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Sample records for hydroalcoholic leaf extracts

  1. Role of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii in Gastroprotection

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    Hyacinth Highland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii leaves are regularly used in our diet and hence, our gastrointestinal tract is regularly exposed to this extract. Therefore the present study was focused on the evaluation of the Gastroprotective action of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts on Pancreas and Duodenum. Male albino mice (35-40 gm were treated with Murraya koenigii leaf extracts (Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous, against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxic model for seven days, using two different dose concentrations.The mice were divided into six groups, including Group I –Untreated Controls and Group I A –Vehicle controls.  The negative control (Group II was administered CCl4 along with vehicle (olive oil.  Group III and IV were administered low dose (150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts after inducing toxicity with CCl4. Similarly, Group V and VI were administered with high dose (250mg/kg body weight of the extracts. Biochemical markers included ATPase, ALKpase, ACPase, SDH, Protein and Cholesterol in both target tissues; duodenal Triglycerides and Pancreatic amylase were also estimated. It was observed that Murraya koenigii leaf extracts had a mitigative  effect and were able to bring the elevated levels of ATPase, SDH, ALKPase, ACPase and Amylase to near normal values. The hydroalcoholic extract proved to be more effective than the aqueous extract. Hence, Murraya koenigii leaf extracts have potent ameliorative action on the CCl4 induced toxicity in the duodenum and pancreas, manifesting potent gastroprotective activity. The present study has significant impact since the plant is used extensively in both cuisine and medication.

  2. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on blood pressure and its interaction with adrenergic system of male rats

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    Hajar Ebrahimiyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in recent century with several complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves (Walnut tree on blood pressure and its interaction with the adrenergic system in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study that established in the physiology lab, School of scinse in Shiraz University from September to October 2013, in order to determine some of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves effect on blood pressure, the present study was performed by following procedure: 10 adult male wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used. They were divided into two groups (Each group contained 5 rats randomly: Juglans regia L. leaf extract group and Juglans regia L. leaf extract and adrenaline group. Then each rat was anesthetized by IP injection of 1.2 g/kg urethane. After tracheostomy the femoral vine and artery were cannulated for drug injection and blood pressure recording respectively. Arterial cannula for recording arterial blood pressure connected to a pressure transducer (PowerLab, ADInstruments, Sydney, Australia. Blood pressure parameters were recorded before and after IV administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf, solvent, adrenalin and extract with adrenaline. Results: The result showed a significant decrease of mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in response to extract with compare to control and sham group (P<0.05. Also a significant decrease of blood pressure showed in presence of walnut leaf extract and adrenaline with compare to sham group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf suggested as a hypotensive agent. It seems that this effect is probably due to inhibitory effect on adrenergic system.

  3. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaf on histological changes of Langerhans islet in diabetic rats model

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    Jamshid Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that the Juglans regia leaves have hypoglycemic, diuretic and blood pressure reduction properties. The objective of the present study was to examine the histopathology effects of Juglans regia leaves on diabetes mellitus in rats. Material and Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats (150- 200 g were randomized into six groups of 8 animals. Groups III, IV, V and VI received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to make diabetic model. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer after 72 hours. After 10 days, Group II, IV and V received 400, 200 and 400 mg/kg Juglans regia extract, respectively and group VI treated with 4 mg/kg glybenclamid for four weeks. Group I were fed with normal diet and group III received distilled water (diabetic control. The body weight and blood glucose were measured in every week. The number of β cells and diameter of islets of Langerhans were determined using hematoxylin-floxin staining. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of β cells and diameter of islets decreased significantly in diabetic control compare to the normal group. Treatment with 400 mg/kg of Juglans regia extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, a significant increase in diameter of islets and number of β cells compared to diabetic control group. The pancreas / body weight ratio increased in diabetic rats compare to the treatment group. Conclusion: The administration of Juglans regia extract can cause recovery of β cells number and improve the size of islets of Langerhans in diabetic model rats.

  4. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

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    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis.

  5. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

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    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  6. Phytochemical screening and Haemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album .L leaves

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    Deepak.TK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to screen the phytochemical constituents present in the hydroalcoholic extract of Santalum album linn leaves to ascertain the presence of saponins and futher studies carried out on the extract to evaluate its haemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Haemolytic effect of S. album leaf extract was evaluated according to the WHO guidelines in which the varying concentration of the extract was treated with the blood and lysis was determined visually. The result revealed that the S. album leaf extract produced lysis of erythrocyte at a minimum concentration of 475μg/ml. These observations will stimulate further research in the field of phytochemistry and also in clinical application of the phytochemical constituents of S. album. L.

  7. Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of momordica charantia L. against foodborne pathogens

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    Kalpna Rakholiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial effect of 24 different hydroalcoholic extracts (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol and water obtained from four parts (leaf+stem (aerial, peel, pulp and seed of Momordica charantia L. were investigated against five Gram-positive, six Gram-negative and four fungal strains. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using hexane, different hydroalcoholic solvent (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol and water. The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay. The extracts, which showed >15 mm zone of inhibition, were further screened to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration using a broth dilution method performed in 96-well microtitre plate. The extractive yield was highest in aqueous extracts of all the four parts closely followed by 25% methanol. Micrococcus flavus was the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas testosteroni was the most susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by 100% methanol. The Gram-negative Pseudomonas spp. was more susceptible towards all the extracts than the Gram-positive bacteria or fungal strains investigated. One hundred percent and 50% methanol extracts of seed showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, that is <39 and 625 μg/ml, respectively, against Pseudomonas pictorum. Therefore, these extracts would be of interest in the control of Pseudomonas spp. in food industry as well as used for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Toxicity evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula gummosa root.

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    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Mohebbati, Reza; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Vahedi, Mohammad Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mahmoud; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Azar Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, people use harvested Ferula gummosa for medicinal purposes. However, no information about its safety and toxicity is available. In the present study, the toxicological profile of sub-chronic oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of F. gummosa radix is evaluated in rats. The extract was orally administrated at 100 and 600 mg/kg to male rats for 28 days. After 28 days, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, as well as histopathological and neurobehavioral changes were examined. Also, the sedative effect of this extract was evaluated in mice at the doses of 100, 600, and 800 mg/kg. Its cytotoxicity against human stroma-vascular cells and human renal epithelial cells were also evaluated. No lethality or adverse toxic signs were seen during the experimental period. There were no significant changes in body and organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histopathological examination. The extract decreased the rotarod performance, but did not increase pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. Also, F. gummosa extract significantly decreased cell viability at the concentrations of higher than 400 μg/mL. In conclusion, the sub-chronic toxicity study of F. gummosa hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated the extract to be safe for the tested dosage and route of administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE

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    Singh Rudra Pratap

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was design to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale hydro-alcoholic extract as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using tail suspension test and forced swim test (FST and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in its actions. The rhizomes of ginger were collected and authenticated. Extraction of dried rhizomes was carried out using soxhlet apparatus to obtain its Hydro alcoholic extract. The extract of Zingiber officinale showed the significant antidepressant activity comparable to the standard drug. The oral administration of Zingiber officinale extract at 150 mg/ kg and 300 mg/kg respectively as compared to the control treated group showed an antidepressant activity comparable to that of standard drug. The antidepressant effects of Zingiber officinale extract seem to be mainly associated with the activation of dopamineergic system and possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  10. Immunomudulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum

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    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort has long been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of internal and external ailments. The present study was done to evaluate the immumodulatory potentials of the hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum. Materials and Methods: Twenty male BALB/c-mice were randomly allocated in two equal groups and immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs and complete Freund’s adjuvant. Mice in the treatment group orally received hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum (110 mg/Kg daily from the beginning of the study  which continued for 2 weeks. Results: The data indicated a significant increase in the level of anti-SRBC antibody and simultaneously a significant decrease in the level of cellular immunity, an enhancement in foot pad thickness, in treatment group compared to control group. The level of the respiratory burst in phagocytic cells and the level of lymphocyte proliferation in splenocytes were significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to control group. Moreover, extract caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 as well as IFN-γ, parallel to increasing the level of IL-6. Conclusions: The hydroalcoholicextract of H. perforatum may be used as a natural source for treatment of immunopathologic conditions.

  11. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds.

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    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presented the highest concentration of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds, followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. The samples were effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is important to address that the hydroalcoholic extract showed the highest efficacy against Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates that the decoction could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydroalcoholic extract could be incorporated in formulations for antimicrobial features. Moreover, the use of infusion/decoction can avoid the toxic effects showed by oregano essential oil, widely reported for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

  12. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

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    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  13. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

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    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status.

  14. Toxicological studies on hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L.

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    Silva, Erick J R; Gonçalves, Eduardo S; Aguiar, Fábio; Evêncio, Liriane B; Lyra, Mariana M A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Wanderley, Almir G

    2007-04-01

    The hydroalcohol extract (HAE) of Calendula officinalis L. was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in rats and mice and for the subacute effect on hematological, biochemical and morphologic parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, HAE failed to cause death in the animals after administration of oral doses up to 5.0 g/kg. Oral treatment with HAE at 0.025, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg did not induce hematological alterations when compared with the control group. In the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and in alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Morphological examination of the brain, kidney and heart did not show any alteration. However, inflammatory sites were found in the lung and liver, which were associated, respectively, with oral gavage and a possible hepatotoxic effect. HAE was non-toxic in rats, although there was evidence of renal and liver overload.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from genipap, baru and taruma

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    Fabíola Brandão dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Microbial resistance is a serious public health problem, which has led to the search for alternative treatments to replace antibiotics, including studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of species in Brazil’s Cerrado. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of genipap, baru, and taruma against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion tests and microdilution. Results indicated that all genipap extracts showed inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs ranging between 150μg/mL and 940μg/mL against all microorganisms tested. Baru pulp extracts exhibited larger inhibition zones against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results between 150µg/mL and 1000µg/mL against all microorganisms except P. aeruginosa. The taruma 30% pulp and seed extracts exhibited the largest halos against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results were between 150μg/mL and 1000μg/mL against all microorganisms except C. albicans. All fruits displayed potential for antimicrobial activity, particularly the genipap’s pulp extracts. Further studies should be performed to identify compounds with antimicrobial activity and to test their applicability as preservatives in foods, as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, and as sanitizing agents.

  16. A proposal for the quality control of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) and its hydroalcoholic extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliana Siqueira Chaves; Fernando Batista Da Costa

    2008-01-01

    ...) and its hydroalcoholic extract obtained by percolation. The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, the main active compound of this plant, was quantified by HPLC and its content was found to be 0.49...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Callistemon citrinus and Albizia lebbeck

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    Seyyed M. Seyydnejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Callistemon citrinus and Albizia lebbeck are two kind of native plants in Khoozestan province in Iran, according to the agreement that medicinal plant could be replaced the medicine we are trying to determine the antibacterial effect of the named plants. Approach: The antibacterial properties of ethanolic and methanolic extract of Callistemon citrinus leaf and Albizia lebbeck leaf was studied against different pathogenic bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella typhi, Kelebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes by disc diffusion method. The samples collected from young trees from Ahvaz city at may 2009. Results: The extract of C. citrinus showed significant activity against the majority of bacteria which is comparable with standard antibiotics. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC for hydroalcoholic extract of Callistemon have been determined also for four bacteria; S. pyogenesis, S. typhy, B. anthrasis, S. typhy, Albizia lebbeck extract despite previous reports didnt have any significant effect. Conclusion: According to the good effects of Callistemon citrinus on Bacillus species it has antiseptic effects and could be used as a therapeutic agent and therefore, it appears to be a potent antimicrobial agents that could be considered as a medicinal plant.

  18. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Salvia elegans.

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    Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; García-Beltrán, Yolanda; Mora, Sergio; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Viana, Glauce S B; Tortoriello, Jaime; Ramírez, Guillermo

    2006-08-11

    Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "mirto", is a shrub that has been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different central nervous system (CNS) diseases, principally, anxiety. Nevertheless, the available scientific information about this species is scarce and there are no reports related to its possible effect on the CNS. In this work, the antidepressant and anxiolytic like effects of hydroalcoholic (60%) extract of Salvia elegans (leaves and flowers) were evaluated in mice. The extract, administered orally, was able to increase the percentage of time spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze, as well as to increase the time spent by mice in the illuminated side of the light-dark test, and to decrease the immobility time of mice subjected to the forced swimming test. The same extract was not able to modify the spontaneous locomotor activity measured in the open field test. These results provide support for the potential antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of Salvia elegans.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

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    Monic Shah et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The hydroalcoholic extract had more phenol concentration (116.1 mg/g of extract when compared to aqueous extract (58 mg/g of extract. The flavonoid content was more in hydroalcoholic extract (242.6 mg/g of extract when compared to that of aqueous extract (202.8 mg/g of extract. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. The nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also concentration dependent with IC50 value being 254.70 µg/ml , 934.06 µg/ml and 510.60 µg/ml respectively for Aqueous extract and 169.22 µg/ml, 495.83 µg/ml, 488 µg/ml respectively for hydroalcoholic extract. The order of the antioxidant potency of the whole plant extract is Hydroalcoholic >> aqueous. The results clearly indicate that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri has anti oxidant property which may be due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.

  20. Immunomodulatory Effects of Astragalus gypsicolus Hydroalcoholic Extract in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Mice Model

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    Mehri Ghafourian Boroujerdnia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that herbal extracts possess various biological effects including anti-inflammatory and  anti-cancer  activities. The  present  study  was aimed to investigate the protective effects of the Astragalus gypsicolus  (AG hydroalcoholic extract in early allergic sensitized mice induced by ovalbumin.Phytochemical assay was used  to  recognize the  main active constituents  in the  AG hydroalcoholic extract. Mice were immunized with subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. Efficiency of  sensitization was assessed by serum  IgE  levels and eosinophil count. After sensitization, two doses of extract (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were injected intrapritoneally.On  day 14, mice were challenged with intrapritoneal injection of ovalbumin. IL-4 and IFNγ  levels in  broncoalveolar  lavage fluid, which had  been  collected on  day 15, were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit.Our results indicate two main active constituents including flavonoids and terpenoids are present in the AG hydroalcoholic extract. Intrapritoneal injection of the AG hydroalcoholic extract was able to decrease IL-4 and increase IFNγ. It seems the AG hydroalcoholic extract has the potential to modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines in allergy.

  1. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

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    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  2. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

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    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  3. Quantitative HPLC analysis of some marker compounds of hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper aduncum L

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    Oliveira, Laura C.P.; Nunomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: smnunomu@inpa.gov.br; Mause, Robert [Siema Eco Essencias da Amazonia Ltda., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    High performance liquid chromatography is one of the major analytical techniques used in the quality control of phytotherapics. This work describes a HPLC method used to determine the major components present in different hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Piper aduncum. (author)

  4. Vellozia flavicans Mart. ex Schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

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    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian “cerrado” (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). Methods The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf’s ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode’s solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. Results TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged

  5. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml) or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) (10% w/v solution). Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (10% w/v solution. Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  7. Spasmolytic effect of Vitis vinifera leaf extract on rat colon

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    Gharib Naseri M.K.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera (grape leaf has been used traditionally to treat diarrhea and its extract induces relaxation in rat aorta and uterus. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract (GLHE on rat colon contractions induced by some spasmogens. A piece of distal colon from male adult Wistar rats were dissected and mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution and colon contractions recorded by an isotonic transducer under 1g resting tension. The GLHE (0.5- 4 mg/ml reduced the contractions induced by KCl (60 mM, BaCl2 (4 mM, acetylcholine (1 μM dose-dependently (P<0.001. The spasmolytic effect of GLHE on ACh-induced contraction was unaffected by propranolol (1 μM, phentolamine (1 μM, L-NAME (300 μM, and naloxone (1μM. In Ca2+-free but rich in KCl (120 mM Tyrode solution, cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 induced colon contractions which, were inhibited by the extract. Glibenclamide (3 μM had no effect on the extract spasmolytic activity, but tetraethylammonium (5 mM contracted the pre-relaxed colon induced by the extract. Results suggest that the grape leaf hydroalcoholic extract spasmolytic effect is due to the blockade of the voltage dependent calcium channels and activation of Ca2+-operated potassium channels

  8. Preliminary phytochemical and antioxidant study of hydroalcoholic extracts from selected genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Ramu; G Krishna Mohan; KN Jayaveera; SP Dhanapal; G Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Salvia officinalis and Plectranthus mollis. Methods: The total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents of hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Salvia officinalis and Plectranthus mollis were evaluated using standard in-vitro methods. The total phenol and total flavonoid were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin and Gallic acid were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by phosphomolybdenum method. Results: Our results clearly demonstrate that both the extracts have antioxidant capacity. The inventions of antioxidant capacity harmonize with total flavonoid and phenol contents. Conclusions: A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of both the plants. The results of the study show thatPlectranthus mollis has the most flavonoid and phenol contents and the antioxidant capacity.

  9. Assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Rosa persica Mich. flower on rat ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract has inhibitory effect at higher concentration but stimulatory action at lower concentrations on ileum. This could be due to the presence of stimulatory components in the extract. R. persica Mich. is another species which belongs to Rose family but so far there is no report about pharmacological action of its extract. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate inhibitory effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extract of this plant on ileum contraction to see which type of extract would be more appropriate as antispasmodic agents. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. Effects of R. persica extracts or vehicle were studied on ileum contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl or acetylcholine (ACh) and compared with that of atropine. Hydroalcoholic extracts of R. persica (10-640 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 244 ± 35 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 129 ± 7.4 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 172 ± 18.7 μg/ml). Hexane extract of R. persica (10-320 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 117 ± 12.4 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 78 ± 9.1 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 67 ± 10.5 μg/ml). Atropine only inhibited the responses to ACh and EFS. The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions. From this experiment it was concluded that R. persica extract have inhibitory effect on rat isolated ileum. Therefore, separation and identification of active component is recommended.

  10. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.

  11. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Mussaenda philippica on animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kar DM; Rout SK; Moharana L; Majumdar S

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and sepals ofMussaenda philippica (M. Philippica) and its fractions(methanol, dioxin and aqueous) against pentylene tetrazole(PTZ), maximal electroshock(MES),Strychnine(STR),Picrotoxin induced convulsions at different dose levels.Methods:The anticonvulsant effect of extracts was studied by theMES,PTZ,STR andPicrotoxin-induced seizure.Results:The extract at100 and200 mg/kg, produced a significant(P<0.01) dose dependent increase in onset of convulsion compared to the control inMES,PTZ, strychnine and picrotoxin-induced seizures.Conclustions:The data obtained indicates thatHydroalcoholic extracts ofM. philippica leaves and sepals may help to control grandmal and petitmal epilepsy.

  12. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rat

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    F. Fatehi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Most antiepileptic drugs that are commonly being used in the clinic have a wide range of unwanted side effects; while some species of pistachioshave been used in the traditional medicine to treat epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera L. in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Methods: this study was carried out on 40 male Wistar rats. Chemical kindling was induced by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ (40 mg/kg on every alternate day (30 days. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. vera (50 and 100 mg/kg were administered orally every day (30 days. In days which animals received both PTZ and extract, PTZ was injected 30 min after extract administration. Convulsive behavior was observed for 30 min after PTZ injection and scored according to racine scale. Diazepam was used as the reference anticonvulsant drug. Results: Pretreatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg of P. vera extract decreased seizure scores, stage 4 latency and stage 5 duration compared to the control group. The anti-epileptic effects of P. vera extract were comparable to diazepam. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract of P. vera may inhibit the development of seizure behavior following chronic PTZ-induced model of epilepsy in rats.

  13. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Nematy; Mohsen Mazidi; Atefeh Jafari; Sara Baghban; Hasan Rakhshandeh; Abdolreza Norouzy; Habibollah Esmaily; Leila Etemad; Michael Patterson; Amir Houshang Mohammadpour

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. In this study, the possible orexigenic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. millefolium was investigated by measuring plasma ghrelin level.Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Control group received water. Treatment groups received 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of A. millefolium extract for 7 days via gavage. Before the intervention, daily amount ...

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mabel Parimala; Francis Gricilda Shoba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus.Methods:the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined.Results:Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g).Conclusion:Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Hajifattahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX, and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

    2012-04-01

    Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PLEUROTUS ERYNGII AND LENTINUS EDODES HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS

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    Gabriela Popa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides superior nutritional values mushrooms posed significant medicinal properties. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of several isolates of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms with medicinal importance. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that the 70% ethylic alcohol extracts have significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis var. spizizinii, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the 70% ethanol extracts of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom isolates may have biopharmaceutical potentiality.

  19. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  20. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Akhavan Tavakoli; N Heydarieh; M Khoshsokhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experime...

  1. Effect of Salvia officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Vincristine-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Namvaran Abbas Abad; Mir Hadi Khayate Nouri; Farzaneh Tavakkoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM:Vincristine is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to treat a variety of malignant diseases,including leukemia and lymphoma.Studies have shown that vincristine cause painful effects,whereas Salvia ofcinalis(SO)showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the SO hydro-alcoholic extract on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice in comparison with morphine.METHODS:Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighing 25-30g divided into six groups.The individual groups received normal saline,SO hydro-alcoholic extract,vincristine,SO hydro-alcoholic extract and vincristine(12 days before formalin test),morphine,and vincristine and morphine,respectively.The injected hind paw biting and licking was measured in a 5-minute interval for one hour.RESULTS:The results showed that formalin induce significant(P<0.05)pain responses(the fast phase:0-5 min and the second phase:15-40 min after injection).Administration of SO extract before formalin testshowed significant(P<0.05)decrease of pain response in the second phase.Administration of vincristine caused significant(P<0.05)increase in the second phase of pain response.Injections of SO extract and vincristine showed that SO significantly(P<0.05)decrease the second phase of vincristine-induced pain.Morphine decreased vincristine-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison,morphine showed analgesig effects in the first phase and SO extract showed significant(P<0.05)anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test.CONCLUSION:Both SO and vincristine showed analgesic and painful neuropathic effects,suggesting that SO extract could be useful in the treatment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.

  2. Antispasmodic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium vulgare on isolated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemper, V; Ribas, A; Nicolau, M; Cechinel Filho, V

    1996-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare is a medicinal plant used in Brazil and in many countries in folk medicine against several diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the roots and aerial parts of M. vulgare in several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The results showed that this extract exert a significant antispasmodic activity which inhibits the action of some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and oxytocin, with putative selectivity for cholinergic contractions. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic.

  3. Sleep-prolonging effect of Coriandrum sativum hydro-alcoholic extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of C. sativum. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) and its three fractions namely water (WF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and N-butanol (NBF) were prepared from C. sativum aerial parts and administrated to mice. Also, the possible cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested using cultured PC12 cells. The HAE, EAF and NBF significantly prolonged sleep duration. Only the NBF could significantly decrease sleep latency. No decrease in the neuronal surviving was observed either by HAE or by its fractions. The present data indicate that C. sativum exert sleep-prolonging action without major neurotoxic effect.

  4. Antileishmanial Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Miconia langsdorffii, Isolated Compounds, and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. was evaluated against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to identification of the triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as the major compounds in the fraction that displayed the highest activity. Several ursolic acid semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared, to find out whether more active compounds could be obtained. Among these ursolic acid-derived substances, the C-28 methyl ester derivative exhibited the best antileishmanial activity.

  5. EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. (COMBRETACEAE ON FREE RADICALS INDUCED IN RAT BRAIN

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    Calderón, Abhel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia catappa leaves was tested in vivo to determine its antioxidant activity. The objective was to determine the antioxidant effect of the extract of T. catappa against free radicals induced in rat brain. We worked with two groups, the control consisting of positive control and negative control subsets which were administered carbon tetrachloride (CTC 1 ml·Kg-1 body weight and 2 mL of physiological saline solution (PSS, respectively. The experimental group consisted of two subgroups treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of T. catappa + CTC: one with 0.8 mg of extract T. catappa/kg bodyweight and the other with 1.5 mg T. catappa/kg body weight, for seven days. In all groups was determined the amount of free radicals in the brain by the technique of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. From the positive control was obtained an average concentration of 26.68 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue, and in the negative control an average concentration of 9.76 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue; in the experimental group treated with T. catappa to 0.8 mg·kg-1 body weight and 1.5 mg·kg-1 body weight was obtained an average concentration of 13.64 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue and 15.80 μg malondialdehyde/g brain tissue, respectively. It was determined that the group treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of T. catappa concentration to 0.8 mg·Kg-1 body weight showed significant inhibition of free radicals compared to the positive control subgroup.

  6. The hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans induces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S; Millán, R; Lungenstrass, H; Díaz-Véliz, G; Morán, J A; Herrera-Ruiz, M; Tortoriello, J

    2006-06-15

    Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic (60% ethanol) extract from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl (Lamiaceae) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Salvia elegans were studied in the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Deleterious effects of Salvia elegans on learning and memory were also studied by using active and passive avoidance paradigms. The results revealed that all doses (3.12, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of the extract caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. Only the dose of 12.5 mg/kg increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg). In the FST, all doses of the extract induced a reduction of immobility, in a similar way to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and imipramine (12.5 mg/kg), along with a significant increase in the time spent in swimming behavior. Acquisition of active avoidance responses was disrupted by pre-treatment with the extract, but retention of a passive avoidance response was not significantly modified. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia elegans have psychotropic properties, which deserve further investigation.

  7. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extracts from Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis Using the DPPH Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Chaires-Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis are medicinal plants widely distributed in Mexico and they are used because of its potential hypoglycemic action; however, no free radical scavenging activity (RSA studies over these plants are known. Thus, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from leaf and stem samples were evaluated for their RSA using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. Total phenolics and flavonoids extracts were determined too. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program with the significance level set at P< 0.05. Bauhinia divaricata stem aqueous extracts with total phenols content of 12.98 mg GAE/g DW had the highest amount between samples. The same behavior was shown in flavonoids determination. However, when RSA was estimated it was found that stem aqueous extracts from Bougainvillea spectabilis produced more DPPH absorbance reduction (95.66%, with an IC 50 (the concentration to inhibit the oxidation of DPPH by 50% and AP (reciprocal of IC 50 values of 0.03 μg/mL and 33.33, respectively. These results were superior to common synthetic antioxidants used in the food industry like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, IC 50=62 μg/mL and can be useful for further applications of these plants or its constituents in pharmaceutical and alimentary preparations.

  8. Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Hydroalcoholic Extract on Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Namvaran Abbas Abad; M.H.Kayate Nouri; A.Gharjanie; F.Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a mainstay for the treatment of solid tumors, especially colorectal, ovarian,testicular, bladder, and lung cancer. Studies have shown that cisplatin could have painful effects on human and animal models. Matricaria chamomilla (MC) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MC hydroalcoholic extract on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy and to compare with morphine in mice. METHODS: Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighed 25 g to 30 g which have been divided into 6 groups. The fast group received normal saline;the second group received MC hydroalcoholic extract; the third group received cisplatin; the fourth group received MC hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin, 96 hours before formalin test; the fifth group received morphine and the sixth group received cisplatin and morphine. The time of injected hind paw biting and licking time were measured in 5-minute interval for an hour. RESULTS: Results showed that formalin induced significant (P<0.05) pain response (the first phase: 0-5 min and the second phase: 15-40 min after injection). Administration of MC extract before formalin injection showed significant (P<0.05) decrease of pain responses in the first and second phase. Administration of cisplatin produced significant (P<0.05) increase in pain response in both phases of formalin test.Injection of MC extract and cisplatin together have shown that MC is able to decrease the second phase of cisplatin-induced pain sig-nificantly (P<0.05). Morphine decreased cisplatin-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison morphine has analgesic effects in the first phase and MC extract has anti inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test significantly (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MC and cisplatin have analgesic and painful neuropathic respective effects, and MC hydroalcoholic extract is able to

  9. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nectaroscordum Tripedale on Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Rats

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    S Paydar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The therapeutic effects of traditional medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for many diseases have been proved. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of oral administration of different doses of hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale on biochemical factors. Method: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups of 8 animals as follows control group (recieved distilled water, control +50 mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedale, diabetic control group (recieved distilled water, treatment group 1 (recieved 50mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedale, treatment group 2 (recieved 100 mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedales. The animals recieved Nectaroscordum tripedales extract by gavage for 21 days. Diabetes was induced by a single injection streptozotocin in rat (50 mg/kg b.w., ip. Before and 3 days after injection, 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment, the fasting glucose level and weight was measured. At the end of 21 days, blood samples collected from the heart puncture, after animals anesthetized with ether. The blood samples were analysed for lipid profile (total cholesterol, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c. Results: The results showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale could increase the average weight and decrease glucose in this period and also reduce cholesterol levels, triglyceride, and LDL-c dose dependent reduction at the end of 21 days (P <0/05. The hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale showed an overall beneficial effect on serum lipid profiles and biochemical factors. Conclusion: Nectaroscordum tripedale may act as an antidiabetic agent by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from the pancreas or its release from bound insulin and increasing insulin and improving pancreatic function. Moreover, the antioxidant properties may reduce the hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase.

  10. Evaluation of Phenolic Content of Turmeric hydroalcoholic Extract in Iran by Singleton Method

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    M Bahrami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an important role as essential metabolites for plants growth and reproduction, as well as protecting agents against pathogens. These compounds are important sources of antioxidants which act as reducing agents and hydrogen donors. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and plants rich in poly phenols is associated with the reduced risk of certain cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes and Alzheimer’s diseases. Curcuma langa or Turmeric is a tropical plant that natively grows in South and Southeast Asia. This plant has been used as a spice as well as a herbal drug in traditional medicine in India. Recently, many studies have been conducted on the medical effects of this plant and still some researches are ongoing. Turmeric possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. It seems that pharmacological activities of turmeric is related to poly phenolic compounds existing in this plant. Methods: This study was performed on the hydroalcoholic extract of the turmeric rhizome experimentally with a repetition of several times. Results of this study were presented via means±SD. In the present research poly phenolic contents of turmeric extract was evaluated using tannic acid standard. Results: The study findings demonstrated that 1µg hydroalcoholic extract contains 0.59±0.051µmoleTAE of poly phenolic compounds. Conclusion: This study revealed that phenolic contents of turmeric hydroalcoholic extraction is noticeable and it seems that phenolic contents are caused by curcuminoids compounds that exist in this plant.

  11. Bothrops jararacussu venom-induced neuromuscular blockade inhibited by Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet hydroalcoholic extract

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    TM Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet (Flacourtiaceae was standardized for the first time through quality control procedures including pharmacognostic methods, fingerprint chromatograms, defined amounts of marker substances and physicochemical characteristics. The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu venom (60 µg/mL in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Bjssu venom blocked muscle activity for 26 (± 2.0 minutes (n = 6. Cg extract (0.1 mg/mL induced changes on the baseline muscle activity without impairing the muscle function and inhibited 87.6% (± 1.8 (n = 6 of the Bjssu venom-induced blockade. Both flavonoids (0.624 g% and polyphenols (4.63 g% from the extract were spectrophotometrically quantified. Therefore, the present study confirms the antibothropic activity of Cg extract, supporting the ethnomedical use of Casearia sp. in the treatment of snakebite victims.

  12. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from Aloysia polystachya in rats.

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    Mora, S; Díaz-Véliz, G; Millán, R; Lungenstrass, H; Quirós, S; Coto-Morales, T; Hellión-Ibarrola, M C

    2005-10-01

    Behavioral effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke (Verbenaceae) were studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally and its effects on spontaneous motor activity (total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior) were monitored. Anxiolytic-like properties were studied in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and the possible antidepressant-like actions were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST). The results revealed that high doses of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant decrease in total motility, locomotion, rearing and grooming behavior. All doses injected (from 1.56 to 50 mg/kg) increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). In the FST, the extract (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was as effective as fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in reducing immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming and climbing, respectively. These results suggest that some of the components of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. polystachya, such as thujone and carvone among others, may have sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties which deserve further investigation.

  13. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

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    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  14. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum

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    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode′s solution at 37 °C and gassed with O 2 . Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM, acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM, electrical field stimulation (EFS or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC 50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL and EFS (IC 50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC 50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL, EFS (IC 50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL as well as oxytocin (IC 50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  15. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum.

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    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alinejad, Mahla

    2016-07-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM), electrical field stimulation (EFS) or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL), EFS (IC50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL) as well as oxytocin (IC50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL). From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  16. Antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris.

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    Taherian, Abbas Ali; Babaei, Mahdi; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Jarrahi, Morteza; Jadidi, Majid; Sadeghi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigation has shown that Thymus Vulgaris (TV) modulates pain. The aim of this work was to examine the role of TV on acute and chronic pain and compares its effect with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST) by using hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests in mice. In this study male albino mice (25-30 g.) in 21 groups (n=147) were used. TV (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) and vehicle (VEH) were injected 30 minutes before pain assessment tests. Stress was applied by 1 min swimming in cold water (18-22 degrees ). Acute and chronic pain was assessed by hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests. For assessment of the role of opioid receptors in antinoceception of TV extract, Naloxon (NAL, 2mg/kg, ip) as opioid receptor antagonist was injected before the injection of the more effective dose (500 mg/kg) of TV extract. Results indicated that TV, DEX and ST have analgesic effects in all tests (P<0.01 in comparison with control group). Above findings showed that TV extract, DEX and ST have modulatory effects on acute and chronic pain. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which TV extract has an inhibitory effect on pain sensation.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

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    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  18. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

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    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  19. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

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    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  20. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

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    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg, or diazepam (10 mg/kg. Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice.

  1. Antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract and the flavonoid rutin obtained from Polygala paniculata L. in mice.

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    Lapa, Fernanda da R; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Missau, Fabiana C; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria Consuelo A; Dafré, Alcir L; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Polygala paniculata in chemical and thermal behavioural models of pain in mice. The antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated in chemical (acetic-acid, formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and glutamate tests) and thermal (tail-flick and hot-plate test) models of pain or by biting behaviour following intratecal administration of both ionotropic and metabotropic agonists of excitatory amino acids receptors glutamate and cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in mice. When given orally, hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-10 mg/kg), produced potent and dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain. In the formalin test, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.0001-0.1 mg/kg orally) also caused significant inhibition of both the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain) phases of formalin-induced licking. However, it was more potent and efficacious in relation to the late phase of the formalin test. The capsaicin-induced nociception was also reduced at a dose of only 1.0 mg/kg orally. The hydroalcoholic extract significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced nociception at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg orally. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.001-1.0 mg/kg orally) caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. However, only rutin, but not phebalosin or aurapten, isolated from P. paniculata, administered intraperitoneally to mice, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract (0.1-100 mg/kg orally) had no effect in the tail-flick test. On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract caused a significant increase in the latency to response at a dose of 10 mg/kg orally, in the hot-plate test. The hydroalcoholic extract (0.1 mg/kg orally) antinociception, in the glutamate test, was neither affected by

  2. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.

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    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Toussy, Gafar; Mousavi, Shahrokh

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. Contraction changes in the terminal ileum of guinea pigs were monitored using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Thymus vulgaris extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner and also decreased the amplitude of peristaltic waves. It is concluded that T. vulgaris has an antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum by decreasing the amplitudes of the muscle contractions during peristalsis. The EC50 was calculated as 1.7 mg mL(-1). In guinea-pig ileum the extract led to an antispasmodic effect, possibly by affecting the anticholinergic and serotoninergic pathways.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

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    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  4. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice

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    Zahra Rabiei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Morphine-dependent group received morphine for nine days and then received naloxone via intraperitoneal injection. Control group received saline for nine days. Post-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg on the day 10 before naloxone injection. Co-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg and morphine for nine days and then received naloxone. Extract-treated group received extract for nine days and then received naloxone. Naloxone injection significantly increased the frequency of jumping, blinking, ptosis, defecation, paw trembling, and two-legged standing in comparison to the control group. Co-treatment and post-treatment with B. officinalis extract significantly decreased the withdrawal symptoms. In conclusion, hydroalcoholic extract of B. officinalis significantly attenuated the symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  5. Biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract on balb/C mice

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    Namjoo Abdolrasool

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melissa officinalis is usually used as antispasmodic, antiaxiety and antibacterial agent. However, its toxicity has not been evaluated, yet. In this study biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated in balb/C mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 21 balb/C male mice were randomly designated to three equal groups. Group I was treated with normal saline and groups II and III were respectively treated with 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg, hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinals daily for two weeks, intraperitoneally. Then on 15th day of the experiment, blood samples were obtained from the heart. The blood was centrifuged and then the sera were evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine, using autoanalyzer and commercial kits. The liver and kidney tissues were also hystopathologically evaluated. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc test, and Kruskal-Wallis at a significance level of p<0.05. Results: Melissa officinals dose dependently caused a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, Melissa officinals extract had no effect on the amount of urea and creatinine compared to the control group. The liver and kidney histopathological changes in the groups that received different doses of the extract showed mild, moderate, and severe tissue injuries. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis in this study indicates that the extract of Melissa officinals causes liver tissue damage in mice; therefore, its consumption in high doses should be avoided.

  6. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum (jasmine) leaves in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajesh K; Reddy, Pooja S

    2013-10-01

    Jasminum grandiflorum belongs to the family Oleaceae and is known to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiulcer activities. The present study was undertaken to study its analgesic and anticonvulsant effects in rats and mice. The antinociceptive activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of J. grandiflorum leaves (HEJGL) was studied using tail flick and acetic acid - induced writhing method. Similarly, its anticonvulsant activity was observed by maximal electroshock (MES) method and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) method. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. At doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, HEJGL showed significant analgesic and anticonvulsant effects in experimental animals. In view of its analgesic and anticonvulsant activity, the JGL extract can be used in painful conditions as well as in seizure disorders.

  7. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

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    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  8. The Hydroalcoholic Extract Obtained from Mentha piperita L. Leaves Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Improves Survival in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Macrophages

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    Mariana Oliveira Arruda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (peppermint possesses antimicrobial properties, but little is known of its ability to modulate macrophages. Macrophages are essential in bacterial infection control due to their antimicrobial functions and ability to link the innate and adaptive immune responses. We evaluated the effects of the peppermint leaf hydroalcoholic extract (LHAE on cultured murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in vitro. Vehicle-treated cells were used as controls. The constituents of the extract were also identified. Epicatechin was the major compound detected in the LHAE. LPS-induced macrophage death was reversed by incubation with LHAE (1–30 μg/ml. Higher concentrations of the extract (≥100 μg/ml decreased macrophage viability (49–57% in the absence of LPS. LHAE (1–300 μg/ml attenuated H2O2 (34.6–53.4% but not nitric oxide production by these cells. At similar concentrations, the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (15.3–63.5-fold and glutathione peroxidase (34.4–73.6-fold in LPS-treated macrophages. Only LPS-unstimulated macrophages presented enhanced phagocytosis (3.6–6.6-fold increase when incubated with LHAE (3–30 μg/ml. Overall, the LHAE obtained from peppermint modulates macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, by stimulating the antioxidant pathway in these cells. These effects may be beneficial when the excessive activation of macrophages contributes to tissue damage during infectious disease.

  9. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

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    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  10. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

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    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  11. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts and fractions from Erythrina mulungu

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    Mariana S. G. de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu, is used for the treatment of insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE, the ethyl acetate and chloroformic fractions from E. mulungu in four experimental models of nociception using laboratory mice. The extracts and fractions were administered orally to mice at doses of 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions were observed for all the extracts and fractions tested, as compared to controls. All extracts and fractions from E. mulungu reduced the nociception activity produced by formalin in the 2nd phase. In the hot plate test no significant effect was observed for any extract or fraction. In the peritonitis test induced by Zymosan, all of the tested extracts and the chloroformic fraction, except for the ethyl acetate phase, reduced cell migration of the peritoneal cavity. We concluded that E. mulungu shows antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opioid system.

  13. Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): an ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu.

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    Ravichandran, V; Suresh, B; Sathishkumar, M N; Elango, K; Srinivasan, R

    2007-05-30

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in Nilgris is based on the use of plant medicine for many years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Simaroubaceae) (HEA) has been studied in rats to explore its antifertility activity. A strong antiimplantation (72%) and abortifacient activity (56%) was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.). The extract shows further more, significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. Simultaneous administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol cause significant antiestrogenic activity. All these observations suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa has antifertility effect.

  14. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Anil; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Vipin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.). Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  15. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum nocturnum Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Anil Kamboj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cestrum nocturnum leaves in Wistar rats. Method. Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhletation method and stored in refrigerator at 4°C for two days before use. Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg i.p.. Hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for antidiabetic activity and given to the STZ-induced diabetic rats at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Metformin is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 7, and 15th days. Results. Oral administration of the extracts for 15 days caused a significant ( reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The body weight of diabetic animals was also improved after daily administration of extracts. The extract also improved other altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Also the changes in food intake, water intake, and weight of internal organs were also restored to normal by the prolonged effect of extract treatment.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

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    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats

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    Mohsen Nematy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. In this study, the possible orexigenic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. millefolium was investigated by measuring plasma ghrelin level.Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Control group received water. Treatment groups received 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of A. millefolium extract for 7 days via gavage. Before the intervention, daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 days. During the investigation, the amount of energy intake of each rat was also estimated 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr after each intake, for 7 days. Later, the orexigenic dose of extract and distilled water was fed to two separate groups of 6 male Wistar rats. Plasma ghrelin level was measured 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hr after extract intake.Results: The change in energy intake after treatment by 50 and 100 mg/kg of the extract was significantly higher than other groups (p

  18. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA

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    B. N. VEDHA HARI, AKHILA SRAVYA DANTU, P. SHANKARGURU, D. RAMYA DEVI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana divaricata is a common shrub found in the tropical regions and is often used for medicinal purposes, particularly the flowers of the plant. The present study is conducted to compare and identify the phytochemical constituents by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Qualitative Phytochemical analysis and to determine the anthelmentic activity of fresh and dried flower extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract is obtained using two different methods like cold maceration and hot solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus, first with petroleum ether followed by hydroalcohol as solvents. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Flavanoids, Steroids, Proteins, Carbohydrates and Tannins. The Rf value of TLC is calculated and compared with standard values and analysis proved the presence of the phytochemical constituents. The anthelmentic activity studies are performed using Indian earth worms. For this, the concentrated extract is diluted to various concentrations, and the effect of each solution is studied by measuring the time taken for paralysis and death of the earth worms. It is found to show significant anthelmentic activity at various concentrations compared with that of the standard drug Metronidazole.

  19. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

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    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  20. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

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    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  1. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

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    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  2. Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal.

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    Miguel, Maria Graça; Nunes, Susana; Dandlen, Susana Anahi; Cavaco, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2010-12-01

    Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal. Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol. In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter. Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone. Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

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    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses.

  4. Antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn.

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    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mirshekari, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn aerial part hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and polyphenolic extract (PPE) as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were respectively estimated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two extracts of P. pastinacifolium were evaluated by radical scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), chelating activity on ferrous ions, or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract was measured by FRAP assay. Total phenolic contents of PPE and HAE were 117.1 ± 6.2 and 44.3 ± 1.7 mg/g, respectively. Total flavonoid content of PPE (43.4 ± 2.1 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of HAE (8.0 ± 1.5 mg/g). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, HAE and PPE showed fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 469.4 ± 9.3 μg/mL and 128.2 ± 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. Iron chelating activity assays indicated IC50 values of 657.5 ± 13.2 μg/mL and 735.4 ± 16.1 μg/mL for HAE and PPE as opposed to ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) being 16.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL. PPE exhibited greater FRAP value (154.0 ± 1.8 μM) as compared with that of HAE being 69.3 ± 1.4 μM. In animal study, HAE showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in FRAP level when compared with that of control group. Our results showed that P. pastinacifolium possess antioxidant properties which most likely are exerted through free radical scavenging, chelating activity, and reducing power. PMID:27920823

  5. Stereological investigation of the effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit hydroalcoholic extract on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

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    Mohammad Dabbaghmanesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by increased fracture risk. However, each approved treatment has specific side effects. Therefore, foods with plant origins have increasingly attracted attention as an alternative treatment. Studies have shown that Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA has antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EA hydroalcoholic extract on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats using stereological methods.  Material and Methods: 55 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, sham operated (normal saline, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX + EA fruit extract (600 mg/kg BW/day, and OVX + estradiol benzoate (3 mg/kg BW for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP plasma levels. Then, specimens from tibia and fifth lumbar vertebra (L5 bones were prepared and stereological analysis was done. Results: Ovariectomy significantly decreased the calcium level and increased the ALP level in the OVX group. In spite of improvement in calcium hemostasis in groups treated with estrogen and EA fruit extract (p

  6. Antinociceptive Activity of Trichilia catigua Hydroalcoholic Extract: New Evidence on Its Dopaminergic Effects

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    Alice F. Viana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilia catigua is a native plant of Brazil; its barks are used by some local pharmaceutical companies to prepare tonic drinks, such as Catuama. The present study was addressed to evaluate the effects of T. catigua hydroalcoholic extract in mouse nociception behavioral models, and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in its actions. Male Swiss mice were submitted to hot-plate, writhing and von Frey tests, after oral treatment with T. catigua extract (200 mg kg−1, p.o.. The extract displayed antinociceptive effect in all three models. For characterization of the mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action of the extract, the following pharmacological treatments were done: naloxone (2.5 mg kg−1, s.c., SR141716A (10 mg kg−1, i.p., SCH23390 (15 μg kg−1, i.p., sulpiride (50 mg kg−1, i.p., prazosin (1 mg kg−1, i.p., bicuculline (1 mg kg−1, i.p. or dl-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg kg−1, i.p.. In these experiments, the action of T. catigua extract was evaluated in the hot-plate test. The treatment with SCH23390 completely prevented the antinociceptive effect, while naloxone partially prevented it. The possible involvement of the dopaminergic system in the actions of T. catigua extract was substantiated by data showing the potentiation of apomorphine-induced hypothermia and by the prevention of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effects of T. catigua extract seem to be mainly associated with the activation of dopaminergic system and, to a lesser extent, through interaction with opioid pathway.

  7. In vivo and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Pistacia Atlantica

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    M Bahrebar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: The genus Pistacia belonging to the Anacardiaceae family which consists of 15 species only three species of which, namely Pistacia vera, Pistacia Atlantica, ,and Pistacia Khinjuk grow in Iran. The aim of present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Pistacia Atlantica fruit hydroalcoholic extract in Yasuj. Methods: In the present experimental study, the extract was carried out with two, maceration and Soxhlet methods. For in vitro antioxidant assay, (trolex equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH phosphomolybdenum (PMB was conducted. For determination of antioxidant components, total phenolic and flavonoids contents were analyzed in in vitro assay. To evaluate the antioxidant activity by In Vivo method, the hydro alcoholic extract, having the most antioxidant activity, was used. 24 Wistar rats with the weight 250-300 g were examined that were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6. Group 1 (control group used distilled water by oral route with amount of 0.5 ml/kg. Groups 2, 3, and 4 used 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Pistacia Atlantica hydro alcoholic extract by gavages, respectively. After 4 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected by heart puncture. Catalase enzyme activity, Mallon dialdehyde and Ferric reducing antioxidant power were measured in rats’ plasma. ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results: Methanol extract of Pistacia Atlantica contained the maximum amount of phytochemical and antioxidant activities. A significant decrease was observed in serum malondialdehyde (MDA of the treatment group compared to the control group (P<001.There was a significant increase in level of Catalase and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of treatment groups compared to the control group (P<001. Conclusion: Pistacia Atlantica extracts depending on type and system of extraction contains different antioxidant potential. Key words: Antioxidant Activity, Pistacia Atlantica

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

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    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  9. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxide levels in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus Jalili; Mohammad Reza Salahshoor; Tahere Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm dysfunction is one of the main causes of male infertility. Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) is a member of umbelliferae family that contains different vitamins and minerals and has numerous therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate P. crispum effect on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxid levels in mice. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum was prepared and administered intraperitoneally (0,100, 150 and 200 mg...

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance in Experimental Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedemadi, Parisa; Rahnema, Mehdi; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Shahrebano; Rafati, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of BBB breakdown and the subsequent vasogenic edema are important parts of the medical management of ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ischemic tolerance effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf hydro-alcoholic extract (RHE). Five groups of animals were designed: sham (underwent surgery without MCAO) and MCAO groups, the MCAO groups were pretreated orally by gavages with RHE (50, 75, and 100 mg/Kg/day), daily for 30 days. Two hours after the last dose, serum lipid levels were determined and then the rats were subjected to 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Subsequently, brain infarct size, brain edema and Evans Blue dye extravasations were measured and neurological deficits were scored. Dietary RHE could significantly reduce cortical and sub-cortical infarct volumes (211.55 ± 24.88 mm3 vs. 40.59 ± 10.04 mm3 vs. 29.96 ± 12.19 mm3vs. 6.58 ± 3.2 mm3), neurologic deficit scores, cerebral edema (82.34 ± 0.42% vs. 79.92 ± 0.49% vs. 79.45 ± 0.26% vs. 79.30 ± 0.19%), blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability (7.73 ± 0.4 μg/g tissue vs. 4.1 ± 0.23 μg/g tissue vs. 3.58 ± 0.3 μg/g tissue vs. 3.38 ± 0.25 μg/g tissue) in doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/Kg/day as compared with the control group in the transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Although pretreatment with RHE plays an important role in the generation of tolerance against cerebral I/R injury, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of the ischemic tolerance. PMID:28243285

  11. Cellular Structural Changes in Candida albicans Caused by the Hydroalcoholic Extract from Sapindus saponaria L.

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    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Candida albicans is the principal etiological agent involved in VVC, but reports have shown an increase in the prevalence of Candida non-C. albicans (CNCA cases, which complicates VVC treatment because CNCA does not respond well to antifungal therapy. Our group has reported the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts from Sapindus saponaria L. The present study used scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to further evaluate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from S. saponaria (HE against yeast obtained from VVC and structural changes induced by HE. We observed the antifungal activity of HE against 125 vaginal yeasts that belonged to four different species of the Candida genus and S. cerevisae. The results suggest that saponins that are present in HE act on the cell wall or membrane of yeast at the first moments after contact, causing damage to these structures and cell lysis.

  12. Evaluation of a preservative system in a gel containing hydroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius

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    Túlio Flávio A. L. Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, microbial contamination is one of the major problems faced by the phytomedicine industry with respect to the quality of the raw materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservative system in a formulation with hydrogel containing hydroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae ("aroeira" or "Brazilian Peppertree", through the challenge test. The extracts were prepared by maceration at a ratio of 1:10 plant/solvent in 40% alcohol. Gel samples were artificially contaminated with separate inocula of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the number of viable microorganisms determined in triplicate by the "pour plate" method for counting colonies at 0, 24 and 48h, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The addition of the preservatives (methyl and propylparaben in the "aroeira" gel proved to be effective against the studied species when the samples were evaluated using the challenge test. According to the criterion A of the European Pharmacopoeia, it was verified that the hydrogel product showed good conservation in a 28 days period.

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic stem bark extract ofSchotia latifolia Jacq

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    Sunday Oyewole Oyedemi; Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract ofSchotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark commonly used in South Africa traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments.Methods: The antibacterial test andMIC was determined by using agar well diffusion and dilution methods respectively against eight strains of bacteria. The total phenol, proanthocyanidin and flavonoid contents ofS. latifolia were assessed using standard methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid(ABTS), nitric oxide(NO), hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)and lipid oxidation(LO).Results:The antibacterial activity demonstrated an appreciable effect against all the gram positive bacteria atMIC between0.016 and10 mg/mL while that of gram negative bacteria was above10 mg/mL. The plant extract exhibited high concentration of proanthocyanidin [(300.00±0.10) mgCE/g], followed by flavonoid [(12.46±0.04 mg) TE/g] and phenol [(11.06±0.03) mgQE/g] contents. Similarly, the extract at0.5 mg/mL scavenges DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LO andNO by87.55%, 89.47%, 77.15%, 86.48% and77.75% of the radicals respectively. The reducing power was also found to be concentration dependent.Conclusions:Our data suggest thatS. latifolia extract has antibacterial and antioxidants activity and thus could be used as alternative therapy against antibiotic resistance bacteria and to prevent many radical related diseases.

  14. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

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    F Akhavan Tavakoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male rats with an average weight of 230-250g were used in the study. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. These groups included: healthy treatment group with saline , gonadectomized  group with no treatment, gonadectomized group with treatment of saline or solvent extract (0.5 cc and gonadectomized group with treatment doses of 2, 5 & 15 mg/kg Glycyrriza glabra root extract intraperitoneally (n=8. In a surgery, the testicles were removed. 30 minutes after injection. The Data were analyzed by one way variance analysis and Tukey’s test using SPSS (p<0.05. Results: Anxiety was significantly increased in gonadectomy rats (P<0.001 when compared with the normal ones. At doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/bw of hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root, the time spent in open arms of maze were significantly increased and the time spent in maze close arms were decreased in compared to controls (P<0.05. None of the doses showed any significant effect on locomotor activites. Conclusion: Hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root in rats not gonadectomized and Gonadectomy serve to reduce anxiety.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, due to the changes in the form of the resistance of pathogenic bacteria, discovering new antimicrobial drugs is under study. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the extract of the myrtle herb on some of pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of myrtle herb was evaluated at 4 concentrations including 10-80 mg/ml on four strains of pathogenic bacteria using penetrative dissemination method together with the measuring diameter of the growth inhibition zone; then the results were compared to four conventional antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were studied using macro dilution method. Results: Treatment by the concentration of 80 mg/ml extract of this herb showed the greatest effect on the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera serotype Ogawa which had a significant difference with all other treatments and standard antibiotics (p> 0.05. The extract showed no effect on the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and just concentration of 80 mg/ml showed a little effect on E. coli and other antibiotics had no significant effect except tetracycline which has little effect on this strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.2 mg/ml for bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the maximum for E.coli by 8 mg/ml.Conclusion: This study showed that under study bacteria were more resistant to the antibiotics and the extract of Myrtus communis leaves showed greatest antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae cerotype Ogawa.

  16. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L. Pers. on ISchemia/Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmias

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    A Garjani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Probable antiarrhythmic effects of Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. (family Poaceae against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced arrhythmias were investigated in isolated rat heart. Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30min regional ischemia followed by 30min reperfusion and perfused with hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome of C. dactylon (25, 50, 100 and 200µg/ml. Results: During ischemia, the extract produced marked reduction in the number, duration and incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT at 25 and 50µg/ml (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively. Total number of ischemic ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs were lowered by 25-100µg/ml (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. At the reperfusion phase, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased incidence of VT from 100% (control to 13 and 33% (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively. Duration and number of VT and total VF incidence were also reduced at the same concentration (p<0.05 for all. Perfusion of the extract (25-100µg/ml was markedly lowered reversible VF duration from 218±99sec to 0 sec, 0 sec and 10±5sec (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. Moreover, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased number of total VEBs from 349±73 to 35±17 (p<0.001 and 66±26 (p<0.01. In this study, it was also shown that perfusion of the extract produced a marked and concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that C. dactylon produce protective effects against I/R-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts probably by increase in the myocardial contractility and as a result by improvement of hemodynamic factors.

  17. Morphological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Zingiber Officinalis Extract in the Murine Hippocampus of Male Rat Offspring

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    Ghodrati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The hippocampus is responsible for memory. A diet full of antioxidants improves brain damage and cognitive function. Regard the antioxidant effects of zingiber officinalis (ginger and its flavonoids components. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extract of ginger on memory by using hippocampus tissue of the male offspring of rats. Materials and Methods In this study, 60 rats, 15 males and 45 females, were used. We separated pregnant female rats from males on the first day of pregnancy (determined by vaginal plug, and during days 16 - 18 of pregnancy, via intraperitoneal injection, three groups received hydroalcoholic extract of ginger, with low (200 mg/kg bw, medium (400 mg/kg bw, and high (800 mg/kg bw concentration doses. The control group did not receive anything, and the sham group received normal saline during these days. Then at day 50, the males offspring in each group were sacrificed, their brains were removed, and the hippocampus sections were prepared for microscopic studies. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20 and by using one-way ANOVA and then a Tukey post-test (P < 0.05 considered as the significance level. Results This research showed that the number and thickness of pyramidal and granular layers of the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas of the hippocampus had increased in male offspring according to the increase in the ginger extract dose. Conclusions It seems as though ginger extract, which contains compounds such as gingerols, shogaols, and zingerone, can affect memory ability in rats through these compounds’ antioxidant properties by affecting embryonic acetylcholine content and place cells.

  18. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil.

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    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum.

  19. Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme, Achillea millefolium (Yarrow and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice

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    M.A. Nilforoushzadeh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Many investigations are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for leishmaniasis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of herbal extracts of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme and Achillea millefolium (Yarrow, propolis hydroalcoholic extract and systemic glucantime against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice. Methods: A total of 45 mice were randomised into five groups each including nine mice. They were treated with pure ethanol 70°, systemic glucantime, Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract, Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract and propolis hydroalcoholic extract for six weeks. The statistical tests including student t-test were used for analysis. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, ver 13.00. Results: Mean of ulcer size reduction were –17.66, –22.57, 43.29, 36.09 and 43.77% for the alcohol, glucantime, yarrow, thyme and propolis groups, respectively. The results were suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts were significantly more effective in reduction of ulcer size as compared with glucantime (p = 0.006, 0.002 and 0.008, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: Our results are suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis extracts are effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Regarding these results, we suggest that efficacy of these extracts alone or in combination are evaluated against human cutaneous leishmaniasis as a randomized clinical trial.

  20. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

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    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  1. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

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    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  2. Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of Duguetia furfuracea Hydroalcoholic Extract in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duguetia furfuracea is frequently used as a medicinal plant in Brazil. However, studies have evidenced its cytotoxic, bactericide, and antitumor activities. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity of hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of D. furfuracea (HEDF in a Drosophila melanogaster model. Toxicity was assessed as changes in locomotor performance, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, MAPKs phosphorylation, and apoptosis induction after exposure to HEDF concentrations (1–50 mg/mL for 7 days. The phytoconstituents of the plant were screened for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, xanthones, chalcones, flavonoids, aurones, and phenolic acids. Exposure of adult flies to HEDF caused mitochondrial dysfunction, overproduction of ROS, and alterations in the activity of detoxifying enzymes GST, SOD and CAT. Induction of ERK phosphorylation and PARP cleavage was also observed, indicating occurrence of HEDF-induced cell stress and apoptotic cell death. In parallel, alterations in cholinesterase activity and impairments in negative geotaxis behavior were observed. Our study draws attention to the indiscriminate use of this plant by population and suggests oxidative stress as a major mechanism underlying its toxicity.

  3. CNS pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves.

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    Franco, C I F; Morais, L C S L; Quintans-Júnior, L J; Almeida, R N; Antoniolli, A R

    2005-04-26

    Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), known as "malva branca", is a plant used in the popular medicine for the treatment stomatits, of asthma and nasal congestion. This work researched the acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia and its action on the central nervous system (CNS) because no data in the literature have been found about of pharmacological activity of this plant in the CNS. The hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia leaves (HESc) was used and the psychopharmacology approach began with the determination of LD(50), where a low toxicity was observed in mice. Depressive activity on CNS was demonstrated by several alterations in mice's behavior in the pharmacological screening. In the motility test, the HESc showed significant reduction of spontaneous activity at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (i.p.) at 30 and 60 min. The same form the HESc also decreased the ambulation and rearing in open-field test at 30, 60 and 120 min at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (i.p.).

  4. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

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    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  5. Anxiolytic-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ripe pistachio hulls in adult female Wistar rats and its possible mechanisms

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    Rostampour, Mohammad; Hadipour, Elham; Oryan, Shahrbano; Soltani, Bahram; Saadat, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the preventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ripe pistachio hulls (RPH) in the elevated plus maze model of anxiety. One hundred twenty female wistar rats in their estrous cycle were divided into 15 groups of 8 each and received various concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of RPH except the control groups. Elevated plus maze was used to measure the level of anxiety. Percentage of time spent in the open arms (%OAT), percentage of the number of entries into the open arms (%OAE), locomotor activity, and time spent in the closed arms (CAT), and the number of entries in to the closed arms (CAE) were measured and compared. Dose-response experiments showed that only 10 mg/kg dose of RPH extract significantly increased %OAT (P < 0.001) and %OAE (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, indicating anti-anxiety effects of the extract. Also, pentylenetetrazol and an estrogen receptor antagonist (ERA) tamoxifen could block anti-anxiety effects of the extract (P < 0.001). It was also noticed that tamoxifen was able to significantly reduce locomotor activity. As the RPH extract showed a preventive effect in experimental model of anxiety, it might be concomitantly administered with other anxiolytic medications. PMID:28003838

  6. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

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    Mital Kaneria; Bhavana Kanani; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods: Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results: The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants.Conclusions:The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  7. The Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Zingiber Officinale on Prevention from Plumbism in Kidney Tissue of Neonatal Rats

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    Habiballah Johari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present research, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on treating lead-poisoned kidney of neonatal rats was studied.Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a laboratory work. The neonatal rats were divided into 7 groups of 10 samples. The first control group received no treatment. The second control group received 0.1 mg of distilled water. As an experimental group, the one received an amount of 0.6 g/l lead. The fourth group received only 2 g/kg body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. Groups 5 to 7 each initially received 0.6 g/l lead and then amounts of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. The injections were administered via oral gavage during 10 consecutive days.Results: According to the obtained results, the body and kidney weights showed a significant reduction in experimental groups that had received amounts of 1 and 2 g/kg in comparison with the group that had received lead. The kidney weight of the group that had received only extract showed no significant difference in comparison with the control group. As for the body weights, however, it showed a significant increase. Moreover, the body and kidney weights of the lead-injected group showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group.Conclusion: Lead can cause damage to kidney tissues. Due to its antioxidant and protective effect, ginger can be a medication to nephrotoxicity of lead and prevent kidney tissues from destruction.

  8. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract ofDesmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats

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    Upendarrao Golla; Praveen Kumar Gajam; Solomon Sunder Bhimathati

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:In continuation to the growing evidence for therapeutical potential ofDesmostachya bipinnata(Linn)Stapf, the current pharmacological study was carried out to evaluate the diuretic and laxative activity of its hydro-alcoholic extract in rats. METHODS:The hydro-alcoholic extract ofD. bipinnata whole plant was prepared by using Sox-hlet extractor and subjected to analysis by standard preliminary phytochemical tests. Evaluation of both diuretic and laxative activity was carried out using standard methods as reported earlier. Frusemide (20 mg/kg) was served as positive control for diuretic activity and sennosides (10 mg/kg) served as negative control for laxative activity. RESULTS: The hydro-alcoholic extract showed signiifcant diuretic activity and was found to be the most potent in increasing the urinary output at 500 mg/kg when the effect was compared with that of the standard frusemide (P<0.01). Moreover, this extract was found to be most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration (Na+, K+, and Cl-) at both doses tested. Whereas the results for laxative activity showed minimal increase of feces output at the dose of 500 mg/kg and the increase was negligible when compared with that of the standard drug sennosides. CONCLUSION:Altogether, the above signiifcant ifndings validate and support its folkloric diuretic use and lend pharmacological credence to the ethno-medical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, which demands further studies to investigate its active constituents, as well as its use and safety.

  9. In vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition by aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta L.

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    Manjur Ali Sheliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae, commonly known as Dudhani, is distributed in the warm region of India and China. Traditionally, it is used in respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, the antidiabetic property of the plant was also reported in the literature. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and methanolic extracts (MEHs of E. hirta on α-glucosidase and α-amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and MEHs of E. hirta were prepared as per application program interface. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.1 μ/mL and substrate, 2.5 mM p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside was used; absorbance was recorded at 405 nm. In α-amylase activity, α-amylase solution (1.0 μ/mL and substrate, 0.25% starch were used, and absorbance was measured at 540 nm. The IC50values were calculated by linear regression. Results: All the extracts showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to acarbose with MEH having highest inhibitory activity among tested extracts. The observed IC50values were 213.63, 146.9, 78.88, and 8.07 μg/mL for aqueous, hydroalcoholic, MEH, and acarbose, respectively. All the extracts have shown mild α-amylase inhibitory activity compared to acarbose. Lineweaver–Burk plot has shown that the MEH is a mixed noncompetitive inhibitor for α-glucosidase enzyme. Conclusion: The results from this in vitro study clearly indicated that MEH of E. hirta had strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and mild inhibitory activity against α-amylase. It can be used for management of postprandial hyperglycemia with lesser side effects, and provide a strong rationale for further animal and clinical studies.

  10. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Leaves of Vitex on the Gestation Indices of Male Rats

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    Fereshteh Ramezanloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are some plant compounds with estrogenic biological effects which are found in many nutritional sources as soybean, flaxseed, and sesame. Vitex agnus-castus, also called Vitex, owns phytoestrogen properties. Studies have shown that phytoestrogens have different impacts on the gestation process and reproduction indices. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vitex extract on the gestation indices in the male rat as well as studying its histological properties in the rat testicles. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg, vehicle (normal saline and the hydro-alcoholic powder of soybean (120 mg/kg were respectively given to understudy, vehicle and positive control groups for 49 days. After weighing the rats in the 1st and 49th days, the blood samples of all groups were taken and tested for estradiol levels, testosterones, FSH and LH.Moreover, such reproductive indices as sperm count, sperm motion, and prostate and testicle weight were studied and samples were collected for histological studies. Results: Prescription of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg did not change the rat’s weight, significantly (P-value= 0.06. Hormonal studies reduced the progesterone, LH, and FSH compared to the vehicle group, significantly (P-value<0.05. In addition, the amount of estradiol was significantly more than the vehicle group and the most effect was observed at a dose of 365 mg/kg (P-value=0.02. Histological studies showed a reduction in existing spermatozoa in the seminiferous ducts. Conclusions: This study had shown that the Vitex extract had inhibiting effects on the gestation indices in male rat and due to its destructive effects on the testicle tissues, more studies were required.

  11. Study of the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium .L against bromobenzene -induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    alihasan Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Liver is a major organ of the body, which can be exposed to various chemicals, drugs and many other xenobiotics such as bromobenzene. The aim of this study was to find out the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium against hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into eight groups, with ten animals in each group. Group 1-3 received respectively normal saline base of microemulsion and extract microemulsions in dose of 400 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Group 4 received bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip only on the 10th day groups 5-8 received extract microemulsions orally in doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, during 10 days and bromobenzene (0.36 ml/kg, ip on the 10th day 1 hour after last dose of extract. 24 hours later, the animals were bled and enzymes ALT, AST and ALP were measured. Animal liver was removed for histological studies. Results: The results showed a significant increase in liver enzyme activity by bromobenzene. The treated groups with Teucrium polium showed a significant decrease in liver enzyme activity in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05. Histological observations also confirmed the results. Conclusion: The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract microemulsion of Teucrium polium has protective effect on liver toxicity induced by bromobenzene

  12. Protective effects of Saffron hydroalcoholic extract against renal tissue damages induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

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    Houshang Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of saffron hydroalcoholic extract against tissue damages induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups; 1. sham group which underwent surgery with no vessel occlusion and passed equivalent reperfusion period, 2. Ischemia/reperfusion group which received solvent of extract and went through surgery, bilateral renal ischemia for 30 min and 24-h reperfusion period (I/R. The other three groups underwent ischemia/reperfusion receiving saffron extracts of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip, respectively. At the end of reperfusion period, the left kidney tissue was collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological studies. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Following ischemia/reperfusion, the size of Bowman's space increased significantly (P<0.001. In addition, cell necrosis in the tubules of the cortex and outer medulla, vascular congestion and tubular casts in the outer and inner medulla increased. However, the number of RBCs in glomerular capillaries decreased. Administration of saffron extract could significantly improve all the injuries by all three doses. Nevertheless, the effect of 20 mg dose was smaller. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of saffron hydroalcoholic extract has protective effects against tissue damages induced by 30 min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion in the rat’s kidney.

  13. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum against cariogenic bacteria

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    Kermanshah H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The microbial cause of dental caries has been proved among its multifactorial etiologies. The prevention and control of dental caries is very critical because of high prevalence and cost especially in high risk patient such as xerostomia. Based on the world attraction to traditional treatment and importance of drug extraction of natural materials and plants, in this in vitro study effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum which were very useful in traditional treatment of mouth and teeth disease has been determined against cariogenic bacteria. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, hydroalcoholic extracts have been prepared from Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum with maceration method. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Actinomyces viscosus have been evaluated with broth macrodilution method. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test. "nResults: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum for streptococcus mutans were respectively 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml, for Lactobacillus rhamnosus were 1.56 and 12.5 µg/ml and for Actinomyces viscosus were 12.5 and 50 µg/ml. "nConclusion:Both extracts had growth inhibitory effect on all three bacteria. Salvia officinalis had significantly greater effect on inhibition of growth of all three bacteria. Both extracts had bactericidal effect in the range of concentration.

  14. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

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    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  15. Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Heracleum persicum (Golpar on Folliculogenesis in Female Wistar Rats

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    Saeed Irian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Since these plants are known to have minimal side effects, many people embrace them. The golpar plant, scientifically known as Heracleum persicum (H. persicum, is a common Asian and Iranian medicinal plant. The use of golpar is recommended in traditional medicine as a contraceptivemedication for females; however, no scientifically documented evidence has been reported. This study investigates the effects of the golpar plant on ovarian tissue and folliculogenesis.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, H. persicum hydroalcoholic extract (HPHE was used at 400 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg doses. Adult female rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and experimental(I, II. The control group did not receive any injection, the sham group received saline solution, and the experimental group received IP injections of HPHE for 21 days, once every other day, during the sexual cycle. At the end of the injection period, ovarian samples were harvested for histological studies. The FSH assay was performed according to the chemiluminescence immunoassay(CLIA method. Data were statistically analyzed by the Instat3 program and one-way ANOVA. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant.Results: In the experimental group the numbers of primordial and primary follicles increased(p<0.001, while the number of preantral and antral follicles decreased (p<0.01. The atretic follicles decreased in the experimental group, but this decrease was not significant.There was no statistical difference in FSH concentration when compared with the control group.Conclusion: This report gives primary information on the in vivo effects of the HPHE on the ovarian follicles of the female Wistar rat. The results suggest that administrationof HPHE may have inhibitory effects on folliculogenesis and cause infertility in females.

  16. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various...

  17. Protective effect against oxygen reactive species and skin fibroblast stimulation of Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts.

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    Martínez, Ana; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Estévez, Ramón J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Couroupita guianensis were examined for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and total phenolic composition, stimulation of human skin fibroblast (HSF) proliferation and UV-absorption. The radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and protection against joint oxidation of linoleic acid and β-carotene bleaching oxidation in emulsion were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The results of this study strongly indicate in vitro antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of a high total phenolic content. In order to identify active principles, the extracts were submitted to fractionation and the compounds isolated were the flavonoids 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (1), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (2) and the phenolic acid 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3). In addition, a high level of stimulation of HSF proliferation and significant absorption of UV radiation were also observed. The results suggest that the hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of C. guianensis have promising skin care properties.

  18. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit in experimental rat models

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    Ankur Datta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit (WCDF alone and in combination with glipizide, in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and evaluation of possible antihyperlipidemic activity of the same extract in high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia, in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in 30 albino rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. The rats were divided into five groups receiving the following treatments orally for 4 weeks: Vehicle, glipizide (2.5 mg/kg, WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg, WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg plus glipizide (1 mg/kg and WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg plus0 glipizide (2.5 mg/kg. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured every week for 4 weeks. Endocrine pancreas histopathology was done at the end. In a separate set of experiment, five groups of six albino rats each, received orally for 4 weeks, vehicle, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day plus atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg/day, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day plus WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg/day and no treatment, respectively. Estimation of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology was done at the end of 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Between-group and within-group comparisons were respectively done by analysis of variance (ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The 4-week treatment with WCDF extract significantly reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes that was comparable to glipizide. When combined with glipizide (2.5 mg/kg, WCDF extract produced a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect as well as improvement in pancreatic histopathology. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of WCDF was effective and comparable to atorvastatin in controlling the high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  19. Central activities of hydroalcoholic extract from Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. stem bark

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    Pablinny Moreira Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. can be found from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul states, and also in Paraguay and Bolivia. It is popularly known as pacari or mangava-brava and is used to promote weight loss, as an anti-thermal or tonic, to treat gastritis, ulcers, scarring, itching, discouragement, and cancer. In the open field tests, the hydroalcoholic extract from L. pacari stem bark (HEP decreased the number of rearings, number of invaded squares, and increased immobility time compared to control animals. In the pentobarbital-induced sleep time test, HEP decreased latency time to sleep and increased sleeping time. In the rota-rod test, no changes in the studied parameters were observed. In the elevated plus maze, HEP increased the percentage time and percentage entries in the open arms, indicating that this extract exerts an anxiolytic-like activity.Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., uma espécie vegetal presente no Brasil, do Amapá ao Rio Grande do Sul, no Paraguai e na Bolívia, é popularmente conhecida como pacari ou mangava-brava e é utilizada como emagrecedor, cicatrizante, antitérmico, tônico e para tratar gastrite, úlcera, coceira, desânimo e câncer. No teste do campo aberto, o tratamento com o extrato hidro-alcoólico de pacari (HEP reduziu o número de rearings e o número de quadrados invadidos além de aumentar o tempo de imobilidade dos animais em relação ao controle. No sono induzido por pentobarbital sódico o tratamento com HEP causou redução na latência e aumento na duração do sono. No rota-rod, o tratamento com HEP não alterou os parâmetros observados. No teste de labirinto em cruz elevado, com o tratamento com HEP foi observado aumento do percentual do tempo de permanência e de entradas nos braços abertos, caracterizando uma atividade tipo ansiolítica.

  20. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

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    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  1. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

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    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  2. The Petroselinum crispum L. hydroalcoholic extract effects on pituitary- gonad axis in adult Rats

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    F Bastampoor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility is one of the major issues in medical science which various chemical and herbal medicines have been used for its treatment from ancient times. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and with regard to the cause of infertility in men is a hormonal disorder, thus, the study aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts of parsley leaves performed on serum levels of pituitary - gonadal hormones. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on fifty adult male rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 10 specimens, including controls, and three sets of empirical receiving doses 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg ethanol extract of parsley leaves respectively. Prescriptions were done as gavage for 28 days. At the end of the test, the hearts of the animal and the serum hormones levels of testosterone, FSH and LH were measured. The Data were analyzed with t-test and Duncan and significant differences of data was considered at p = 0.05. Results: The findings revealed that the leaf extract of parsley caused a significant increase in FSH and LH and testosterone significantly increased at minimum and medium doses and decreased significantly in maximum dose. Conclusion: Parsley leaf , having antioxidant compounds, led to the increasing of FSH and LH hormones at three doses and increasing testosterone at minimum and medium doses and decreasing at maximum dose.

  3. Toxicity of a subchronic treatment with hydroalcoholic crude extract from Solanum grandiflorum (Ruiz et Pav) in rats.

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    de Angelis Pereira, Michel C; Carvalho, José C T; Lima, Leonardo M; Caputo, Lucélia R G; Ferreira, Luciano R; Fiorini, João E; Bastos, Jairo K

    2003-11-01

    The toxic effect of the hydroalcoholic crude extract (HACE) from the fruits of the Solanum grandiflorum was evaluated following subchronic treatment (p.o.) in Wistar rats for 65 days using the dose of 2 mg/kg. The LD(50) in mice was 50 mg/kg (p.o.). At the end of treatment, the consumption of water remained within the normal patterns. On the other hand, the consumption of food had 40% reduction in the period between the 18th and the 40th day after the beginning of the study. The diuresis showed a wide variation in volume which started at the 8th day of treatment until the end of the study. This finding was correlated with macroscopic observations of the kidneys which presented nephromegaly (70%) when compared to the control group. Moreover, for the histopathological study, it was observed degeneration and glomerular necrosis (100%), tubular lesions (80%), and hypercellular lesions (100%) in the treated group. The ponderal development of the treated group was increased compared to the control group. The weight of some of the organs, including kidneys, lungs, and pancreas, was also increased in the treated group (P<0.05, Student "t" test). These data suggest a nephrotoxicity following a subchronic treatment of the hydroalcoholic crude extract from Solanum grandiflorum.

  4. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  5. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

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    Fatemeh Forouzanfar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and n-butanol fraction (NBF were injected (intraperitoneally to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p

  6. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

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    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  7. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

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    Reza Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ was investigated in rats.The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1 Control (saline, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p., (3-5 three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements.The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001. Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010-P < 0.001. Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050. Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010.The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities.

  8. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  9. Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Crataegus Azarolus Subspecies Aronia Fruit in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension: An Experimental Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Mohammad Reza; Panjeshahin, Mohammad Reza; Mashghoolozekr, Elaheh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar

    2017-05-01

    Hawthorn species decreases blood pressure and relaxes precontracted vessels. This study aimed at examining the antihypertensive effect and related mechanisms of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, each containing 6 to 8 rats, were studied. The groups comprised of one sham group and 5 renal artery-clipped groups. The sham group received vehicle (distilled water 0.5 ml/day) and the renal artery-clipped groups received vehicle or the extract at 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/day. Oral vehicle or extract was administered daily for 4 weeks following sham-operation or induction of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly. Isolated aorta study was performed by last week and serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were measured. The findings were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range tests at P≤0.05 using SigmaStat software. The data obtained after 4 weeks of treatment showed that the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and lower acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.006) and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.006) than those of the sham group. The renal artery-clipped group receiving extract had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and significantly higher acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.015), and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.015) than those of the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle. Our findings show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit has antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant and nitric oxide releasing effects.

  10. Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Crataegus Azarolus Subspecies Aronia Fruit in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension: An Experimental Mechanistic Study

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    Mohammad Reza Haydari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hawthorn species decreases blood pressure and relaxes precontracted vessels. This study aimed at examining the antihypertensive effect and related mechanisms of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. Methods: Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, each containing 6 to 8 rats, were studied. The groups comprised of one sham group and 5 renal artery-clipped groups. The sham group received vehicle (distilled water 0.5 ml/day and the renal artery-clipped groups received vehicle or the extract at 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/day. Oral vehicle or extract was administered daily for 4 weeks following sham-operation or induction of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly. Isolated aorta study was performed by last week and serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were measured. The findings were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests at P≤0.05 using SigmaStat software. Results: The data obtained after 4 weeks of treatment showed that the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.002 and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01; and lower acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01, serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.006 and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.006 than those of the sham group. The renal artery-clipped group receiving extract had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.03 and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01; and significantly higher acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01, serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.015, and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.015 than those of the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle. Conclusion: Our findings show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit has antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant and nitric oxide releasing effects.

  11. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina(Forssk. Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

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    Leila Safaeian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated the antioxidant and partially antihypertensive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in Dex-induced hypertension. Further experiments on other fractions of the leaves and also other parts of this plant are suggested for better evaluation of its antihypertensive effect and finding its mechanisms of action.

  12. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Prangos ferulacea (L. Lindle on histopathology of pancreas and diabetes treatment in STZ- induced diabetic rats

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    Khosro Soltani band

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The roots´ hydro-alcoholic extract of P.f seems to be capable to regenerate the islets of Langerhans in the treated rats in comparison with the untreated diabetic rats. This property can be due to some components of the plant that can increase insulin secretion.

  13. Phytochemical investigation of Crataegi folium cum flos (hawthorn leaves and flowers and Hyperici herba (st johns wort aerial parts hydroalcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried leaves and flowers with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. St Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. Both extracts were qualitative and quantitative analyzed. The qualitative analysis consisted in phytochemical screening and spectroanalytical profile by HPTLC and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. Quantitative analyses consisted in determination of total flavonoid content (as rutin by following colorimetric aluminum chloride method, and total polyphenol content (as gallic acid by Folin- Ciocalteu method. Results were evaluated statistically and presented as mean of three determinations ± SD (standard deviation. These analyses revealed their complex composition and either some similarities and differences between these two extracts.

  14. Evaluation of DNA damage of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of Echium amoenum and Nardostachys jatamansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Etebari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today most of herbal medicines are marketing without any standard safety profiles. Although common assumption is that these products are nontoxic but this assumption may be incorrect and dangerous, so toxicological studies should be done for herbal drugs. According to the frequent use of Echium amoenum as immunostimulant and useful in conditions including pain, cough, sore throat and arthritis, and Nardostachys jatamansi as tranquilizer and sleep inducer and evidences of some toxicities, we assessed the probable effect of their extracts on DNA of hepG 2 cells using the comet assay. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of above extracts of the plants are incubated with hepG 2 cells for 24 h. A mixture of cell suspension and agarose gel were put on slides, then slides were embedded in a lysing solution and were put in electrophoresis buffer (pH = 13. Then the electrophoresis procedure took place in an alkaline solution and after neutralization stage, colorization was done by ethidium bromide and comets were observed using a fluorescence microscope. At least 100 cells of each sample were evaluated and three parameters including comet length, percent of DNA in tail, and tail moment were assessed. Results: Both Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of E. amoenum were genotoxic in the concentrations of 25 mg/ml and aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of N. jatamansi were genotoxic in the concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: Although E. amoenum and N. jatamansi are highly used in medicine, these herbs have genotoxic effects in determined concentrations and they should be used cautiously.

  15. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2008-04-10

    Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark. The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations.

  16. Ameliorative Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

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    Mojtaba Kalantar, Saeed Shirali, Amin Hasanvand , Masoud Valizadeh , Ramin Tavakoli , Marzieh Asadi , Mehdi Goudarzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methotrexate as a chemotherapy drug can causes chronic liver damage and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on methotrexate-induced oxidative stress in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty five Wistar male rats weighting 200-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 7 in each group. Negative control group (normal saline 5ml/kg; positive control group received normal salin orally for 10 days, and a single dose of methotrexate (MTX, 20mg/kg, i.p. was administrated on the 9th day. Groups 3-5 received respectively 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of Lavandula officinalis extract (LOE orally for 10 days, and a single dose of MTX was injected on the 9th day. 24 h after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected to determine serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH levels and catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were assayed in liver tissue. A portion of liver was maintained in 10% formalin for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining and histological examination. Results: The result obtained from current study was showed a significant increase in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, MDA and decrease of GSH, CAT and SOD by MTX administration. Pre-treatment with LOE showed reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, MDA and increase of GSH, CAT and SOD in all doses but the most significant alteration was observed in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05. Histological results showed that methotrexate could lead to liver damage. Also the hepatoprotective effect of the LOE was confirmed by the histological examination of the liver. Conclusion: Our results indicate that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis have produced amelioration in biochemical and oxidative stress parameters against MTX -induced oxidative stress.

  17. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

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    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  18. Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L. hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

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    Charlene Silvestin Celi Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (L., or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia officinalis (L. was not effective against Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but best results were observed for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L. could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin microbiota.

  19. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis by heat and low pH stable hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds via inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of VEGF secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Niloofar; Emamian, Farnoosh; Yarani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    extract of P. harmala seeds on endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation and VEGF secretion. Materials and methods: Dried Peganum seeds were purchased from Kermanshah Traditional Bazar in 2011. Hydroalcoholic extract of dried seeds (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 150 μg/ml) was used for in vitro...... that hydroalcoholic extract of P. harmala seeds contains a potent anti-angiogenic component, which exerts its inhibitory effect mainly through down-regulation of essential mediators such as VEGF....

  20. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi against scopolamine-induced anxiety in rats

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    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of Ziziphus spina-christi extract against anxiety related behavior induced by scopolamine. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, each group consists of eight rats. Vehicle group received distilled water, negative control received scopolamine (1 mg/kg and positive control received diazepam (1 mg/mL. Experimental groups received Z. spina-christi extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg IP 30 min after scopolamine injection. Anxiety related behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus maze. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Administration of Z. spina-christi extract (200 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent in the open arm of elevated plus maze. The extract also reduced the percentage of closed arms entries and time spent in the closed arms. Different concentration of Z. spina-christi extract didn’t affect motor coordination and balance. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. spina-christi significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced anxiety.

  1. Hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis exerts protective effects on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Bezerra, Gislaine; de Menezes de Souza, Luana; Dos Santos, Adailma Santana; de Almeida, Grace Kelly Melo; Souza, Marília Trindade Santana; Santos, Sandra Lauton; Aparecido Camargo, Enilton; Dos Santos Lima, Bruno; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Gomes, Silvana Vieira Floresta; Gomes, Margarete Zanardo; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease with an etiology that is not well understood. Although the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) have been reported in various experimental models, its protective effect in models of UC have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) in acetic acid-induced colitis (AAIC) using a rodent model. The HERP was chemically characterised by HPLC/DAD analyses. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, vehicle (with AAIC, treated with vehicle), P10 (with AAIC, treated with 10mg/kg HERP), and P100 (with AAIC, treated with 100mg/kg HERP). Treatments were performed for 7days, and colitis was induced on day seven. Animals were euthanized 24h after colitis induction and body weight, colon length, gross and histological scores, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in colon tissue, and the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were assessed. The major compounds found in HERP were liquiritigenin (68.8mg/g), formononetin (54.29mg/g), biochanin A (30.97mg/g), and daidzein (19.90mg/g). Rats treated with 10mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO concentrations, gross and histological scores of tissue damage, and iNOS expression (p<0.05). Similarly, rats treated with 100mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO levels (p<0.05) and histological scores of tissue damage (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that oral administration of HERP attenuates AAIC in rats, which may be due to anti-inflammatory effects related to iNOS inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Vasodilatador effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (Andean purple corn) hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Loaiza, Oscar; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Agustinos, Arequipa, Perú. Estudiante de medicina.; Paz-Aliaga, Azael; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Universidad Nacional San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Biólogo, PhD en Fisiología y Biofísica.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH), and vasomotor activity was recorded with ...

  3. Methanol Leaf Extracts in Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used antitliarrhoeal drugs, which are not completely free from .... TABLE I: Effect of the extract of Anacardium rlccidentrlle on Castor .... and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum.

  4. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

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    Ali Neamati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50, (Sent - Ext 100 and (Sent - Ext 200 were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01. The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01 while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001. In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V

  5. A proposal for the quality control of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) and its hydroalcoholic extract Uma proposta para o controle de qualidade de Tanacetum parthenium (tanaceto) e seu extrato hidroalcoólico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliana Siqueira Chaves; Fernando Batista Da Costa

    2008-01-01

    ...) and its hydroalcoholic extract obtained by percolation. The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide, the main active compound of this plant, was quantified by HPLC and its content was found to be 0.49...

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protection Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata L. Stapf

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    Upendarrao Golla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae/Gramineae is an official drug of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Various parts of this plant were used extensively in traditional and folklore medicine to cure various human ailments. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and DNA damage protection activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata both in vitro and in vivo, to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 264.18±3.47 μg/mL in H2O2 scavenging assay and prevented the oxidative damage to DNA in presence of DNA damaging agent (Fenton’s reagent at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Also, the presence of extract protected yeast cells in a dose-dependent manner against DNA damaging agent (Hydroxyurea in spot assay. Moreover, the presence of extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in vivo by protecting yeast cells against oxidative stressing agent (H2O2. Altogether, the results of current study revealed that Desmostachya bipinnata is a potential source of antioxidants and lends pharmacological credence to the ethnomedical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, justifying its therapeutic application for free-radical-induced diseases.

  7. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora incarnata in animal models of depression in male mice

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    Jafarpoor Nima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Passiflora incarnata (PI is one of the commonest herbal anti-anxiety and sedative agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of PI in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8: Negative and positive control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (30 mg/kg, respectively and treatment groups received extracts of PI (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors were recorded during 6-min. Results: All doses of PI extract compared to control group significantly reduced the duration of immobility time in both of two tests (p<0.001. Also, these extracts increased swimming time (p<0.001 without significant change of climbing time. Conclusion: PI has considerable antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression. However, further studies are needed to determine its exact mechanism of action.

  8. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  9. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

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    Mahmoud Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200 and 4 (LPS + NS 400 were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip, respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days, and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001. The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01. In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01 while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001. Furthermore, in the LPS group

  10. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Carum copticum on withdrawal syndrome in adult rats addicted to morphine

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    A honarvar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Long-term useofopioidcreates toleranceandphysical and psychologicaldependence. Discontinuation of the drug, creating ashortageofendogenousopioidsandwithdrawal syndromeemerges.Addictiontreatmentin traditional medicine isusing ofherbssuch asCarumcopticumthathas manytherapeutic effects. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluatethe effects of hydro-alcoholic extractof Carumcopticum onwithdrawalsyndromein adult ratsaddictedto morphine. Material & Method: In this study70male Wistarratsdividedinto seven groups of 10, six groups were addicted by morphinesulfateinjection (the first 5days10 mg/kg, the second 5days15 mg/kg andon the dayfrom11 to21, 20mg/kg subcutaneouslyfor 21 days.Groups three, four and five were fed respectively 10%, 20% Carumcopticum extract and methadone (mg/kg 5 after addiction of animals until the end of period. Groups sixandseven were given respectively10%and 20% of Carumcopticumextractfrom the beginning to the end of treatment period orally.Group one(control andGrouptwo (morphine were fed daily 0.5 mL of saline orally to the end of the treatment period (day 21to 35.Datacollected from body weight, jumping, itchingand diarrhea ofanimals wereanalyzedby SPSS software, using Unpaired T test, ANOVA and LSD as post-hoc statistical tests. Finding: Comparing the mean of weight loose ofthe animals in different treatmentgroupson day21with 35showed statistical significant reduction in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%. On the day 21,itchingand jumping, in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%,and the diarrhea, in the group that receivedthe extract ofCarumcopticum20%compared withthe control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05.On day35,Jumping and diarrheain thegroupsreceived theextract ofCarumcopticum10 and 20percent comparedwith the control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, hydro-alcoholic extract of carumcopticum inconcentration of 10and 20

  11. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santiago Dimech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE, hydroalcoholic (HE, and aqueous fraction (AF showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  12. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B.; Voytena, Ana Paula L.; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C. D.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M.; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract. PMID:27630758

  14. Hypericum Perforatum Hydroalcoholic Extract Mitigates Motor Dysfunction and is Neuroprotective in Intrastriatal 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with selective and progressive decline of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Hypericum perforatum L. (H. perforatum, St. John's wort) has been traditionally used for management of different disorders, especially mild-to-moderate depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of H. perforatum extract against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity and to unmask some involved mechanisms. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were treated with H. perforatum hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day started 1 week pre-surgery for 1 week post-surgery. The extract attenuated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, decreased the latency to initiate and the total time on the narrow beam task, lowered striatal level of malondialdehyde and enhanced striatal catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, normalized striatal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, tumor necrosis factor α with no significant effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase, lowered nigral DNA fragmentation, and prevented damage of nigral dopaminergic neurons with a higher striatal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. These findings reveal the beneficial effect of H. perforatum via attenuation of DNA fragmentation, astrogliosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

  15. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and Prediction of Biological Activity of its Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively. Materials and Methods: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg was studied against streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg; i.p. + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p. induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects

  16. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  17. Preliminary in vitro pro-apoptotic effects of Cratoxylum formosum crude leaf extracts

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    Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack Dyer is an indigenous vegetable used in North Eastern Thai cuisine. It has also been used as folk medicine for treatment of diarrhea and food poisoning. Our previous study has indicated that hot water and hydroalcoholic extracts from C. formosum (leaf demonstrated anti-liver cancer activity. However, their effects on molecular targets and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This study therefore aimed to investigate effects of C. formosum extracts on apoptosis pathway and protein expression of p53, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and cyclin D1 proteins. By performing Annexin V assay, crude extracts of C. formosum could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that crude extracts of C. formosum activated protein expression of p53 and down-regulated NF-κB and cyclin D1 proteins. Therefore, hot water extract and hydroalcoholic of C. formosum contain active compounds that demonstrate anti-liver cancer activity by affecting cellular signalling pathways.Industrial Relevance. Our study indicates selective biology activities of C. formosum crude extracts in liver cancer cells, thereby identifying their medicinal potentials. These results are promising to be followed with further isolated compounds that may be formulated as dietary supplementary for curing liver cancer or development of anti-liver cancer drugs. Moreover, the medicinal property identified here may increase in the value added of this plant and stimulate its cultivation as valuable resource for alternative drugs.Keywords. C. formosum; liver cancer; hepatitis B virus; apoptosis; molecular targets

  18. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Potentilla Reptans L. in the Adult Male Rat

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    M Mahmoodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants have been a focus of attention to researchers due to their fewer side effects in treating diseases comared to chemical drugs. Some health properties of medicinal plants such as anti-hypercholesterolemia and antioxidant effects of Potentilla reptans have been proven. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and analgesic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Potentilla reptans L. (HEP in the male rat. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male rats were divided into 6 groups, including: control group (normal saline, morphine group (1mg/kg, HEP groups (treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, and naloxone group (200 mg/kg. Writhing, formalin and tail-flick tests were used to evaluate the analgesic effects of the extract. In order to analyze the study data, variance and Tukey test were applied. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that in writhing test (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively, formalin test (P<0.05, P<0.001 and tail-flick test (P<0.05, P<0.01; the injection of 50, and 100mg/kg dose of the extract produced significant analgesic effects compared with the control group.  50mg/kg dose of Naloxone injection extract has shown a significant analgesic effect in the formalin test (P<0.05. In addition, the effect of the analgesic dose of 100mg/kg of the extract in formalin test was similar to that of morphine. Conclusions: The findings of the current study revealed that Potentilla reptans L. (HEP has a significant analgesic effect. Opioid pathway seems to be one of the possible mechanisms of extract effects, which further clinical trials are recommended  in this case.

  19. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) over dendritic cell subsets and HLA-DR/CD86 molecules by lipopolysacarides stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Núñez, César; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Álvarez, Yubell; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Biología.; Aguilar, José Luis; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Inmuno-reumatólogo.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of cat´s claw Uncaria tomentosa (uG) over lipopolysaccharides – treated dendritic cells (DC) and HLA-DR and CD86 molecules expression of peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy individuals. Materials and methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy individuals. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by centrifugation over density gradient, pre-treated with and without the addition of ...

  1. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhikai Zhuang; Jin Zhang; Mingfu Li; Ganran Deng; Zhongqing Ou; Wenwei Lian; Junyan He; Tao Huang

    2016-01-01

    ...) were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against , measured by inhibition zone diameter...

  2. Neutralization of the neuromuscular activity of bothropstoxin-i, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, by a hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (guaçatonga

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    Y. Oshima-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are used as snakebite antidotes in Brazilian folk medicine, including Casearia sylvestris Swartz, popularly known as guaçatonga. In this study, we examined the action of a hydroalcoholic extract from C. sylvestris on the neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu venom, in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations. Aqueous (8 and 12 mg/ml, n=4 and 5, respectively and hydroalcoholic (12 mg/ml, n=12 extracts of the leaves of C. sylvestris caused facilitation in PND preparations followed by partial neuromuscular blockade. BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 caused 50% paralysis after 65±15 min (mean ± S.E.M. Preincubation (30 min at 37° C of BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 with a concentration of the hydroalcoholic extract (4 mg/ml that had no neuromuscular activity, such as the control (n=5, prevented the neuromuscular blockade caused by the toxin. This protection may be mediated by compounds such as flavonoids and phenols identified by thin-layer chromatography and colorimetric assays.

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

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    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  4. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity

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    Andréia G. Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD, plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Pseudobombax marginatum inner bark from caatinga potiguar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Dayane Carla Costa; dos Santos, Cliomar Alves; Diniz, Jaécio Carlos; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Falcão, Dayseanne Araujo

    2013-09-16

    The Pseudobombax marginatum (St Hil) Rob., Malvaceae, is mentioned in ethnobotanical studies. It is used as anti-inflammatory, for ulcers and gastritis, and back pain. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities a hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from inner bark was prepared. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models, and also myeloperoxidase assay were used. For the antinociceptiva activity acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate and formalin tests were employed. The HE extract exhibited an intense inhibition in carrageenan-induced edema model and also in myeloperoxidase activity at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity was also inhibited at the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. A similar profile was observed against acid-induced abdominal contortions and in formalin second phase test at the doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, but this treatment did not affect the behavior of animals in the hot plate test. The experimental data of the HE from Pseudobombax marginatum show anti-inflammatory and antinociceptiva activities, confirming the indication from traditional medicine; however further studies are required to define and isolate the active anti-inflammatory and antinociceptiva components from this active specie. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Rheum Ribes Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Memory Impairments in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Maryam; Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Fathpour, Hossein; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra; Basim, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Some animal models have been used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Animal studies have shown that there is a relation between decrease in cholinergic functions in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and loss of learning capability and memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rheum ribes extract (RR) on memory deficit in one of the rat models of AD. Plant (1500gr) was collected from Saman (kahkesh) region of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province in Iran. RR hydro-alcoholic extracts were prepared using maceration method. Rat model of Alzheimer was induced by Nucleus Basalis of Meynert lesions (NBML). Animals (n = 32) received extracts for 20 days and then passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks were performed for memory evaluation. FRAP and HPLC methods were used for measurement of the antioxidant and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in blood. In water maze experiment, probe trial results showed that NBML group spent significantly less time in target quadrant, in which the platform was located on the preceding day. In addition, the time spent in target quadrant was significantly increased in NBML + RR groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) compared to the NBML group. In passive avoidance task, mean initial latency time and step-though latency were significantly decreased in NBML group. RR extracts significantly prolonged step-through latency in NBML + RR groups. Results of this study suggest that Rheum ribes extracts can improve memory deficits induced by bilateral NBM lesions in rats. PMID:26664387

  7. Evaluation of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Peganum harmala on Pituitary-thyroid Hormones in Adult Male Rats

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    E HOssini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Peganum harmala from the Jigo Phalluses family has compounds such as: alkaloid,saponine steroid and lignin which is used as a traditional medicine witht antibacterial, anti tumor, inhibition of MAO enzyme, and stimulation of the nerve system. It also serves as a modulator to endocrine activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala on plasma levels of pituitary-thyroid’s hormones of adult rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical sciences in 2009, 50 adult Mala rats with the approximate weight of 260+30 grams were divided into 5 groups: the control group, the sham group, and 3 experimental groups. The control group did not take any medicine. The sham group received 1 mL of distilled water daily for 17 consecutive days. The experimental groups took 90 mg/kg, 180mg/kg, or 270 mg/kg of Peganum harmala extract daily respectively for 17 consecutive days. In the 18th day, by collecting the blood samples of the animals, plasma level of TSH, T4, and T3 was measured using radioimmunoassay method. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: This study revealed that the minimum and maximum dose of the Peganum harmala extract reduces the TSH level and average and maximum dose of the extract significantly reduces the level of T4 and T3 in rats. Conclusion: results of this study indicate that by further study the Peganum harmala extract might be used for treatment hyperthyroidism. However further study is needed to explore this concept.

  8. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum on selected traditional and novel biochemical factors of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: A comparison between the extract and lovastatin

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Evidence suggests that diets with high contents of cholesterol will increase serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, thereby increase risk of atherosclerosis. According to literature, some plants show hypolipidemic, hypocholestrolemic, and antiatherosclerotic activities. Aims: In this study, antiatherosclerotic effect of Hypericum perforatum hydroalcoholic extract on hypercholesterolemic rabbits was compared with that of lovastatin. Materials and Methods: Twenty five mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five and were fed for 60 days as follows: Standard diet (GroupI, standard diet and hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/kg daily(GroupII, standard diet, hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/ kg daily and cholesterol (1% of food content (Group III, standard diet and cholesterol (1% of food content(GroupIV, and finally standard diet, lovastatin (10 mg/kg, and cholesterol (1% of foodcontent (GroupV. Results: Hypericum perforatum extract significantly decreased the levels of apolipoprotein B(apoB, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A (apoB/apoA, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, and C-reactive protein (CRP as well as atherosclerosis index, and increased high density lipoprotein and apoA in rabbits of Group III compared to the rabbits of Group IV. The effect of Hypericum perforatum extract in decreasing the level of some biochemical factors like apoB, apoB/apoA, and CRP was meaningfully more than that of lovastatin. Histopathological findings confirmed that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum restricted the atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions: This study indicates that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum possesses hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects and could be beneficial in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  9. Comparative protective effect of hawthorn berry hydroalcoholic extract, atorvastatin, and mesalamine on experimentally induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Shafie-Irannejad, Vahid; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tabatabaie, Seyed Hamed; Moshtaghion, Seyed-Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of hawthorn berries (HBE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats was investigated. Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, including control and test groups (n=6). The control animals received saline, and the test animals were treated with saline (sham group), mesalamine (50 mg/kg; M group), atorvastatin (20 mg/kg; A group), HBE (100 mg/kg; H group), mesalamine and HBE (HM group), or atorvastatin plus HBE (HA group), 3 days before and a week after colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1 mL AA (4%) via a polyethylene catheter intrarectally. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that HBE contained 0.13% and 0.5% oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, respectively. Elevated myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were attenuated in the HA group. The H and HM groups showed marked reductions in colitis-induced decreases in total thiol molecules and body weight. The histopathological studies revealed that HBE decreased colitis-induced edema and infiltration of neutrophils. Our data suggest the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of HBE and atorvastatin protect against AA-induced colitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of HBE may be attributable to its ability to decrease myeloperoxidase activity as a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration.

  10. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Ravindra D; Jalalpure, Sunil S

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate antiurolithiatic potential of whole plant hydro-alcoholic (30:70) extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. in accordance to its claims made in ancient literature and also being one of the ingredients of cystone, a marketed formulation widely used in the management of urolithiasis. To induce urolithiasis, 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol was administered orally for 14 days. The curative dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. and preventive doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. were administered from 15(th) to 28(th) and 1(st) to 28 days, respectively. Cystone 750 mg/kg b.w. was selected as the reference standard for both curative and preventive doses. On 28(th) day, urinate of 24 h was collected and subjected for estimation of calcium, oxalate, and phosphates. Serum biochemical and kidney homogenate analysis was done for determination of renal oxalate contents. The diseased Group II showed marked increase (P ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis and may have a potential in preventing and curing urolithiasis.

  11. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

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    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  12. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  13. Pharmacological activity of the hydroalcoholic extract from Hovenia dulcis thunberg fruit and the flavonoid dihydromyricetin during hypercholesterolemia induced in rats

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    Juliana Tensol Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accidents and coronary artery disease are the leading causes of cardiovascular mortalities in Brazil and high levels of LDL cholesterol are one of the main risk factors. In this context, several plant extracts and natural substances have shown promise as cholesterol-lowering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruit of H. dulcisand of dihydromyricetin in cholesterol reduction in hypercholesterolemic rats. Forty-two Wistar male rats were distributed into seven groups of six animals that received diets supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 0.3% cholic acid, with the exception of the control group, which received conventional diets. Animals were treated with oral suspensions containing: atorvastatin 1.0 mg/kg; H. dulcisextract at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/kg and dihydromyricetin at 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg vehicle (control group. The following biochemical markers were evaluated; total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase. The hypercholesterolemic diet was effective in inducing hypercholesterolemia, increasing total cholesterol by 112.7% relative to the control group. The treatments with two doses of the extract proved to be promising hypocholesterolemic agents, as they were able to substantially reduce total cholesterol and LDL-C, without significantly altering triglycerides, hepatic transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase, thereby encouraging the studies with the plant H. dulcis. The groups treated with the flavonoid dihydromyricetin, although they showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C, and found increases in triglycerides and hepatic transaminases, which is unwanted in the context of hypercholesterolaemia.

  14. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  15. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  16. Antibacterial activity of various leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EK Elumalai; M Ramachandran; T Thirumalai; P Vinothkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata). Methods:The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of M. emarginata were evaluated by agar well diffusion method against four selected bacterial species. Results: The presence of tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in the different leaf extracts was established. The methanol extract was more effective against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, whereas aqueous extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Conclusions: The results in the present study suggest that M. emarginata leaf can be used in treating diseases caused by the tested organisms.

  17. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  18. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto,M.R.; Zampini,I.C.; Isla, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts sh...

  19. The Effect of Pre-Nutrition of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Origanum vulgare on Infarct Volume and Neurologic Deficits in a Rat Stroke Model

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    meysam Foroozandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Basic and clinical studies have shown that the production of free radicals was one of the main factors leading to the injury after stroke. In this study we investigated the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Origanum vulgare on infarct volume and neurological deficits in a rat stroke model. Methods: In this experimental study 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each containing 7 animals. First group (control received distilled water, while other three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract by gavage for 30 days (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. These groups were subjected to 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion 2 hours after the last dose of Origanum extracts and followed by 24 hrs reperfusion. After 24 hrs, the infarct volume and neurologic deficits were evaluated in the groups. Sham operated groups (n=7 did not receive Marjoram and brain ischemia. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum reduced the infarct volume and neurologic deficits in all treatment groups compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that Origanum vulgare extract can exert the neuroprotective effect against stroke damage by reducing infarct volume and neurological disorders.

  20. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

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    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P˂0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  1. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

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    M.R. Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL, mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL. The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  2. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, M R; Zampini, I C; Isla, M I

    2009-09-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL), mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL). The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2-, OH-, H2O2). The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 microg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 microM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  3. The effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in animal models of memory

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    Camila Angela Zanella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary demonstrates antioxidant, antidepressant, diuretic, antinociceptive and antiulcerogenic activities. The present study was designed to examine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis on the memory of male mice. The behavioral tasks employed were social recognition (SR, the Morris water maze (MWM and an inhibitory avoidance task (IA. The treatment with 150 and 300 mg/kg of R. officinalis improved the acquisition phase of learning of a new social memory in the SR task because a decrease was observed in the duration of social investigation. In the Morris water maze, no significant effect was observed on spatial memory when the groups were compared for the time spent in the correct quadrant. In the inhibitory avoidance task, the decrease in the step-down latencies in the test session indicate that 150 mg/kg of R. officinalis improved long-term memory when administered in the consolidation phase of learning. In conclusion, the present study showed that, the hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis at 150 and 300 mg/kg modulated the short- and long-term memories of mice, in a social recognition and inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. This modulator effect was shown to improve learning and memory processes.Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Alecrim possui atividade antioxidante, antidepressiva, diurética, antinociceptiva e antiulcerogênica. O presente estudo foi delineado para investigar o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de R. officinallis na memória de camundongos machos. Os modelos comportamentais utilizados foram a tarefa de reconhecimento social (RS, labirinto aquático de Morris (MWM e esquiva inibitória (EI. O tratamento com 150 e 300mg/kg de R. officinallis, mostrou ter efeito positivo na aquisição de uma nova memória social, na tarefa de reconhecimento social, mostrando redução significativa do tempo de investigação social. No labirinto aquático de Morris, não foi visto efeito

  4. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (psativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead.

  5. Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2007-04-20

    The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.

  6. Hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis promotes functional recovery and axon repair after sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Roberta Almeida; Nunes, Tássia Luiza Gonçalves Magalhães; Nunes, Tâmara Luiza Gonçalves Magalhães; da Paixão, Ailma Oliveira; Belo Neto, Reinaldo; Moura, Sidnei; Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Cândido, Edna Aragão Farias; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Gomes, Margarete Zanardo; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral axon injury and degeneration are often mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. The hydroalcoholic extract of the red propolis (HERP) has attracted great attention because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The objective of this work is to study the effect of HERP on nerve repair and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The chemical markers in HERP were identified using high-resolution mass spectroscopy. After axonotmesis of sciatic nerve, ibuprofen (IBP) and HERP treatments were orally administered for 28 d. Behavioural tests were performed weekly after SNI. The myelinated axon number was counted using morphometric analysis. The compounds found in HERP were pinocembrin, formononetin, vestitol, and biochanin A. The animals that underwent SNI showed a significant decrease in motor function based on the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale and sciatic functional index compared with sham animals until 7 d after the surgery (p < 0.05). After 14 and 21 d, the SNI groups treated with either HERP or IBP showed significant improvement (p < 0.01), and the SNI group treated with HERP 10 mg/kg showed accelerated motor recovery compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). SNI caused also a reduction in the myelinated axon counts, and treatment with HERP 10 mg/kg induced a significant increase in the number of myelinated fibres compared with all other groups. HERP promoted regenerative responses and accelerated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush. Thus, it can be considered to be a new strategy or complementary therapy for treating nerve injuries.

  7. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts from plants on Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. Note II

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    MORAR G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight products, obtained from plant extracts, were used to fight against Colorado bug, on theterms of ecological agriculture. It was noticed that: 1. Vegetal extract may serve as an alternative to fightingagainst Colorado bug in potato cultivars, especially at those which are designated to obtain an ecological crop;2. The best result in fighting against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. were obtained with extract fromChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev., Chrysanthemum balsamita var canfora and Ruta corsica, all in usedconcentration of 20%.The treatment efficiency against larvae of 99,01 %, 93,06 % and 96,83 %, efficiencywhich are comparable with those obtained with the help of synthesis insecticide; 3. The lowest result wereobtained with extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tagetes erecta L., efficiencyof 7,14 % and 72,22 %; 4. The extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tageteserecta have repulsive effect for adults, these avoiding for punting on plants treated with these extracts.

  8. Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Commiphora mukul Gum Resin May Improve Cognitive Impairments in Diabetic Rats

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    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes causes cognitive impairment. Medicinal plants due to different mechanisms, such as antioxidant activities may improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae has a significant antioxidant activity. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of C. mukul on passive-avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: normal, diabetic, normal + extract of C. mukul and diabetic + extract of C. mukul groups with free access to regular rat diet. Diabetes was induced in male rats by single interaperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After the confirmation of diabetes, 300 mg/kg C. mukul extract was orally administered to the extract-treated groups. Control groups received normal saline at the same time. Passive-avoidance memory was tested eight weeks after the STZ treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results In the present study, diabetes decreased learning and memory. Although the administration of C. mukul extract did not affect the step-through latency (STLa and the number of trials of the diabetic groups during the first acquisition trial, a significant decrease was observed in STLr and also a significant increase in time spent in the dark compartment (TDC and number of crossing (NOC in the retention test (after 24 and 48 hours. Although no significant difference was observed in body weight of diabetic + extract of C. mukul (DE and diabetic control (DC groups, the plasma glucose of DE group was significantly lower in comparison to DC group. Conclusions Commiphora mukul extract can improve passive-avoidance learning and memory impairments in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to the antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, anti

  9. Flavonoid characterization and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Achillea ligustica All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Corona, Giulia; Deiana, Monica; Dessì, Maria Assunta; Pizza, Cosimo; Cabras, Paolo

    2009-10-15

    Ethanolic extracts of Achillea ligustica All. (Asteraceae) flowering tops were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry was used for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds. 6-Hydroxykaempferol-3,6,4'-trimethyl ether, apigenin-6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinoside, luteolin, and apigenin were the most abundant flavonoids. For the first time C-glycosylflavones were detected in A. ligustica with apigenin-6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinoside being the most representative. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts was determined by DPPH test and ranged between 4.18 and 12.3 mM. The ability of these extracts to inhibit non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation was studied using the simple in vitro system of linoleic acid oxidation: five of the nine extracts exerted a protective effect at the lower amount tested (5 microg). Protection on CaCo-2 intestinal cells against TBH-induced toxicity was also investigated: the results showed that two of the extracts tested in this cell system had the ability to protect against oxidative stress induced by TBH starting from concentrations as low as 10 microg/ml.

  10. The effect of Echinacea Purpura hydroalcoholic extract on the blood parameters in mice

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    mehrdad Modaresi

    2012-07-01

    Results: The study of blood parameters showed that the extract increased markedly in the total number of white blood cells in each of 4 treatment groups in comparison with control group. The number of neutrophiles decreased significantly in each of 4 treatment groups in comparison with control group, but the significant difference wasn’t noticed in monocytes. The number of red blood cells increased significantly in groups 1 , 2 in comparison with the control group, but in groups 3 and 4 there was no significant difference. In this study, the extract had no statistical significant effect on the mean of hematocrit, hemoglobin and the index of red blood cells (MCV,MCH,MCHC. Conclusion: The extract of Echinaceae purpurea can support the system of immunity by increasing the number of white blood cells and can be effective in hematopoiesis by increasing the number of red blood cells.

  11. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  12. Cardioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tecoma stans flowers against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Shanmukha Ittagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of 70% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans (T. stans flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Methods: Wister rats were pretreated with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers (250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 14 d and then intoxicated with isoproterenol [200 mg/(kg · day, s.c.] for 2 consecutive d. The biochemical markers for myocardial infarction such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins were determined. In addition the antioxidant status on heart tissue is also evaluated by testing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. Results: The results indicated that pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers prevented fall in antioxidants and retarded elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats, significantly. In addition, these findings were evidently supported by the remarkable protection revealed in the histopathological studies, even GC-MS analysis data also substantiated out investigation. Conclusions: It was concluded that, in addition to poly phenolics, some of the phyto fragments found during GC-MS analysis might also contributed to the cardiac protection offered by the extract.

  13. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

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    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  14. Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron on hematological parameters of experimental asthmatic rats

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    Somayyeh Vosooghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory airways distinguished by edema and infiltration of inflammatory immune cells. To test our hypothesis about the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron, we examined effects of Crocus sativus (C. sativus extract as a prophylactic anti-inflammatory agent in sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: To induce experimental asthma, rats were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8 for each: control, sensitized (asthma, and sensitized and pretreated with three different concentrations of extract, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 2 times a week (group asthma+50EX, group asthma+100EX, and group asthma+200EX. After 32 days, total white blood cells (WBC counts, red blood cells (RBC, and platelet counts in blood were examined. Results: Total WBC number and eosinophil and neutrophil percentage in blood were increased, but lymphocyte decreased in sensitized animals compared with those of control group (pConclusion: Our findings indicated that the extract of C. sativus could be useful to prevent asthma as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  15. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

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    Swati Ramesh Karkare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1 hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Results: Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  17. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Bader, Ammar; Shahzad, Naiyer; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; Gushash, Ahmad S; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh

    2016-01-01

    Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE) was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid-Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the experimental rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed an upregulation of the Hsp70 protein and a downregulation of the Bax protein in rats pretreated with MHAE compared with the control rats. Gastric homogenate showed significantly increased catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in the rats pretreated with MHAE compared to the control group. In conclusion, MHAE exhibited a gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The mechanism of this gastroprotection included an increase in pH and gastric wall mucus, an increase in endogenous enzymes, and a decrease in the level of MDA

  18. The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice

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    Mehrdad Modaresi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C mice weighing 30 ± 5 g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased (<0.05. As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(<0.05. The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (<0.01. 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and in 200 mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance.

  19. The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, Mehrdad; Resalatpour, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C) mice weighing 30 ± 5 g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05). As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(P < 0.05). The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (P < 0.01). 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and in 200 mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance.

  20. Study on Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effect of Pomegranate Peel on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

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    R. Habibipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Microorganisms form biomass as biofilm in response to many factors, in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments and biocides. Using different herbal compounds are of those strategies to deal with biofilm. It has been proved that plants extracts such as pomegranate, raspberry and chamomile essential oils have anti-biofilm effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of black peel pomegranate ex-tract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research the anti-biofilm effect, reducing the amount of biofilm formation and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different treatments was measured by microtiter and plate colorimetric crystal violet method. Biofilm formation was also examined using a microscope. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the reading of the ELISA was performed using SPSS software, P value 0.05. Results: Findings of this study showed that bacteria cannot form any biofilm in first 6 hours of incubation, in all treatments. The amount of biofilm formation after 12 hours in 0.01 and 0.05 g/ mL treatments were medium. Among treatments, after 18 and 24 hours of incubation 0.001 g/ mL concentration of pomegranate peel extract had medium and strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that biofilm formation and biofilm reduction percent-age is directly related to the duration of exposure of bacteria that could be due to the different phases of growth. Growth kinetics study also revealed that in the majority of treatments the growth was incremental up to about 15 hours and decrement afterwards due to the effective-ness of different treatments. After 18 hours, treatments have greatest influence on biofilm formation. The foregoing has been fully confirmed by the results of microscopic slides. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 195-202

  1. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  2. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

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    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  3. The effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Rhizome on the Mechanical Activity of the Colon of Male Rats and its Interaction with Adrenergic System

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    N Ghayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Back ground & aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice is a native medicinal plant of Iran which its rhizome has been traditionally used for treatment of bowel spasm and diarrhea. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice rhizome on mechanical activity of isolated colon of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, the colon tissue of 10 adult male rats were dissected and divided into two groups: experimental and control. Each group consisted of 10 strips of tissue. Then, the mechanical activity of tissue strips were recorded by power lab A-D instrument in basal condition, and after administration of phenylephrine and epinephrine and propranolol in the presence and absence of licorice rhizome extract (with effective dose 0.036 mg/ml. Moreover, the mechanical activity of control group strips were recorded at the same condition with extract solvent (ethanol %70. Data were analyzed statistically with using the SPSS software version 19 using Independent-Samples t-test. Result: The mechanical activity of tissue in presence of extract and epinephrine significantly decreased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. While the mechanical activity in the presence of extract and propranolol significantly increased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. However, no significant modification was observed in the mechanical activity of the tissue  in the presence of phenylephrine and extract compared to the control group.  Conclusion: According to the present study, it could be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice maybe has modifying effect on colon motility via synergist effect with beta adrenergic receptors and independent of the alpha adrenergic receptors.

  4. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in combination with meglumine antimoniate on treatment of Leishmania major-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mohseni, Mobin; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Shahriarirad, Reza; Asgari, Qasem

    2017-01-01

    Progressive resistance of Leishmania parasite to available drugs including, meglumine antimoniate, has been reported from various regions of the world, especially Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Echinacea purpurea in a combination therapy with glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Hydroalcoholic extract of E. purpurea was prepared from the plant. Amastigote form of L. major was inoculated to the tail base of thirty mice. After their tails became wounded, mice were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control and the second group received 100 mg/kg of Echinacea extract (orally). The third group was treated by meglumine antimoniate with dose of 20 mg/kg. Combination therapy was used for group four, five, and six where the mice received a different concentration of extract (100-200 mg/kg) and glucantime (10-20 mg/kg). The size of the cutaneous lesion on tail base was measured regularly. Findings were analyzed by SPSS software and using Kruskal-Wallis test. The sizes of the lesion were increased in all mice of control group by the time. The mean size of lesions in mice receiving the extract and/or receiving the extract along with meglumine antimoniate was lower than those of control mice, but the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the differences between the group of mice which received meglumine antimoniate alone, and the rest of groups were statistically significant (P purpurea extract in doses which have been used in this study and combination with meglumine antimoniate was not much effective against L. major in BALB/C mice.

  5. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

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    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  6. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

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    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  7. The Protective Effect of Marigold Hydroalcoholic Extract in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats: Evaluation of Cardiac and Pancreatic Biomarkers in the Serum

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    Esmaeel Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder worldwide and it is usually along with complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing and its treatment has created concerns in society. The use of herbal medicine can be helpful in the management of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of marigold hydroalcoholic extract under diabetes condition. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and groups treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of marigold flower during four weeks. At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine, and sampling was performed through cardiac puncture. The results showed that treatment with marigold improved body weight. In addition, we determined that marigold normalized the level of CK-MB, total CK, amylase, and lipase in a dose-dependent manner. Probably these effects resulted from antioxidant property of marigold; thus we suggest that marigold flower can be useful for reduction of diabetes complication.

  8. USE OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi IN PRE- AND POST-MILKING ANTISEPSIS OF THE TEAT IN DAIRY COWS

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    Ângela Faccin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as an alternative treatment for health problems. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a median tree that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The antibacterial effect of leaves extract of this plant has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test a substance derived from this plant to be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis. The hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian pepper tree was used in opposite quarters for twelve consecutive weeks, and commercial iodine was used as control. None of the indices analyzed – black background mug, CMT, intramammary infections, skin health, and teat health – showed a statistical difference between the treatments, suggesting that the plant extract can be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis, as a substitute for conventional products for herds in an agroecological production system.

  9. Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Avila, Thiago Vinicius; Soley, Bruna da Silva; Rivero, Armando J; Aguilar, José Luis; Acco, Alexandra

    2010-07-06

    The present work intended to study the antitumoral and antioxidant effects of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) hydroalcoholic extract in the Walker-256 cancer model. Walker-256 cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rats. Daily gavage with UT extract (10, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1), Groups UT) or saline solution (Control, Group C) was subsequently initiated, until 14 days afterwards. For some parameters, a group of healthy rats (Baseline, Group B) was added. At the end of treatment the following parameters were evaluated: (a) tumor volume and mass; (b) plasmatic concentration of urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); (c) hepatic and tumoral activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and gluthatione (GSH); and (d) hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. The reactivity of UT extract with the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was assessed in parallel. UT hydroalcoholic extract successfully reduced the tumor growth. In addition, treatment with UT reduced the activity of AST, which had been increased as a result of tumor inoculation, thus attempting to return it to normal levels. UT did not reverse the increase of LDH and GGT plasma levels, although all doses were remarkably effective in reducing urea plasma levels. An important in vitro free radical-scavenging activity was detected at various concentrations of UT extract (1-300 microg mL(-1)). Treatment also resulted in increased CAT activity in liver, while decreasing it in tumor tissue. SOD activity was reduced in liver as well as in tumor, compared to Group C. No statistical significance concerning ALT, GST, LPO or GSH were observed. This data represent an in vivo demonstration of both antitumoral and antioxidant effects of UT hydroalcoholic extract. The antineoplastic activity may result, partially at least

  10. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

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    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS, KCl (80 mM and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37 °C and continuously gassed with O 2 . The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%, β-eudesmol (6.4 %, ρ-cymene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.6%, α-pinine (1.4% and α-phelandrene (1.1%. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC 50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml, ACh (IC 50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml and EFS (IC 50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC 50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  11. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  13. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  14. Different effects of feeding pregnant and lactating mice Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts on their serum angiogenic activity and content of selected polyphenols

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    Robert Zdanowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological processes, among them the formation of tissues and organs during embryogenesis. A lot of medicinal plants exhibit angiomodulatory properties. This creates the need for a thorough check of whether the plant extracts that we would like to give to pregnant women in order to increase their resistance to bacterial or viral infection will have negative effects on angiogenesis, and consequently on fetal development. This paper seeks to investigate the effect of serum of pregnant and nursing Balb/c mice that received aqueous (RKW or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A R. kirilowii extracts (20 mg/kg, or epigallocatechin (0.2 mg/kg, on the in vitro proliferation and migration of mouse endothelial cell line HECa10. Of the 15 identified polyphenols in the extracts by HPLC, 8 were present in the sera. Chemical analysis revealed higher salidroside, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, bFGF and VEGF concentration in RKW-A sera than in the sera of RKW group of mice. RKW-A and EGC sera did not affect migration of endothelial cells, however we noted some increase of migrating cells after RKW-sera treatment. RKW and EGC sera did not affect proliferation of endothelial cells. Sera of mothers from RKW-A group impaired the proliferation of endothelial cells in comparison to other groups. These data allow us to assume that Rhodiola kirilowii hydro-alcoholic extract (RKW-A is potentially able to modulate pre- and post- natal angiogenesis what might influence the development of organs in progeny. Sera of RKW mothers have not harm the proliferation of endothelial cells, despite they also contain antiangiogenic catechins and salidroside. This suggests the existence in RKW-A extract and in RKW-A sera of some other, as yet unidentified substances influencing endothelial cells proliferation.

  15. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on Blood Factors of Kidney and Liver Functions in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Tahereh zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease recognized by a reduction in insulin secretion due to the malfunction of β cells in the pancreas or an increase in the cell's resistance to insulin. Prangos Ferulacea has been known as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory herb in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on the blood factors of kidney and liver functions in diabetes induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, six groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of six were administered with intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Group I was fed a normal diet. Group II and III of the animals received 300 and 500 mg/kg/day Prangos Ferulacea extract. Group IV received distilled water (diabetic control, and the animals of groups V and VI were treated with Prangos Ferulacea extract 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for three weeks. Blood glucose, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, albumin, urea and BUN were measured in all the animals. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via the one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the Prangos Ferulacea extract resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, ALT, AST and creatinine but no significant decrease in ALP, albumin, urea, and BUN levels. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea had antidiabetic effects and consequently might alleviate the liver and kidney damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

  16. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

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    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  17. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  18. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

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    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 mg mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy.  However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans.  

  19. The gastroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Monolluma quadrangula against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague Dawley rats

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    Ibrahim IAA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim,1 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla,2 Maryam Hajrezaie,2 Ammar Bader,3 Naiyer Shahzad,1 Saeed S Al-Ghamdi,1 Ahmad S Gushash,4 Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi5 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 4College of Arts and Science in Baljurashi, Albaha University, Baljurashi, Saudi Arabia; 5Cell Biology and Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk. Plowes is used in Saudi traditional medicines to treat gastric ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of M. quadrangula (MHAE was used in an in vivo model to investigate its gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. Five groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used. The first group was treated with 10% Tween 20 as a control. The other four groups included rats treated with absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg to induce an ulcer, rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole as a reference drug, and rats treated with 150 or 300 mg/kg MHAE. One hour later, the rats were administered absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg orally. Animals fed with MHAE exhibited a significantly increased pH, gastric wall mucus, and flattening of the gastric mucosa, as well as a decreased area of gastric mucosal damage. Histology confirmed the results; extensive destruction of the gastric mucosa was observed in the ulcer control group, and the lesions penetrated deep into the gastric mucosa with leukocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer and edema. However, gastric protection was observed in the rats pre-fed with plant extracts. Periodic acid–Schiff staining of the gastric wall revealed a remarkably intensive uptake of magenta color in the

  20. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

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    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  1. The Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Kamali, Ali Mohammad; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Matricaria chamomilla is an aromatic plant with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the inhibitory role of M. chamomilla on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells remains unclear. This study investigated the methods to evaluate these anticancer mechanisms of M. chamomilla on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. The cells were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at different concentrations (50-1300 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h in a culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. This study quantified the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; apoptosis and necrosis through Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining; cell proliferation and clone formation by clonogenic assay as well as cellular migration, invasion, and attachment. After 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, the IC50levels were 992 ± 2.3 μg/mL, 893 ± 5.4 μg/mL, and 785 ± 4.8 μg/mL against MDA-MB-468, respectively, and 1288 ± 5.6 μg/mL, 926 ± 2.5 μg/mL, and 921 ± 3.5 μg/mL, against MCF-7, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the extract concentrations induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis and decreased cellular invasion or migration through 8 μm pores, colonization and attachment in a dose-dependent manner. It indicated time- and dose-dependent anti-invasive and antimigrative or proliferative and antitoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of chamomile on breast cancer cells. This study demonstrated an effective plant in preventing or treating breast cancer. Antioxidant compounds in Matricaria chamomilla have anticancer effects.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis induction.Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining suggested that the extract induces apoptosis more than necrosis.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla prevents colonization and cellular migration of human breast

  2. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

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    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  3. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp...

  4. Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna Fistula on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Haematological Parameters, Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress ... and decreases the production of free radicals associated with diabetes. Keywords: .... of repeated oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Senna .... Statistical Analysis.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE LEAF EXTRACT

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    Dr Pratima Khandelwal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available All-spice (pimenta is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to access the antimicrobial and anti-oxidation potentials of leaf extracts using three solvent systems, (Aqueous, acetone and methanol. All solvent systems at different concentrations were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and reducing capacity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens; zone of inhibition was exhibited by methanol leaf extracts in decreasing order for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lesser inhibitory zones were obtained by acetone leaf extracts, whereas, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not inhibited by any extracts. Aqueous extract demonstrated no inhibitory activity against tested bacterial pathogens. All the three leaf extracts were found to be ineffective against fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans tested. Protein content in each extract was determined and reducing capability was estimated which was found to be high in methanol and acetone extract whereas aqueous extract showed low reducing ability.

  6. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wider, Barbara; Pittler, Max H; Thompson-Coon, Joanna; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-03-28

    Hypercholesterolaemia is directly associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease and other sequelae of atherosclerosis. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has been implicated in lowering cholesterol levels. Whether ALE is truly effective for this indication is still a matter of debate. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2009. To assess the efficacy and safety of ALE in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia., We updated searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) (2012, Issue 5); MEDLINE Ovid (1966 to May Week 2, 2012); EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2012 Week 19); and CINAHL Ebsco (1982 to May 2012) on 17 May 2012. CISCOM was last searched until June 2001, and AMED until June 2008. We checked reference lists of articles, and contacted manufacturers of preparations containing artichoke extract, and experts on the subject. No language restrictions were applied. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ALE mono-preparations compared with placebo or reference medication for patients with hypercholesterolaemia. We excluded trials assessing ALE as one of several active components in a combination preparation or as a part of a combination treatment. Data were extracted systematically and risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. Two authors independently performed the screening of studies, selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias. Disagreements in the evaluation of individual trials were resolved through discussion. We included three RCTs involving 262 participants. The trials were of adequate methodological quality but had some shortcomings. One trial was at low quality of risk, one at medium and one of unclear risk of bias. One trial is available as abstract only and includes a small sample. In the first trial the total cholesterol level in participants receiving ALE decreased by 4.2% from 7.16 (0.62) mmol/L to 6.86 (0.68) mmol

  7. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, leaf extracts for analgesic activity, because the plant was screened only for immunosuppressive, antipyretic activities only, now in the present study the analgesic activity of leaf extracts were performed. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and are used for analgesic activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per oral in two screening methods, one is Hot Plate (n=5, another is Tail Immersion method (n=5, and the leaf extracts are showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000 mg/kg. The methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of leaf was evaluated for analgesic activity. . The 400mg/kg dose of leaf chloroform extract has highest activity in both the experimental models with 62.5% protection after 30min and 47.3% after 60 min with the significance of p< 0.001 when compared with 0 time interval and after 90 min it was shown 50% of protection and all the extracts has graded dose response.

  8. Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Rakhshan, Elnaz; Mirabbasi, Abbas; Changizi, Shima; Mazandarani, Masumeh; Nayebpour, Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    The study assessed the hydroalcohol extract effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on (i) the basic and rate-dependent electrophysiological properties of the AV node, (ii) remodeling of the AV node during experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of saffron on the AV node. Stimulation protocols in isolated AV node were used to quantify AV nodal recovery, facilitation and fatigue in four groups of rabbits (n = 8-16 per group). In addition, the nodal response to AF was evaluated at multiple cycle lengths and during AF. Saffron had a depressant effect on AV nodal rate-dependent properties; further, it increased Wenckebach block cycle length, functional refractory period, facilitation and fatigue (p AV node (p AV node during AF by saffron. Saffron increased the AV nodal refractoriness and zone of concealment. These depressant effects of saffron were mediated by endogenous NO. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antifertility potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. leaves:A folklore medicine used by Meena community in Rajasthan state in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pallavi Sharma; Manjusha; Sudesh Rani; Hitesh Malhotra; Nitesh; Sandeep Deswal; Surender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. (C. dichotoma) leaves, which are traditionally used to produce sterility among the tribal women through its abortificient activity. Methods: Acute toxicity study was carried out in adult albino rats. The antifertility activity of extract at two dose level (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. anti-implantation and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female rats by observing number of implants, vaginal cornification, body weight, uterus weight and biochemical investigation. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good anti-implantation (81.22%) activity in female rats was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.01) increase in uterine weight and significant change in biochemical parameters in immature rats. Simultaneous administration of extract along with ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that hydro alcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leaves possess significant antifertility activity, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine of this plant in fertility regulation.

  10. Identification, determination, and study of antioxidative activities of hesperetin and gallic acid in hydro-alcoholic extract from flowers of Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.

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    Amir Hossein Esmaeili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Eriobotrya japonica belongs to the Rosaceae. Studies have shown that the flowers of this plant are rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Accorrdingly, the evaluation of antioxidative effects of Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE have been performed in vitro. Material and Methods: In this study, to investigate the influences of components of EJFE on its antioxidative activity, extract was prepared using hydro-alcoholic (25:75 V/V solvent and the antioxidative activity of the extract was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and H2O2 by spectrophotometric method and chelating of ferrous ions by ferrozine reagent. Results: HPLC analysis of the Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE revealed hesperetin and gallic acid as the major antioxidants. When the content of total flavonoid and polyphenolic compounds in the flower extract of this plant was examined, a significantly higher level of total polyphenols was found in Eriobotrya japonica flower extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the high ability to scavenge free radicals, reducing power, and Fe+2chelating activity exerted by the EJFE were due to the high content of hesperetin and gallic acid in the flowers.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

  12. Safety and efficacy of Bixa orellana (achiote, annatto) leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2014-07-01

    Bixa orellana leaf preparations have been used for many years by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal applications. Published research studies in animals indicate that various extracts of Bixa leaves exhibit antioxidant, broad antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activities. No studies have specifically assessed the ability of leaf extracts to inhibit urogenital infections although Bixa products have been used in folkloric medicine to treat gonorrhea and other infections. Few human studies have been conducted and published using Bixa leaf preparations. Many more studies have been conducted and published involving Bixa seed (annatto) extracts than with leaf extracts. No subchronic safety (toxicity) studies have been conducted in animals. A 6 month study in humans given 750 mg of leaf powder per day demonstrated no significant or serious adverse effects. Bixa leaf extracts appear to be safe when given under current conditions of use. However, additional human and animal controlled safety and efficacy studies are needed. In addition, detailed chemical analyses are required to establish structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  14. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  15. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the bioco

  16. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  17. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

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    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  18. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  19. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  20. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae and Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Francisco José Mininel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.

  1. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators

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    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Farias, Jaime Antonio Machado; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Beber, Ana Paula; Cury, Benhur Judah

    2016-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1–100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27847525

  2. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators

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    Luisa Mota da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, or HEAS (1–100 mg/kg. Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH, the superoxide dismutase (SOD, and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders.

  3. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.

  4. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

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    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  5. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

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    Zhuang Zhikai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and distilled water were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, measured by inhibition zone diameter. Three extraction parameters including temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were optimized through orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum active substance extraction rate and bacteriostatic effect. Results showed that using acetone, the optimum extraction conditions for temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were 45°C, 8 h, and 1:40 (g/ml, respectively.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  7. Antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-12-28

    The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  8. Negative Chronotropic and Antidysrhythmic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Dianat, Mahin; Radan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, myocardial infarction leads to arrhythmia. Since antioxidant agents have an important protective role in heart disease, these compounds in medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine. Lemon balm extract, compared to other plants of the lamiaceae family, has been proven to have significant amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rats. This research is an experimental study; male adult Sprague Dawley rats that weighed 200-250 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., 1) control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg/day), 2) extract (100 mg/kg), and 3) extract (200 mg/kg). The normal saline and the extracts were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. After anesthesia, lead II electrocardiograms were recorded for calculating the rats' heart rates (HRs). Arrhythmia was induced by intravenous injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg), and the percentages of incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and ventricular premature beats (VPB) were recorded. The results were analyzed by using Fisher's exact test and one-way ANOVA. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant level. Heart rates and percentages of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF were reduced significantly in extract groups (with the highest activity at 200 mg/kg) in comparison with the control group. Melissa officinalis was considered to be an antiarrhythmic agent because it reduced the percentage of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF in the groups that received it. The results indicated that Melissa officinalis had a protective effect on the heart.

  9. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

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    Adel A. Amran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50–400 mg/kg was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. The safety of the extract was also investigated in ICR mice of both sexes by the acute oral toxicity limit test. The leaf extract demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains some vital antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract also exhibited a potent ability to scavenge the free radicals. The results of acute toxicity showed that the methanol extract of Piper betle leaves is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The results suggest that the Malaysian folklorical medicinal application of the extract of Piper betle leaf has a pharmacological basis.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

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    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol of Syzygium cumini S. cumini, which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

  11. Effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana Mill. on high fat diet induced obesity: A dose response study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver.

  12. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  13. HPLC-PDA-MS and NMR characterization of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara peel with antiedematogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencherini, Teresa; Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Mesa, Milagros García; Sánchez, Dulce María; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2013-02-27

    The phytochemical profile of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium var. amara L. peel, used as herbal medicine, was characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS. Two di-C-glycosyl flavones (vincenin II and diosmetin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), a series of flavones (luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, rhoifolin, and neodiosmin), and flavanone (neoeriocitrin, naringin, and neohesperidin) 7-O-neohesperidosides and two methoxyflavones (nobiletin and tangeretin), commonly present in Citrus, were identified. Furthermore, brutieridin and melitidin, two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone glycosides, were also characterized along with rhoifolin 4'-glucoside and three coumarins (8,3'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2'-hydroxy-3'-methylbutyl-7-methoxycoumarin, merazin hydrate, and isomerazin). A preparative isolation procedure followed by NMR spectroscopy confirmed the proposed structures of the major flavonoids and identified the coumarins. The phenolic content was found to be 14.8 mg mL(-1), and naringin and neohesperidin were the compounds present in the highest concentration (3.6 and 2.6 mg mL(-1)). The extract of C. aurantium peel inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) both histamine- and dextran-induced edema in rats in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 119.6 and 118.3 mg kg(-1), respectively), providing evidence for the therapeutic use of C. aurantium var. amara peel.

  14. Effects of 1.25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol and Hydroalcoholic Extract of Withania Coagulans Fruit on Bone Mineralization and Mechanical and Histological Properties of Male Broiler Chickens

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    SJ Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans (WC fruit and 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1.25-(OH2 D3 on bone mineralization, mechanical and histological properties of male broiler chickens at 21 and 42 d of age. A total of six hundred male day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement with 12 treatments of five replicates of 10 birds each. Treatments consisted of two basal diets (positive control with adequate Ca level and negative control with 30% less Ca, three levels of WC (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg diet, and two levels of 1.25-(OH2 D3 (0 or 0.5 µg/kg diet. Birds were housed in floor pens. The diets were fed ad libitum from one to 42 days of age. On day 21 and 42, one bird per replicate was sacrificed and its tibiae were removed. Both Ca and P retention increased when dietary Ca level was reduced (p<0.001. The addition of 200 mg WC/kg to positive control diet increased Ca retention (p<0.01. Except for tibia diameter, no significant main effects of experimental treatments were observed on tibia physical characteristics or on bone mineralization. The diet with 30% Ca reduction decreased tibia diameter at 42 days of age (p<0.05. The dietary addition of 1.25-(OH2 D3 increased tibia fracture energy, width of tibia mineralized zone, and serum Ca at 42 days of age (p<0.05. At 21 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased cortical thickness (p<0.05. At 42 days of age, supplementation of 100 mg WC/kg increased tibia shear force (p<0.05 and fracture energy (p<0.01. The results of this experiment showed that supplementation of 100 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of WC fruit increased tibia cortical thickness, shear force, and fracture energy.

  15. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

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    Rahim Golmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  16. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus petals on preventing of gentamicin induced peliosis hepatis and hepatic telangiectasis in rats: short communication

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    Arash Omidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis is a rare liver disease characterized by blood-filled cavities scattered irregularly throughout the liver. Risk factors for peliosis include chronic illness such as AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer also use of some drugs such as anabolic steroids and azathioprine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the curative properties of crocus sativus petals on induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats (weight: 180-220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: group 1 (healthy group received only IP normal saline, group2 received IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin, group3 IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract, and group 4 was given IP 80mg/kg.bw gentamicin+ 40mg/kg crocus sativus petal extract. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized and their blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for AST and ALT measurement.Then, the livers of the subjects were excised and fixed in formalin. It was found that AST significantly increased in gentamicin group (P<0.05 compared to the healthy group and groups treated by means of crocus sativus petal extract .Moreover, there was no significant differences between the groups administered the extract and those given gentamicin. Histologically,heterogeneous multiple blood-filled cavities were observed in gentamicin group (2 and the treatment groups (3 and 4. The results of the present study show that doses of hydroalcoholic extract of crocus sativus do not effect on peliosis hepatic and telangiectasis due to gentamicin sulfate in rats

  17. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula foetida stems on blood pressure and oxidative stress in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Leila; Ghannadi, Alireza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Vahidian, Mohammad Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. is one of the most widespread and important Ferula species with nutritional and medicinal applications. Some phytochemicals with helpful cardiovascular effects have been isolated from Ferula species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the stems of F. foetida in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of Dex (30 µg/kg) for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral F. foetida extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) for 4 days prior to Dex administration and during the test period (Days 1-18). In a treatment study, F. foetida extract was administered from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail-cuff method. The thymus weight was measured as an indicator of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples. Dex-induced hypertensive rats showed significant increases in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and decreases in the body and thymus weights and in FRAP value (P<0.001). Administration of F. foetida extract significantly prevented and reversed hypertension at all doses. It also increased plasma FRAP value (P<0.001) but failed to decrease plasma H2O2 concentration. These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of F. foetida stem extract in Dex-induced hypertension. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of antihypertensive effect of this traditional phytomedicine.

  18. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  19. Moringa oleifera leaf extract potentiates anti-pseudomonal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial interaction between the ethanol leaf extract of ... growing public health concern and have become the third leading cause of ... microbial agents in addition to multidrug resistant bacteria .... To the best of our knowledge, there has not been any ...

  20. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... The effects of acetylcholine and the leaf base extract were tested on the strips of ..... (0.04 - 5.12 mg/ml) contracted the smooth muscles of rat stomach ... motility drugs such as loperamide block the actions of castor oil and are ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against foodborne and food spoilage pathogens. ... Bacterial enumeration was significantly reduced by 0.15 to 0.31, 0.26 to 1.72 and 0.59 to ...

  2. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    implicated in many pathological diseases (Lobo et al.,. 2010; Aprioku, 2013 ... then suggested that successful antioxidant treatment should be ... green vegetable or spice in the popular bitter-leaf soup. ..... to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as .... cellular anti-oxidant activities of an aqueous extract of ...

  3. Study on effect of Artemisia sieberi hydro-alcoholic extract on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akbari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study, the possibility of probiotic yoghurt production using Artemisia sieberi hydro- alcoholic extract and also the effects of different concentrations of this medicinal herb on the survival of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis, in probiotic yoghurt were investigated. Materials and Methods: In different treatments, the amounts of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 gr/lit of Artemisia sieberi extract together with conventional yoghurt starter, Bif. lactis and lact. acidophilus were added to 1 liter of boiled milk. The samples were incubated at 37˚centigrade, and then, the acidity and pH changes every two hours during the incubation period were examined up to approximately 80˚ of the survival of probiotic bacteria was tested during the storage of the samples in the refrigerator. On the tenth day, after yoghurt production, all the samples were examined for sensory evaluation using a panel test and the obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (V:19. Results: There was no significant difference in the acidity and pH changes during the production process of probiotic yoghurt in different treatments. The probiotic yoghurt containing 0.4 gr/lit  of Artemisia hydro-alcoholic extract had the best quality in terms of organoleptic properties and shelf life of the product. During 21 days storage in the refrigerator none of the treatments showed the number of probiotic bacteria less than 106 bacteria in gram. Conclusion: It was found that appropriate concentrations of Artemisia sieberi extract can be used for the production of probiotic yoghurt, as a new functional food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifodobacterium lactis.

  4. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  5. HPLC-PDA-MS and NMR characterization of C-glycosyl flavones in a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantifolia leaves with antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; García Mesa, Milagros; Armenteros, Dulce María; Alfonso, María Antonia; Arevalo, Ana Carolina; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca

    2008-03-12

    A hydroalcoholic extract of lime ( Citrus aurantifolia) leaves has been developed in Cuba to be used as a nutritional supplement and phytomedicine in the form of tincture (TLL). A HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS method has been used for the comprehensive analysis of C-glycosyl flavones in TLL. Six C-glycosyl flavones were characterized and, to confirm the proposed structures and to elucidate the nature of the sugar units, a preparative procedure was applied, and isolated compounds were characterized by NMR. Apigenin-6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (vicenin II) (1), diosmetin-6,8-di- C-beta- d-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin) (3), apigenin-8-C-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), apigenin-6-C-[alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). and apigenin-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isovitexin) (6) were identified in TLL and quantified by HPLC-PDA. Compounds 4 and 5 were two new arabinosyl derivatives of vitexin and isovitexin. Inhibitor effect of TLL on platelet aggregation induced by physiological agonists of platelets was evaluated in human plasma. TLL inhibited significantly ADP and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50=0.40 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively).

  6. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Sérgio Gushiken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n=8: Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sridevi Muruhan; Senthil Selvaraj; Pugalendi Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods: Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results: S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid andα-tocopherol. Conclusions: S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sridevi; Muruhan; Senthil; Selvaraj; Pugalendi; Kodukkur; Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense(Solanaceae)(S.surattense).Methods:Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays,such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide,inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hvdrazyl radical(DPPH),total antioxidant activity and reducing ability.Further,total phenolic content of S.surattense was analyzed.Results:S.surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity.Further,these effects were in a dose dependent manner.Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hvdroxytoluene,ascorbic acid andα-tocopherol.Conclusions:S.surattense have strong antioxidant potential.Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUTEA MONOSPERMA LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Darshan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are substances which help to defend the body against cell damage caused by various free radicals. Free radicals are unstable oxygen molecules containing unpaired electrons. Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide, have a causal relationship with oxidative stress.Role of free radicals has been implicated in several diseases such as liver cirrhosis, atherosclerosis, Cancer, aging, arthritis, diabetes etc. the aim of the study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Butea monosperma. The quantities of the Butea monosperma aqueous and benzene extracts needed for in vitro inhibition of hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxidation were relatively similar to the known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  10. Anticonvulsant effects of Searsia dentata (Anacardiaceae) leaf extract in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Baldwin, Roger A; Niquet, Jerome;

    2010-01-01

    Searsia species are used in South Africa to treat epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated an in vitro N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonistic effect of the ethanolic leaf extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant properties of the ethanolic...... extract of S. dentata in various animal models of epilepsy. The extract was submitted to a screening in anticonvulsant assays including NMDA-, kainic acid (KA)-, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)- and bicuculline (BIC)-induced seizures in rats. The extract protected 47% of the PN 18 Wistar pups (postnatal day 18......% protection, p 8) in young adult and PN 18 rats, respectively. The ethanolic extract of S. dentata showed anticonvulsive properties in several models of epilepsy. These results are compatible with previous findings of NMDA receptor antagonism. Due to the complex composition of the extract...

  11. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of Persea americana leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Odetola, A A; Agomo, P U

    2007-06-01

    The effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% groundnut oil, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hypercholesterolemia. They were then treated daily with aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 weeks. There were no significant (P > .05) differences in the overall body weight gain of the hypercholesterolemic rats compared to normal control. Liver to body weight ratio, plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-CHOL), and LDL-CHOL levels were significantly (P americana induced reductions in plasma glucose (16% and 11%,respectively), T-CHOL (8% and 5%, respectively), and LDL-CHOL (19% and 20%, respectively) in the treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. Also, plasma HDL-CHOL concentrations increased by 85% and 68%, respectively, in the aqueous and methanolic extract-treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. These results suggest that aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana lower plasma glucose and influence lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats with consequent lowering of T-CHOL and LDL-CHOL and a restoration of HDL-CHOL levels. This could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.

  12. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeigbo II; Ezeja MI; Madubuike KG; Ifenkwe DC; Ukweni IA; Udeh NE; Akomas SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods:Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  14. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  15. Wound healing activity of Elaeis guineensis leaf extract ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2012-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  16. Biological reduction of graphene oxide using plant leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geummi; Kim, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene has attracted significant attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. Most commonly employed methods to chemically reduce graphene oxide to graphene use hydrazine or its derivatives as the reducing agent. However, they are highly hazardous and explosive. Various phytochemicals obtained from different natural sources such as leaves and peels of a plant are used as reducing agents in the preparation of different gold, silver, copper, and platinum nanoparticles. In this study, seven plant leaf extracts (Cherry, Magnolia, Platanus, Persimmon, Pine, Maple, and Ginkgo) were compared for their abilities to reduce graphene oxide. The optimized reaction conditions for the reduction of graphene oxide were determined as follows. Type of plant: Cherry (Prunus serrulata), reaction time: 12 h, composition of the reaction mixture: 16.7% v/v of plant leaf extract in total suspension, and temperature: 95°C. The degree of reduction caused by Cherry leaf extract was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reduction of graphene oxide was also confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  18. Antibacterial Effects of (Mentha X Piperita L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on the Six Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zandi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Iran is the richest country in terms of distribution of medicinal plants. The antimicrobial effect of plant extracts and essential oils is well known and they are used as a good substitute in food industry to control food-borne pathogens. Due to the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their efficacy against microorganisms, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of peppermint extract in order to control pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Piperita L., which is one of the species of mint; was used in this invitro-experimental study. The extraction was performed by percolation method. Well - agar method was used for antibacterial effects of extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were done for six standard bacteria using microdilution method. The test was performed 3 times for each bacterium. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and t-test. Results: The lowest MIC of peppermint extract on examined microorganisms were observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (3.25 mg/ ml. Also the maximum diameter of inhibition zone, was related to Staphylococcus aureus (32 mm. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that peppermint extract has a favorable control effect on the growth of food borne pathogens, which can be used as a perfect preservative for keeping food.

  19. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Delfan, B; Pournia, Y; Rashidipour, M

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice. 2 and 5 mg of the plants extracts and powder of metronidazole 250 mg pills were added to 1 ml of G. lamblia cysts suspension (containing 5,000 cyst/ml normal saline), and the percentages of bioavailability of G. lamblia cysts were examined at the 2nd and 4th h after exposure and in 4 and 37 °C temperatures using eosin 0.1 % and a haemocytometer. The data were analyzed by multiway ANOVA test, Tukey's test, and the SPSS software, version 18. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (37.90 ± 7.01 %), followed by the extract of S. khuzestanica (32.52 ± 9.07 %). Metronidazole 250 mg pills had relatively effective fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (28.75 ± 10.30 %), whereas A. sativum (garlic) had the lowest fatality effect on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (22.65 ± 10.47 %). With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S. khuzestanica extracts compared with metronidazole in vitro, these plants can be used as suitable candidates to make new antigiardial drugs with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

  20. Protective effect of Ferula gummosa hydroalcoholic extract against nitric oxide deficiency-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Seyed Jafar; Habibian, Masoumeh; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition increases hypertension and causes renal injury. Ferula gummosa is used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of several diseases and has been reported to exert a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula gummosa (HEG) on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and explore the mechanisms that link NO deficiency with altered renal heat shock protein (HSP70). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) to induce renal injury. Simultaneously, HEG (90 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage to L-NAME-treated rats for 6 days/week during an 8-week period. Renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), HSP70, plasma NO and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. The administration of L-NAME significantly increased renal TBARS, TNF-α, IL-6, HSP70 levels and decreased renal SOD activity, that these changes were accompanied by the reduced plasma NO and TAC levels. HEG administration decreased TBARS, HSP70, TNF-α and IL-6 levels and increased SOD activity in the kidney tissues of L-NAME treated rats (p<0.05). Also, plasma TAC level and NO bioavailability have been elevated after administration of HEG (p<0.05). These findings support that NO deficiency induces renal stress oxidative and inflammation, which markedly increased renal HSP70 and HEG could protect kidney against these damaging effects via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory action and modulate renal HSP70.

  1. Effect of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moradkhani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia.

  2. Phytochemicals analysis and medicinal potentials of hydroalcoholic extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC(50) value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC(50) values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H(2)O(2), LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases.

  3. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

    2013-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity.

  4. Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research investigates the possible potential of Rosa canina (RC as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this experiment, 45 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into three groups (n = 15. These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg, RC fruit extract (250 mg/kg and RC fruit extract (500 mg/kg as oral gavages every day for a period of four weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week, differential white blood cell (WBC counts, phagocyte activity (number, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphates (ALP albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum were determined only in day 28 of study. The radical scavenger activity (RSA of the RC extract was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: the gamma globulin level, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with the normal saline group. ALT, AST and ALP had not significantly differences in compared to control group. RC extract significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and also decreased GSH levels in comparing to control group in day 28. Conclusion: the data suggest that the RC extract has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects.

  5. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  6. Ulcer protective effect of Byrsocarpus coccineus leaf extract in different experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akuodor Godwin Christian; Udia Pius Monday; Akpan Joseph Linus; Ezeokpo Basil Chukwuma; Okezie Ogwuegbu Alozie; Ghasi Samuel Ikenna; Nwadike Kenneth Ikechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus, a plant used in herbal medicine for the management of various diseases in Nigeria. Methods: Ethanol-, acetylsalicylic acid-, histamine- and water immersion stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats were used to investigate the antiulcer activity of the leaf extract. Acute toxicity studies were also carried out. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract significantly (P Conclusions: The implication of this finding is that Byrsocarpus coccineus ethanolic leaf extract possesses potent antiulcer activity and the leaf of this plant can serve as a potential source of safe and affordable antiulcer agents.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

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    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  9. Use of Propolis Hydroalcoholic Extract to Treat Colitis Experimentally Induced in Rats by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

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    Cely Cristina Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the therapeutic effect of a propolis SLNC 106PI extract on experimental colitis. Wistar adult rats received 0.8 mL rectal dose of one of the following solutions: saline (group S, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol (group TNBS, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and propolis extract in saline (group TNBS-P, propolis extract in saline (group SP, and 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and 50 mg/kg mesalazine (group TNBS-M. The animals were euthanized 7 or 14 days after the colitis induction. Samples of the distal colon were harvested for the analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity and for morphometric analysis in paraffin-embedded histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin or histochemical staining. The animals treated with TNBS exhibited the typical clinical signs of colitis. Increased MPO activity confirmed the presence of inflammation. TNBS induced the development of megacolon, ulceration, transmural inflammatory infiltrate, and thickened bowel walls. Treatment with propolis moderately reduced the inflammatory response, decreased the number of cysts and abscesses, inhibited epithelial proliferation, and increased the number of goblet cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the propolis SLNC 106 extract was confirmed by the reductions in both the inflammatory infiltrate and the number of cysts and abscesses in the colon mucosa.

  10. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Salvia officinalis L. against Acute Liver Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Mice

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    H. Foruozandeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The medical herbs play important roles in the treatment of liver diseases. In the traditional medicine, Salvia officinalis is highly used to heal a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of Saliva officinalis on hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 60 albino mice were studied. The rats were divided into 6 groups. The first, second, and third groups were physiological serum, crude extract of Saliva officinalis, and 500mg acetaminophen per 1Kg consumed as single dose, respectively. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups received 5-day 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg extract of Saliva officinalis, respectively. Then, they received 500mg acetaminophen one hour after the last administration of extract. Blood sampling was done from the carotids of the rats 24hour later, and the levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes were measured. In addition, their liver tissues were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using one-way ANOVA. Findings: There were significant increases in the direct and complete bilirubin concentration and liver enzymes due to acetaminophen compared to control group (p<0.05. There were significant reductions in the direct and complete bilirubin and liver enzymes due to 125, 250, and 500mg per 1Kg of the extract of Saliva officinalis compared to control group (p<0.05. The results were confirmed by the histology studies. Conclusion: 250 and 500mg per 1Kg of Saliva officinalis potentially protect the damages caused by acetaminophen. In addition, they considerably improve the tissue damage and the biochemical indices in the liver damages.

  11. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla on Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels, Spermatozoon Quality, and Tail Length in Rat

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    Saied Karbalay-Doust

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile is a herbused to treat various human illnesses. The present study wasconducted to investigate the effects of chamomile extract onspermatozoon quality, serum levels of estradiol and testosterone,and sperm tail length in male adult rat.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received extract ofchamomile (400 mg/kg once daily, orally during an 8-weekperiod, while the control animals received water. After thisperiod, the animals were sacrificed and the blood sampleswere obtained. The serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, andthe number, motility, and morphology of spermatozoon wereassessed. The spermatozoon tail length was assessed by arapid stereological method.Results: The body weight, and weight, and volume of thetestis in the control and experimental rats did not changesignificantly. Serum testosterone level was decreased (~76%,P<0.005 and the serum estradiol level was increased (~16%,P<0.04 in the experimental animals. The spermatozoon countand motility were decreased in the experimental group butspermatozoon morphology did not show significant changes.The mid-piece and total tail length were reduced in theexperimental group (~22%, P<0.001.Conclusion: Matricaria chamomilla extract can decreasespermatozoa count and motility, spermatozoon tail length, serumtestosterone level and increase serum estradiol level inmale adult rat.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 122-128.

  12. Comparative study on the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly against Rhizopus oryzae

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    Moghim Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection. Rhizopus oryzae is major cause of mucormycosis in humans. This disease is the most common form of the acute fungal infection with rapid progress. Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly are honey bee products which have been used by human over the past centuries in traditional medicine. In this study the effects of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly were investigated against Rhizopus oryzae and Candida albicans. Methods: The used method in this study was microdilution. To perform it, the prepared dilutions of Royal jelly and alcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis were added to tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose broth culture media except to control group and then Rhizopus oryzae suspension was added to all microtubes. In the next stage, microtubes were maintained in incubator at 25oC for 48 hours and then 10 ml of the content of each microtube was transferred to Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the agents were calculated. Results: In this study, the MIC and MFC of Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml and the MFC of Royal jelly on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 100 ± 34 and 133 ± 46 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that Propolis might be used as an ideal combination for the treatment of fungal infections like Rhizopus oryzae. However, clinical studies are needed to confirm the effects of these drugs.

  13. Effect of Powder and Hydroalcoholic Extract of Origanum vulgare and Virginiamycin on Performance, Blood Metabolites, Ileal Microflora, Jejunal Morphology and Meat Quality of Broilers

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    mohamad Reza Gangeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antibiotic feed additives have long been used as growth promoters in poultry nutrition. However, concern has been expressed about the potential development of antibiotic resistant bacteria (25. Consequently, the animal feed industry, exposed to increasing consumer pressure to reduce the use of antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets, has to find alternative feed additives. Marjoram (Origonum vulgar is a very popular and a common medicinal plant. The main chemical components of marjoram oil are carvacrol, thymol, myrsene, p-cymene, terpinene and pinene (29. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial and antioxidant activities (2, 36. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of adding different levels of marjoram leaves (powder and hydroalcoholic extract into broiler diets on growth performance, blood metabolites, relative weight of internal organs, ileal microflora, jejunal histomorphology and meat quality of broiler chicks. Materials and methods Two hundred and eighty eight one-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks (male were obtained from a commercial local source and used in this study. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 birds in each replicate. Experimental treatments consisted of control diet (without any additives, antibiotic virginiamycin (100 mg/kg, Origanum vulgare leaves powder (1, 2 and 3% and Origanum vulgare extract (150, 250 and 350 mg/kg. The experimental period lasted up to the 42 d of age. The rearing and management conditions were equal for all groups. Experimental diets were formulated to meet the nutrients requirements of the Ross broiler chicks (3. Chicks had full access to feed and water during the experimental period. Live body weight and feed intake were recorded at 10, 24 and 42 d of age for each replicate. At the end of the experiment, the blood samples (from one chick per replicate were collected to determine

  14. Lantana camara leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles: Antibacterial, green catalyst.

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    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Shameer, Syed; Rajesh, K M; Suneetha, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by Lantana camara leaf extract through simple green route and evaluated their antibacterial and catalytic activities. The leaf extract (LE) itself acts as both reducing and stabilizing agent at once for desired nanoparticle synthesis. The colorless reaction mixture turns to yellowish brown attesting the AgNPs formation and displayed UV-Vis absorption spectra. Structural analysis confirms the crystalline nature and formation of fcc structured metallic silver with majority (111) facets. Morphological studies elicit the formation of almost spherical shaped nanoparticles and as AgNO3 concentration is increased, there is an increment in the particle size. The FTIR analysis evidences the presence of various functional groups of biomolecules of LE is responsible for stabilization of AgNPs. Zeta potential measurement attests the higher stability of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activity when tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Furthermore, they showed good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by L. camara extract which is monitored and confirmed by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  15. Isobolographic analysis of the sedative interaction between six central nervous system depressant drugs and Valeriana edulis hydroalcoholic extract in mice.

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    Ugalde, Martha; Reza, Victoria; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A; Navarrete, Andrés

    2005-05-01

    It has been declared frequently that valerian may potentiate the effect of other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs, however there has been a lack of experimental data. We have evaluated the profile of the interactions between the ethanol extract of Valeriana edulis spp procera and six CNS depressant drugs using an exploratory model to test the sedative effect in mice. All the compounds tested showed a dose-dependent sedative effect with the following ED50 values: valerian 181.62, diazepam 1.21, ethanol 1938, pentobarbital 11.86, buspirone 1.04, haloperidol 0.41 and diphenhydramine 17.06 mg kg-1. An isobolographic analysis was used to evaluate the sedative interaction of the intraperitoneal co-administration of 1:1 fixed-ratio combination of equi-effective doses of valerian extract with each CNS depressant drug. The ED50 theoretical (Zadd) and experimental (Zexp) for each combination were: valerian+diazepam,Zadd=91.41 mg kg-1, Zexp=81.64 mg kg-1; valerian+ethanol, Zadd=1060.22 mg kg-1, Zexp=687.89 mg kg-1; valerian+pentobarbital, Zadd=96.74 mg kg-1, Zexp=151.83 mg kg-1; valerian+buspirone, Zadd=91.33 mg kg-1, Zexp=112.73 mg kg-1; valerian+haloperidol, Zadd=91.01 mg kg-1, Zexp=91.52 mg kg-1; valerian+diphenhydramine, Zadd=99.34 mg kg-1, Zexp=123.52 mg kg-1. Neither synergistic nor attenuate effects were found in any of the combinations evaluated. We concluded that the valerian extract did not potentiate the sedative effect of commonly prescribed CNS depressant drugs as was expected. The additive effect found through the isobolographic analysis suggested that the sedative effect of V. edulis resulted from the activation of common mechanisms of haloperidol, diazepam, buspirone, pentobarbital, diphenhydramine and ethanol.

  16. The Healing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum on Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats

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    Nader Tanideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Anti-inflammatory effect of Hypericum have long been considered. Ulcerative Colitis (UC is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. In this study, the effects of Hypericum perforatum on histopathological changes and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA level of colonic tissue in rats with induced UC were evaluated. Materials & Methods: 70 rats were divided into seven equal groups. Colitis was induced by acetic acid.. Groups I and II received 1 mL of 600 and 300 mg/kg H. perforatum extract orally per day respectively; groups III and IV received 1 mL of 20% and 10% intra-colonic gel form of H. perforatum extract daily respectively; group V, as positive control, received 1 mL of intra-colonic Asacol; group VI received 1 mL of normal saline as negative control; group VII received just intra-colonic gel base. All the animals were evaluated for histological changes and tissue MDA level of colon seven days after the treatment. Results: H. perforatum extract in the two forms of trans-rectal and oral administration could result in a more healing effect on acetic acid-induced damaged colonic tissue with a reduction in the MDA activity. In trans-rectal administration, the 20% gel had a better healing response than the 10% gel. In oral administration, the 600 mg/kg dosage had a better healing response than the 300 mg/kg. Conclusions: Therefor, H. perforatum can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC especially in trans-rectal gel form.

  17. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

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    Bahareh Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations.  Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO activity.  Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil.  Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Chemical profile and antinociceptive efficacy of Rheedia longifolia leaf extract.

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    Santos, José A A; Calheiros, Andrea; Nascimento, Diogo D; Bérenger, Ana Luiza R; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Alves, Luiz A; Frutuoso, Valber da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Different species of the family Clusiaceae, including Rheedia longifolia, are used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. This family is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Brazil, but their chemical and pharmacological properties have been the subject of a few studies. In previous studies, we found that the aqueous extract from R. longifolia leaves presented important anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. We investigated the chemical profile of R. longifolia and characterized the pharmacological effect of different chemically identified fractions in pharmacological models of neurogenic and inflammatory nociception. The pharmacological tests showed that oral treatment with aqueous crude extract and fractions of methanol extract of R. longifolia leaf induced a significant antinociceptive effect using von Frey filaments. In addition, the most polar fractions presented antinociceptive activity in a neurogenic model of nociception (capsaicin model). The chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of bisflavonoids in the fractions obtained from the methanol extract. These results suggest that bisflavonoids found in methanol-extracted fractions are involved in the inhibition of inflammatory and neurogenic nociception. It is important that the R. longifolia aqueous extract treatment inhibited ulcer formation induced by indomethacin, suggesting an anti-ulcerogenic activity closely associated with its analgesic effect.

  19. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marslin Gregory; B Divya; Revina Ann Mary; M M Hipolith Viji; V K Kalaichelvan; V Palanivel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods:Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results: Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2 000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions: The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids.

  20. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

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    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  1. LC-MS Quantification of Mangiferin in hydroalcoholic extract of Salacia oblonga, Salacia roxburghii and polyherbal formulation

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    Ilango Kaliappan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangiferin is the one of the major active constituents in the tubers of the Salacia species, which is one of the valuable species in Ayurveda with antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, anticaries and anticancer potentials. A simple and rapid liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the quantification of Mangiferin in two species ofSalaciaand also in polyherbal formulation. This method allowed the direct coupling of an electron spray mass selective detector for the LC system with photo diode array detector, Phenomenex C18 column, acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid (0.5% as mobile phase. Under these conditions, Mangiferin was well separated from the mixture of components present in the extract and detected with mass spectrometry (mass selective detector.Liquid chromatography coupled with electron spray mass was used in positive ion mode and detected at m/z 423(M+1+. The proposed method is more accurate and sensitive can be used for the routine quantification of the Mangiferin in the herbal extracts as well as polyherbal formulations.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Efeito hipoglicemiante do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas de Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae

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    Edilene B. Ferreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the oral treatment (20 mg/kg x day with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (HELAC on fasting glycemia (15 h was examined. For this purpose, rats that received vehicle (Control group or HELAC (HELAC group during 15 days were compared. HELAC group showed lower fasting glycemia (pO efeito do tratamento via oral (20 mg/kg x day com extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas de Averrhoa carambola L. (EHFC sobre a glicemia de jejum (15 h foi examinada ao compararmos ratos que receberam veículo (Grupo controle ou EHFC (Grupo EHFC durante 15 dias. O grupo EHFC apresentou menor glicemia de jejum (p<0,05. Em contraste, o grupo EHFC apresentou maior (p<0,05 produção hepática glicose a partir de L-alanina (5 mM. Este efeito foi mediado, pelo menos parcialmente, pela ativação do catabolismo da L-alanina, inferido pela maior produção hepática de uréia (p<0,05 e L-lactato (p<0,05. Diferente da L-alanina, a produção hepática de glicose a partir de L-glutamina (5 mM, L-lactato (2 mM e glicerol (2 mM no grupo EHFC foi similar ao grupo controle. Adicionalmente, o efeito do tratamento com EHFC sobre a captação de glicose no músculo soleus, inferida pela incorporação de [14C]-glicose em glicogênio (síntese de glicogênio e produção de [14C]-lactato foi investigada, verificando-se resultados semelhantes nos dois grupos. Assim, concluiu-se que a redução da glicemia de jejum promovida pelo tratamento com EHFC não foi mediada por inibição da gliconeogenese hepática e/ou aumento da captação muscular de glicose.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

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    Sandeep Kumar Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera tree is known as a Miracle tree as almost every part of this tree possesses product useful for humans. The leaves and pods are eaten. The plant is also reported to be medicinally important and almost all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree are considered to possess medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of ascites, rheumatism and venomous bites and as cardiac and circulatory stimulant Leaves are also known to have anti-oxidant properties and are known to cures hallucinations, dry tumors, hiccups and asthma. The root and bark are useful in treatment of heart complaints, eye diseases, inflammation, dyspepsia and enlargement of spleen. In Present study the antimicrobial activity was investigated by employing main model Kirby-bauer disc diffusion method. The results showed that 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf have very little antibacterial activity and it shows mild inhibitory activity at high concentration of extract of Moringa oleifera.

  4. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  5. Wasabi leaf extracts attenuate adipocyte hypertrophy through PPARγ and AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oowatari, Yasuo; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Katsube, Takuya; Iinuma, Kiyohisa; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophy of adipocytes in obese adipose tissues causes metabolic abnormality by adipocytokine dysregulation, which promotes type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) leaf extracts on metabolic abnormalities in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a model of metabolic syndrome. Male SHRSP/ZF rats aged 7 weeks were divided into two groups: control and wasabi leaf extract (WLE) groups, which received water or oral treatment with 4 g/kg/day WLE for 6 weeks. WLE improved the body weight gain and high blood pressure in SHRSP/ZF rats, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the WLE group. Adipocyte hypertrophy was markedly prevented in adipose tissue. The expression of PPARγ and subsequent downstream genes was suppressed in the WLE group adipose tissues. Our data suggest that WLE inhibits adipose hypertrophy by suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and stimulating the AMPK activity by increased adiponectin.

  6. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

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    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (aqueous, hexane, ethanol and methanol) were investigated for antibacterial activity and found effective against all tested strains. However leaf extracted in methanol was more effective followed by ethanol, aqueous and hexane. Methanol extract of leaf showed maximum activity against the tested bacterial strains and MIC was 2, 3 and 3 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli respectively. Therefore this can be selected for ...

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (aqueous, hexane, ethanol and methanol were investigated for antibacterial activity and found effective against all tested strains. However leaf extracted in methanol was more effective followed by ethanol, aqueous and hexane. Methanol extract of leaf showed maximum activity against the tested bacterial strains and MIC was 2, 3 and 3 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli respectively. Therefore this can be selected for further investigation to determine its therapeutic potential.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Shemsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group: Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80 at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output and weight of faeces. C

  11. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-05-16

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  12. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Ocimum sanctum have been traditionally used for various ethno-veterinary practices as well as medicinal purpose. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal potential of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the bulb of O. sanctum was investigated. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and tannins were identified in phytochemical analyses. The various blood parameters coupled marker enzymes and antioxidant status were also evaluated during in vivo trial. Aqueous extract showed better EC50 and EC99 values in comparison with methanolic extract in egg hatch assay and larval development test, respectively. However, in the larval paralysis test, both aqueous and methanolic extracts showed almost similar efficacy. A 77.64% reduction in fecal egg output was observed on day 14. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the hematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep.

  14. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Samlı, Rüya

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively.

  16. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Kannan; M Sundrarajan

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and transmission electron microscope for structural confirmation. The studies clearly indicate that the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticle is a crystalline material with a particle size from 23 to 66 nm. Further analysis was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, to provide the evidence for the presence of Y–O–Y and O–Y–O stretchings in the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses gave the thermal stability of Y2O3 nanoparticles. The results of the antibacterial studies conducted by using the synthesized Y2O3 revealed an increasing rate of antibacterial behaviour with pathogens.

  17. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  18. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%, four (34.66%, and three (50.47% having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of palladium nanoparticles from Prunus × yedoensis leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eco-friendly production of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) by Prunus × yedoensis tree leaf extract was studied for the first time. Initial confirmation of PdNP production was confirmed by a color change from light yellow to dark brown. The optimization parameters show that pH 7, 8% leaf extract,...

  20. The effects of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root on bone mineralisation, strength and histological characteristics in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakzehi, M T; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Raji, A R

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and a hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera (WS) root on performance, mineral retention, bone mineralisation, bone mechanical and bone histological characteristics of broiler chicks. 2. A 2 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment consisted of a positive control diet with adequate Ca and a negative control diet (Ca concentration reduced by 30%), three concentrations of WS (0, 75 and 150 mg/kg diet), and two concentrations of 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 (0 and 0.5 μg/kg diet). 3. A total of 600 male one-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 60 floor pens, with 10 birds each. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (50 birds). Diets were given ad libitum from one to 42 d of age. On d 21 and 42, one bird per replicate was killed and tibiae were removed. 4. Dietary treatments did not affect feed intake and feed conversion. The maximum body weight gain (2475 g) was noted in birds fed on a diet adequate in Ca and supplemented with 75 mg/kg WS. 5. The Ca and P retentions were significantly higher in birds that were given a diet with 30% less Ca. Supplementation of 150 mg/kg WS significantly improved Ca retention in birds receiving a negative control compared to those given a positive control diet (83.0% vs. 66.3%). Ca retention was significantly improved with the addition of 0.5 μg/kg 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 to the diet containing 75 mg/kg WS, regardless of dietary Ca concentration (79.5 vs. 73.3 and 77.9 vs. 68.9). 6. On d 21, birds that received WS had significantly higher tibia Ca compared to those of controls. No significant effects on tibia Ca were noted at 42 d. Birds given a negative control diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg WS and 0.5 μg/kg 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 displayed a similar tibia Ca compared to those given only 150 mg/kg WS. Dietary supplementation of 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 significantly increased tibia Ca and tibial mineralised zone width in birds at 42 d of age. 7

  1. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  2. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  3. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  4. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  5. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  6. Efficacy of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus terrestris on the Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile of Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadaei; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-10-01

    Considering traditional use of Tribulus terrestris in diabetes and proven antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of T terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract of T terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight women with diabetes mellitus type 2 were randomly allocated to receive the T terrestris (1000 mg/d) or placebo for 3 months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Tribulus terrestris showed a significant blood glucose-lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P lipoprotein of T terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. The study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T terrestris in women with diabetes mellitus type 2. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Dual effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lin, Juan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Sun, Xue-Min; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Today, various standardized preparations from G. biloba leaf extract have been developed. G. biloba leaf extract, which contains flavonoids and terpenoids as the major biologically active components, has become one of the most popular and commonly used herbal remedies due to its wide spectrum of beneficial effects on health. In this study, we investigated the effects of G. biloba leaf extract on the properties of human red blood cells in the presence and absence of amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35), peroxide and hypotonic stress. The results suggest that G. biloba leaf extract has a dual action, both protective and disruptive, on red blood cells, depending on whether an exogenous stress is present. G. biloba leaf extract has a protective role on red blood cells against Abeta- and hypotonic pressure-induced haemolysis, peroxide-induced lipoperoxidation, as well as glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation. On the other hand, G. biloba leaf extract also exhibited damage to red blood cells by increasing cell fragility, changing cellular morphology and inducing glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation, especially when applied at high doses. These anti- and pro-oxidative activities of polyphenolic substances are thought to be involved in the dual function of G. biloba leaf extract. The results of this study suggest that high doses of herbal remedies and dietary supplements can be toxic to cells.

  8. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Leaf extraction and analysis framework graphical user interface: segmenting and analyzing the structure of leaf veins and areoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles A; Symonova, Olga; Mileyko, Yuriy; Hilley, Troy; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the structure and function of physical biological networks has spurred the development of a number of theoretical models that predict optimal network structures across a broad array of taxonomic groups, from mammals to plants. In many cases, direct tests of predicted network structure are impossible given the lack of suitable empirical methods to quantify physical network geometry with sufficient scope and resolution. There is a long history of empirical methods to quantify the network structure of plants, from roots, to xylem networks in shoots and within leaves. However, with few exceptions, current methods emphasize the analysis of portions of, rather than entire networks. Here, we introduce the Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface (LEAF GUI), a user-assisted software tool that facilitates improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins have been enhanced relative to the background, and following a series of interactive thresholding and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks and areoles. Metrics include the dimensions, position, and connectivity of all network veins, and the dimensions, shape, and position of the areoles they surround. Available for free download, the LEAF GUI software promises to facilitate improved understanding of the adaptive and ecological significance of leaf vein network structure.

  10. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  11. Morus nigra leaf extract improves glycemic response and redox profile in the liver of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Carolina Morais; Lúcio, Karine de Pádua; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Isoldi, Mauro César; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Schulz, Richard; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. DM is associated with increased oxidative stress and pancreatic beta cell damage, which impair the production of insulin and the maintenance of normoglycemia. Inhibiting oxidative damage and controlling hyperglycemia are two important strategies for the prevention of diabetes. The pulp and leaf extracts of mulberry (Morus nigra L.) have abundant total phenolics and flavonoids, and its antioxidant potential may be an important factor for modulating oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In this study, DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (135 mg kg(-1)). Female Fischer rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic pulp, and diabetic leaf extract. Animals in the diabetic pulp and diabetic leaf extract groups were treated for 30 days with M. nigra L. pulp or leaf extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, animals were euthanized and, liver and blood samples were collected for analysis of biochemical and metabolic parameters. Our study demonstrated that treatment of diabetic rats with leaf extracts decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) ratio and carbonylated protein levels by reducing oxidative stress. Moreover, the leaf extract of M. nigra L. decreased the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, increased insulinemia, and alleviated hyperglycemia-induced diabetes. In conclusion, our study found that the leaf extract of M. nigra L. improved oxidative stress and complications in diabetic rats, suggesting the utility of this herbal remedy in the prevention and treatment of DM.

  12. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

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    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  13. Antimycobacterial activity evaluation and MIC determination of liophilizated hydroalcoholic extracts of Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae Avaliação da atividade antimicobacteriana e a determinação da CIM de extratos hidroalcoólicos liofilizados de Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata B. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bixa orellana is used in popular medicine against several diseases. Extracts of its fruit, root and leaf presented antimicrobial activity, while seed extract showed negative results. This study aimed at verifying the antimycobacterial activity of B. orellanalyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts over Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration against five bacteria. Antimycobacterial activity was determined by diffusion technique, while MIC was assessed by diffusion and colorimetric analysis. MICs were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively, for leaf, root and stem extracts, against M. tuberculosis. Stem's extract showed 1.2 mg/mL for B. cereus, 1.53 mg/mL for S. aureusand S. typhimurium, 4.50 mg/mL for P. aeruginosaand 8.01 mg/mL for P. mirabillis.Leaf extracts showed 0.66 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa, 0.94 mg/mL for P. mirabillis, 1.88 mg/mL for S. aureus, 3.95 mg/mL for B. cereusand 8.37 mg/mL for S. typhimurium. Root's extracts showed 0.25 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa,0.31 mg/mL for S. aureus, 0.62 mg/mL for S. typhimuriumand 3.00 mg/mL for B. cereusand P. mirabillis. Leaf and stem extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. MICs were lower in colorimetric analysis than in agar diffusion. Extracts revealed bacteriostatic activity against the five bacterial.Bixa orellana é usada na medicina popular em várias doenças. Extratos do fruto, raiz e folhas apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, enquanto extratos do caule mostraram resultados negativos. Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar a atividade antimicobacteriana de extratos hidroalcoólicos liofilizados de B. orellanafrente Mycobacterium tuberculosis e determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima para cinco bactérias. A atividade antimicobacteriana foi determinada por difusão e a CIM por difusão e análise colorimétrica. As CIM foram 0,3, 0,5 e 0,2 mg/mL para os extratos de folhas, raiz e caule frente M. tuberculosis. Os extratos de caule demonstraram CIM de 1

  14. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  15. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  16. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  17. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Showraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  18. Bioefficacy of Graviola leaf extracts in scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yu-Ra; Choi, Eun-Hye; Kim, Goon-Tae; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine bioactive components of Graviola leaf extracts and to examine the radical scavenging capacity, gene expression and transcription factors of antioxidant enzymes. Rutin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and vitamin U were identified from the steaming and 50% EtOH extracts of Graviola leaves. Graviola leaf extracts effectively scavenged peroxy and nitrogen radicals. 50% EtOH of Graviola leaves provided a 1-2.9 times higher trolox equivalent than the steaming extract. It also had a higher VCEAC. Graviola leaf extracts reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves upregulated SOD1 and Nrf2, but catalase and HMOX1 were not altered by the 50% EtOH extract of Graviola leaves.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jafarain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30 extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera.

  20. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2017-01-01

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics.

  1. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hyperricum PerforatumL. on Some Blood Parameters in Male Rats Treated with Cyclophosphamide

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    L yaghobi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Cyclophosphamide is an anti cancer drug which causes alkylation of DNA in cells. The side effects of cyclophosphamide are bone marrow damages and anemia. Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant which widely used in traditional medicine. In this study the hemotopoetic effect of Hypericum perforatum leaf extract (HPE on bone marrow function and blood parameters in male rat were treated with cyclophosphamide was investigated. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats with an average body weight of 220±25 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=7: control group taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p ,witness group taking cyclophosphamide (15mg/kg/day, i.p., positive control group taking HPE (200mg/kg, i.p/day,  treated groups 1, 2 and 3 recieved cyclophosphamide ,(15mg/kg/day, i.p. + 100mg/Kg, 200mg/Kg and 400mg/kg  HPE /day for 10 days, i,p. At the end of study blood samples were collected from heart directly. RBC, WBC, Hct, Hb and PL were meseaured. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results indicated that cyclophosphamide caused damage on bone marrow, which in this case significantly reduced the number of blood cells and platelets in the group treated with cyclophosphamide (P<0.001. Blood parameters in the groups treated with HPE increased significantly compared with the group which received cyclophosphamide alone (P<0.001. Conclusion: The Hypericum perforatum hydoethanolic extract contains antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which could protect the bone marrow tissues against cyclophosphamide.       

  2. Lotus leaf extract and L-carnitine influence different processes during the adipocyte life cycle

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    Stäb Franz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue biology have been studied extensively over the last two decades. Adipose tissue growth involves both an increase in fat cell size and the formation of mature adipocytes from precursor cells. To investigate how natural substances influence these two processes, we examined the effects of lotus leaf extract (Nelumbo nucifera-extract solution obtained from Silab, France and L-carnitine on human preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies, we used a lotus leaf extract solution alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes, we investigated lotus leaf extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. Studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of lotus leaf extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To further characterize lotus leaf extract solution-mediated effects, we determined the expression of the transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1/SREBP-1c on the RNA- and protein level utilizing qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, the effect of L-carnitine on beta-oxidation was analyzed using human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Finally, we investigated additive effects of a combination of lotus leaf extract solution and L-carnitine on triglyceride accumulation during preadipocyte/adipocyte differentiation. Results Our data showed that incubation of preadipocytes with lotus leaf extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability. Compared to controls, adipocytes incubated with lotus leaf extract solution exhibited a significant increase in lipolysis-activity. Moreover, cell populations cultivated in the presence of lotus leaf extract solution showed a decrease in adipocyte

  3. Cytotoxic effects of Pinus eldarica essential oil and extracts on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvmeili, Najmeh; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Several attempts have so far been made in the search of new anticancer agents of plant origin. Some studies have reported that different species of Pine genus possess cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of Pinus eldarica bark and leaf extracts or leaf essential oil on HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. Hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts and the essential oil of plant were prepared. Total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts and essential oil against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The polyphenolic content of hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts of the bark and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf were 48.31%, 47.2%, and 8.47%, respectively. According to the GC-MS analysis, the major components of the leaf oil of P. eldarica were: β -caryophyllene (14.8%), germacrene D (12.9%), α–terpinenyl acetate (8.15%), α –pinene (5.7%), and –α humulene (5.9%). Bark extracts and leaf essential oil of P. eldarica significantly reduced the viability of both HeLa and MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. However, leaf extract showed less inhibitory effects against both cell lines. The essential oil of P. eldarica was more cytotoxic than its hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts. The terpenes and phenolic compounds were probably responsible for cytotoxicity of P. eldarica. Therefore, P. eldarica might have a good potential for active anticancer agents. PMID:28003841

  4. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

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    M Sreejith

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  5. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

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    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  6. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae leaf extract on dermatophytes

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    S Balakumar

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.

  8. Antiseizure Activity of Hydro-Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Thonningh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Pentylenetetrazole, maximal electroshock and pilocarpine seizure models were ... Keywords: Seizures, antiseizure, Ficus thonningii leaf extract, albino mice ...

  9. Analgesic, anti-inlfammatory and antipyretic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin Christian Akuodor; Augustine Dick Essien; Joseph Linus Akpan; Kingsley Chimsorom Chilaka; Kenneth Ikechukwu Nwadike; Ndubuisi Nwobodo Nwobodo; Basil Chukwuma Ezeokpo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifoliain mice and rats. Methods: Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion methods were used to assess analgesic activity, while xylene and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extract. Yeast and amphetamine-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the antipyretic activity. The phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the methanolic leaf extract ofMaerua crassifolia were also evaluated. Results: The leaf extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent and significant (P Conclusions:The findings confirmed its ethnomedical use in the treatment of pains and feverish conditions.

  10. Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansunga, Miriam; Barasa, Ambrose; Abimana, Justus; Alele, Paul E.; Kasolo, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Materials and methods Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. Results The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Conclusion This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens . The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model. PMID:25304198

  11. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  12. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extract of Osyris quadripartita Decne. (Santalaceae) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebaw, Mastewal; Mishra, Bharat; Gelayee, Dessalegn Asmelashe

    2017-01-01

    Osyris quadripartita (OQ) Salzm. ex Decne. has been used to treat peptic ulcer disease in Ethiopian folk medicine, but its efficacy has not been validated. The present study was therefore carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of 80% methanol leaf extract of OQ in rats. The effect of OQ extract on gastric ulcer in rats in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced models was studied using single dosing (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and repeated dosing (200 mg/kg for 10 and 20 days) approaches. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and sucralfate (100 mg/kg) were used as the standard drugs. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, total acidity, ulcer score, percent inhibition of ulcer score, ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. OQ significantly (P<0.001) reduced gastric ulcer index by 55.82% and 62.11%, respectively, in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced ulcer models at the 400 mg/kg dose, which is comparable to the standard drugs. Ten and 20 days pre-treatment with OQ200 exhibited significant (P<0.001) ulcer inhibition by 66.48% and 68.36% (pylorus ligation-induced model) as well as 71.48% and 85.35% (ethanol-induced model), respectively. OQ possesses both dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-ulcer effect in the two models. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg for the crude hydroalcoholic extract, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were present. The findings of this study confirmed that OQ has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Ethiopian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed. PMID:28144167

  13. Antibacterial potential of Thevetia peruviana leaf extracts against food associated bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebenay Gezahegn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the food associated bacterial strains, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of various solvents (acetone, chloroform, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana against their respective isolated and standard bacterial strains and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemical constituents in the leaf extracts of test plant. Methods: The food associated bacterial strains were isolated from students' lunch boxes in Tesfa Tewahido Primary School. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the disc diffusion and serial dilution methods, respectively and phytochemical constituents were also detected in various solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana. Results: The result showed that all the tested solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana exhibited antibacterial activity against the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains with zones of inhibition ranged from 10.0 to 17.0 mm. Amongst the tested food borne bacterial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium was most sensitive towards petroleum ether leaf extracts of T. peruviana while, methanol leaf extracts was relatively least effective against all the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of various solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana ranged from 16.67 to 50.00 mg/mL for all the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains. The phytochemical constituents screening on the leaf extracts of T. peruviana showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The present study suggests that T. peruviana could be used as prospective aspirants against the common food borne bacterial pathogens and also provide a wide array in the development of drugs against common food borne bacterial pathogens.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Jafarain; Gholamreza Asghari; Erfaneh Ghassami

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method...

  15. Antibacterial potential of Thevetia peruviana leaf extracts against food associated bacterial pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zebenay Gezahegn; Mohd Sayeed Akhtar; Delelegn Woyessa; Yinebeb Tariku

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize the food associated bacterial strains, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of various solvents (acetone, chloroform, methanol and petroleum ether) leaf extracts of Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana) against their respective isolated and standard bacterial strains and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemical constituents in the leaf extracts of test plant. Methods:The food associated bacterial strains were isolated from students' lunch boxes in Tesfa Tewahido Primary School. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by the disc diffusion and serial dilution methods, respectively and phytochemical constituents were also detected in various solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana. Results:The result showed that all the tested solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana exhibited antibacterial activity against the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains with zones of inhibition ranged from 10.0 to 17.0 mm. Amongst the tested food borne bacterial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium was most sensitive towards petroleum ether leaf extracts of T. peruviana while, methanol leaf extracts was relatively least effective against all the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of various solvent leaf extracts of T. peruviana ranged from 16.67 to 50.00 mg/mL for all the tested standard and isolated bacterial strains. The phytochemical constituents screening on the leaf extracts of T. peruviana showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions:The present study suggests that T. peruviana could be used as prospective aspirants against the common food borne bacterial pathogens and also provide a wide array in the development of drugs against common food borne bacterial pathogens.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and pharmacognostic studies of leaf extracts of cajanus cajan (l. millsp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mahitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC 50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested.The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus.

  17. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of guava leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment. PMID:20181067

  19. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Asparagus laricinus leaf and stem extracts

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    Polo-Ma-Abiele Hildah Ntsoelinyane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activities, antibacterial activities and a phytochemical constituent of Asparagus laricinus stem and leaf extracts. Determination of antibacterial activity of extracts was assessed by agar dilution method and antioxidant properties by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the leaf was at a concentration of 0.125 mg/mL against S. saprophyticus and E. cloacae, and at a concentration of 1 mg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtilis. There was no MIC of the stem extract at any concentration. The leaf extract showed effective free radical scavenging activity (72.1%, while stem extract had low activity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phlobatannins. The leaf extract further confirmed the presence of glycosides, steroids, ternoids and carbohydrates. Our results indicate that, A. laricinus leaf extracts have potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant

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    Nayan R Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ΅g/ml of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive--Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative--Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains--Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

  1. Antidepressant like effects of hydrolysable tannins of Terminalia catappa leaf extract via modulation of hippocampal plasticity and regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Ramya, E M; Navya, K; Phani Kumar, G; Anilakumar, K R

    2017-02-01

    Terminalia catappa L. belonging to Combretaceae family is a folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties, but the neuro-modulatory effect of TC against chronic mild stress was seldom explored. The present study was designed to elucidate potential antidepressant-like effect of Terminalia cattapa (leaf) hydro-alcoholic extract (TC) by using CMS model for a period of 7 weeks. Identification of hydrolysable tannins was done by using LC-MS. After the CMS exposure, mice groups were administered with imipramine (IMP, 10mg/kg, i.p.) and TC (25, 50 and 100mg/kg of TC, p.o.). Behavioural paradigms used for the study included forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). After behavioural tests, monoamine neurotransmitter, cortisol, AchE, oxidative stress levels and mRNA expression studies relevant to depression were assessed. TC supplementation significantly reversed CMS induced immobility time in FST and other behavioural paradigms. Moreover, TC administration significantly restored CMS induced changes in concentrations of hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA and NE) as well as levels of acetyl cholinesterase, cortisol, monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B), BDNF, CREB, and p-CREB. It suggests that TC supplementation could supress stress induced depression by regulating monoamine neurotransmitters, CREB, BDNF, cortisol, AchE level as well as by amelioration of oxidative stress. Hence TC can be used as a complementary medicine against depression-like disorder.

  2. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect of Tinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae leaf extract

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    Sheryl Rena-Aguila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts of Tinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense. Methods: The leaves of T. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense at 1 000 µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract of T. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense is a potential antiangiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  3. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization

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    Mabel Parimala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family - Nymphaeaceae is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPARγ target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPARγ activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues.

  4. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, Mabel; Debjani, M; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2015-01-01

    Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family - Nymphaeaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPARγ target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPARγ activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues.

  5. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

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    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  6. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity.......To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity....

  7. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balakumar S; Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions:Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  8. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

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    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  9. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

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    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  10. Efficacy of plant extracts in controlling wheat leaf rust disease caused by Puccinia triticina

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    Yasser M. Shabana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of eight plant extracts (garlic, clove, garden quinine, Brazilian pepper, anthi mandhaari, black cumin, white cedar and neem in controlling leaf rust disease of wheat was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all treatments inhibited spore germination by more than 93%. Neem extract recorded 98.99% inhibition of spore germination with no significant difference from the fungicide Sumi-8 (100%. Under greenhouse conditions, seed soaking application in neem extract (at concentration of 2 ml/L resulted in 36.82% reduction in the number of pustules/leaf compared with the untreated control. Foliar spraying of plant extracts on wheat seedlings decreased the number of pustules/leaf. Foliar spraying of plant extracts four days after inoculation led to the highest resistance response of wheat plants against leaf rust pathogen. Spray application of wheat seedlings with neem, clove and garden quinine extracts, four days after inoculation with leaf rust pathogen completely prevented rust development (100% disease control and was comparable with the fungicide Sumi-8. Foliar spray application of wheat plants at mature stage with all plant extracts has significantly reduced the leaf rust infection (average coefficient of infection, ACI compared with the untreated control and neem was the most effective treatment. This was reflected on grain yield components, whereas the 1000-kernel weight and the test weight were improved whether under one- or two-spray applications, with two-spray application being more effective in this regard. Thus, it could be concluded that plant extracts may be useful to control leaf rust disease in Egypt as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides.

  11. [Component analysis and acute hepatotoxicity of volatile oils from argy wormwood leaf extracted by different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Bai, Yang; Hong, Yanlong; Zhang, Xun

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the chemical composition and compare acute hepatotoxicity of essential oils extracted from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong by four different methods. Four extraction methods, including hydrodistillation extraction, supercritical fluid CO2 extraction, petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction and petroleum ether microwave extraction, were employed to prepare essential oil from argy wormwood leaf in Guangdong. The products were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using GC-MS and GC-FID. Sixty mice were divided into 5 groups according to different essential oils and took the same dose orally, then after 5 hours, hepatic functional parameters in serum were detected such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and so on, and morphologic change of hepatic tissues was observed. The extraction rate of the four methods and identified compounds was 1.02%, 80 (hydrodistillation extraction), 2.46%, 56 (supercritical fluid CO2 extraction), 3.17%, 45 (petroleum ether ultrasonic extraction) and 3.32%, 78 (petroleum ether microwave extraction) respectively. Totally 153 compounds were identified from those essential oils. Compared with that of the control group, some hepatic functional parameters of hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid CO2 extraction groups rose significantly (P extracted from argy wormwood leaf by different methods may have not only different chemical composition, but also different acute hepatotoxicity, and monoterpenes and benzenes in the essential oils might induce acute hepatotoxicity.

  12. Sedative effect of hydroalcholic leaf extracts of Cnidoscolous acontifolius.

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    O A Adebiyi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Cnidoscolous acontifolius hydroalcholic leaf extract (CAHLE has been reported to possess potent biological effects on the central nervous system. The objectives of this study were to investigate the safety, sedative and hypnotic effects of CAHLE in mice. Swiss albino mice (18-22g were randomly allotted to three groups (n=5 each and treated with CAHLE (3.0 g/kg, 6.0 g/kg and 9.0 g/kg intraperitoneally. They were observed for signs of toxicity and mortality over a 72 hour period and subsequently for 14 days. Normal saline (10 mL/kg, diazepam (1 mg/kg and CAHLE at doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 800mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg were administered to a fresh batch of randomly allotted (7 groups of mice (n=5 per group respectively. For the pentobarbitone sleeping time test, sodium pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg was administered five minutes after the administration of CAHLE. Data analysis was by one factor analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis using Student Newman Kuels multiple comparison tests. CAHLE showed signs of toxicity and lethality at 9.0g/kg. Furthermore, CAHLE produced statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05 of spontaneous motor activity and increased the onset and the duration of sleep at all dose levels compared to normal saline and diazepam treated groups. The study concluded CAHLE has sedative action, prolongs sleep and is safe in mice. Industrial Relevance: This study provides data on the safety as well as the efficacy of Cnidoscolous acontifolius in producing sedation and prolongation of sleep in animals. These data will be essential in the quest to isolate and develop potent therapeutic agents for the management of psychiatric and neurological disorders. The potency of CAHLE makes it an important candidate for further evaluation to isolate or identify important bioactive constituents that may serve as template for the development of new generation drugs for the management of insomnia that afflict a

  13. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

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    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  14. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  15. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

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    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p americana leaf could be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions in some rural Africa communities.

  17. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

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    D. Wijayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2 orally.

  18. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

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    Ching-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L. DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50=35.88 μg/mL and CVA16 (IC50=42.91 μg/mL. Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.

  19. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (phamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27942549

  20. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (PCassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf.

  1. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

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    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  2. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-pr...

  3. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

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    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  4. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications.

  5. Antibiogram and GC analysis of Euphorbia hirta leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The antibiogram activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of E.hirta was studied. Ethanol extract of the plant showed the maximal antibacterial activity and G.C Analysis showed the presence of citronellal. The extract showed inhibited the growth of E.coli, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, Proteus etc.,

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  7. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  8. Protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract on glycoprotein components on STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnadurai Veeramani; Khalid S Al-Numair; Mohammed A Alsaif; Govindasamy Chandramohan; Nouf S Al-Numair; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) leaf extract on glycoprotein metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. TheC. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) was administered orally to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 45 days. The effects of C. halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) on plasma and tissue glycoproteins (hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) were determined. Results: The levels of plasma and tissues glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the level of sialic acid significantly increased in plasma and liver while decreased in kidney of STZ-induced diabetic rats. After administration of CHE to diabetic rats, the metabolic alteration of glycoprotein reverted towards normal levels.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the CHE possesses a protective effect on abnormal glycoprotein metabolism in addition to its antihyperglycemic activity.

  9. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice

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    Ehimwenma Omoregie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vernonia amygdalina (V.  amygdalina leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malari a infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V.  amygdalina leaf. Materials and Methods: The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old placed into five groups of six animals each. Result: The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7% and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 % of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p

  10. Ext The effect of littoralis leaf extract on Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice

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    Zhi-jiang WANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Umbelliferae littoralis leaf extract on the Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice, and to provide the basis for the development and utilization medicinal resources and edible resources. Methods: Prepare littoralis leaf water extract and alcohol extract, and set different dose treatment groups and blank control group, and continuously deliver American ginseng capsule for 15 days. Inject sRBC according to the weight on the tenth day. Take the blood serum from eyeball blood after 5 days. Put supernatant of 1ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 3ml in the test tube, and mix the 10% sRBC of 0.25ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 4ml together in another test tube, and measure absorbance at 540nm fine control (SA liquid tubing as blank, HC50 value were calculated. Results: Different extracts of stems and littoralis leaf were given to the mice for 15 days, and hemolytic value of the mice in water extract 4.68g/kg dose group, alcohol extract 4.68g/kg dose group and American ginseng capsule group significantly increased while comparing with the blank control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Littoralis Leaf plays an important role in regulating human immunity.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Stability of Arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana Buhse Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Asgharpour, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    With regard to the importance of antioxidants in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, there are several studies on natural resources for finding rich sources of antioxidants and their role in protecting the body against oxidative stress injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant stability of arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and their effects on lipid oxidation in different conditions of temperature and time. Arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract were stored for 14 days in the different conditions of temperature including room, refrigerator and freezer. Total phenolic compounds were measured by the folin-ciocaltea method. Flavonoid compounds were evaluated by aluminum chloride method. Their total antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method and their protection effect on lipid oxidation was measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances) method. Also, the amount of sustainability for peroxide activities was measured by TMB (Tetra Methyl Benzedrine) method. Polyphenol formed 1.96 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and the amount of flavonoid complex was 0.125 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract. The amount of FRAP was decreased by increasing temperature and time. The amount of lipid oxidation had increased in all samples with time (0-14). The stability of peroxide activities decreased in the different conditions of temperature and time. The results of this study show the existence of antioxidant activities with higher stability in storage time and the protective effect of arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract on lipid oxidation. Therefore, using arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract as a natural resource of antioxidant is suggested for substituting synthetic antioxidants.

  12. Anti-malarial activity of leaf-extract of hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese plant.

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    Kamei K

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available To find a new anti-malarial medicine derived from natural resources, we examined the leaves of 13 common Japanese plants in vitro. Among them, a leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese flower, inhibited the parasitic growth of Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 of Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract to Plasmodium falciparum was 0.18 microg/ml. The IC50 to NIH 3T3-3 cells, from a normal mouse cell line, was 7.2 microg/ml. Thus, selective toxicity was 40. For the in vivo test, we inoculated Plasmodium berghei, a rodent malaria parasite, to ddY mice and administered the leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla (3.6 mg/0.2 ml orally 3 times a day for 3 days. Malaria parasites did not appear in the blood of in the treated mice, but they did appear in the control group on day 3 or 4 after inoculation with the parasites. When leaf extract was administered to 5 mice 2 times a day for 3 days, malaria parasites did not appear in 4 of the mice but did appear in 1 mouse. In addition, the leaf-extract was administered orally 3 times a day for 3 days to Plasmodium berghei infected mice with a parasitemia of 2.7%. In the latter group, malaria parasites disappeared on day 3 after initiating the treatment, but they appeared again after day 5 or 6. Although we could not cure the mice entirely, we confirmed that the Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract did contain an anti-malarial substance that can be administered orally.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Jasminum mesnyi

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    Vibhuti Dullu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum mesnyi. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was carried out on adult Indian earthworm Eisenia fetida. In this study, 20 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL concentrations of plant extract were tested which involved the time of paralysis and time of death of worm. Albendazole (10 mg/mL was taken as reference standard drug whereas distilled water was used as control. Results: The extract exhibited significant anthelmintic acitivity which was more in higher concentration extract. Conclusions: It was concluded from the present study that the plant exhibited significant anthelmintic activity.

  15. Larvicidal efficacy of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arivoli S; Samuel T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant phytochemicals in leaf extracts of Bergenia ligulata: a Himalayan herb of medicinal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Vasudha; Sati, Priyanka; Jantwal, Arvind; Pandey, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaf extracts of Bergenia ligulata have been analysed for their contribution in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The extracts were prepared in three solvents (separately) following maceration and soxhelt methods. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay against a range of microorganisms along with the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), while the antioxidant activity was tested following DPPH assay. Leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the three groups of microorganisms; results coincided with respective MIC. In general, the methanol extracts prepared through maceration favoured the determination of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Maximum values for phenolic and flavonoid contents were obtained in macerated methanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The statistical correlations exhibited the extent of the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and also indicated the involvement of other plant metabolites.

  17. Effects of Mesua ferrea leaf and fruit extracts on growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruldass, Claira Arul; Marimuthu, Mani Maran; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2013-02-01

    Mesua ferrea is traditionally used for treating bleeding piles, fever, and renal diseases. It has been reported to have antimircobial activity. In the present study, antibacterial efficacy of leaf and fruit extracts on the growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus is evaluated. Both extracts display good antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.048 mg/mL. Both extracts are bacteriostatic at a minimum bacteriostatic concentration of 0.39 mg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity lasts for 24 h, and then cells start to grow as normal as shown in time-kill analysis. Scanning electron microscopy study indicated potential detrimental effect of the extracts of leaf and fruits of M. ferrea on the morphology of S. aureus. The treatment with the extracts caused extensive lysis of the cells, leakage of intracellular constituents, and aggregation of cytoplasmic contents forming an open meshwork of the matrix.

  18. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giselle Cristina Silva; Renata Albuquerque Costa; Antonio Adauto Fonteles Filho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Methods:Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. Results:The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. Conclusions: The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains.

  19. Antidiarrheal activity of Pterocarpus erinaceus methanol leaf extract in experimentally-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, I Maxwell; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I; Madubuike, Kelechi G; Udeh, Nkiru E; Ukweni, Iheanacho A; Akomas, Stella C; Ifenkwe, Daniel C

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus in vivo. The methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus was evaluated using different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) orally for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal transit time and castor oil-induced enteropooling in different groups of albino Wistar mice. The activity of the extract at different doses were compared to diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) and atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg) which were used as standard reference drugs and also to the distilled water administered negative control group of mice. The extract at the doses used caused a significant (PPterocarpus erinaceus extract produced significant antidiarrheal activity and the action may attribute to inhibition of gastrointestinal movement and fluid secretion. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  1. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  2. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  3. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL. Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  4. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of grapevine leaf extract (Vitis vinifera) in mice and identification of its active constituents by LC-MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouey, Bakhta; Samet, Amira Mahjoubi; Fetoui, Hamadi; Simmonds, Monique S J; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The leaves of Vitis vinifera is used in traditional medicine for diarrhea, hepatitis and stomachaches. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Vitis vinifera (EVV) on experimental models to provide scientific basis for its use. The EVV was chemically characterized by LC-MS/MS analyses. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the EVV extract were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing and formalin test in mice, anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw oedema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice, and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats were evaluated at 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg doses of the extract. The extract (EVV) was found to contain resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, flavone, flavonols, anthocyanin, gallic acid and epicatechin. EVV produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema. EVV at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kgbw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 34.48% (Pvinifera observed at doses tested which support the claim for the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of various inflammatory and pain diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial action of the leaf extract of moringa oleifera lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive - Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative - Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

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    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  8. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect ofTinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae) leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila; Mario A Tan; Oliver B Villaflores

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts ofTinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense). Methods:The leaves ofT. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results:The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense at 1 000µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains withPseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract ofT. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense is a potential anti-angiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  9. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S; Abd El-Maksoud, Marwa A E

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by albuminuria, hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally treated with three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of strawberry leaf extract for 30 days. Nephropathy biomarkers in plasma and kidney were examined at the end of the experiment. The three doses of strawberry leaf extract significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule (Kim)-1, renal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)- 6 and caspase-3 in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma insulin, albumin, uric acid, renal catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were significantly elevated in diabetic rats treated with strawberry leaf extract. These results indicate the role of strawberry leaves extract as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  11. Characterization of green zero-valent iron nanoparticles produced with tree leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S; Pacheco, J G; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2015-11-15

    In the last decades nanotechnology has become increasingly important because it offers indisputable advantages to almost every area of expertise, including environmental remediation. In this area the synthesis of highly reactive nanomaterials (e.g. zero-valent iron nanoparticles, nZVI) is gaining the attention of the scientific community, service providers and other stakeholders. The synthesis of nZVI by the recently developed green bottom-up method is extremely promising. However, the lack of information about the characteristics of the synthetized particles hinders a wider and more extensive application. This work aims to evaluate the characteristics of nZVI synthesized through the green method using leaves from different trees. Considering the requirements of a product for environmental remediation the following characteristics were studied: size, shape, reactivity and agglomeration tendency. The mulberry and pomegranate leaf extracts produced the smallest nZVIs (5-10 nm), the peach, pear and vine leaf extracts produced the most reactive nZVIs while the ones produced with passion fruit, medlar and cherry extracts did not settle at high nZVI concentrations (931 and 266 ppm). Considering all tests, the nZVIs obtained from medlar and vine leaf extracts are the ones that could present better performances in the environmental remediation. The information gathered in this paper will be useful to choose the most appropriate leaf extracts and operational conditions for the application of the green nZVIs in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  13. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  14. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  15. Study of the Properties of Bearberry Leaf Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in Model Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Abdullah, Sureena; Shaarani, Shalyda Md; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-04-01

    The common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel) is a ubiquitous procumbent evergreen shrub located throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. The fruits are almost tasteless but the plant contains a high concentration of active ingredients. The antioxidant activity of bearberry leaf extract in the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay was 90.42 mmol Trolox equivalents/g dry weight (DW). The scavenging ability of the methanol extract of bearberry leaves against methoxy radicals generated in the Fenton reaction was measured via electron paramagnetic resonance. Lipid oxidation was retarded in an oil-water emulsion by adding 1 g/kg lyophilised bearberry leaf extract. Also, 1 g/kg of lyophilised bearberry leaf extract incorporated into a gelatin-based film displayed high antioxidant activity to retard the degradation of lipids in muscle foods. The present results indicate the potential of bearberry leaf extract for use as a natural food antioxidant.

  16. Study of the Properties of Bearberry Leaf Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in Model Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel is a ubiquitous procumbent evergreen shrub located throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. The fruits are almost tasteless but the plant contains a high concentration of active ingredients. The antioxidant activity of bearberry leaf extract in the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay was 90.42 mmol Trolox equivalents/g dry weight (DW. The scavenging ability of the methanol extract of bearberry leaves against methoxy radicals generated in the Fenton reaction was measured via electron paramagnetic resonance. Lipid oxidation was retarded in an oil–water emulsion by adding 1 g/kg lyophilised bearberry leaf extract. Also, 1 g/kg of lyophilised bearberry leaf extract incorporated into a gelatin-based film displayed high antioxidant activity to retard the degradation of lipids in muscle foods. The present results indicate the potential of bearberry leaf extract for use as a natural food antioxidant.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA MEDICINAL PLANT: SIDA CORDATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to relive pain etc. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or bioactive component for the treatment of different health probl ems at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity o f plant. Hence, the present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf & st em of Sida cordata, the study includes the preparation of different extracts leaf &stem by succe ssive solvent extraction method ,fluorescence analysis of successive extracts & the ir powder are noted under visible &UV light, which showed the visibility of varying colors. Furt her Phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem extracts of Sida cordata was carried out which conf irms the presence of primary metabolites like carbohydrates , amino acids, proteins etc and s econdary metabolites like the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin etc. Present study is designed t o explore the preliminary phyto-profile and phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem of Sida cordat a, which are responsible for its pharmacological properties

  18. Phylogenetic spectrum and analysis of antibacterial activities of leaf extracts from plants of the genus Rhododendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Ahmed; Nolzen, Jennifer; Schepker, Hartwig; Albach, Dirk C; Brix, Klaudia; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2015-03-18

    Plants are traditionally used for medicinal treatment of numerous human disorders including infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Due to the increasing resistance of many pathogens to commonly used antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Plants of the genus Rhododendron belong to the woody representatives of the family Ericaceae, which are typically used in a range of ethno-medical applications. There are more than one thousand Rhododendron species worldwide. The Rhododendron-Park Bremen grows plants representing approximately 600 of the known Rhododendron species, and thus enables research involving almost two thirds of all known Rhododendron species. Twenty-six bacterial species representing different taxonomic clades have been used to study the antimicrobial potential of Rhododendron leaf extracts. Agar diffusion assay were conducted using 80% methanol crude extracts derived from 120 Rhododendron species. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and the plant-borne antibacterial activities grouped according the first and second principal components. The leaf extracts of 17 Rhododendron species exhibited significant growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, only very few of the leaf extracts affected the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. All leaf extracts with antimicrobial bioactivity were extracted from representatives of the subgenus Rhododendron, with 15 from the sub-section Rhododendron and two belonging to the section Pogonanthum. The use of bacterial multidrug efflux pump mutants revealed remarkable differences in the susceptibility towards Rhododendron leaf extract treatment. For the first time, our comprehensive study demonstrated that compounds with antimicrobial activities accumulate in the leaves of certain Rhododendron species, which mainly belong to a particular subgenus. The results suggested that common genetic traits are responsible for the production of

  19. Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy; Siong, Julius Yong Fu; Syamsumir, Desy Fitrya

    2011-01-01

    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.

  20. Characterization of Anticancer, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Compositions of Peperomia Pellucida Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Fitrya Syamsumir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 10.4±0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88% was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31% and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z-, methyl ester (17.61%. Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.

  1. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  2. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  3. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enomfon J Akpan; Jude E Okokon; Emem Offong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  4. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    ... M.A and Odunola O.A. Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories, ... cancer (Wattenberg 1985, Popkin 2007). Several ... Aqueous and ethanol extraction methods used were ..... sanctum on dmba-induced hamster buccal pouch.

  5. In vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, half maximal inhibitory concentration ..... content in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging ... Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and.

  6. Anticonvulsive effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaf of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... In the pentylenetetrazol's model, the above protocol was conducted both in male and ... Furthermore, the extract increased the survival rates of the rats in all model used in this study.

  7. Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Amran, Adel A.; Rohela Mahmud; Zurainee M. Nor; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. The crude methanol extract of Piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) during early and established infections. The phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial eff...

  8. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  9. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  10. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further

  11. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  12. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract.

  13. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Jebanesan, A; Pushpanathan, T

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic leaf extract of Cassia fistula was tested for larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The extract was found to be more lethal to the larvae of A. stephensi than C. quinquefasciatus with LC(50) values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg/l, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The egg raft of C. quinquefasciatus was found to be more hatchable than A. stephensi. The results show that the leaf extract of C. fistula is promising as a larvicidal and ovicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi.

  14. Hepatoprotective Potential of Clitoria ternatea Leaf Extract Against Paracetamol Induced Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clitoria ternatea, a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C. ternatea against experimentally induced liver injury. Methods: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME of C. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. The hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice of ME of C. ternatea leaf was also studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and billirubin along with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 358.99 ± 6.21 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 123.75 ± 2.84 mg/g catechin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea leaf extract was 67.85% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 420.00 µg/mL. The results of the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with the ME of C. ternatea leaf (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (p < 0.01. C. ternatea leaf extract therapy also protective effects against histopathological alterations. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen. Conclusions: The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea leaf extract against the model hepatotoxicant paracetamol. The hepatoprotective action is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  15. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  16. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer.

  17. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles mediated by Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrah Eltayeb Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicated that extracellular synthesis of AgNPs mediated by E. camaldulensis leaf extract had an efficient bactericidal activity against the bacterial species tested. The exact mechanism of the extracellular biosynthesis of metal NP was not well understood. Further studies are needed to highlight the biosynthesis process of AgNPs and also to characterize the toxicity effect of these particles.

  18. Effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on Alzheimer' s Disease Model of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGQi-Hai; WUQin; HUANGXie-Nan; SUNAn-Sheng; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on the learning and memory in the Alzheimer disease (AD) model induced by aluminum salt in rats, and to examine the potential mechanisms. METHODS. The AD model of rats was induced by administration and drinking of aluminum chloride solution. The abilities of spatial leafing and

  19. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cells were then treated with prepared extracts of hemp (Canabis sativa) leaf ... neuron cells and immune cells [12]. The activation of these ... SW982 was acquired from ATCC® number HTB-. 93 and was ... in an equal volume. The mixture ...

  1. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.

  2. Essential Oil Constituents and Biological Activities of Leaf Extracts of Semenovia suffruticosa from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mottaghipisheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semenovia suffruticosa (Freyn et Bornm. Manden. is one of the species of genus Semenovia (Apiaceae family. The essential oil of S. suffruticosa was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main components were cis-β-ocimene (12.9%, linalool (9.5%, γ-terpinene (9.0% and α-terpinolene (7.4%, representing the 38.8% of the oil. Antibacterial activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was evaluated for the first time. The various extracts were tested by the disc-diffusion assay for antimicrobial activity against common animal and human infectious bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest sensitivity against the extracts, with a 13-15 mm zone of inhibition. Antiradical activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Ethanol extract was the most powerful free radical scavenger in all these methods. These results, though preliminary, suggest that leaf extracts of S. suffruticosa exert promising antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  3. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  4. Olive leaf extract activity against Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis - the in vitro viability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Nataša; Kopjar, Nevenka; Kraljić, Klara; Oršolić, Nada; Tomić, Siniša; Kosalec, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.

  5. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  6. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... extracts on the incidence of foliar myco-pathogens of ... were used to investigate their prophylactic effects on the incidence of ... Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) is a leguminous crop of ... Groundnut is being attacked by some plant pathogenic ... renewed interest in the use of natural products from.

  7. Antifertility potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. leaves: A folklore medicine used by Meena community in Rajasthan state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that hydro alcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leaves possess significant antifertility activity, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine of this plant in fertility regulation.

  8. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safaeian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of K. odoratissima extract in Dex-induced hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of this herbal medicine.

  9. In vitro Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 In vitro Cell Culture Laboratory, Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Department, Central Institute of. Medicinal ... studied. The plant leaves were prepared into three extract forms: ethanolic, aqueous, and hydroethanolic ... veneral diseases, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, .... makes it an ideal candidate for investigating the.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protection to the liver against damage or help to regenerate hepatic .... weight) was administered orally to five rats (one after the other at an .... fullness and loss of appetite after administration. (Joseph et al. ..... Effects of black tea extract on ...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CRUDE SHEABUTTER LEAF-EXTRACTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    *Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, FRIN P. M. B. 5054, Ibadan Nigeria ... dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, or ether extracts were higher (P < 0.05) for goats ... A concentrate-based feeding system for livestock production has several ... leaves, stems and roots of tropical trees and shrubs including the sheabutter tree; ...

  12. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The lipid-lowering effect of CAE was investigated in oleic acid ... HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ... and tissue damage [5,6]. Although ..... fruit extract increases insulin sensitivity and regulates.

  13. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Lantana camara leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajitha, B., E-mail: ajithabondu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sreedhara Reddy, P. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we have investigated on Lantana camara mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different leaf extract (LE) quantity for the evaluation of efficient bactericidal activity. The AgNPs were prepared by simple, capable, eco-friendly and biosynthesis method using L. camara LE. This method allowed the synthesis of crystalline nanoparticles, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of metallic silver and elucidates the surface state composition of AgNPs. UV–vis spectra of AgNPs and visual perception of brownish yellow color from colorless reaction mixture confirmed the AgNP formation. Involvement of functional groups of L. camara leaf extract in the reduction and capping process of nanoparticles was well displayed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Decrement of particle size with an increment of leaf extract volume was evident in AFM, TEM images and also through a blue shift in the UV–vis spectra. The rate of formation and size of AgNPs were dependent on LE quantity. Meanwhile, these AgNPs exhibited effective antibacterial activity with the decrement of particle size against all tested bacterial cultures. - Highlights: • Monodispersed AgNPs are synthesized using L. camara leaf extract. • The higher the L. camara content, the smaller the particle size. • Green synthesized AgNPs are found to be photoluminescent. • Size dependence of antibacterial activity is reported. • The nanoparticle stability is improved by leaf extract quantity.

  14. In Vitro Anti-leishmanial Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts From Six Iranian Medicinal Herbs on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiz Haddad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in 11 Iranian provinces, and almost 80% of all cases are the rural cutaneous form caused by Leishmania major. The main important drug used to treat leishmaniasis is a five-capacity antimony compound that has hinders disease recurrence, drug resistance, complications, and long treatment duration. Objectives It seems necessary to search for new, natural medicine to replace the use of drugs, particularly herbal compounds with no side effects. Materials and Methods Different dilutions of extracts were prepared with 1 mg/mL of the extracts in 96-well plates. Cultivated 106 Leishmania major promastigotes in culture flasks containing RPMI1640 medium and 10% of brain heart infusion (BHI were counted using neobar lam and poured into each well. Following 72 hours incubation, MTT solution was added to each well, and then absorbance was documented with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA reader at 570 nm. Results IC50 of Allium hirtifolium (87 μg/mL and Ziziphus spina-christi (112 μg/mL extracts showed higher efficiency in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes over 72 hours. Conclusions Allium hirtifolium and Z. spina-christi extracts showed the most efficient activity in the inhibition of promastigote growth, but this was not total. The remaining plant extracts indicated ineffective or very weak efficiency on the Leishmania promastigotes. There is a possibility of achieving better results by changing the extraction method; determining materials affecting promastigotes and extracting these materials exactly; or converting extracts to other medicinal forms, such as ointment or gel.

  15. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  16. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Abosede Wintola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2Ͳ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , nitric oxide (NO, lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33, flavonols (35.2, proanthocyanidins (171.06 and alkaloids (60.9 were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05 in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPHFNx01 and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT, gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study

  17. Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction temperature influences the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC of medicinal plant extracts to a great extend. TPC and TFC are the principle activity constituents present in the plant. The effects of extraction temperature on TPC, TFC and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts are worth to study. Materials and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay were used to determine the TPC and TFC of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and phosphomolybdenum methods. Results: TPC and TFC were significantly elevated with increasing extraction temperature (from 40°C to 100°C. However, TPC and TFC were not significantly different (P > 0.05 at the extraction temperatures 90°C and 100°C. Also, the extracts obtained at a higher temperature exhibited a significant free radical-scavenging activity compared with extraction at lower temperatures (P < 0.05. The TPCs (13.95-36.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry material were highly correlated with DPPH (R2 = 0.9229, ABTS (R2 = 0.9951 free radical-scavenging capacity, and total antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9872 evaluated by phosphomolybdenum method. Conclusion: The TPC and TFC of G. divaricata leaf was significantly influenced by the extraction temperatures, which were the main antioxidant constituents present in the G. divaricata plant.

  18. Pre-clinical toxicity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Dória, Grace Anne Azevedo; Jesus, Josepha Yohanna de; de Melo, Marcelia Garcez Dória; Santos, João Paulo Almeida dos; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; FONSECA, Maria José Vieira; Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia leaves (AEMC) by determining its potential toxicity after acute administration (5 g/kg) in rodents and cytotoxic studies. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to 14 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters were determined after 14 days. Cytotoxic effects of the AEMC were determined by spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoli...

  19. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  20. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

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