air while very little is known for wildlife where OPE tissue residues levels appear to be strongly influenced by biotransformation. In the present study, the hepatic in vitro metabolism of six environmentally relevant organophosphate (OP) triesters and corresponding OP diester formation were investigated in East Greenland polar bears (PBs) and ringed seals (RSs). The in vitro metabolism assay results were compared to adipose levels in field samples from the same individuals. In vitro OP triester metabolism was generally rapid and structure-dependent, where PBs metabolized OPEs more rapidly than RSs. Exceptions were the lack of triethyl phosphate (TEP) metabolism and slow metabolism of tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) in both species. OP diester metabolites were also formed with the exception of TEP which was not metabolized at all. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was completely converted to its corresponding diester. However, the mass balances showed that OP diester formation corresponding to TEHP, tri(n-butyl) phosphate, and tris(2-butyoxyethyl) phosphate did not account for 100% of the OP triester depletion, which indicated alternate pathways of OP triester metabolism had occurred. Triphenyl phosphate was completely converted to its OP diester metabolite in PBs but not in RSs suggesting species-specific differences. The results demonstrated that OP triester bioaccumulation and fate in PBs versus their RS prey is substantially influenced by biotransformation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FORMATION OF S-BEARING SPECIES BY VUV/EUV IRRADIATION OF H2S-CONTAINING ICE MIXTURES: PHOTON ENERGY AND CARBON SOURCE EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Nuevo, M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Fung, H.-S.; Ip, W.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a key molecule in astrobiology that acts as a catalyst in peptide synthesis by coupling amino acids. Experimental studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a precursor of OCS, could be present in astrophysical environments. In the present study, we used a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp, simulating the interstellar UV field, and a monochromatic synchrotron light beam to irradiate CO:H 2 S and CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures at 14 K with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in order to study the effect of the photon energy and carbon source on the formation mechanisms and production yields of S-containing products (CS 2 , OCS, SO 2 , etc.). Results show that (1) the photo-induced OCS production efficiency in CO:H 2 S ice mixtures is higher than that of CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures; (2) a lower concentration of H 2 S enhances the production efficiency of OCS in both ice mixtures; and (3) the formation pathways of CS 2 differ significantly upon VUV and EUV irradiations. Furthermore, CS 2 was produced only after VUV photoprocessing of CO:H 2 S ices, while the VUV-induced production of SO 2 occurred only in CO 2 :H 2 S ice mixtures. More generally, the production yields of OCS, H 2 S 2 , and CS 2 were studied as a function of the irradiation photon energy. Heavy S-bearing compounds were also observed using mass spectrometry during the warm-up of VUV/EUV-irradiated CO:H 2 S ice mixtures. The presence of S-polymers in dust grains may account for the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar environments

  16. Research of hard-to-recovery and unconventional oil-bearing formations according to the principle «in-situ reservoir fabric»

    OpenAIRE

    А. Д. Алексеев; В. В. Жуков; К. В. Стрижнев; С. А. Черевко

    2017-01-01

    Currently in Russia and the world due to the depletion of old highly productive deposits, the role of hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbons is increasing. Thanks to scientific and technical progress, it became possible to involve in the development very low permeable reservoirs and even synthesize oil and gas in-situ. Today, wells serve not only for the production of hydrocarbons, but also are important elements of stimulation technology, through which the technogenic effect on the ...

  17. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  18. Characterization of methane-hydrate formation inferred from insitu Vp-density relationship for hydrate-bearing sediment cores obtained off the eastern coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, M.; Hamada, Y.; Hirose, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Drilling Expedition 02 was carried out off the eastern margin of the Indian Peninsula in order to investigate distribution and occurrence of gas hydrates. From 25 drill sites, downhole logging data, cored samples, and drilling performance data were collected. One of the target areas (area B) is located on the axial and flank of an anticline, where the BSR is identified 100 m beneath the summit of anticline. 3 sites were drilled in the crest. The lower potential hydrate zone II was suggested by downhole logging (LWD) at 270-290 m below seafloor across the top of anticline. Core samples from this interval is characterized by a higher natural gamma radiation, gamma-ray-based higher bulk density and lower porosity, and higher electrical resistivity. All these features are in good agreement with LWD results. During this expedition, numerous special core sampling operations (PCAT) were carried out, keeping its insitu pressure in a pressure-tight vessel. They enabled acquiring insitu P-wave velocity and gamma-ray attenuation density measurements. In-situ X-CT images exhibit very clear hydrate distribution as lower density patches. Hydrate-bearing sediments exhibit a Vp-density trend that is clearly different from the ordinary formation. Vp values are significantly higher than 2 km/s whereas the density remains constant at 2-2.2 g/cm3 in hydrate zones. At some hydrate-bearing sediments, we noticed that Vp is negatively correlated to the density in the deeper portion (235-285 mbsf). On the other hand, in the shallower portion they are positively correlated. From lithostratigraphy the shallower portion consists of sand, whereas deeper portion are silty-clay dominant. We infer that the sand-dominant, shallower hydrate is a pore-filling type, and Vp is correlated positively to density. On the other hand, the clay-dominant, deeper hydrate is filled in vertical veins, and Vp is negatively correlated to density. Negative

  19. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  20. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  1. Petrography of thoriferous hydrocarbon nodules in sandstones, and their significance for petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnell, J.; Monson, B.; Tosswill, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Nodules of thorium-rich hydrocarbon are recorded in sandstone sequences from several basins. The hydrocarbon nodules contain mineral inclusions, particularly of thorite or monazite. There is evidence both for accretion of hydrocarbons around detrital heavy mineral grains and for epigenetic growth by interaction of hydrocarbons with thorium-bearing fluids. Both mechanisms depend upon the precipitation of solid hydrocarbons induced by irradiation from thorium. The nodules exhibit aggressive replacement of other grains, a characteristic of radioanomalous hydrocarbons. The occurrence of the nodules is dependent upon an appropriate (plutonic) source for the thorium, but given this constraint they are important evidence for hydrocarbon migration pathways. (author)

  2. Direct Detection of Hardly Detectable Hidden Chirality of Hydrocarbons and Deuterated Isotopomers by a Helical Polyacetylene through Chiral Amplification and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Katsuhiro; Hirose, Daisuke; Okoshi, Natsuki; Shimomura, Kouhei; Wada, Yuya; Ikai, Tomoyuki; Kanoh, Shigeyoshi; Yashima, Eiji

    2018-03-07

    We report the first direct chirality sensing of a series of chiral hydrocarbons and isotopically chiral compounds (deuterated isotopomers), which are almost impossible to detect by conventional optical spectroscopic methods, by a stereoregular polyacetylene bearing 2,2'-biphenol-derived pendants. The polyacetylene showed a circular dichroism due to a preferred-handed helix formation in response to the hardly detectable hidden chirality of saturated tertiary or chiroptical quaternary hydrocarbons, and deuterated isotopomers. In sharp contrast to the previously reported sensory systems, the chirality detection by the polyacetylene relies on an excess one-handed helix formation induced by the chiral hydrocarbons and deuterated isotopomers via significant amplification of the chirality followed by its static memory, through which chiral information on the minute and hidden chirality can be stored as an excess of a single-handed helix memory for a long time.

  3. Investigations of material balance and the formation of metabolites on white rot in clamps in soil loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarth, M.

    1993-01-01

    One examines from a concrete case to what extent the potential danger of white rot in bio-beds caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) is reduced. The potential danger is mainly determined by the remainder of the PAH's. The remainder paths to be considered (micro-biological decomposition, transport and abiotic processes) are shown. (orig.) [de

  4. Heterogeneous reactions between ions NH3+and NH+andhydrocarbons adsorbed on a tungsten surface.Formation of HCN+in NH+-surface hydrocarbon collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harnisch, M.; Scheier, P.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 392, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ion-surface collisions * NH3+ and NH+projectiles * surface hydrocarbons Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  5. On indicators of genetic relation between uranium-bearing bitumen with oil-like substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kov, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mineralogical indicators are considered which confirm that uranium-bearing (containing pitchblende) solid carbon substrates in the process of their formation had a stage of liquid-viscous state, and were sedimented in a close association with solid oil bitumens. The following cases are studied: 1) in concentrated macroextracts of uranium-bearing bitumens fine relicts of coloured oreless bitumens, less oxidated and carbonizated, are found sporadically in the passing light; 2) indicators of the development of black uranium-bearing bitumen along separate extracts or joint agregates of kerito- and asphalt-like substrates are observed in passing light within the veinlets of solid bitumens being in carbonate rocks; 3) linses of solid bitumens of fragmentary rock have zone structure according to the observation in passing light. The direct relation between black uranium-bearing bitumens and solid hydrocarbons which can form out of oil-like substances. Initial substances for them were defferent; resinous bitumens in the first case, kerito- and asphalt-like substances - in the second one, and paraffin substances - in the third one. It shows the nonselective character of the formation out of them of black uranium-bearing bitumens due to the processes of oxidation and carbonization [ru

  6. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  7. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  8. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  9. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  10. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  11. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  12. Bearing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.; Preece, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  13. Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Brancati

    1999-01-01

    determined after acquiring and analysing the orbits described by the journal axis for assigned unbalance values in different operating conditions. Analysis of the results shows some particular operating features that were not entirely predicted by the theoretical model and which may give rise to malfunctions in the rotor-tilting pad bearings system. The tests were carried out in the rotor dynamics laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica at the University of Naples.

  14. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  15. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  16. Rock magnetic and geochemical evidence for authigenic magnetite formation via iron reduction in coal-bearing sediments offshore Shimokita Peninsula, Japan (IODP Site C0020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephen C.; Johnson, Joel E.; Clyde, William C.; Setera, Jacob B.; Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Severmann, Silke; Riedinger, Natascha

    2017-06-01

    Sediments recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0020, in a fore-arc basin offshore Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, include numerous coal beds (0.3-7 m thick) that are associated with a transition from a terrestrial to marine depositional environment. Within the primary coal-bearing unit (˜2 km depth below seafloor) there are sharp increases in magnetic susceptibility in close proximity to the coal beds, superimposed on a background of consistently low magnetic susceptibility throughout the remainder of the recovered stratigraphic sequence. We investigate the source of the magnetic susceptibility variability and characterize the dominant magnetic assemblage throughout the entire cored record, using isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), thermal demagnetization, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), iron speciation, and iron isotopes. Magnetic mineral assemblages in all samples are dominated by very low-coercivity minerals with unblocking temperatures between 350 and 580°C that are interpreted to be magnetite. Samples with lower unblocking temperatures (300-400°C), higher ARM, higher-frequency dependence, and isotopically heavy δ56Fe across a range of lithologies in the coal-bearing unit (between 1925 and 1995 mbsf) indicate the presence of fine-grained authigenic magnetite. We suggest that iron-reducing bacteria facilitated the production of fine-grained magnetite within the coal-bearing unit during burial and interaction with pore waters. The coal/peat acted as a source of electron donors during burial, mediated by humic acids, to supply iron-reducing bacteria in the surrounding siliciclastic sediments. These results indicate that coal-bearing sediments may play an important role in iron cycling in subsiding peat environments and if buried deeply through time, within the subsequent deep biosphere.

  17. Relation of carbohydrate reserves with the forthcoming crop, flower formation and photosynthetic rate, in the alternate bearing Salustiana sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monerri Huguet, Mª Consuelo; Fortunato De Almeida, Ambrosio; Molina Romero, Rosa Victoria; González Nebauer, Sergio; García Luís, Mª Desamparados; Guardiola Barcena, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this work was to assess the relation between carbohydrate levels and flower and fruit production, as well as the role of carbohydrates on CO(2) fixation activity, by analysis of leaves, twigs and roots from the alternate bearing 'Salustiana' cultivar of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). A heavy crop load (on year) did not affect photosynthesis activity when compared to non-fruiting trees (off year). Fruiting trees accumulated most of the fixed carbon in mature fruits...

  18. Crossed-beam reaction of carbon atoms with hydrocarbon molecules. IV. Chemical dynamics of methylpropargyl radical formation, C4H5, from reaction of C(3Pj) with propylene, C3H6 (X1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.I.; Stranges, D.; Bevsek, H.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Suits, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction between ground state carbon atoms and propylene, C 3 H 6 , was studied at average collision energies of 23.3 and 45.0 kJmol -1 using the crossed molecular beam technique. Product angular distributions and time-of-flight spectra of C 4 H 5 at m/e=53 were recorded. Forward-convolution fitting of the data yields a maximum energy release as well as angular distributions consistent with the formation of methylpropargyl radicals. Reaction dynamics inferred from the experimental results suggest that the reaction proceeds on the lowest 3 A surface via an initial addition of the carbon atom to the π-orbital to form a triplet methylcyclopropylidene collision complex followed by ring opening to triplet 1,2-butadiene. Within 0.3 endash 0.6 ps, 1,2-butadiene decomposes through carbon endash hydrogen bond rupture to atomic hydrogen and methylpropargyl radicals. The explicit identification of C 4 H 5 under single collision conditions represents a further example of a carbon endash hydrogen exchange in reactions of ground state carbon with unsaturated hydrocarbons. This versatile machine represents an alternative pathway to build up unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in combustion processes, chemical vapor deposition, and in the interstellar medium. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  20. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  1. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  2. Study of the processes of ion pairs formation by the method of ion-ion coincidence: I2 and chlorine-containing hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method of ion-ion coincidences was suggested to study the process of ion pairs formation during molecule photoionization. The principle of action of ion-ion coincidence method is based on recording of only the negative and positive ions that formed as a result of a molecule decomposition. The flowsheet of the facility of ion-ion coincidences was presented. The processes of ion pairs formation in iodine, chloroform, propyl-, n-propenyl-, tert.butyl- and benzyl-chlorides were studied. A simple model permitting to evaluate the dependence of quantum yield of ion pair formation on excitation energy was suggested

  3. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  6. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  7. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  8. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  9. Continuous distillation of oil-bearing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-14

    A continuous process of distilling petroleum-bearing, asphaltic, or bituminous rocks to free bitumen is characterized by vaporizing hydrocarbons solid, pasty, or liquid from petroleum-containing asphaltic or bituminous rocks to free bitumen without ever reaching the temperatures at which they can produce decomposition, the necessary heat being furnished by combustion of part of the hydrocarbons of the treated rocks. A furnace for carrying out the process of claim 1 is characterized by consisting of a cavity lined inside with reflector, of variable section and with a throat at the upper part for charging the material to be treated and means for blowing the lower part of the furnace with the air necessary for combustion and inert gas for regulating the combustion and removal of the hydrocarbons.

  10. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  11. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  12. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN THE INNER LAYERS OF CLUMPY CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES: FORMATION OF WATER IN C-RICH OBJECTS AND OF C-BEARING MOLECULES IN O-RICH OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose; Guelin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism based on the penetration of interstellar ultraviolet photons into the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) around asymptotic giant branch stars is proposed to explain the non-equilibrium chemistry observed in such objects. We show through a simple modeling approach that in CSEs with a certain degree of clumpiness or with moderately low mass loss rates (a few 10 -7 M sun yr -1 ) a photochemistry can take place in the warm and dense inner layers, inducing important changes in the chemical composition. In carbon-rich objects water vapor and ammonia would be formed with abundances of 10 -8 -10 -6 relative to H 2 , while in oxygen-rich envelopes ammonia and carbon-bearing molecules such as HCN and CS would form with abundances of 10 -9 -10 -7 relative to H 2 . The proposed mechanism would explain the recent observation of warm water vapor in the carbon-rich envelope IRC+10216 with the Herschel Space Observatory and predict that H 2 O should be detectable in other carbon-rich objects.

  13. An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Susana; Liu, Q.; Bacon, Diana H.; Maroto-Valer, M. M.

    2014-08-26

    Hematite deposit that is the main FeIII-bearing mineral in sedimentary red beds was proposed as a potential host repository for converting CO2 into carbonate minerals such as siderite (FeCO3), when CO2–SO2 gas mixtures are co-injected. This work investigated CO2 mineral trapping using hematite and sensitivity of the reactive systems to different parameters, including particle size, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and solid-to-liquid ratio. Experimental and modelling studies of hydrothermal experiments were conducted, which emulated a CO2 sequestration scenario by injecting CO2-SO2 gas streams into a NaCl-NaOH brine hosted in iron oxide-containing aquifer. This study provides novel information on the mineralogical changes and fluid chemistry derived from the co-injection of CO2-SO2 gas mixtures in hematite deposit. It can be concluded that the amount of siderite precipitate depends primarily on the SO2 content of the gas stream. Increasing SO2 content in the system could promote the reduction of Fe3+ from the hematite sample to Fe2+, which will be further available for its precipitation as siderite. Moreover, siderite precipitation is enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures. The influence of the solid to liquid ratio on the overall carbonation reaction suggests that the conversion increases if the system becomes more diluted.

  14. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  15. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  16. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  17. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  18. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  19. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  1. Chemical and physical hydrogeology of coal, mixed coal-sandstone and sandstone aquifers from coal-bearing formations in the Alberta Plains region, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemay, T.G.

    2003-09-01

    With the decline of conventional oil and gas reserves, natural gas from coal (NGC) is an unconventional gas resource that is receiving much attention from petroleum exploration and development companies in Alberta. Although the volume of the NGC resource is large, there are many challenges facing NGC development in Alberta, including technical and economic issues, land access, water disposal, water diversion and access to information. Exploration and development of NGC in Alberta is relatively new, therefore there is little baseline data on which to base regulatory strategies. Some important information gaps have been filled through water well sampling in coal, mixed coal-sandstone and sandstone aquifers throughout Alberta. Analyses focused on the chemical and physical characteristics aquifers in use for domestic or agricultural purposes. Aquifer depths were generally less than 100 metres. Samples collected from Paskapoo-Scollard Formation, Horseshoe Canyon Formation and Belly River Group aquifers exceed Canadian water quality guideline values with respect to pH, sodium, manganese, chloride, chromium, sulphate, phenols and total dissolved solids. Pump tests conducted within the aquifers indicate that the groundwater flow is complicated. Water quality will have to be carefully managed to ensure responsible disposal practices are followed. Future studies will focus on understanding the chemical and biological process that occur within the aquifers and the possible link between these processes and gas generation. Mitigation and disposal strategies for produced water will also be developed along with exploration strategies using information obtained from hydrogeologic studies. 254 refs., 182 tabs., 100 figs., 3 appendices

  2. Extraction of hydrocarbon products from shales and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, V Z

    1918-05-17

    A process is disclosed of extracting hydrocarbon oil matter from petroleum-bearing shales and coals which comprises subjecting a mass of such shale or coal, before distillation to the solvent action of material containing an acid, permitting the solvent material to pass through the mass of shale or coal, and recovering the combined solvent and extracted matter.

  3. U-Pb, Pb-Pb, and K-Ar isotopic study and petrography of uraniferous phosphate-bearing rocks in the Thelon Formation, Dubawnt Group, Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.R.; Cumming, G.L.; Krstic, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Thelon Formation, uppermost unit of the Dubawnt Group, overlies a regionally extensive paleoweathered zone developed on a wide range of lithochronological units including formations in the lower Dubawnt Group. Authigenic uraniferous phosphate minerals, fluorapatite and goyazite, cementing Thelon conglomerate - sandstone and filling fractures in the underlying paleoweathered zone, were dated in an attempt to better constrain the age of Thelon sedimentation and diagenesis. The oldest age, 1720 ± 6 Ma, derived from phosphate-cemented sediments, is interpreted as a minimum age for diagenesis and therefore brackets initial Thelon sedimentation between emplacement of fluorite-bearing granites at 1753 Ma and authigenic phosphate cementation at 1720 Ma. Additional ages of 1685 ± 4 and 1647 Ma are interpreted as remobilization or subsequent cementation events. K-Ar ages on illite, 1386 ± 37 and 1266 ± 31 Ma, from the paleoweathered zone and basal conglomerate, respectively, are significantly younger than ages derived from coexisting phosphate. These K-Ar ages recorded hydrothermal events that may be related to processes associated with unconformity-type uranium mineralization at approximately 1400-1300 Ma. Ages from the Thelon Basin permit geochronologic correlations with the Athabasca and Hornby basins, long correlated on the basis of similarities in sedimentation, stratigraphy, and tectonic setting

  4. Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

    2013-05-01

    We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish assemblages. Absence of bioturbation, pervasive framboidal pyrite, and the high concentration of organic matter (TOC ranges from 1.2% to 8wt%) in the dark limestones are consistent with persistent recurring dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and the light-gray bioturbated limestones represent relatively well-oxygenated episodes. Planktonic foraminifera (Rotalipora cushmani) and Inoceramu labiatus indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian through the earliest Turonian, thus this long interval of severe oxygen deficiency is coeval with Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2). [Duque-Botero and Maurrasse. 2005. Jour. Iberian Geology (31), 85-98; 2008. Cret. Res., 29, 957-964; Kremer. 2006. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (51, 1), 143-154

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  6. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  7. cyclic π-perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on the basis of FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic data as well as by elemental analysis. Molecular structures of ... Experimental ... vent over dichloromethane solution of the cor- responding ... tion filtered to remove ammonium chloride and excess ammonium ...... UV-vis spectra of complexes were acquired in ace- tonitrile and ...

  8. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  9. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  10. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  11. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  12. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  13. Report on the behalf of the Commission for sustainable development and land planning on the bill project, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, and bearing various applications related to energy and to the environment (nr 155) - Nr 174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Roy, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    While considering objectives of limitation of temperature increase, and in order to limit the use of fossil energies likes conventional and non conventional hydrocarbons, the exploitation of which would result in an increase of CO 2 emissions, France has to modify its rules related to hydrocarbon extraction. This bill project therefore aims at programming the end of the exploration and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons. As mentioned, some articles of this bill project concern energy regulation, or can be a transposition of a European directive. This document contains transcription of a hearings of the Minister (Nicolas Hulot) held by the Commission, and of discussion about the bill content, and more particularly about amendments. Appendices propose tables containing lists of currently valid exploration permits, hydrocarbon mining concessions, exploration permit demands, and hydrocarbon mining demands. The text of the bill project is then proposed, followed by a comparative vision between initial and final versions of the text

  14. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  17. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  19. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  20. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  1. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  2. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  3. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  4. First principles modeling of hydrocarbons conversion in non-equilibrium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminsky, M.A.; Strelkova, M.I.; Durov, S.G.; Jivotov, V.K.; Rusanov, V.D.; Potapkin, B.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Theoretical justification of catalytic activity of non-equilibrium plasma in hydrocarbons conversion process is presented in this paper. The detailed model of highest hydrocarbons conversion includes the gas-phase reactions, chemistry of the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), precursor of soot particles formation, neutral, charged clusters and soot particle formation, ion-molecular gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The results of theoretical analysis are compared with experimental results. (authors)

  5. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  8. Human disturbances of denning polar bears in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstrup, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of snow and ice. The altricial neonates cannot leave the den for >2 months post-partum and are potentially vulnerable to disturbances near dens. The coastal plain (1002) area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) lies in a region of known polar bear denning and also may contain >9 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Polar bears in dens could be affected in many ways by hydrocarbon development. The distribution of dens on ANWR was documented between 1981 and 1992 and responses of bears in dens to various anthropogenic disturbances were observed. Of 44 dens located by radiotelemetry on the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada, 20 (45%) were on ANWR and 15 (34%) were within the 1002 area. Thus, development of ANWR will increase the potential that denning polar bears are disturbed by human activities. However, perturbations resulting from capture, marking, and radiotracking maternal bears did not affect litter sizes or stature of cubs produced. Likewise, 10 of 12 denned polar bears tolerated exposure to exceptional levels of activity. This tolerance and the fact that investment in the denning effort increases through the winter indicated that spatial and temporal restrictions on developments could prevent the potential for many disruptions of denned bears from being realized. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Gas hydrate formation and accumulation potential in the Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiugen; Wang, Jian; Tan, Fuwen; Feng, Xinglei; Wang, Dong; He, Jianglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Qiangtang Basin is the biggest residual petroleum-bearing basin in Tibet Plateau. • The Late Triassic Tumen Gela Formation is the most important gas source rock. • Seventy-one potential anticline structural traps have been found. • A favorable geothermal condition for gas hydrate formation. • A large number of mud volcanoes were discovered in the basin. - Abstract: The Qiangtang Basin is the biggest residual petroleum-bearing basin in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, and is also an area of continuous permafrost in southwest China with strong similarities to other known gas-hydrate-bearing regions. Permafrost thickness is typically 60–180 m; average surface temperature ranges from −0.2 to −4.0 °C, and the geothermal gradient is about 2.64 °C/100 m. In the basin, the Late Triassic Tumen Gela Formation is the most important gas source rock for gas, and there are 34.3 × 10 8 t of gas resources in the Tumen Gela Formation hydrocarbon system. Seventy-one potential anticline structural traps have been found nowadays covering an area of more than 30 km 2 for each individual one, five of them are connected with the gas source by faults. Recently, a large number of mud volcanoes were discovered in the central Qiangtang Basin, which could be indicative of the formation of potential gas hydrate. The North Qiangtang depression should be delineated as the main targets for the purpose of gas hydrate exploration

  10. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  11. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  12. Use of derivatives to assess preservation of hydrocarbon deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, K. A.; Melkishev, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the calculation of derivatives along the surface of a modern and paleostructure map of a Tl2-b formation top used to forecast the preservation of oil and gas deposits in traps according to 3D seismic survey via statistical methods. It also suggests a method to evaluate morphological changes of the formation top by calculating the difference between derivatives. The proposed method allows analyzing structural changes of the formation top in time towards primary migration of hydrocarbons. The comprehensive use of calculated indicators allowed ranking the prepared structures in terms of preservation of hydrocarbon deposits.

  13. Report on the behalf of the Commission for sustainable development and land planning on the bill project, in new reading, putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of hydrocarbons, and bearing various applications related to energy and to the environment (nr 370) + Appendix to the report: Text from the Commission on Sustainable Development and Land Planning - Nr 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Roy, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    While considering objectives of limitation of temperature increase, and in order to limit the use of fossil energies likes conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, the exploitation of which would result in an increase of CO 2 emissions, France has to modify its rules related to hydrocarbon extraction. This bill project therefore aims at programming the end of the exploration and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons. As mentioned, some articles of this bill project concern energy regulation, or can be a transposition of a European directive. This document reports the exchanges between the members of the Commission for sustainable development and land planning during the examination of the bill project and the examination of each articles. The modifications made to each article are reported in the appendix

  14. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600 0 -1300 0 F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  18. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  19. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  20. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  1. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  2. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  3. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  4. Roller bearing geometry design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  5. DW_BEAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  6. Laboratory Simulation of Rolling Contact Fatigue Cracks in Wind Turbine Bearings Using Hydrogen Infused 100Cr6 Bearing Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janakiraman, Shravan; West, Ole; Klit, Peder

    Premature fatigue failure is observed in rolling element bearings used in wind turbine components. It is believed that decomposed hydrogen from the lubricant diffuses into the surface of the bearing inner ring making it susceptible to failure. An attempt is made to simulate the formation of these...

  7. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  8. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  9. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  10. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  12. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  13. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  14. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  15. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  16. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  17. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  18. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  19. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  20. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  2. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  3. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for economic affairs on the bill project putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, and bearing various measures related to energy and to the environment (nr 155) - Nr 172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lavergne, Celia

    2017-01-01

    The herein concerned bill project results from one of the axes of the Plan for Climate presented by Nicolas Hulot, the French minister of ecological transition, and which announced the decision 'to leave hydrocarbons under the ground'. This text thus aims at putting an end to hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation by 2040, and at implementing measures to ensure the security of natural gas supply, and to protect electric power and gas final consumers. The report first outlines the ambitious character of this bill project, and that support measures are necessary on the medium term. It also discusses reforms to be implemented regarding gas storage, how the single contract is to legally made secure. The commission works are then transcribed, with a general debate and a discussion of bill project articles which address the end of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, gas storages and consumers, relationships between providers and network operators, the control of bio-fuels, and the reduction of emissions of some atmospheric pollutants. Appendices contain list of currently valid concessions and mining permits

  4. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  5. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  6. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  7. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  8. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  9. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  10. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  11. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  12. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  13. Method for depth referencing hydrocarbon gas shows on mud logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identifying hydrocarbon formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: a. measuring hydrocarbon gas in the entrained formation cuttings obtained during drilling operations in which a drilling mud is continually circulated past a drill bit to carry the cuttings to the earth's surface, b. simultaneously measuring natural gamma radiation in the cuttings, c. identifying the depths at which the cuttings were obtained within the borehole, d. measuring natural gamma radiation within the borehole following completion of the drilling operations, e. correlating the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d), and f. identifying the depths within the borehole from which the entrained cuttings containing hydrocarbon gas were obtained during drilling operations when there is correlation between the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d)

  14. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  15. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. Hydrocarbons (aliphatic and aromatic) in the snow-ice cover in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.; Kluvitkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented the concentration and composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice-infested waters in the France-Victoria trough in the northern Barents Sea and in the Mendeleev ridge in the Amerasian basin of the Arctic Ocean. Extreme conditions such as low temperatures, ice sheets and the polar nights render the arctic environment susceptible to oil spills. Hydrocarbons found in these northern seas experience significant transformations. In order to determine the sources, pathways and transformations of the pollutants, it is necessary to know their origin. Hydrocarbon distributions is determined mostly by natural hydrobiological and geochemical conditions. The regularity of migration is determined by natural factors such as formation and circulation of air and ice drift. There is evidence suggesting that the hydrocarbons come from pyrogenic sources. It was noted that hydrocarbons could be degraded even at low temperatures. 17 refs., 1 tab

  18. Actuators for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Maslen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature of active magnetic bearing (AMB technology dates back to at least 1937 when the earliest work that clearly describes an active magnetic bearing system was published by Jesse Beams [...

  19. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  20. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  2. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  3. Bill project putting an end to the search for as well as exploitation of conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, and bearing various arrangements related to energy and to the environment (accelerated procedure) - Nr 155 + Impact study + Opinion of the State Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Hulot, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    After having briefly outlined that the bill project notably aims at a better protection of energy consumers, the different objectives and motivations are discussed. They concern the end of the search for and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons in the French soil in order to comply with the COP 21 Paris agreement and with the French Climate Plan. This results in an end to exploration and exploitation permits, and therefore the avoidance of local environmental impacts related to such activities (notably offshore). Some arrangements concern gas storages and consumers, and aim at a better safety of supply for the French gas system and consumers. Other arrangements concern relationships between providers and network managers, controls of of bio-fuels, and the reduction of emissions of some atmospheric pollutants. The text of the bill project is then provided as well as the report of an impact study which, for each of the mentioned issues (end of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation in the case of overseas territories, gas storages and consumers, relationships between providers and managers, controls of bio-fuels) proposes a description of the situation and a diagnosis, a presentation of objectives, a discussion of the need for a new legal framework, an analysis of the impact of envisaged measures, a report of hearings, and modalities of application. A last text contains the opinion of the French State Council on the bill project, which, among other issues, notably addresses the following ones: guarantee of rights, ownership law, and right of free enterprise

  4. Adsorption Properties of Hydrocarbons (n-Decane, Methyl Cyclohexane and Toluene on Clay Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of hydrocarbons may significantly affect hydrocarbon migration in unconventional reservoirs. Clay minerals form the primary adsorbent surfaces for hydrocarbons adsorbed in mudstone/shale. To study the adsorption properties of hydrocarbons (n-decane (C10H22, methyl cyclohexane (C7H14 and toluene (C7H8 on clay minerals (i.e., cookeite, ripidolite, kaolinite, illite, illite/smectite mixed-layer, Na-montmorillonite and Ca-montmorillonite, hydrocarbon vapor adsorption (HVA tests were conducted at 298.15 K. The results showed that (i the adsorption amounts of C10H22, C7H14 and C7H8 ranged from 0.45–1.03 mg/m2, 0.28–0.90 mg/m2 and 0.16–0.53 mg/m2, respectively; (ii for cookeite, ripidolite and kaolinite, the adsorption capacity of C10H22 was less than C7H14, which was less than C7H8; (iii for illite, Na-montmorillonite and Ca-montmorillonite, the adsorption capacity of C10H22 was greater than that of C7H8, and the adsorption capacity of C7H14 was the lowest; (iv for an illite/smectite mixed-layer, C7H14 had the highest adsorption capacity, followed by C10H22, and C7H8 had the lowest capacity. Adsorption properties were correlated with the microscopic parameters of pores in clay minerals and with experimental pressure. Finally, the weighted average method was applied to evaluate the adsorption properties of C10H22, C7H14 and C7H8 on clay minerals in oil-bearing shale from the Shahejie Formation of Dongying Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin, China. For these samples, the adsorbed amounts of C7H14 ranged from 18.03–28.02 mg/g (mean 23.33 mg/g, which is larger than that of C10H22, which ranges from 15.40–21.72 mg/g (mean 18.82 mg/g. The adsorption capacity of C7H8 was slightly low, ranging from 10.51–14.60 mg/g (mean 12.78 mg/g.

  5. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)

    2001-07-01

    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  6. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  7. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  8. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  9. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  10. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  11. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  12. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  13. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  14. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  15. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  16. Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

    2011-08-01

    Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (μ-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S═O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite

  17. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  18. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  19. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  20. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  1. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  2. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  3. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  5. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  6. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  7. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  8. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  9. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  10. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  11. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  13. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  15. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  17. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  18. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  19. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  20. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  1. Biodegradation of an oil-hydrocarbon contaminated soil, enhanced by surfactants: Effect of the type and dose of surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. G.; Galindo, C.; Rojas, N.; Iturbe, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of different parameters, such as surfactant type an dose, soil initial hydrocarbons concentration, and soil granulometry, over the total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH degradation, as well as over the microbial count (as colony formation units CFU/g soil) along the process. (Author)

  2. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  5. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate...... whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid...... induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were...

  6. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  7. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  8. Khadum Formation of Pre-Caucasus region as potential source of oil shales: geology and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main modern aim for oil industry is the development of hydrocarbon extraction technologies from «oil shale». In Russia there are kerogen-saturated carbonate-clayey-siliceous deposits of the Bazhenov Formation, carbonate rocks of the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing basins and clayey Maikop series of Pre-Caucasus region. The Khadum Formation is lower part of the Maikop series represented by carbonate-clay and clayey deposits. On the basis of long-term field and laboratory investigation conducted by specialists of the Oil and Gas Department from Geological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. a comprehensive study of the lithological composition, structure, geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Paleogene section and monitoring of the drilled wells, the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Khadum deposits of the Oligocene in the Eastern Pre-Caucasus oil and gas bearing basin were estimated. 11 gas and 19 oil deposits are discovered within the Khadum deposits, and they are confined to the sand layers and lenses, but most of the Khadum section belongs to «unconventional» sources of hydrocarbons. Based on the integrated approach, a map of oil and gas potential prospects for the Khadum deposits was constructed. Highly prospective territories for drilling for oil, areas with small and medium perspectives, and gas prospecting areas have been singled out. Recommendations are given for drilling and technology for the development of the Pre-Caucasus oil shales, based on the world experience in the development of such formations.

  9. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  12. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  13. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  14. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  15. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childs, D.W.; Moes, H.; Leeuwen, van H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Bearing impedance vectors are introduced for plain journal bearings which define the bearing reaction force components as a function of the bearing motion. Impedance descriptions are developed directly for the approximate Ocvirk (short) and Sommerfeld (long) bearing solutions. The impedance vector

  16. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  17. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  18. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  19. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  20. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  1. Formation of Anionic C, N-bearing Chains in the Interstellar Medium via Reactions of H- with HC x N for Odd-valued x from 1 to 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianturco, F. A.; Satta, M.; Yurtsever, E.; Wester, R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relative efficiencies of low-temperature chemical reactions in the interstellar medium with H- anion reacting in the gas phase with cyanopolyyne neutral molecules, leading to the formation of anionic {{{C}}}x{{{N}}}- linear chains of different lengths and of H2. All the reactions turn out to be without barriers, highly exothermic reactions that provide a chemical route to the formation of anionic chains of the same length. Some of the anions have been observed in the dark molecular clouds and in the diffuse interstellar envelopes. Quantum calculations are carried out for the corresponding reactive potential energy surfaces for all the odd-numbered members of the series (x = 1, 3, 5, 7). We employ the minimum energy paths to obtain the relevant transition state configurations and use the latter within the variational transition state model to obtain the chemical rates. The present results indicate that at typical temperatures around 100 K, a set of significantly larger rate values exists for x = 3 and x = 5, while the rate values are smaller for CN- and {{{C}}}7{{{N}}}-. At those temperatures, however, all the rates turn out to be larger than the estimates in the current literature for the radiative electron attachment (REA) rates, thus indicating the greater importance of the present chemical path with respect to REA processes at those temperatures. The physical reasons for our findings are discussed in detail and linked with the existing observational findings.

  2. Transport and deposition of injected hydrocarbons in plasma generator PSI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmeyer, W.; Naujoks, D.; Markin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Koch, B.; Schroeder, D.; Fussmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and deposition of hydrocarbons were studied in the stationary plasma of plasma generator PSI-2. CH 4 or C 2 H 4 were injected into the plasma at different positions in the target chamber. After an interaction between the plasma and the hydrocarbons, different species are produced, some of them having high sticking probabilities and forming a:CH films on a temperature controlled collector. The film growth is studied in situ for different plasma parameters. The 3D Monte Carlo code ERO including three different sets of atomic data is used to describe the formation of hydrocarbon films

  3. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  4. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  5. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  6. Pre-Alleghenian (Pennsylvanian-Permian) hydrocarbon emplacement along Ordovician Knox unconformity, eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    Cores taken during exploration for Mississippi Valley-type lead and zinc ores in the Mascot-Jefferson City zinc district of eastern Tennessee commonly contain hydrocarbon residues in carbonate rocks of the Knox Group immediately below the Lower Ordovician Knox unconformity. The location and number of these residue-bearing strata reveal information about the Paleozoic history of hydrocarbon emplacement in the region. Contour maps, generated from nearly 800 holes covering more than 20 km/sup 2/, indicate that zones with elevated organic content in the uppermost 30 m of the Lower Ordovician Mascot Dolomite show a strong spatial correlation with Middle Ordovician paleotopographic highs. These same zones show no spatial association with present-day structural highs, which were formed during Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghenian tectonism. This suggests that the physical entrapment of hydrocarbons migrating through the upper permeable units of the Mascot must have occurred prior to the principal tectonism of the Alleghenian orogeny. 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  8. Chemistry and photophysics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, and it is thought that they are a key factor in the formation of molecular hydrogen at high gas and dust grain temperatures. We have explored how PAHs can contribute to the formation of H2 by taking a small PAH

  9. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  10. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  11. Fate(s) of injected CO2 in a coal-bearing formation, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.

    2013-01-01

    Coal beds are one of the most promising reservoirs for geologic carbon dioxide (CO₂) sequestration, as CO₂ can strongly adsorb onto organic matter and displace methane; however, little is known about the long-term fate of CO₂ sequestered in coal beds. The "2800' sand" of the Olla oil field is a coal-bearing, oil and gas-producing reservoir of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana. In the 1980s, this field, specifically the 2800' sand, was flooded with CO₂ in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, with 9.0×10⁷m³ of CO₂ remaining in the 2800' sand after injection ceased. This study utilized isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine from reservoirs located stratigraphically above, below and within the 2800' sand to determine the fate of the remaining EOR-CO₂, examining the possibilities of CO₂ migration, dissolution, mineral trapping, gas-phase trapping, and sorption to coal beds, while also testing a previous hypothesis that EOR-CO₂ may have been converted by microbes (CO₂-reducing methanogens) into methane, creating a microbial "hotspot". Reservoirs stratigraphically-comparable to the 2800' sand, but located in adjacent oil fields across a 90-km transect were sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. The source field for the EOR-CO₂, the Black Lake Field, was also sampled to establish the δ¹³C-CO₂ value of the injected gas (0.9‰ +/- 0.9‰). Four samples collected from the Olla 2800' sand produced CO₂-rich gas with δ¹³C-CO₂ values (average 9.9‰) much lower than average (pre-injection) conditions (+15.9‰, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field) and at much higher CO₂ concentrations (24.9 mole %) than average (7.6 mole %, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field), suggesting the presence of EOR-CO₂ and gas-phase trapping as

  12. 欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理及其对油气运移的影响%Formation Mechanism of the Undercompacting Mudstone's Roof and Floor and Their Influence on Hydrocarbon Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 汪斌

    2012-01-01

    欠压实泥岩顶底板是指比中部欠压实泥岩较致密的泥岩表层,是趋于正常压实的泥岩层,发育于低渗透率的厚层泥岩的上、下部位.以低速渗流定律为理论基础,从微观机理上分析欠压实泥岩顶底板的形成过程,提出穿过欠压实泥岩顶底板流体运移阻力的计算公式.当含顶底板泥岩作为盖层时,分为连续沉积型、抬升型和压裂型3种.压裂型泥岩盖层的封闭能力等于底板排替压力与达到顶板破裂的剩余压力之和,其他两种盖层的封闭能力就等于盖层顶底板的排替压力之和.当含顶底板泥岩作为源岩时,在连续型源岩中,油气排放的方向主要取决于泥岩顶底板渗透性地层的发育程度;在压裂型源岩中,大量油气沿裂缝向上排烃.此外,源岩的排烃方向还受断层的控制.通过欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理的研究,有助于评价泥岩盖层的封烃能力,了解泥质烃源岩油气初次运移的方向.%Undercompacting mudstone's roof and floor (UMRF) are the mudstone surface layers that are tighter than the central undercompaction, and are close to the normal compacting mudstone. UMRF develops in upper and lower parts of thick-layered mudstone with low permeability. This paper, by the Laws of Low-speed Flow, analyzed formation process of the UMRF from the microscopic mechanism, and proposed the resistance force formula of the fluid passing UMRF. The mudstone with the UMRF as a cap rock, can be divided into three types; the continuous sedimentary type, the uplift type and the fracture type. The sealing ability of the fracture type mudstone cap rock is equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs overpressure when it breaks down. The other two types of mudstone cap rocks' sealing abilities are equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs displacement pressure. When the mudstone with the UMRF as a source rock, in the continuous type, the expulsion direction

  13. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  14. Self-Organization during Friction of Slide Bearing Antifriction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif S. Gershman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the peculiarities of self-organization behavior and formation of dissipative structures during friction of antifriction alloys for slide bearings against a steel counterbody. It shows that during self-organization, the moment of friction in a tribosystem may be decreasing with the load growth and in the bifurcations of the coefficient of friction with respect to load. Self-organization and the formation of dissipative structures lead to an increase in the seizure load.

  15. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  16. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  17. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  18. Molecular phylogeography of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia based on analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Daisuke; Mano, Tsutomu; Abramov, Alexei V; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Vorobiev, Alexandr A; Raichev, Evgeny G; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Yayoi; Murata, Koichi; Fukui, Daisuke; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    To further elucidate the migration history of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 35 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Etorofu and Kunashiri), Sakhalin Island, and the Eurasian Continent (continental Russia, Bulgaria, and Tibet), and those of four polar bears. Based on these sequences, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny of the brown bear and estimated divergence times to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia. Our gene tree showed the mtDNA haplotypes of all 73 brown and polar bears to be divided into eight divergent lineages. The brown bear on Hokkaido was divided into three lineages (central, eastern, and southern). The Sakhalin brown bear grouped with eastern European and western Alaskan brown bears. Etorofu and Kunashiri brown bears were closely related to eastern Hokkaido brown bears and could have diverged from the eastern Hokkaido lineage after formation of the channel between Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands. Tibetan brown bears diverged early in the eastern lineage. Southern Hokkaido brown bears were closely related to North American brown bears.

  19. Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-05-01

    This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.

  20. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  1. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  2. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Amit; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behavio0008.

  3. Superconducting composite for magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II.

    1995-01-01

    A composite includes granules of Type II superconducting material and granules of rare-earth permanent magnets that are distributed in a binder. The composite is a two-phase structure that combines the properties of the superconductor and magnets with the flexibility and toughness of a polymeric material. A bearing made from this composite has the load capacity and stiffness of a permanent magnet bearing with added stability from a Type II superconducting material. 7 figs

  4. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  6. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  7. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  8. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  9. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  10. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  11. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  12. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  13. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  14. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  15. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Rothfeld, R; Riedel, T; Goebel, B; Wippich, D; Schirrmeister, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN 2 . More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  16. He+ irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He + or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He + irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature

  17. He{sup +} irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong [Accelerator Laboratory, School of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He{sup +} or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He{sup +} irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature.

  18. Noise estimation of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2003-01-01

    Noise estimating procedures of oil lubricated journal bearings are presented. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing system including unbalance mass of the rotor is performed in order to obtain acoustical properties of the bearing. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  1. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  2. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  3. A parametric study of AC electric field-induced toroidal vortex formation in laminar nonpremixed coflow flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    in increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, which promoted ITV formation. When judging the ITV-formation tendency based on critical applied voltage and frequency, it was qualitatively well correlated with the PAH concentration and the relative

  4. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  5. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Hydrocarbon formation core protection and and transportation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for transporting core samples includes an outer tube having an open end and a cover removably mounted to the open end; a core tube slidable into and out ofthe outer tube when the cover is removed from the outer tube; and a stabilizing structure between the core tube and the outer tube,

  7. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  8. The influence of cyclic structure on the radiolysis of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.; Cserep, Gy.; Horvath, Zs.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1975-01-01

    Aliphatic and cyclic C 3 -C 12 alkanes and alkenes have been irradiated in liquid phase by a 60 Co-γ-source with the nominal activity of 80 000 Ci. The dose rate was 1-2 Mrad/hr, the doses were between 0 and 10 Mrad. The following conclusions can be drawn from the experiments: 1., While no significant difference can be observed between radiolytic decomposition of n-hydrocarbon homologues, that of cyclic hydrocarbons is the function of the size of the ring. 2., Reactivity of cyclic hydrocarbons is influenced not only by their surplus enthalpy of formation (strain energy) but also by the individual components of this surplus enthalpy, e.g. bond deformation or repulsion between hydrogen atoms. 3., The overall yield of decomposition of higher than C 4 straightchain and cyclic alkanes activated by radiation and reacting via either C-C or C-H fission is approximately constant, with a G value of 6.5+-0.5. The structure of the molecules affects mainly the ratio of C-C and C-H bond rupture, i.e. these two processes are in competition. 4., Hydrogen yields from alkenes are affected mainly by the order and number of allylic C-H bonds, and by the possibility of the formation of allyl-type radicals. This latter is facilitated by ''free'' rotation in the case of open-chain hydrocarbons whereas it is hindered in the case of small and medium size cycles. (K.A.)

  9. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  10. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  11. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  12. SHABERTH - ANALYSIS OF A SHAFT BEARING SYSTEM (CRAY VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    IBM PC version is a set of two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The standard distribution medium for the CRAY version is also a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette, but alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. The original version of SHABERTH was developed in FORTRAN IV at Lewis Research Center for use on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer. The Cray version was released in 1988, and was updated in 1990 to incorporate fluid rheological data for Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1), thereby allowing the analysis of bearings lubricated with RP-1. The PC version is a port of the 1990 CRAY version and was developed in 1992 by SRS Technologies under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  14. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  15. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  16. Cuticular hydrocarbons and soldier defense secretions of Reticulitermes in southern California: a critical analysis of the taxonomy of the genus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori J. Nelson; Laurence G. Cool; Christopher W. Solek; Michael I. Haverty

    2008-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) and soldier defense secretions (SDS) were characterized for collections of Reticulitermes from six counties (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara) in southern California. Collection sites included the type locality for R. hesperus, Lake Arrowhead (formerly known as Little Bear Lake) in the San...

  17. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  18. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  19. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  20. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  1. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  2. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  3. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  4. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we...

  5. Astrochemical evolution along star formation: Overview of the IRAM Large Program ASAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefloch, Bertrand; Bachiller, R.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Fuente, A.; Kahane, C.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Tafalla, M.; Vastel, C.; Caux, E.; González-García, M.; Bianchi, E.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Holdship, J.; Mendoza, E.; Ospina-Zamudio, J.; Podio, L.; Quénard, D.; Roueff, E.; Sakai, N.; Viti, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshida, K.; Favre, C.; Monfredini, T.; Quitián-Lara, H. M.; Marcelino, N.; Roberty, H. Boechat; Cabrit, S.

    2018-04-01

    Evidence is mounting that the small bodies of our Solar System, such as comets and asteroids, have at least partially inherited their chemical composition from the first phases of the Solar System formation. It then appears that the molecular complexity of these small bodies is most likely related to the earliest stages of star formation. It is therefore important to characterize and to understand how the chemical evolution changes with solar-type protostellar evolution. We present here the Large Program "Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM" (ASAI). Its goal is to carry out unbiased millimeter line surveys between 80 and 272 GHz of a sample of ten template sources, which fully cover the first stages of the formation process of solar-type stars, from prestellar cores to the late protostellar phase. In this article, we present an overview of the surveys and results obtained from the analysis of the 3 mm band observations. The number of detected main isotopic species barely varies with the evolutionary stage and is found to be very similar to that of massive star-forming regions. The molecular content in O- and C- bearing species allows us to define two chemical classes of envelopes, whose composition is dominated by either a) a rich content in O-rich complex organic molecules, associated with hot corino sources, or b) a rich content in hydrocarbons, typical of Warm Carbon Chain Chemistry sources. Overall, a high chemical richness is found to be present already in the initial phases of solar-type star formation.

  6. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  7. Estimating Wear Of Installed Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.; Mcvey, Scott E.

    1993-01-01

    Simple inspection and measurement technique makes possible to estimate wear of balls in ball bearing, without removing bearing from shaft on which installed. To perform measurement, one observes bearing cage while turning shaft by hand to obtain integral number of cage rotations and to measure, to nearest 2 degrees, number of shaft rotations producing cage rotations. Ratio between numbers of cages and shaft rotations depends only on internal geometry of bearing and applied load. Changes in turns ratio reflect changes in internal geometry of bearing provided measurements made with similar bearing loads. By assuming all wear occurs on balls, one computes effective value for this wear from change in turns ratio.

  8. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bearings to work three-bearing shafts, including elasticity and resilience three-bearing shafts.

  9. Application of Rock-Eval pyrolysis to the detection of hydrocarbon property in sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Ye; Li Ziying; Guo Qingyin; Xiao Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Rock-Eval pyrolysis is introduced into the research of uranium geology by means of oil-gas geochemical evaluation. Hydrocarbon (oil-gas) components in DS sandstone-type uranium deposit are detected quantitatively. Through analyzing the oil-gas bearing categories of the uranium-bearing sandstones, the internal relationships between the uranium deposit and the oil-gas are revealed. Rock-Eval pyrolysis is an effective method to study the interaction between inorganic and organic matters, and should be extended to the study of sandstone-type uranium deposits. (authors)

  10. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  11. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Tracing the Origins of Nitrogen Bearing Organics Toward Orion KL with Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brandon; Crockett, Nathan; Wilkins, Olivia H.; Bergin, Edwin; Blake, Geoffrey

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis of a broadband 1.2 THz wide spectral survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) has shown that nitrogen bearing complex organics trace systematically hotter gas than O-bearing organics toward this source. The origin of this O/N dichotomy remains a mystery. If complex molecules originate from grain surfaces, N-bearing species may be more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing organics. Theoretical studies, however, have shown that hot (T=300 K) gas phase chemistry can produce high abundances of N-bearing organics while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex molecules. In order to distinguish these distinct formation pathways we have obtained extremely high angular resolution observations of methyl cyanide (CH_3CN) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward Orion KL. By simultaneously imaging ^{13}CH_3CN and CH_2DCN we map the temperature structure and D/H ratio of CH_3CN. We will present updated results of these observations and discuss their implications for the formation of N-bearing organics in the interstellar medium.

  13. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  14. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  15. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  16. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  17. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  18. Relation Between Residual and Hoop Stresses and Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Rolling-element bearings operated at high speed or high vibration may require a tight interference fit between the bore of the bearing and shaft to prevent rotation of the bearing bore around the shaft and fretting damage at the interfaces. Previous work showed that the hoop stresses resulting from tight interference fits can reduce bearing lives by as much as 65 percent. Where tight interference fits are required, case-carburized steel such as AISI 9310 or M50 NiL is often used because the compressive residual stresses inhibit subsurface crack formation and the ductile core inhibits inner-ring fracture. The presence of compressive residual stress and its combination with hoop stress also modifies the Hertz stress-life relation. This paper analyzes the beneficial effect of residual stresses on rolling-element bearing fatigue life in the presence of high hoop stresses for three bearing steels. These additional stresses were superimposed on Hertzian principal stresses to calculate the inner-race maximum shearing stress and the resulting fatigue life of the bearing. The load-life exponent p and Hertz stress-life exponent n increase in the presence of compressive residual stress, which yields increased life, particularly at lower stress levels. The Zaretsky life equation is described and is shown to predict longer bearing lives and greater load- and stress-life exponents, which better predicts observed life of bearings made from vacuum-processed steel.

  19. Study of liquid hydrocarbons subjected to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This work is a study of liquid hydrocarbons (especially alkanes and cycloalkanes), ionized and excited by low L.E.T. high energy radiation. An analysis of radiolytical products shows a definite correlation between radiochemical yields and bond energies. The study of the influence of scavengers has been carried out and the methods for the determination of α parameters are discussed. Ionic recombination has been fully investigated: theoretical studies, based on a phenomenological model, on primary and (in presence of solute) secondary charge recombination have been performed. Secondary species were observed by use of kinetic optical absorption spectrophotometry. A good agreement with theory is obtained only when the electron scavenging before thermalization is negligible. Electron mobility in hydrocarbons has been measured and the electron scavenging rate constants have been determined using the pulse conductivity technique. Conformational analysis calculations show a correlation between the electron mobility and the electronic structure. The rate of formation of a radiolytic product and the rate of decay of its precursor have been studied for solutions of hydrocarbons and electron scavengers [fr

  20. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, S.; Leitao, C.; Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Crespo, M.T. Barreto; Pereira, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. → Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. → Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. → The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm 2 , anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  1. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  2. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  3. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  4. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  5. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  6. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  7. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  8. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10 15 –1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 ) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp 2 carbon clusters. The sp 2 carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature

  9. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10{sup 15}–1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp{sup 2} carbon clusters. The sp{sup 2} carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature.

  10. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  11. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  12. Research In Diagnosing Bearing Defects From Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T.; Earhart, E.; Fiorucci, T.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes research in bearing-defect signature analysis - use of vibration-signal analysis to diagnose defects in roller and ball bearings. Experiments performed on bearings in good condition and other bearings in which various parts scratched to provide known defects correlated with vibration signals. Experiments performed on highly instrumented motor-driven rotor assembly at speeds up to 10,050 r/min, using accelerometers, velocity probes, and proximity sensors mounted at various locations on assembly to measure vibrations.

  13. A computational study of ethylene–air sooting flames: Effects of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Selvaraj, Prabhu; Arias, Paul G.; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.; Wang, Yu; Gao, Yang; Park, Sungwoo; Sarathy, Mani; Lu, Tianfeng; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    formation to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The gas-phase chemical mechanism adopted the KAUST-Aramco PAH Mech 1.0, which utilized the AramcoMech 1.3 for gas-phase reactions validated for up to C2 fuels

  14. Effect of hydrocarbon-contaminated fluctuating groundwater on magnetic properties of shallow sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameen, N. N.; Klueglein, N.; Appel, E.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kappler, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 442-460 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : environmental magnetism * magnetic susceptibility * groundwater table fluctuation * hydrocarbon contamination * magnetite formation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  15. Simultaneous Production of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds and Hydrocarbons Using Amorphous Iron Silicate Smokes as a Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous iron silicates efficiently catalyze formation of hydrocarbons and ammonia under conditions similar to that found in the solar nebula. Preliminary data and rates will be discussed, and much further experimentation is required. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  17. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  18. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  19. Bears and pipeline construction in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follmann, E.H.; Hechtel, J.L. (Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, AK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Serious problems were encountered with bears during construction of the 1274-km trans-Alaska oil pipeline between Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. This multi-billion-dollar project traversed both black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) and grizzly bear (U. arctos L.) habitat throughtout its entire length. Plans for dealing with anticipated problems with bears were often inadequate. Most (71%) problems occurred north of the Yukon River in a previously roadless wilderness where inadequate refuse disposal and widespread animal feeding created dangerous situations. Of the 192 officially reported bear problems associated with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) (1971-1979), about 65% involved the presence of bears in camps or dumps, 13% the feeding of bears on garbage or handouts, 10% property damage or economic loss, 7% bears under and in buildings, and only 5% charges by bears. Remarkably, no bear-related injuries were reported, suggesting that bears became accustomed to people and did not regard them as a threat. Following construction of the TAPS there have been proposals for pipelines to transport natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to southern and Pacific-rim markets. Based on past experience, some animal control measures were developed during the planning phase for the authorized gas pipeline route in Alaska. Fences installed around 100-person survey camps were found to be effective in deterring bears in two traditionally troublesome areas. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  1. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13.1236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear...

  2. 14 CFR 29.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 29.623 Section 29.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.623 Bearing factors. (a... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  3. 14 CFR 27.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 27.623 Section 27.623... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  4. 14 CFR 25.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 25.623 Section 25.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  5. 14 CFR 23.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 23.623 Section 23.623... Bearing factors. (a) Each part that has clearance (free fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of normal relative motion. (b) For...

  6. The BEAR Beamline at Elettra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannarone, S.; Pasquali, L.; Selvaggi, G.; Borgatti, F.; DeLuisa, A.; Doyle, B.P.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Giglia, A.; Finetti, P.; Pedio, M.; Mahne, N.; Naletto, G.; Pelizzo, M.G.; Tondello, G.

    2004-01-01

    The BEAR (Bending Magnet for Emission Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline is installed at the right exit of the 8.1 bending magnet at ELETTRA. The beamline - in operation since January 2003 - delivers linear and circularly polarized radiation in the 5 - 1600 eV energy range. The experimental station is composed of a UHV chamber for reflectivity, absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission measurements and a UHV chamber for in-situ sample preparation

  7. Ore bearing system and hydrological characteristics of mineralized sector in Hushiliang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaolin; Liu Zhengbang; Miao Aisheng

    2010-01-01

    Hushiliang area is one of the best uranium ore bearing areas in Erdos basin from the point of fluvial sedimentary system and uranium geochemical environment, So far, three mineralized sector has been found that are Nalingou, Nongshengxin, Baobeigou. By using the first-hand data of uranium regional survey in this area lately and systematically comparing and analyzing of the hydrological structure in the mineralized sector of this area, the thesis ascertain the ore and water bearing fluid reservoir's spatial relationship generally, and argues that the Zhiluo formation ore and water bearing fluid reservoir in this area is a unified underwater ore bearing system, and the orebody's hydrological structure is propitious in the distributary channel and unpropitious in the main channel because of deep ore bearing layer to the ISL. (authors)

  8. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  9. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  10. BEAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Sabina Storbjerg; Wolff, Anne; Hougaard, Dan Dupont

    2017-01-01

    profiling and fitting strategies. Data from 2000 patients are collected from the departments of Audiology in Odense and Aalborg University Hospital. Some of the registered variables include gender, age, and health related questions, noise exposure and whether they are suffering from tinnitus. The database...... subgroups of HA users, including experienced versus new HA users will be made. Previous noise exposure and the relation to the occurrence of tinnitus will be investigated as well....

  11. About peculiarities of hydrocarbons deposits location in the productive series of the Baku archipelago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : In Azerbaijan domestic and foreign companies hold wide-scaled prospecting operations in the central and southern parts of the Baku Archipelago and also in the Kobystan. There are hydrocarbons deposits determined in the northern of the Baku Archipelago. Deposits location by phase condition of hydrocarbons mainly follows the general regularity determined on many oil and gas bearing areas, pass of oil deposits to oil-gas and gas-condensate ones in the direction of increase of layers occurrence depth. There is also a considerable influence of a tectonic factor on the area location of deposits observed, expressing in difference of deposits height on different tectonic blocks and also there is an influence of a lithological factor. Results of works conducted on drilling and wells testing are still not enough for judging about lack of oil and gas content.

  12. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  13. Soil cover of gas-bearing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharova, N. V.

    2010-08-01

    Natural soils with disturbed functioning parameters compared to the background soils with conservative technogenic-pedogenic features were distinguished on vast areas above the artificial underground gas storages in the zones of spreading and predominant impact of hydrocarbon gases. The disturbance of the functioning parameters is related to the increase in the methane concentration, the bacterial oxidation intensity and destruction, and the complex microbiological and physicochemical synthesis of iron oxides. The technogenic-pedogenic features include neoformations of bacteriomorphic microdispersed iron oxides. The impurity components consist of elements typical for biogenic structures. New soil layers, horizons, specific anthropogenically modified soils, and soil-like structures were formed on small areas in the industrial zones of underground gas storages due to the mechanical disturbance, the deposition of drilling sludge, and the chemical contamination. Among the soils, postlithogenic formations were identified—chemotechnosols (soddy-podzolic soils and chernozems), as well as synlithogenic ones: strato-chemotechnosols and stratochemoembryozems. The soil-like bodies included postlithogenic soil-like structures (chemotechnozems) and synlithogenic ones (strato-chemotechnozems). A substantive approach was used for the soil diagnostics. The morphological and magnetic profiles and the physical, chemical, and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. The micromorphological composition of the soil magnetic fraction was used as a magnetic label.

  14. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  15. A motor with superconducting magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladun, A.; Stoye, P.; Verges, P.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Goernert, P.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting bearings may be one of the most promising near term applications of HTSC. For use at liquid nitrogen temperature and below, they offer the advantage of lower energy consumption and higher reliability. Different bearing configurations have been proposed. But in order to substitute for conventional bearings a further increase in the critical current density of the superconductor and improved bearing concepts are necessary. For this it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the interaction between permanent magnets and bulk superconductors. As a contribution to this programme we present the model of a motor with superconducting magnetic bearings. (orig.)

  16. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  17. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  18. Ball Bearing Analysis with the ORBIS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearing design is critical to the success of aerospace mechanisms. Key bearing performance parameters, such as load capability, stiffness, torque, and life all depend on accurate determination of the internal load distribution. Hence, a good analytical bearing tool that provides both comprehensive capabilities and reliable results becomes a significant asset to the engineer. This paper introduces the ORBIS bearing tool. A discussion of key modeling assumptions and a technical overview is provided. Numerous validation studies and case studies using the ORBIS tool are presented. All results suggest the ORBIS code closely correlates to predictions on bearing internal load distributions, stiffness, deflection and stresses.

  19. Servo Reduces Friction In Flexure Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Proposed servocontrol device reduces such resistive torques as stiction, friction, ripple, and cogging in flexure bearing described in LAR-14348, "Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction". Reduces frictional "bump" torque encountered when bearing ball runs into buildup of grease on bearing race. Also used as cable follower to reduce torque caused by cable and hoses when they bend because of motion of bearing. New device includes torquer across ball race. Torquer controlled by servo striving to keep flexure at null, removing torque to outer ring. In effect, device is inner control loop reducing friction, but does not control platforms or any outer-control-loop functions.

  20. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population