WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydroacoustic coverage assessment

  1. Hydroacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Orcutt, John

    2001-01-01

    In September 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), prohibiting nuclear explosions worldwide, in all environments. The treaty calls for a global verification system, including a network of 321 monitoring stations distributed around the globe, a data communications network, an international data centre (IDC), and on-site inspections, to verify compliance. A global hydroacoustic monitoring system is being planned and implemented for verification of the CTBT. Much of the research conducted over the past several decades on acoustic surveillance of the oceans, formerly driven by the need to detect and track submarines, is now being applied to the development of effective monitoring methods to verify compliance with the CTBT. The aim of this volume on Hydroacoustic Monitoring of the CTBT is to summarize the research being conducted in this field and to provide basic references for future research. Much of the new research emphasizes major advances in understanding the coupling of ocean acoustic waves with elastic waves in the solid Earth. Topics covered include source excitation, detection and classification of events generating hydroacoustic signals, discrimination between underwater explosions and naturally occurring events, as well as topics in coupling of acoustic to seismic wave fields. (author)

  2. BBN technical memorandum W1310 hydroacoustic network capability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, J., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes work performed under contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the period 1 August to 30 November 1997. Four separate tasks were undertaken during this period which investigated various aspects of hydroacoustic network performance using the Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM). The purpose of this report is to document each of these tasks.

  3. Statistical assessment of fish behavior from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Simmons, Carver S.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for using echo-traces from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling to assess fish behavior in response to a stimulus. The data presented are from a study designed to assess the response of free-ranging, lake-resident fish, primarily kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to high intensity strobe lights, and was conducted at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Northern Washington State. The lights were deployed immediately upstream from the turbine intakes, in a region exposed to daily alternating periods of high and low flows. The study design included five down-looking split-beam transducers positioned in a line at incremental distances upstream from the strobe lights, and treatments applied in randomized pseudo-replicate blocks. Statistical methods included the use of odds-ratios from fitted loglinear models. Fish-track velocity vectors were modeled using circular probability distributions. Both analyses are depicted graphically. Study results suggest large increases of fish activity in the presence of the strobe lights, most notably at night and during periods of low flow. The lights also induced notable bimodality in the angular distributions of the fish track velocity vectors. Statistical/SUMmaries are presented along with interpretations on fish behavior

  4. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  5. The vertical distribution of fish in the open water area of a deep temperate mesotrophic lake assessed by hydroacoustics and midwater trawling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Brämick, U.; Draštík, Vladislav; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Kubečka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 509-525 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600960901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : smelt * vendace * trawling * hydroacoustics * Lake Werbellin Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.870, year: 2012

  6. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. original article assessment of effective coverage of hiv prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    BACKGROUND: Coverage assessment of prevention of Pregnant Mother to Child Transmission. (PMTCT) of HIV service is useful to measure the health system effort or performance of health service delivery function and ... anti retroviral drugs, breast-feeding counseling and ... care service coverage to develop appropriate.

  8. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  9. Estimating abundance of adult striped bass in reservoirs using mobile hydroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Degan, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys have proven valuable for estimating reservoir forage fish abundance but are more challenging for adult predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis. Difficulties in assessing striped bass in reservoirs include their low density and the inability to distinguish species with hydroacoustic data alone. Despite these difficulties, mobile hydroacoustic surveys have potential to provide useful data for management because of the large sample volume compared to traditional methods such as gill netting and the ability to target specific areas where striped bass are aggregated. Hydroacoustic estimates of reservoir striped bass have been made using mobile surveys, with data analysis using a threshold for target strength in order to focus on striped bass-sized targets, and auxiliary sampling with nets to obtain species composition. We provide recommendations regarding survey design, based in part on simulations that provide insight on the level of effort that would be required to achieve reasonable estimates of abundance. Future surveys may be able to incorporate telemetry or other sonar techniques such as side-scan or multibeam in order to focus survey efforts on productive habitats (within lake and vertically). However, species apportionment will likely remain the main source of error, and we see no hydroacoustic system on the horizon that will identify fish by species at the spatial and temporal scale required for most reservoir surveys. In situations where species composition can be reliably assessed using traditional gears, abundance estimates from hydroacoustic methods should be useful to fishery managers interested in developing harvest regulations, assessing survival of stocked juveniles, identifying seasonal aggregations, and examining predator–prey balance.

  10. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish biomass and spatial distributions in shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuxi; Huang, Geng; Godlewska, Małgorzata; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Chang; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Jiashou; Li, Zhongjie

    2018-03-01

    We conducted acoustical surveys with a horizontal beam transducer to detect fish and with a vertical beam transducer to detect depth and macrophytes in two typical shallow lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River in November 2013. Both lakes are subject to active fish management with annual stocking and removal of large fish. The purpose of the study was to compare hydroacoustic horizontal beam estimates with fish landings. The preliminary results show that the fish distribution patterns differed in the two lakes and were affected by water depth and macrophyte coverage. The hydroacoustically estimated fish biomass matched the commercial catch very well in Niushan Lake, but it was two times higher in Kuilei Lake. However, acoustic estimates included all fish, whereas the catch included only fish >45 cm (smaller ones were released). We were unable to determine the proper regression between acoustic target strength and fish length for the dominant fish species in the two lakes.

  11. Automatic cloud coverage assessment of Formosat-2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2011-11-01

    Formosat-2 satellite equips with the high-spatial-resolution (2m ground sampling distance) remote sensing instrument. It has been being operated on the daily-revisiting mission orbit by National Space organization (NSPO) of Taiwan since May 21 2004. NSPO has also serving as one of the ground receiving stations for daily processing the received Formosat- 2 images. The current cloud coverage assessment of Formosat-2 image for NSPO Image Processing System generally consists of two major steps. Firstly, an un-supervised K-means method is used for automatically estimating the cloud statistic of Formosat-2 image. Secondly, manual estimation of cloud coverage from Formosat-2 image is processed by manual examination. Apparently, a more accurate Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) method certainly increases the efficiency of processing step 2 with a good prediction of cloud statistic. In this paper, mainly based on the research results from Chang et al, Irish, and Gotoh, we propose a modified Formosat-2 ACCA method which considered pre-processing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, cloud statistic is determined by using un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, Otsu's method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method. Box-Counting fractal method is considered as a post-processing tool to double check the results of pre-processing analysis for increasing the efficiency of manual examination.

  12. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  13. Hydroacoustic registration of fish abundance of offshore wind farms. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidt, C.B.; Bruenner, L.; Reier Knudsen, F.

    2005-05-15

    Elsam Engineering AS has approved the implementation of a project concerning the registration of fish communities in Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm with use of hydroacoustic methods. In a joint effort, Bio/consult as, Carl Bro as and SIMRAD AS have monitored the fish communities at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm using a new hydroacoustic methodology. The new hydroacoustic technique combines the use of scientific sonar acoustics with GPS to determine the density, diversity and location of fish. The objectives of this project were to test the possibility of using hydroacoustic techniques as alternative methods to traditional techniques to assess the fish assemblage inhabiting offshore wind farms and to investigate the possible effect from the wind farm and hard bottom substrates (turbine foundations) on fish abundance. The field study was carried out October 9-10, 2004 and consisted of four horizontal hydroacoustic survey transects each covering impact and reference areas. Transects were surveyed in order to achieve identical impact and reference transect pairs concerning environment, topography and time correspondence. The hydroacoustic equipment consisted of a SIMRAD EK60/EY60 echo sounder with a split-beam transducer (Simrad ES 120-4x10) mounted on a pan and tilt unit, a transceiver, a laptop extended with a GPS-receiver and additional large external hard discs. The raw data files from EK60 were converted to echogram files suitable for the post processing application, Sonar5-Pro. The Sonar5-Pro software makes it possible to filter out echo detections from the surface and the bottom, as well as perform cross filter detection. The validity of the results using the hydroacoustic method is high due to the cross filtering and single target tracking technique. From the hydroacoustic results, no or very little effect from the wind farm or from hard bottom substrates was found on the fish densities at Horns Rev Wind Farm at the time of the survey. The execution of the field

  14. Hydroacoustic Estimates of Fish Density Distributions in Cougar Reservoir, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Batten, George W.; Mitchell, T. D.

    2012-09-01

    Day and night mobile hydroacoustic surveys were conducted once each month from April through December 2011 to quantify the horizontal and vertical distributions of fish throughout Cougar Reservoir, Lane County, Oregon.

  15. Methods used for immunization coverage assessment in Canada, a Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeff; Tu, Karen; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-08-03

    Accurate and complete immunization data are necessary to assess vaccine coverage, safety and effectiveness. Across Canada, different methods and data sources are used to assess vaccine coverage, but these have not been systematically described. Our primary objective was to examine and describe the methods used to determine immunization coverage in Canada. The secondary objective was to compare routine infant and childhood coverage estimates derived from the Canadian 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (cNICS) with estimates collected from provinces and territories (P/Ts). We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal methods for assessing immunization coverage. We also collected P/T coverage estimates for select antigens and birth cohorts to determine absolute differences between these and estimates from cNICS. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated between April and August 2015. Coverage surveys are conducted regularly for toddlers in Quebec and in one health authority in British Columbia. Across P/Ts, different methodologies for measuring coverage are used (e.g., valid doses, grace periods). Most P/Ts, except Ontario, measure up-to-date (UTD) coverage and 4 P/Ts also assess on-time coverage. The degree of concordance between P/T and cNICS coverage estimates varied by jurisdiction, antigen and age group. In addition to differences in the data sources and processes used for coverage assessment, there are also differences between Canadian P/Ts in the methods used for calculating immunization coverage. Comparisons between P/T and cNICS estimates leave remaining questions about the proportion of children fully vaccinated in Canada.

  16. Remote sensing using hydroacoustics preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.; Patrick, P.H.; Sim, B.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the capability and accuracy of a dual beam sonar system in classifying various targets. The ability to classify fish and/or distinguish fish from debris is essential if hydroacoustics are ever to be used truly remotely for hydroelectric power plant fish passage facilities. Preliminary results indicated that considerable filtering was occurring in the sonar sounder which limited its use in target classification. A wideband sonar detection module was developed which allowed for a more detailed reflected signal which probably will be necessary for fish identification. Another advantage that this modification appears to have over the existing system is an improved spatial resolution of targets, which can be significant if biomass estimates are based on echo counting techniques rather than echo integration ones. Based on the results, it may be possible to filter out or remove the influence of air bubbles in echo returns. As a result echo counts could more accurately be defined as fish counts. Target strengths of sturgeon were estimated using both the modified and original sounder. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Renee; Cohen, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates among adults aged 65 or older from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to assess the impact of a recently added Medicare probe question on the validity of these estimates. Data sources Linked 2005 NHIS and Master Beneficiary Record and Payment History Update System files from the Social Security Administration (SSA). Study design We compared Medicare coverage reported on NHIS with “benchmark” benefit records from SSA. Principal findings With the addition of the probe question, more reports of coverage were captured, and the agreement between the NHIS-reported coverage and SSA records increased from 88% to 95%. Few additional overreports were observed. Conclusions Increased accuracy of the Medicare coverage status of NHIS participants was achieved with the Medicare probe question. Though some misclassification remains, data users interested in Medicare coverage as an outcome or correlate can use this survey measure with confidence. PMID:24800138

  18. Assessment of redundant systems with imperfect coverage by means of binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Albert F. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 1840 Century Park East, Los Angeles, CA 90067-2199 (United States)], E-mail: Al.Myers@ngc.com; Rauzy, Antoine [IML/CNRS, 163, Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: arauzy@iml.univ-mrs.fr

    2008-07-15

    In this article, we study the assessment of the reliability of redundant systems with imperfect fault coverage. We term fault coverage as the ability of a system to isolate and correctly accommodate failures of redundant elements. For highly reliable systems, such as avionic and space systems, fault coverage is in general imperfect and has a significant impact on system reliability. We review here the different models of imperfect fault coverage. We propose efficient algorithms to assess them separately (as k-out-of-n selectors). We show how to implement these algorithms into a binary decision diagrams engine. Finally, we report experimental results on real life test cases that show on the one hand the importance of imperfect coverage and on the other hand the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  19. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  20. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunisation coverage: increasing rapidity and maintaining precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Vaccination programmes targeting disease elimination aim to achieve very high coverage levels (e.g. 95%). We calculated the precision of different clustered lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) designs in computer-simulated surveys to provide local health officers in the field with preset LQAS plans to simply and rapidly assess programmes with high coverage targets. We calculated sample size (N), decision value (d) and misclassification errors (alpha and beta) of several LQAS plans by running 10 000 simulations. We kept the upper coverage threshold (UT) at 90% or 95% and decreased the lower threshold (LT) progressively by 5%. We measured the proportion of simulations with d unvaccinated individuals if the coverage was LT% (pLT) to calculate alpha (1-pLT). We divided N in clusters (between 5 and 10) and recalculated the errors hypothesising that the coverage would vary in the clusters according to a binomial distribution with preset standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.1 from the mean lot coverage. We selected the plans fulfilling these criteria: alpha LQAS plans dividing the lot in five clusters with N = 50 (5 x 10) and d = 4 to evaluate programmes with 95% coverage target and d = 7 to evaluate programmes with 90% target. These plans will considerably increase the feasibility and the rapidity of conducting the LQAS in the field.

  1. Coverage of endangered species in environmental risk assessments at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The EFSA performs environmental risk assessment (ERA) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives, and for invasive alien species that are harmful to plant health. This ERA focusses primarily on the use or spread of such

  2. Dominant frames in legacy and social media coverage of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Saffron; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Kurz, Tim; Wiersma, Bouke; Boykoff, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The media are powerful agents that translate information across the science-policy interface, framing it for audiences. Yet frames are never neutral: they define an issue, identify causes, make moral judgements and shape proposed solutions. Here, we show how the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was framed in UK and US broadcast and print coverage, and on Twitter. Coverage of IPCC Working Group I (WGI) was contested and politicized, employing the `Settled Science, Uncertain Science, Political or Ideological Struggle and Role of Science’ frames. WGII coverage commonly used Disaster or Security. More diverse frames were employed for WGII and WGIII, including Economics and Morality and Ethics. Framing also varied by media institution: for example, the BBC used Uncertain Science, whereas Channel 4 did not. Coverage varied by working group, with WGIII gaining far less coverage than WGI or WGII. We suggest that media coverage and framing of AR5 was influenced by its sequential three-part structure and by the availability of accessible narratives and visuals. We recommend that these communication lessons be applied to future climate science reports.

  3. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  4. Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

  5. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI, is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million mobile phone users. An easy-to-implement method is also developed to extract the transit information and driving routes for millions of requests. Then the trip coverage of each OD pair is calculated. For demonstrative purposes, TCI is applied to the transit network of Hangzhou, China. The results show that TCI represents the better transit trip coverage and provides a more powerful assessment tool of transit quality of service. Since the calculation is based on trips of all modes, but not only the transit trips, TCI offers an overall accessibility for the transit system performance. It enables decision makers to assess transit accessibility in a finer-grained manner on the individual trip level and can be well transformed to measure transit services of other cities.

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  7. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  8. Seismic and hydroacoustic analysis relevant to MH370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-03

    The vicinity of the Indian Ocean is searched for open and readily available seismic and/or hydroacoustic stations that might have recorded a possible impact of MH370 with the ocean surface. Only three stations are identified: the IMS hydrophone arrays H01 and H08, and the Geoscope seismic station AIS. Analysis of the data from these stations shows an interesting arrival on H01 that has some interference from an Antarctic ice event, large amplitude repeating signals at H08 that obscure any possible arrivals, and large amplitude chaotic noise at AIS precludes any analysis at higher frequencies of interest. The results are therefore rather inconclusive but may point to a more southerly impact location within the overall Indian Ocean search region. The results would be more useful if they can be combined with any other data that are not readily available.

  9. USGS HYDRoacoustic dataset in support of the Surface Water Oceanographic Topography satellite mission (HYDRoSWOT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — HYDRoSWOT – HYDRoacoustic dataset in support of Surface Water Oceanographic Topography – is a data set that aggregates channel and flow data collected from the USGS...

  10. Peace journalism applied: An assessment of media coverage of the conflict in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nassanga Goretti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how peace journalism has been applied in Uganda basing on an assessment of findings from a survey on the media coverage of the conflict in northern Uganda. The paper analyses the findings from the print media coverage of 2 newspapers for 3 years that were used as sample. The analysis considered several quantitative and qualitative variables including: frequency, type of stories (news vs non-news, authors of stories (journalists vs non-journalists, placement/prominence of story, balance in the story, information sources, language and tone, focus, peace initiatives and use of photographs. The introduction gives an overview of the concept of conflict and why we continue to have conflicts in society. The paper posits that since all people in society cannot have the same definition of a situation all the time, especially regarding the distribution of power and resources, disagreements and conflicts arise, which in extreme cases escalate into armed conflicts or wars. The paper looks at the major causes of conflicts in Africa and gives a background to the conflict/war in Northern Uganda, where the fighting has been going on since 1986, when President Museveni took over power. A synopsis of the findings showed that most of the coverage on the war was done by journalists in the form of news stories, with a few feature articles. This implies that journalists are largely responsible for what people get to learn about the war. Depending on the way journalists report about the conflict, people's perceptions will be influenced accordingly. The analysis showed that the government paper was largely biased towards government and confrontational in its reports, while the private paper used a more conciliatory tone and was more balanced by using various sources for their stories. There was fair coverage of peace initiatives, although this focused most on government efforts. An evaluation of the coverage showed that this had its strengths and

  11. Hydroacoustic assessment of pelagic stages of freshwater insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečka, Jan; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Čech, Martin; Peterka, Jiří; Ketelaars, H. A. M.; Wagenwoort, J.; Papáček, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 13 (2000), s. 361-366 ISSN 0990-7440 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017901; GA ČR GA206/97/0072; GA ČR GA206/99/0405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 123100004 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.942, year: 2000

  12. Assessing government’s fiscal space for moving towards universal health coverage in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouland Thin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In line with the global trend, it becomes clear that the Cambodian government’s policy direction is leaning toward universal health coverage, the agreed target within the newly ratified Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, the health system will need to be further reformed to achieve this target by 2030. To assess if the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of the total government expenditure, this study will evaluate the government’s fiscal space and propose feasible options where and to what extent new resources can be generated for improving the health system. Design The data used for this analysis were obtained from World Bank online database and a series of Cambodia’s economic updates produced by the World Bank office in Cambodia. We observed the trends over time from 2011 to 2018 to provide insights into the extent to which fiscal space for health can be expanded. Findings By assessing the key fiscal indicators, it is unlikely that the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of its total budget in the short run. Health budget is increased in absolute terms but not in real terms, which is linked tightly to the predicted 7% economic growth per annum. Conclusion The proportion of health budget from now until 2018 is expected to remain the same, and the revenues raised through pre‐payment mechanisms are still too small to address the pressing issues in the current health system. The Ministry of Health could benefit from putting a much stronger effort on improving efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources, as well as transparency and accountability, to achieve the immediate objectives for universal health coverage.

  13. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  14. Size-based hydroacoustic measures of within-season fish abundance in a boreal freshwater ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley A Pollom

    Full Text Available Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067 x day(-1 for the smallest fish to -0.016 x day(-1 for the largest (R2 = 0.24-0.97. Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm, mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001 x day(-1 and overall survival higher (71% than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038 x day(-1; survival 33%. We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Size-based hydroacoustic measures of within-season fish abundance in a boreal freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollom, Riley A; Rose, George A

    2015-01-01

    Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log) declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067 x day(-1) for the smallest fish to -0.016 x day(-1) for the largest (R2 = 0.24-0.97). Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm), mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001 x day(-1)) and overall survival higher (71%) than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038 x day(-1); survival 33%). We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Assessing the value of the NHIS for studying changes in state coverage policies: the case of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K; Graves, John A; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    (1) To assess the effects of New York's Health Care Reform Act of 2000 on the insurance coverage of eligible adults and (2) to explore the feasibility of using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as opposed to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to conduct evaluations of state health reform initiatives. We take advantage of the natural experiment that occurred in New York to compare health insurance coverage for adults before and after the state implemented its coverage initiative using a difference-in-differences framework. We estimate the effects of New York's initiative on insurance coverage using the NHIS, comparing the results to estimates based on the CPS, the most widely used data source for studies of state coverage policy changes. Although the sample sizes are smaller in the NHIS, the NHIS addresses a key limitation of the CPS for such evaluations by providing a better measure of health insurance status. Given the complexity of the timing of the expansion efforts in New York (which encompassed the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks), we allow for difference in the effects of the state's policy changes over time. In particular, we allow for differences between the period of Disaster Relief Medicaid (DRM), which was a temporary program implemented immediately after September 11th, and the original components of the state's reform efforts-Family Health Plus (FHP), an expansion of direct Medicaid coverage, and Healthy New York (HNY), an effort to make private coverage more affordable. 2000-2004 CPS; 1999-2004 NHIS. We find evidence of a significant reduction in uninsurance for parents in New York, particularly in the period following DRM. For childless adults, for whom the coverage expansion was more circumscribed, the program effects are less promising, as we find no evidence of a significant decline in uninsurance. The success of New York at reducing uninsurance for parents through expansions of both public and private coverage offers hope for new

  17. An Assessment of Media Coverage of the B-2 Stealth Bomber

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    15 Sharon M. Friedman, Carole M. Gorney, and Brenda P. Egolf, "Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage," Journal of...Mitterrand," Political Science Quarterly, 39 (1987): 103-122. 1 29 Jane Blankenship, Serefa Mendez - Mendez , Jong Guen King and Joseph Giodan, "Initial... Carole M. Gorney and Brenda P. Egolf, "Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage," Journal of Communication, Summer3 (1987

  18. Innovative Models of Dental Care Delivery and Coverage: Patient-Centric Dental Benefits Based on Digital Oral Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Mills, Shannon; Foley, Mary E

    2018-04-01

    Innovative models of dental care delivery and coverage are emerging across oral health care systems causing changes to treatment and benefit plans. A novel addition to these models is digital risk assessment, which offers a promising new approach that incorporates the use of a cloud-based technology platform to assess an individual patient's risk for oral disease. Risk assessment changes treatment by including risk as a modifier of treatment and as a determinant of preventive services. Benefit plans are being developed to use risk assessment to predetermine preventive benefits for patients identified at elevated risk for oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  20. Hydroacoustic modelling and numerical simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems[Dissertation 3713

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, Ch.

    2007-03-15

    Hydropower represented in 1999 19% of the world electricity production and the absolute production is expected to grow considerably during the next 30 years. Francis turbines play a major role in the hydroelectric production due to their extended range of application. Due to the deregulated energy market, hydroelectric power plants are increasingly subjecting to off design operation, start-up and shutdown and new control strategies. Consequently, the operation of Francis turbine power plants leads to transients phenomena, risk of resonance or instabilities. The understanding of these propagation phenomena is therefore paramount. This work is a contribution to the hydroacoustic modelling of Francis turbine power plants for the investigation of the aforementioned problematic. The first part of the document presents the modelling of the dynamic behavior and the transient analysis of hydroelectric power plants. Therefore, the one-dimensional model of an elementary pipe is derived from the governing equations, i.e. momentum and continuity equations. The use of appropriate numerical schemes leads to a discrete model of the pipe consisting of a T-shaped equivalent electrical circuit. The accuracy in the frequency domain of the discrete model of the pipe is determined by comparison with the analytical solution of the governing equations. The modelling approach is extended to hydraulic components such as valve, surge tanks, surge shaft, air vessels, cavitation development, etc. Then, the modelling of the Francis, Pelton and Kaplan turbines for transient analysis purposes is presented. This modelling is based on the use of the static characteristic of the turbines. The hydraulic components models are implemented in the EPFL software SIMSEN developed for the simulation of electrical installations. After validation of the hydraulic models, transient phenomena in hydroelectric power plants are investigated. It appears that standard separate studies of either the hydraulic or of

  1. Assessing coverage, equity and quality gaps in maternal and neonatal care in sub-saharan Africa: an integrated approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calistus Wilunda

    Full Text Available Gaps in coverage, equity and quality of health services hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa as well as in other high-burden countries, yet few studies attempt to assess all these dimensions as part of the situation analysis. We present the base-line data of a project aimed at simultaneously addressing coverage, equity and quality issues in maternal and neonatal health care in five districts belonging to three African countries.Data were collected in cross-sectional studies with three types of tools. Coverage was assessed in three hospitals and 19 health centres (HCs utilising emergency obstetric and newborn care needs assessment tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program. Emergency obstetrics care (EmOC indicators were calculated. Equity was assessed in three hospitals and 13 HCs by means of proxy wealth indices and women delivering in health facilities were compared with those in the general population to identify inequities. Quality was assessed in three hospitals using the World Health Organization's maternal and neonatal quality of hospital care assessment tool which evaluates the whole range of aspects of obstetric and neonatal care and produces an average score for each main area of care.All the three hospitals qualified as comprehensive EmOC facilities but none of the HCs qualified for basic EmOC. None of the districts met the minimum requisites for EmOC indicators. In two out of three hospitals, there were major quality gaps which were generally greater in neonatal care, management of emergency and complicated cases and monitoring. Higher access to care was coupled by low quality and good quality by very low access. Stark inequities in utilisation of institutional delivery care were present in all districts and across all health facilities, especially at hospital level.Our findings confirm the existence of serious issues regarding coverage

  2. Using DNA barcoding to assess Caribbean reef fish biodiversity: expanding taxonomic and geographic coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A Weigt

    Full Text Available This paper represents a DNA barcode data release for 3,400 specimens representing 521 species of fishes from 6 areas across the Caribbean and western central Atlantic regions (FAO Region 31. Merged with our prior published data, the combined efforts result in 3,964 specimens representing 572 species of marine fishes and constitute one of the most comprehensive DNA barcoding "coverages" for a region reported to date. The barcode data are providing new insights into Caribbean shorefish diversity, allowing for more and more accurate DNA-based identifications of larvae, juveniles, and unknown specimens. Examples are given correcting previous work that was erroneous due to database incompleteness.

  3. Inferred fish behavior its implications for hydroacoustic surveys in nearshore habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Qian, Song S.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kraus, Richard T.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Warner, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Population availability and vessel avoidance effects on hydroacoustic abundance estimates may be scale dependent; therefore, it is important to evaluate these biases across systems. We performed an inter-ship comparison survey to determine the effect of vessel size, day-night period, depth, and environmental gradients on walleye (Sander vitreus) density estimates in Lake Erie, an intermediate-scaled system. Consistent near-bottom depth distributions coupled with horizontal fish movements relative to vessel paths indicated avoidance behavior contributed to higher walleye densities from smaller vessels in shallow water (i.e., abundance estimates. Quantifying availability and avoidance behavior effects and partitioning sources of variation provides informed flexibility for designing future hydroacoustic surveys in shallow-water nearshore environments.

  4. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish stocks in temperate reservoirs: day or night surveys?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Draštík, Vladislav; Kubečka, Jan; Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Říha, Milan; Jůza, Tomáš; Tušer, Michal; Jarolím, Oldřich; Prchalová, Marie; Peterka, Jiří; Vašek, Mojmír; Kratochvíl, Michal; Matěna, Josef; Mrkvička, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 69-77 ISSN 0990-7440 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : hydroacoustics * fish biomass * diel migration * man-made lake Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2009

  5. Assessing the universal health coverage target in the Sustainable Development Goals from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2016-12-15

    The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015, include a comprehensive health goal, "to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages." The health goal (SDG 3) has nine substantive targets and four additional targets which are identified as a means of implementation. One of these commitments, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), has been acknowledged as central to the achievement of all of the other health targets. As defined in the SDGs, UHC includes financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. This article evaluates the extent to which the UHC target in the SDGs conforms with the requirements of the right to health enumerated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments and interpreted by international human rights bodies. It does so as a means to identify strengths and weaknesses in the framing of the UHC target that are likely to affect its implementation. While UHC as defined in the SDGs overlaps with human rights standards, there are important human rights omissions that will likely weaken the implementation and reduce the potential benefits of the UHC target. The most important of these is the failure to confer priority to providing access to health services to poor and disadvantaged communities in the process of expanding health coverage and in determining which health services to provide. Unless the furthest behind are given priority and strategies adopted to secure their participation in the development of national health plans, the SDGs, like the MDGs, are likely to leave the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities behind.

  6. 42 CFR 416.52 - Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recently documented medical history and physical assessment, including documentation of any allergies to drugs and biologicals. (3) The patient's medical history and physical assessment must be placed in the... comprehensive medical history and physical assessment completed by a physician (as defined in section 1861(r) of...

  7. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of universal health coverage is to “ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.” There are many connections between this goal and the state’s legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of this goal, it is important to assess private actors’ involvement in the health sector. For example, private actors may not always have the incentives to deal with externalities that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care services; they may not be in a position to provide “public goods”; or they may operate under imperfect information. This paper sets out to answer the question, what legal human rights obligations do states have in terms of regulating private sector involvement in health care? PMID:28559678

  8. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallo De Wolf, Antenor; Toebes, Brigit

    2016-12-01

    The goal of universal health coverage is to "ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them." There are many connections between this goal and the state's legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of this goal, it is important to assess private actors' involvement in the health sector. For example, private actors may not always have the incentives to deal with externalities that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care services; they may not be in a position to provide "public goods"; or they may operate under imperfect information. This paper sets out to answer the question, what legal human rights obligations do states have in terms of regulating private sector involvement in health care?

  9. Percent Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...

  10. Hydroacoustic pile driving noise study - comprehensive report : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Alaska DOT&PF and JASCO Applied Sciences partnered to characterize underwater noise from pile driving activities to inform the assessment of the potential impact of such noise on marine mammals. JASCO measured underwater sounds at the Kake, Auke Bay,...

  11. Health technology assessment in Switzerland: a descriptive analysis of “Coverage with Evidence Development” decisions from 1996 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Urs; Horisberger, Bruno; Ruckstuhl, Alexander; Plessow, Rafael; Eichler, Klaus; Gratwohl, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with the decisions of the Federal Department of Home Affairs concerning coverage with evidence development (CED) for contested novel medical technologies in Switzerland. Design Quantitative, retrospective, descriptive analysis of publicly available material and prospective, structured, qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Setting All 152 controversial medical services decided on by the Federal Commission on Health Insurance Benefits within the framework of the new federal law on health insurance in Switzerland from 1997 to 2013, with focus on 33 technologies assigned initially to CED and 33 to evidence development without coverage. Main outcome measures Factors associated with numbers and type of contested services assigned to CED per year, the duration and final outcome of the evaluations and perceptions of key stakeholders. Results The rate of CED decisions (82 total; median 1.5/year; range 0–9/year), the time to final decision (4.5 years median; 0.75 to +11 years) and the probability of a final ‘yes’ varied over time. In logistic regression models, the change of office of the commission provided the best explanation for the observed outcomes. Good intentions but absence of scientific criteria for decisions were reported as major comments by the stakeholders. Conclusions The introduction of CED enabled access to some promising technologies early in their life cycle, and might have triggered establishment of registries and research. Impact on patients’ outcome and costs remain unknown. The primary association of institutional changes with measured end points illustrates the need for evaluation of the current health technology assessment (HTA) system. PMID:25818273

  12. Comprehensive irradiation of head and neck cancer using conformal multisegmental fields: assessment of target coverage and noninvolved tissue sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Marsh, Lon H.; Martel, Mary K.; Ship, Jonathan A.; Haken, Randall ten; Pu, Anthony T.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Lichter, Allen S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal treatment using static multisegmental intensity modulation was developed for patients requiring comprehensive irradiation for head and neck cancer. The major aim is sparing major salivary gland function while adequately treating the targets. To assess the adequacy of the conformal plans regarding target coverage and dose homogeneity, they were compared with standard irradiation plans. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with stage III/IV head and neck cancer requiring comprehensive, bilateral neck irradiation participated in this study. CT-based treatment plans included five to six nonopposed fields, each having two to four in-field segments. Fields and segments were devised using beam's eye views of the planning target volumes (PTVs), noninvolved organs, and isodose surfaces, to achieve homogeneous dose distribution that encompassed the targets and spared major salivary gland tissue. For comparison, standard three-field radiation plans were devised retrospectively for each patient, with the same CT-derived targets used for the clinical (conformal) plans. Saliva flow rates from each major salivary gland were measured before and periodically after treatment. Results: On average, the minimal dose to the primary PTVs in the conformal plans [95.2% of the prescribed dose, standard deviation (SD) 4%] was higher than in the standard plans (91%, SD 7%; p = 0.02), and target volumes receiving <95% or <90% of the prescribed dose were smaller in the conformal plans (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Similar advantages of the conformal plans compared to standard plans were found in ipsilateral jugular nodes PTV coverage. The reason for underdosing in the standard treatment plans was primarily failure of electron beams to fully encompass targets. No significant differences were found in contralateral jugular or posterior neck nodes coverage. The minimal dose to the retropharyngeal nodes was higher in the standard plans. However, all conformal plans

  13. Fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring designs for estimating fish passage using stratified random and systematic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Hoffman, A.; Ransom, B.H.; Steig, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five alternate sampling designs are compared using 15 d of 24-h continuous hydroacoustic data to identify the most favorable approach to fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring of salmonid outmigrants. Four alternative aproaches to systematic sampling are compared among themselves and with stratified random sampling (STRS). Stratifying systematic sampling (STSYS) on a daily basis is found to reduce sampling error in multiday monitoring studies. Although sampling precision was predictable with varying levels of effort in STRS, neither magnitude nor direction of change in precision was predictable when effort was varied in systematic sampling (SYS). Furthermore, modifying systematic sampling to include replicated (e.g., nested) sampling (RSYS) is further shown to provide unbiased point and variance estimates as does STRS. Numerous short sampling intervals (e.g., 12 samples of 1-min duration per hour) must be monitored hourly using RSYS to provide efficient, unbiased point and interval estimates. For equal levels of effort, STRS outperformed all variations of SYS examined. Parametric approaches to confidence interval estimates are found to be superior to nonparametric interval estimates (i.e., bootstrap and jackknife) in estimating total fish passage. 10 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  14. Inferred fish behavior its implications for hydroacoustic surveys in nearshore habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Qian, Song S.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kraus, Richard T.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Warner, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Population availability and vessel avoidance effects on hydroacoustic abundance estimates may be scale dependent; therefore, it is important to evaluate these biases across systems. We performed an inter-ship comparison survey to determine the effect of vessel size, day-night period, depth, and environmental gradients on walleye (Sander vitreus) density estimates in Lake Erie, an intermediate-scaled system. Consistent near-bottom depth distributions coupled with horizontal fish movements relative to vessel paths indicated avoidance behavior contributed to higher walleye densities from smaller vessels in shallow water (i.e., <15 m), although the difference decreased with increasing depth. Diel bank migrations in response to seasonally varying onshore-to-offshore environmental gradients likely contributed to day-night differences in densities between sampling locations and seasons. Spatial and unexplained variation accounted for a high proportion of total variation; however, increasing sampling intensity can mitigate effects on precision. Therefore, researchers should minimize systematic avoidance and availability related biases (i.e., vessel and day-night period) to improve population abundance estimates. Quantifying availability and avoidance behavior effects and partitioning sources of variation provides informed flexibility for designing future hydroacoustic surveys in shallow-water nearshore environments.

  15. HYDROACOUSTIC OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK EARTHQUAKES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF THE SOUTHERN KURIL ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Borisov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of hydroacoustic observations of signals from weak earthquakes in natural conditions in the region of the Southern Kuril Islands are presented. Some earthquakes were registered by the the Yuzhno-Kurilsk Seismic Station, other were only recorded by hydrophone stations. The observations were specific as seismic signals were recorded in shallow waters, i.e. in high noise level conditions. Hydrophones were installed in Lake Lagunnoe (Kunashir and Khromovaya Bay (Shikotan. Our analysis of hydroacoustic records received from the hydrophone stations revealed no evident precursory response of the geological medium to weak distant events. This means that neither before the period of earthquake preparation nor during the earthquake preparation period, any geoacoustic emission was not detected. It is shown that despite the unfavourable noise level conditions, even distant weak earthquakes can be confidently registered by hydrophone stations, and pending application of proper signal processing techniques, it can be possible to determine arrival times of seismic waves and to measure parameters of seismic waves. It is also established that the frequency spectrum of acoustic signals from the weak earthquakes recordable by the hydrophone stations is continuous and of noise type in the frequency range up to 90–100 Hz. It is revealed that in some cases, weak earthquakes and microearthquakes may be forerun by low frequency signals.

  16. Hydroacoustic simulation of rotor-stator interaction in resonance conditions in Francis pump-turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, C; Ruchonnet, N; Alligne, S; Avellan, F; Koutnik, J

    2010-01-01

    Combined effect of rotating pressure field related to runner blade and wakes of wicket gates leads to rotor stator interactions, RSI, in Francis pump-turbines. These interactions induce pressures waves propagating in the entire hydraulic machine. Superposition of those pressure waves may result in standing wave in the spiral casing and rotating diametrical mode in the guide vanes and can cause strong pressure fluctuations and vibrations. This paper presents the modeling, simulation and analysis of Rotor-Stator Interaction of a scale model of a Francis pump-turbine and related test rig using a one-dimensional approach. The hydroacoustic modeling of the Francis pump-turbine takes into account the spiral casing, the 20 guide vanes, the 9 rotating runner vanes. The connection between stationary and rotating parts is ensured by a valve network driven according to the unsteady flow distribution between guide vanes and runner vanes. Time domain simulations are performed for 2 different runner rotational speeds in turbine mode. The simulation results are analyzed in frequency domain and highlights hydroacoustic resonance between RSI excitations and the spiral case. Rotating diametrical mode in the vaneless gap and standing wave in the spiral case are identified. The influence of the resonance on phase and amplitude of pressure fluctuations obtained for both the spiral case and the vaneless gap is analyzed. The mode shape and frequencies are confirmed using eigenvalues analysis.

  17. Improved Visualization of Hydroacoustic Plumes Using the Split-Beam Aperture Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Ann E A; Weber, Thomas C; Austeng, Andreas

    2018-06-25

    Natural seepage of methane into the oceans is considerable, and plays a role in the global carbon cycle. Estimating the amount of this greenhouse gas entering the water column is important in order to understand their environmental impact. In addition, leakage from man-made structures such as gas pipelines may have environmental and economical consequences and should be promptly detected. Split beam echo sounders (SBES) detect hydroacoustic plumes due to the significant contrast in acoustic impedance between water and free gas. SBES are also powerful tools for plume characterization, with the ability to provide absolute acoustic measurements, estimate bubble trajectories, and capture the frequency dependent response of bubbles. However, under challenging conditions such as deep water and considerable background noise, it can be difficult to detect the presence of gas seepage from the acoustic imagery alone. The spatial coherence of the wavefield measured across the split beam sectors, quantified by the coherence factor (CF), is a computationally simple, easily available quantity which complements the acoustic imagery and may ease the ability to automatically or visually detect bubbles in the water column. We demonstrate the benefits of CF processing using SBES data from the Hudson Canyon, acquired using the Simrad EK80 SBES. We observe that hydroacoustic plumes appear more clearly defined and are easier to detect in the CF imagery than in the acoustic backscatter images.

  18. Improved Visualization of Hydroacoustic Plumes Using the Split-Beam Aperture Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. A. Blomberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural seepage of methane into the oceans is considerable, and plays a role in the global carbon cycle. Estimating the amount of this greenhouse gas entering the water column is important in order to understand their environmental impact. In addition, leakage from man-made structures such as gas pipelines may have environmental and economical consequences and should be promptly detected. Split beam echo sounders (SBES detect hydroacoustic plumes due to the significant contrast in acoustic impedance between water and free gas. SBES are also powerful tools for plume characterization, with the ability to provide absolute acoustic measurements, estimate bubble trajectories, and capture the frequency dependent response of bubbles. However, under challenging conditions such as deep water and considerable background noise, it can be difficult to detect the presence of gas seepage from the acoustic imagery alone. The spatial coherence of the wavefield measured across the split beam sectors, quantified by the coherence factor (CF, is a computationally simple, easily available quantity which complements the acoustic imagery and may ease the ability to automatically or visually detect bubbles in the water column. We demonstrate the benefits of CF processing using SBES data from the Hudson Canyon, acquired using the Simrad EK80 SBES. We observe that hydroacoustic plumes appear more clearly defined and are easier to detect in the CF imagery than in the acoustic backscatter images.

  19. Reducing high Reynolds number hydroacoustic noise using superhydrophobic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elboth, Thomas; Reif, Bjørn Anders Pettersson; Andreassen, Øyvind; Martell, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the effect of a superhydrophobic surface coating on turbulence-generated flow noise. The study utilizes results obtained from high Reynolds-number full-scale flow noise measurements taken on a commercial seismic streamer and results from low Reynolds-number direct numerical simulations. It is shown that it is possible to significantly reduce both the frictional drag and the levels of the turbulence generated flow noise even at very high Reynolds-numbers. For instance, frequencies below 10 Hz a reduction in the flow noise level of nearly 50% was measured. These results can be attributed to a reduced level of shear stress and change in the kinematic structure of the turbulence, both of which occur in the immediate vicinity of the superhydrophobic surface.

  20. Nonordinary excitation of hydroacoustic resonance in the hydroturbine circuit of the sayano-shushenskaya hydroelectric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavosov, R. K.; Prozorov, A. G.

    2011-05-01

    Three cases of excitation of resonance oscillations in a circuit with an incompressible medium and a hydrodynamic source of narrow-band acoustic radiation are compared. It is asserted that the Francis turbine can transmit and reflect infrasonic disturbances. It is supposed that an array of immobile coaxial cylinders below the impeller will prevent hydroacoustic self-excitation in flow inside the water conduit.

  1. A mid-term assessment of progress towards the immunization coverage goal of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov Rouslan I

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS (2006-2015 aims to reach and sustain high levels of vaccine coverage, provide immunization services to age groups beyond infancy and to those currently not reached, and to ensure that immunization activities are linked with other health interventions and contribute to the overall development of the health sector. Objective To examine mid-term progress (through 2010 of the immunization coverage goal of the GIVS for 194 countries or territories with special attention to data from 68 countries which account for more than 95% of all maternal and child deaths. Methods We present national immunization coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid with pertussis (DTP3 vaccine and the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV during 2000, 2005 and 2010 and report the average annual relative percent change during 2000-2005 and 2005-2010. Data are taken from the WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage, which refer to immunizations given during routine immunization services to children less than 12 months of age where immunization services are recorded. Results Globally DTP3 coverage increased from 74% during 2000 to 85% during 2010, and MCV coverage increased from 72% during 2000 to 85% during 2010. A total of 149 countries attained or were on track to achieve the 90% coverage goal for DTP3 (147 countries for MCV coverage. DTP3 coverage ≥ 90% was sustained between 2005 and 2010 by 99 countries (98 countries for MCV. Among 68 priority countries, 28 countries were identified as having made either insufficient or no progress towards reaching the GIVS goal of 90% coverage by 2015 for DTP3 or MCV. DTP3 and MCV coverage remained Conclusion Progress towards GIVS goals highlights improvements in routine immunization coverage, yet it is troubling to observe priority countries with little or no progress during the past five years. These results

  2. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  3. Functional coverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  4. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in coverage with evidence development: the case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca; Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F.L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S.A.M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M.H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  5. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in Coverage with Evidence Development: The case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, Marjan J. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M. H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  6. Assessment of systems for paying health care providers in Vietnam: implications for equity, efficiency and expanding effective health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Phuong, Hoang Thi; Tien, Tran Van; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Provider payment arrangements are currently a core concern for Vietnam's health sector and a key lever for expanding effective coverage and improving the efficiency and equity of the health system. This study describes how different provider payment systems are designed and implemented in practice across a sample of provinces and districts in Vietnam. Key informant interviews were conducted with over 100 health policy-makers, purchasers and providers using a structured interview guide. The results of the different payment methods were scored by respondents and assessed against a set of health system performance criteria. Overall, the public health insurance agency, Vietnam Social Security (VSS), is focused on managing expenditures through a complicated set of reimbursement policies and caps, but the incentives for providers are unclear and do not consistently support Vietnam's health system objectives. The results of this study are being used by the Ministry of Health and VSS to reform the provider payment systems to be more consistent with international definitions and good practices and to better support Vietnam's health system objectives.

  7. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2, using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30% were part of the censused area, we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was

  9. A Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings formulation for hydroacoustic analysis of propeller sheet cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, C.; Ianniello, S.; Salvatore, F.

    2018-01-01

    A novel hydroacoustic formulation for the prediction of tonal noise emitted by marine propellers in presence of unsteady sheet cavitation, is presented. The approach is based on the standard Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation and the use of transpiration (velocity and acceleration) terms, accounting for the time evolution of the vapour cavity attached on the blade surface. Drawbacks and potentialities of the method are tested on a marine propeller operating in a nonhomogeneous onset flow, by exploiting the hydrodynamic data from a potential-based panel method equipped with a sheet cavitation model and comparing the noise predictions with those carried out by an alternative numerical approach, documented in literature. It is shown that the proposed formulation yields a one-to-one correlation between emitted noise and sheet cavitation dynamics, carrying out accurate predictions in terms of noise magnitude and directivity.

  10. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  11. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F A; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-02-25

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 children 12-23 months. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS software package. Results showed that vaccination coverage as revealed by showed vaccination card alone was 63.4% while it was increased to 82.2% when both history and cards were used. Some (5.6%) of children were completely non-vaccinated. The factors contributing to the low vaccination coverage were found to be knowledge problems of mothers (51%), access problems (15%) and attitude problems (34%). Children whose mother attended antenatal care and those from urban areas were more likely to complete their immunization schedule. In conclusion, the vaccination coverage in the studied area was low compared to the national coverage. Efforts to increase vaccination converge and completion of the scheduled plan should focus on addressing concerns of caregivers particularly side effects and strengthening the Expanded Programmer on Immunization services in rural areas.

  12. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  13. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel B Minyoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey. Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  14. Innovations that reach the patient : Early health technology assessment and improving the chances of coverage and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Harten, W. H.; Retèl, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    With growing concerns for the sustainability of the financial burden that health care-and especially cancer services-poses on the national budgets, the role of health economic analyses in coverage decisions is likely to grow. One of the strategies for the biomedical research field-also in oncology

  15. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Antenor Hallo; Toebes, Brigit

    2016-01-01

    The goal of universal health coverage is to "ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them." There are many connections between this goal and the state's legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of

  16. Hydroacoustic measurements of the radiated noise from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil project and project WESA

    OpenAIRE

    Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Field measurements of the hydroacoustic noise from Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University and the Project WESA (joint effort between Uppsala University (Lead Partner), Ålands Teknikkluster r.f. and University of Turku) are presented. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans world wide and wave energy conversion may contribute to this noise, but to what extent? The main objective in this study is to examine the noise from full scale operating WECs in ...

  17. Insurance coverage and prenatal care among low-income pregnant women: an assessment of states' adoption of the "Unborn Child" option in Medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Bennett, Wendy L; Barry, Colleen L; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-01-01

    The "Unborn Child" (UC) option provides state Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) programs with a new strategy to extend prenatal coverage to low-income women who would otherwise have difficulty enrolling in or would be ineligible for Medicaid. To examine the association of the UC option with the probability of enrollment in Medicaid/CHIP during pregnancy and probability of receiving adequate prenatal care. We use pooled cross-sectional data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 32 states between 2004 and 2010 (n = 81,983). Multivariable regression is employed to examine the association of the UC option with Medicaid/CHIP enrollment during pregnancy among eligible women who were uninsured preconception (n = 45,082) and those who had insurance (but not Medicaid) preconception (n = 36,901). Multivariable regression is also employed to assess the association between the UC option and receipt of adequate prenatal care, measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Residing in a state with the UC option is associated with a greater probability of Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy relative to residing in a state without the policy both among women uninsured preconception (88% vs. 77%, P option is not significantly associated with receiving adequate prenatal care, among both women with and without insurance preconception. The UC option provides states a key way to expand or simplify prenatal insurance coverage, but further policy efforts are needed to ensure that coverage improves access to high-quality prenatal care.

  18. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 childr...

  19. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  20. Linking household and health facility surveys to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage: evidence from 17 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B; Creanga, Andreea A; Walker, Neff

    2018-06-01

    Improving access and quality of obstetric service has the potential to avert preventable maternal, neonatal and stillborn deaths, yet little is known about the quality of care received. This study sought to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage within and between 17 low- and middle-income countries. We linked health facility data from the Service Provision Assessments and Service Availability and Readiness Assessments, with corresponding household survey data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Based on performance of obstetric signal functions, we defined four levels of facility emergency obstetric care (EmOC) functionality: comprehensive (CEmOC), basic (BEmOC), BEmOC-2, and low/substandard. Facility readiness was evaluated based on the direct observation of 23 essential items; facilities "ready to provide obstetric services" had ≥20 of 23 items available. Across countries, we used medians to characterize service availability and readiness, overall and by urban-rural location; analyses also adjusted for care-seeking patterns to estimate population-level coverage of obstetric services. Of the 111 500 health facilities surveyed, 7545 offered obstetric services and were included in the analysis. The median percentages of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services" were 19% and 10%, respectively. There were considerable urban-rural differences, with absolute differences of 19% and 29% in the availability of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services", respectively. Adjusting for care-seeking patterns, results from the linking approach indicated that among women delivering in a facility, a median of 40% delivered in facilities offering EmOC, and 28% delivered in facilities "ready to provide obstetric services". Relatively higher coverage of facility deliveries (≥65%) and coverage of deliveries in facilities "ready to provide obstetric

  1. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveesha R. Mugali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. Methods The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12–23 months. Results Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%, not aware of the need of vaccination (17%, no faith in vaccination (16%, mother was too busy (15%, and fear of side effects (11%. Conclusion The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  2. Assessment of Child Immunization Coverage and Associated Factors with Full Vaccination among Children Aged 12–23 Months at Mizan Aman Town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Mesfin; Birhanu, Frehiwot

    2017-01-01

    Immunization remains one of the most important and cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity. Globally, it is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. In Ethiopia, immunization coverage rates stagnated and remained very low for many years. Thus, this study was aimed to assess child immunization coverage and factors associated with full vaccination among children aged 12–23 months in Mizan Aman town. The study design was community-based cross-sectional survey. Data was collected by using pretested structured questionnaire. A total of 322 mothers/caretakers were interviewed. Based on vaccination card and mothers/caretakers' recall, 295 (91.6%) of the children took at least a single dose of vaccine. From total children, 27 (8.4%) were not immunized at all, 159 (49.4%) were partially immunized, and 136 (42.2%) were fully immunized. Mothers/caretakers educational level, fathers' educational level, place of delivery, maternal health care utilization, and mothers/caretakers knowledge about vaccine and vaccine-preventable disease showed significant association with full child immunization. The finding from this study revealed that child immunization coverage in the studied area was low. Thus the town health office and concerned stakeholders need to work more to improve performance of the expanded program on immunization in this area. PMID:29434643

  3. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within 1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  5. Second-generation immigrant children: health prevention for a new population in terms of vaccination coverage and health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Zenzeri, Letizia; Fabrizio, Giovanna C; Gatto, Antonio; Pio, Liberatore; Gargiullo, Luisa; Ianniello, Francesca; Valentini, Piero; Ranno, Orazio

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the total number of foreigners taking up residence in Italy is increasing: the number of children born in Italy to foreign parents currently account for 15% of all babies born in the country. This population is generally referred to as "second-generation immigrants". We evaluated the health conditions of this particular population by investigating the vaccination coverage and auxological data in a group of foreign children living in a foster care setting and by comparing them to those regarding a group of foreign children living with their own parents. This study was conducted in a foster care association in Rome. The Pediatric Unit of "A. Gemelli" Hospital, Rome, provided all data for comparison. Two groups of children (group 1: 60 children from a foster care association; group 2: 91 children living with their parents; group 3: 112 healthy controls) with similar characteristics were taken into consideration. There were statistical differences between groups: the administration rate of hexavalent vaccine was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (84.6% vs. 65.0%) (P0.05), although the administration rate of serogroup C meningococcal vaccine was lower in group 1 (10/60; 16.7%) compared to group 2 (17/91; 18.7%) (P>0.05). As for auxological parameters, there were no statistical differences between groups. The data presented in this study seem to suggest the need for a special health programme to be promoted by the Italian National Health System in order to address the needs of the particular risk group of second-generation immigrant children. Vaccination coverage should be especially boosted, and pediatricians should have a key role in terms of awareness raising and education of immigrant families.

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  7. Computing under-ice discharge: A proof-of-concept using hydroacoustics and the Probability Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Henneberg, Mark F.; Mills, Taylor J.; Kohn, Michael S.; Epstein, Brian; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Damschen, William C.; Laveau, Christopher D.; Lambrecht, Jason M.; Farmer, William H.

    2018-01-01

    Under-ice discharge is estimated using open-water reference hydrographs; however, the ratings for ice-affected sites are generally qualified as poor. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, conducted a proof-of-concept to develop an alternative method for computing under-ice discharge using hydroacoustics and the Probability Concept.The study site was located south of Minturn, Colorado (CO), USA, and was selected because of (1) its proximity to the existing USGS streamgage 09064600 Eagle River near Minturn, CO, and (2) its ease-of-access to verify discharge using a variety of conventional methods. From late September 2014 to early March 2015, hydraulic conditions varied from open water to under ice. These temporal changes led to variations in water depth and velocity. Hydroacoustics (tethered and uplooking acoustic Doppler current profilers and acoustic Doppler velocimeters) were deployed to measure the vertical-velocity profile at a singularly important vertical of the channel-cross section. Because the velocity profile was non-standard and cannot be characterized using a Power Law or Log Law, velocity data were analyzed using the Probability Concept, which is a probabilistic formulation of the velocity distribution. The Probability Concept-derived discharge was compared to conventional methods including stage-discharge and index-velocity ratings and concurrent field measurements; each is complicated by the dynamics of ice formation, pressure influences on stage measurements, and variations in cross-sectional area due to ice formation.No particular discharge method was assigned as truth. Rather one statistical metric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; KS), agreement plots, and concurrent measurements provided a measure of comparability between various methods. Regardless of the method employed, comparisons between each method revealed encouraging results depending on the flow conditions and the absence or presence of ice

  8. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range ( and gt; 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies (( and gt;=)10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact

  9. Particle Filter Based Fault-tolerant ROV Navigation using Hydro-acoustic Position and Doppler Velocity Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bo; Blanke, Mogens; Skjetne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fault tolerant navigation system for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The navigation system uses hydro-acoustic position reference (HPR) and Doppler velocity log (DVL) measurements to achieve an integrated navigation. The fault tolerant functionality is based on a modied...... particle lter. This particle lter is able to run in an asynchronous manner to accommodate the measurement drop out problem, and it overcomes the measurement outliers by switching observation models. Simulations with experimental data show that this fault tolerant navigation system can accurately estimate...

  10. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  11. Use of CT simulation for treatment of cervical cancer to assess the adequacy of lymph node coverage of conventional pelvic fields based on bony landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, Marisa H.; Ackerman, Ida; Tirona, Romeo G. B.Sc.; Hamilton, Paul; Barbera, Lisa; Thomas, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the adequacy of nodal coverage of 'conventional' pelvic radiation fields for carcinoma of the cervix, with contoured pelvic vessels on simulation computed tomography (CT) as surrogates for lymph node location. Methods and Materials: Pelvic arteries were contoured on non-contrast-enhanced CT simulation images of 43 patients with cervix cancer, FIGO Stages I-III. Vessel contours were hidden, and conventional pelvic fields were outlined: (1) anterior/posterior fields (AP): superior border, L5-S1 interspace; inferior border, obturator foramina; lateral border, 2 centimeters lateral to pelvic brim. (2) Lateral fields (LAT): Anterior border, symphysis pubis; posterior border, S2-S3 interspace. Distances were measured between the following: (1) bifurcation of the common iliac artery and superior border (2) external iliac artery and lateral border of the AP field, and (3) external iliac artery and anterior border of the LAT field. The distances were considered as 'inadequate' if 20 mm. Results: Superiorly, 34 patients (79.1%) had inadequate coverage. On the AP, margins were generous in 19 (44.2%), but inadequate in 9 (20.9%). On the LAT, margins were inadequate in 30 (69.8%) patients. Overall, 41 (95.4%, CI, 84.2%-99.4%) patients had at least 1 inadequate margin, the majority located superiorly. Twenty-four (55.8%; CI, 39.9%-70.9%) patients had at least 1 generous margin, the majority located laterally on the AP field. Conclusion: Conventional pelvic fields based on bony landmarks do not provide optimal lymph node coverage in a substantial proportion of patients and may include excess normal tissue in some. CT simulation with vessel contouring as a surrogate for lymph node localization provides more precise and individualized field delineation

  12. The relationship between post-stent strut apposition and follow-up strut coverage assessed by a contour plot optical coherence tomography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sun; Ha, Jinyong; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Shin, Dong-Ho; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the relationship between post-stent strut apposition and follow-up strut coverage using contour plot optical coherence tomographic analysis. Tracking the fate of interested regions of struts at different time points has not been investigated. Post-intervention and 6-month follow-up optical coherence tomographic evaluations were performed in 82 patients treated with biolimus- (n = 37) or sirolimus-eluting stents (n = 45). Post-stent apposition was classified as embedded, apposed, or malapposed. For volumetric stent evaluation, the post-intervention strut-artery distance and the neointimal thickness at follow-up were measured as a function of the circumferential arc length and longitudinal stent length. Computer-generated contour plots of the strut-artery distance and neointimal thickness were compared. The percentages of embedded and malapposed struts after intervention were 1.8% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 0.6% to 6.2%) and 2.3% (IQR: 0.5% to 5.2%), respectively. The percentages of uncovered and malapposed struts at 6 months were 16.0% (IQR: 7.4% to 33.3%) and 0% (IQR: 0% to 0.7%), respectively. The percentage of uncovered struts at 6 months varied significantly with post-stent strut apposition (0% [IQR: 0% to 11.4%] in embedded, 16.3% [IQR: 8.1% to 31.3%] in apposed, and 26.8% [IQR: 0% to 56.3%] in malapposed, p < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). In lesions without tissue prolapse, embedded struts were all covered (100% covered struts) compared with those with tissue prolapse (76.8% covered, p < 0.001). The optical coherence tomography-guided optimization of stent strut apposition enhances strut coverage at follow-up. This comprehensive method for evaluating strut apposition may provide more useful information to understanding the serial changes in strut coverage. (Neointimal Coverage After Implantation of Biolimus Eluting Stent With Biodegradable Polymer: Optical Coherence Tomographic Assessment According to the Treatment of

  13. Assessment of Factors Affecting Quality of Life of Elderly Clients Coveraged Bye Health Centers of Southern of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The world population is aging rapidly because of rising life expectancy and deacrising fertility rate.with increasing longevity and special aging problems attention and evaluation the quality of life of elderly for health promotion would be significant importance Methods & Materials: this study is a descriptive and analytical study carried out to investigate the quality of life of elderly clients coveraged bye health centers of southern of tehran, in 2010-2011.132 elderly clients were selected by using the cluster randomised sampling from 5health centers. in this study a short form standard questionnaire (sf36was used for evaluation diverse domains of life quality scores. we also measured some other personal characteristics through demographic questionnaire. data were analyzed with descriptive and analytic statistics by spss software. Results: the mean score of physical domains of quality of life which was 54.42±24.42 and emotional domain of quality of life was 55.19±24.04. mean age was 67.97±6.86. research showed age had meaninful reverse relationship to quality of life (P=0.000, r=-0.4, men had higher quality of life scores than women.education level was directly related to all domains of life quality (P=0/000. married persons and who they lived with childerns or others had the higher quality of life scores than singles (divorced, widow (P<0.001. and physical activity was directly related to quality of life (P=0.000. but statistically significant differences were not found between the mean score of quality of life and BMI. (physical domain: P=0.59-emotional domain: P=0.127. notsmokers had higher quality of life scores than smokers. (P<0.05. Conclusion: total score of quality of life of elderly was moderate (54.81. therrefore attention and try to improving the quality of life of elderly clients is essential.

  14. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time distribution of pelagic fish: combining hydroacoustics, GIS and spatial modelling at a fine spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muška, Milan; Tušer, Michal; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Ricard, Daniel; Seďa, Jaromír; Morelli, Federico; Kubečka, Jan

    2018-03-29

    Understanding spatial distribution of organisms in heterogeneous environment remains one of the chief issues in ecology. Spatial organization of freshwater fish was investigated predominantly on large-scale, neglecting important local conditions and ecological processes. However, small-scale processes are of an essential importance for individual habitat preferences and hence structuring trophic cascades and species coexistence. In this work, we analysed the real-time spatial distribution of pelagic freshwater fish in the Římov Reservoir (Czechia) observed by hydroacoustics in relation to important environmental predictors during 48 hours at 3-h interval. Effect of diurnal cycle was revealed of highest significance in all spatial models with inverse trends between fish distribution and predictors in day and night in general. Our findings highlighted daytime pelagic fish distribution as highly aggregated, with general fish preferences for central, deep and highly illuminated areas, whereas nighttime distribution was more disperse and fish preferred nearshore steep sloped areas with higher depth. This turnover suggests prominent movements of significant part of fish assemblage between pelagic and nearshore areas on a diel basis. In conclusion, hydroacoustics, GIS and spatial modelling proved as valuable tool for predicting local fish distribution and elucidate its drivers, which has far reaching implications for understanding freshwater ecosystem functioning.

  16. Universal Health Coverage in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessment of Global Health Experts' Confidence in Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elisabeth; Fecher, Fabienne; Meloni, Remo; van Lerberghe, Wim

    2018-05-29

    Many countries rely on standard recipes for accelerating progress toward universal health coverage (UHC). With limited generalizable empirical evidence, expert confidence and consensus plays a major role in shaping country policy choices. This article presents an exploratory attempt conducted between April and September 2016 to measure confidence and consensus among a panel of global health experts in terms of the effectiveness and feasibility of a number of policy options commonly proposed for achieving UHC in low- and middle-income countries, such as fee exemptions for certain groups of people, ring-fenced domestic health budgets, and public-private partnerships. To ensure a relative homogeneity of contexts, we focused on French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa. We initially used the Delphi method to arrive at expert consensus, but since no consensus emerged after 2 rounds, we adjusted our approach to a statistical analysis of the results from our questionnaire by measuring the degree of consensus on each policy option through 100 (signifying total consensus) minus the size of the interquartile range of the individual scores. Seventeen global health experts from various backgrounds, but with at least 20 years' experience in the broad region, participated in the 2 rounds of the study. The results provide an initial "mapping" of the opinions of a group of experts and suggest interesting lessons. For the 18 policy options proposed, consensus emerged only on strengthening the supply of quality primary health care services (judged as being effective with a confidence score of 79 and consensus score of 90), and on fee exemptions for the poorest (judged as being fairly easy to implement with a confidence score of 66 and consensus score of 85). For none of the 18 common policy options was there consensus on both potential effectiveness and feasibility, with very diverging opinions concerning 5 policy options. The lack of confidence and consensus within the panel seems to

  17. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  18. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ∼7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile

  19. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations. Quarterly Report No. 5 October - December 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Zachary M.; Pulli, Jay J.

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 Quarterly Technical Report summarizing BBN's support of the DOE/NNSA GNEM program. This report details BBN's efforts to improve the modeling of explosions and other events underwater and their propagation to hydroacoustic sensor networks. OK to release, no restriction on copyright

  20. Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the Northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean: an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Savini

    Full Text Available In this study, we mapped the distribution of Cold-Water Coral (CWC habitats on the northern Ionian Margin (Mediterranean Sea, with an emphasis on assessing coral coverage at various spatial scales over an area of 2,000 km(2 between 120 and 1,400 m of water depth. Our work made use of a set of data obtained from ship-based research surveys. Multi-scale seafloor mapping data, video inspections, and previous results from sediment samples were integrated and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS-based tools. Results obtained from the application of spatial and textural analytical techniques to acoustic meso-scale maps (i.e. a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of the seafloor at a 40 m grid cell size and associated terrain parameters and large-scale maps (i.e. Side-Scan Sonar (SSS mosaics of 1 m in resolution ground-truthed using underwater video observations were integrated and revealed that, at the meso-scale level, the main morphological pattern (i.e. the aggregation of mound-like features associated with CWC habitat occurrences was widespread over a total area of 600 km(2. Single coral mounds were isolated from the DTM and represented the geomorphic proxies used to model coral distributions within the investigated area. Coral mounds spanned a total area of 68 km(2 where different coral facies (characterized using video analyses and mapped on SSS mosaics represent the dominant macro-habitat. We also mapped and classified anthropogenic threats that were identifiable within the examined videos, and, here, discuss their relationship to the mapped distribution of coral habitats and mounds. The combined results (from multi-scale habitat mapping and observations of the distribution of anthropogenic threats provide the first quantitative assessment of CWC coverage for a Mediterranean province and document the relevant role of seafloor geomorphology in influencing habitat vulnerability to different types of human pressures.

  1. Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the Northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Alessandra; Vertino, Agostina; Marchese, Fabio; Beuck, Lydia; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the distribution of Cold-Water Coral (CWC) habitats on the northern Ionian Margin (Mediterranean Sea), with an emphasis on assessing coral coverage at various spatial scales over an area of 2,000 km(2) between 120 and 1,400 m of water depth. Our work made use of a set of data obtained from ship-based research surveys. Multi-scale seafloor mapping data, video inspections, and previous results from sediment samples were integrated and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tools. Results obtained from the application of spatial and textural analytical techniques to acoustic meso-scale maps (i.e. a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the seafloor at a 40 m grid cell size and associated terrain parameters) and large-scale maps (i.e. Side-Scan Sonar (SSS) mosaics of 1 m in resolution ground-truthed using underwater video observations) were integrated and revealed that, at the meso-scale level, the main morphological pattern (i.e. the aggregation of mound-like features) associated with CWC habitat occurrences was widespread over a total area of 600 km(2). Single coral mounds were isolated from the DTM and represented the geomorphic proxies used to model coral distributions within the investigated area. Coral mounds spanned a total area of 68 km(2) where different coral facies (characterized using video analyses and mapped on SSS mosaics) represent the dominant macro-habitat. We also mapped and classified anthropogenic threats that were identifiable within the examined videos, and, here, discuss their relationship to the mapped distribution of coral habitats and mounds. The combined results (from multi-scale habitat mapping and observations of the distribution of anthropogenic threats) provide the first quantitative assessment of CWC coverage for a Mediterranean province and document the relevant role of seafloor geomorphology in influencing habitat vulnerability to different types of human pressures.

  2. Hydroacoustic, infrasonic and seismic monitoring of the submarine eruptive activity and sub-aerial plume generation at South Sarigan, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David N.; Evers, Läslo G.; Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Snellen, Mirjam; Smets, Pieter; Simons, Dick

    2013-05-01

    Explosive submarine volcanic processes are poorly understood, due to the difficulties associated with both direct observation and continuous monitoring. In this study hydroacoustic, infrasound, and seismic signals recorded during the May 2010 submarine eruption of South Sarigan seamount, Marianas Arc, are used to construct a detailed event chronology. The signals were recorded on stations of the International Monitoring System, which is a component of the verification measures for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Numerical hydroacoustic and infrasound propagation modelling confirms that viable propagation paths from the source to receivers exist, and provide traveltimes allowing signals recorded on the different technologies to be associated. The eruption occurred in three stages, separated by three-hour periods of quiescence. 1) A 46 h period during which broadband impulsive hydroacoustic signals were generated in clusters lasting between 2 and 13 min. 95% of the 7602 identified events could be classified into 4 groups based on their waveform similarity. The time interval between clusters decreased steadily from 80 to 25 min during this period. 2) A five-hour period of 10 Hz hydroacoustic tremor, interspersed with large-amplitude, broadband signals. Associated infrasound signals were also recorded at this time. 3) An hour-long period of transient broadband events culminated in two large-amplitude hydroacoustic events and one broadband infrasound signal. A speculative interpretation, consistent with the data, suggests that during phase (1) transitions between endogenous dome growth and phreatomagmatic explosions occurred with the magma ascent rate accelerating throughout the period; during phase (2) continuous venting of fragmented magma occurred, and was powerful enough to breach the sea surface. During the climactic phase (3) discrete powerful explosions occurred, and sufficient seawater was vaporised to produce the contemporaneous 12 km altitude steam

  3. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic – a sedimentological and megafaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wienberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the southwestern summit area of Coral Patch seamount (water depth: 560–760 m and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area and, thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the benthic megafauna shows rather scarce occurrence. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (water depth: 560–2660 m and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, these data also predict most of the summit area to be dominated by exposed bedrock

  4. Hydroacoustic signatures of Colorado Riverbed sediments in Marble and Grand Canyons using multibeam sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matthew; Tusso, Robert B.; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the large-scale sedimentary make-up of heterogeneous riverbeds (Nelson et al., 2014), which consist of a patchwork of sediment types over small scales (less than one to several tens of meters) (Dietrich and Smith, 1984) requires high resolution measurements of sediment grain size. Capturing such variability with conventional physical (e.g. grabs, cores, and dredges) or underwater photographic sampling (Rubin et al., 2007; Buscombe et al., 2014a) would be prohibitively costly and time-consuming. However, characterizing bed sediments using high-frequency (several hundred kilohertz) acoustic backscatter from swath-mapping systems has the potential to provide near complete coverage of the bed (Brown and Blondel, 2009; Brown et al., 2011; Snellen et al., 2013), at resolutions down to a few centimeters, which photographic sampling could not practically achieve within the same time and with the same positional accuracy. In shallow water, the physics of high frequency scattering of sound are relatively poorly understood, therefore acoustic sediment classification are almost always statistical (Snellen et al., 2013). Many such methods proposed to date are designed for characterizing large areas of seabed (Brown and Blondel, 2009; Brown et al., 2011) at relatively poor resolution (tens of meters to several hundred meters) and therefore rely on aggregation of data over scales much larger than the typical scales of sediment patchiness on heterogeneous riverbeds. In response to this need, Buscombe et al. (2014b, 2014c) developed a new statistical method for acoustic sediment classification based on spectral analysis of backscatter. This method is both continuous in coverage and of sufficient resolution (order meter or less) to characterize sediment variability on patchy riverbeds. Here, we apply these methods to multibeam echosounder (MBES) data collected from the bed of the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. Sediment dynamics on the Colorado River in

  5. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%– vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage. PMID:25760670

  6. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  7. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  8. Quality assessment of nutrition coverage in the media: a 6-week survey of five popular UK newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kininmonth, Alice R; Jamil, Nafeesa; Almatrouk, Nasser; Evans, Charlotte E L

    2017-12-27

    To investigate the quality of nutrition articles in popular national daily newspapers in the UK and to identify important predictors of article quality. Newspapers are a primary source of nutrition information for the public. Newspaper articles were collected on 6 days of the week (excluding Sunday) for 6 weeks in summer 2014. Predictors included food type and health outcome, size of article, whether the journalist was named and day of the week. A validated quality assessment tool was used to assess each article, with a minimum possible score of -12 and a maximum score of 17. Newspapers were checked in duplicate for relevant articles. The association of each predictor on article quality score was analysed adjusting for remaining predictors. A logistic regression model was implemented with quality score as the binary outcome, categorised as poor (score less than zero) or satisfactory (score of zero or more). Over 6 weeks, 141 nutrition articles were included across the five newspapers. The median quality score was 2 (IQR -2-6), and 44 (31%) articles were poor quality. There was no substantial variation in quality of reporting between newspapers once other factors such as anonymous publishing, health outcome, aspect of diet covered and day of the week were taken into account. Particularly low-quality scores were obtained for anonymously published articles with no named journalist, articles that focused on obesity and articles that reported on high fat and processed foods. The general public are regularly exposed to poor quality information in newspapers about what to eat to promote health, particularly articles reporting on obesity. Journalists, researchers, university press officers and scientific journals need to work together more closely to ensure clear, consistent nutrition messages are communicated to the public in an engaging way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  9. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  10. Hydroacoustic estimation of fish biomass in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedgepeth

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A stratified sampling design was used for a hydroacoustic survey of the inner parts of the Gulf of Nicoya in 1987 and 1988. The bottom topography of the inner Gulf was modeled by introducing the concept of a topographical basin model, as the basis for the projection of the sample survey estimates to the entire inner gulf. The bottom depth contours and volumes for the basin model were constructed from nautical charts. The estimates of sample abundance were made for the fish in the inner Gulf using the acoustic methods, EMS (Expectation Maximization and Smoothing and echo integration. The estimates of population were made by the multiplication of the topographic model's estimate of water volume and a model of fish density dependent on bottom depth. The results showed a general decrease in fish density biomass with bottom depth, and a simultaneous tendency for maximum concentrations over bottom depths of about four meters. The four meter bottom depth includes a broad expanse of the inner Gulf located south of Isla Chira. Overall estimates of volumetric density (0.269 fish/m³ and of areal densities (1.88 fish/m² are comparable to other estuarine shallow water environments.Se utilizó un diseño muestral estratificado para llevar a cabo una evaluación hidroacústica de la sección interior del Golfo de Nicoya. La topografía submarina fue modelada introduciendo el concepto topográfico de la cuenca, como una forma de proyectar los estimados del muestreo a todo el Golfo interno. Las isobatas y volúmenes de la cuenca del Golfo fueron construidos a partir de cartas náuticas. Los estimados de abundancia en las muestras se hicieron para los peces en la parte interna del Golfo utilizando los métodos acústicos conocidos como EMS (Expectation, Maximitation and Smoothing y ecointegración. Los estimados de población se obtuvieron a partir de la multiplicación de los estimados del modelo topográfico de volúmen acuático y un modelo de densidad de

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  12. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  13. Providing Universal Health Insurance Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R

    2016-07-07

    Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favrel, A; Landry, C; Müller, A; Yamamoto, K; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro-acoustic

  15. Observation of hydro-acoustic signal from the Balleny Islands, Ross Sea, Antarctic: Seasonal ice activities and earthquakes from Pacific-Antarctic ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. K.; Kang, S. G.; Dziak, R. P.; Park, Y.; Lau, T. K. A.; Haxel, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    From January 2015 to March 2016, five hydrophone moorings were deployed near the Balleny Islands to obtain the long-term hydroacoustic record as a collaborative effort between the NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and the Korea Polar Research Institute. The goal of this hydro-acoustic project is to understand seasonal sea-ice activities and identify potential underwater volcanic sources within the Balleny seamounts. All five of the hydrophone moorings were recovered in March 2016, however only three of them recorded 14 months of continuous, broadband (1 kHz sample rate) hydro-acoustic data successfully. In spite of coordinating problem by partial recovery, recorded data contain valuable information for seasonal sea-ice activities and earthquakes from Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. We analyzed events from ice-quakes and earthquakes statistically. The number of ice-quakes is maximum in the austral summer while minimum in the austral winter which shows a clear seasonal pattern consistent with freeze-thaw cycles. Comparing with global earthquakes catalogue, number of earthquake events are correlated well with the catalogue. Because the austral winter is more calm by ice-quakes, however, we can detect more earthquakes in this season.

  16. Meningococcal serogroup B strain coverage of the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine with corresponding regional distribution and clinical characteristics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2007-08 and 2014-15: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sydel R; Newbold, Lynne; Slater, Stephanie; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Lucidarme, Jay; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Serino, Laura; Gray, Stephen J; Clark, Stephen A; Findlow, Jamie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Ramsay, Mary E; Ladhani, Shamez N; Borrow, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The UK introduced 4CMenB-a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease-into the national infant immunisation programme in September, 2015. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was used to estimate coverage by 4CMenB of invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2007-08 in England and Wales (MATS coverage). We aimed to repeat the MATS survey for invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2014-15, before 4CMenB introduction; compare strain coverage between 2007-08 and 2014-15; and investigate associations between MATS coverage, age, region, and disease outcomes. Invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolates from cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2014-15 were assayed using MATS and compared with 2007-08 data. MATS coverage was assessed by geographical region and age group. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were assessed according to MATS coverage for 2014-15 English cases. In 2014-15, 165 of 251 (66%; 95% CI 52-80) meningococcal group B isolates were estimated by MATS to be covered by 4CMenB, compared with 391 of 535 (73%; 95% CI 57-87) in 2007-08. The proportion of MATS-positive isolates with one vaccine antigen increased from 23% (122 of 535) in 2007-08 to 31% (78 of 251) in 2014-15, whereas the proportion with more than one antigen fell from 50% (269 of 535) to 35% (87 of 251). This effect reflected changes in circulating strains, particularly ST-269 clonal complex strains. MATS coverage increased with age, varied by geographical region, and was associated with more severe disease. In 2014-15, two-thirds of meningococcal group B isolates were predicted to be covered by 4CMenB. Temporal changes in MATS coverage underscore the need for continued monitoring of antigen expression and diversity, particularly in countries with 4CMenB programmes. Public Health England, GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of performance of automatic cloud coverage assessment algorithm for Formosat-2 image using clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2012-11-01

    Formosat-2 image is a kind of high-spatial-resolution (2 meters GSD) remote sensing satellite data, which includes one panchromatic band and four multispectral bands (Blue, Green, Red, near-infrared). An essential sector in the daily processing of received Formosat-2 image is to estimate the cloud statistic of image using Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) algorithm. The information of cloud statistic of image is subsequently recorded as an important metadata for image product catalog. In this paper, we propose an ACCA method with two consecutive stages: preprocessing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, the un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, thresholding method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method are implemented in sequence for cloud statistic determination. For post-processing analysis, Box-Counting fractal method is implemented. In other words, the cloud statistic is firstly determined via pre-processing analysis, the correctness of cloud statistic of image of different spectral band is eventually cross-examined qualitatively and quantitatively via post-processing analysis. The selection of an appropriate thresholding method is very critical to the result of ACCA method. Therefore, in this work, We firstly conduct a series of experiments of the clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods that include Otsu's, Local Entropy(LE), Joint Entropy(JE), Global Entropy(GE), and Global Relative Entropy(GRE) method, for performance comparison. The result shows that Otsu's and GE methods both perform better than others for Formosat-2 image. Additionally, our proposed ACCA method by selecting Otsu's method as the threshoding method has successfully extracted the cloudy pixels of Formosat-2 image for accurate cloud statistic estimation.

  18. Intra- and interobserver reliability and intra-catheter reproducibility using frequency domain optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative assessment of stent strut coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Junker, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the intra- and interobserver reliability, as well as the intra-catheter reproducibility of quantitative FD-OCT-assessment of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative FD-OCT-evaluation of strut coverage in 10 randomly selected 6-month follow-up Nobori® biolimus-eluting stents (N-BESs). METHODS...... in another 10 N-BESs (219 CSAs and 1860 struts) were independently assessed by one of the analysts. RESULTS: The intraobserver variability with regard to relative difference of mean luminal area and mean stent area at the CSA-level was very low: 0.1%±1.4% and 0.5%±3.2%. Interobserver variability also proved...... (CI): 0.88-0.93, pstented coronary segments, and for qualitative assessment of strut coverage....

  19. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  20. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in coverage with evidence development: the case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M; Hummel, Marjan J M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Douma, Kirsten F L; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S A M; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E; Roumen, Rudi M H; Linn, Sabine C; van Harten, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene prognosis signature (MammaPrint) for node-negative breast cancer patients. Studied aspects were (organizational) efficiency, patient-centeredness and diffusion scenarios. Pre-post structured surveys were conducted in fifteen community hospitals concerning changes in logistics and teamwork as a consequence of the introduction of the 70-gene signature. Patient-centeredness was measured by questionnaires and interviews regarding knowledge and psychological impact of the test. Diffusion scenarios, which are commonly applied in industry to anticipate on future development and diffusion of their products, have been applied in this study. Median implementation-time of the 70-gene signature was 1.2 months. Most changes were seen in pathology processes and adjuvant treatment decisions. Physicians valued the addition of the 70-gene signature information as beneficial for patient management. Patient-centeredness (n = 77, response 78 percent): patients receiving a concordant high-risk and discordant clinical low/high risk-signature showed significantly more negative emotions with respect to receiving both test-results compared with concordant low-risk and discordant clinical high/low risk-signature patients. The first scenario was written in 2004 before the introduction of the 70-gene signature and identified hypothetical developments that could influence diffusion; especially the "what-if" deviation describing a discussion on validity among physicians proved to be realistic. Differences in speed of implementation and influenced treatment decisions were seen. Impact on patients seems especially related to discordance and its successive communication. In the future, scenario drafting will lead

  1. Delayed coverage in malapposed and side-branch struts with respect to well-apposed struts in drug-eluting stents: In vivo assessment with optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Gutiérrez-Chico; E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. NüesC.H. (Eveline); T. Okamura (Takayuki); J.J. Wykrzykowska (Joanna); C. di Mario (Carlo); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); P. Gobbens (Pierre); P. Jüni (Peter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Pathology studies on fatal cases of very late stent thrombosis have described incomplete neointimal coverage as common substrate, in some cases appearing at side-branch struts. Intravascular ultrasound studies have described the association between incomplete stent apposition

  2. Assessment of progress towards universal health coverage for people with disabilities in Afghanistan: a multilevel analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Kumar, Praveen; Ballard, Ellis; Chandola, Tarani

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, Afghanistan has made much effort to achieve universal health coverage. According to the UN Sustainable Development Goal 3, target eight, the provision of quality care to all must include usually underserved groups, including people with disabilities. We investigated whether a decade of international investment in the Afghan health system has brought quality health care to this group. We used data from two representative household surveys, one done in 2005 and one in 2013, in 13 provinces of Afghanistan, that included questions about activity limitations and functioning difficulties, socioeconomic factors, perceived availability of health care, and experience with coverage of health-care needs. We used multilevel modelling and tests for interaction to investigate factors associated with differences in perception between timepoints and whether village remoteness affected changes in perception. The 2005 survey included 334 people, and the 2013 survey included 961 people. Mean age, employment, and asset levels of participants with disabilities increased slightly between 2005 and 2013, but the level of education decreased. Formal education and higher asset level were associated with improved availability of health care and positive experience with coverage of health-care needs, whereas being employed was only associated with the latter. Perceived availability of health care and positive experience with coverage of health-care needs significantly worsened in 2013 compared with in 2005 (227 [69%] perceived that services were available in 2005 vs 405 [44%] in 2013, pAfghanistan, particularly in remote areas. Health policy in Afghanistan will need to address attitudinal, social, and accessibility barriers to health care. Swedish International Development Agency. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in seagrass coverage in Southwest Florida: assessing the relative effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions and rainfall in four contiguous estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, D A; Corbett, C A; Greening, H S; Raulerson, G E

    2005-08-01

    The estuaries of Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, Lemon Bay, and Upper Charlotte Harbor are contiguous waterbodies located within the subtropical environment of Southwest Florida. Based on an examination of rainfall data over the period of record (1916-2001) within the watersheds of these estuaries, there is no evidence for spatial differences (at the watershed level) or monotonic trends in annual rainfall. During the 1980s, nitrogen loads into Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay (generated primarily by domestic wastewater treatment facilities) were reduced by 57% and 46%, respectively. In response, both Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay have lower phytoplankton concentrations, greater water clarity and more extensive seagrass coverage in 2002 than in the early 1980s. As there is no evidence of a concurrent trend in rainfall during the period of 1982-2001, it is unlikely that variation in rainfall can account for the observed increase in seagrass coverage in these two bays. In contrast, seagrass coverage has remained relatively constant since the mid 1980s in Lemon Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Domestic wastewater treatment facilities are minor sources of nitrogen to Lemon Bay, and water clarity in Charlotte Harbor varies mostly as a function of dissolved organic matter and non-chlorophyll associated turbidity, not phytoplankton levels. Even in estuaries that share boundaries and are within 100 km of each other, varied responses to anthropogenic changes and natural phenomena were observed in water quality and associated seagrass extent. Resource management strategies must take into account system-specific factors-not all strategies will result in similar results in different systems.

  5. Intra- and interobserver reliability and intra-catheter reproducibility using frequency domain optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative assessment of stent strut coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Junker, Anders; Veien, Karsten Tange; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Hansen, Knud Nørregaard; Hougaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool (~ 10–15 μm), which enables near-histological in-vivo images of the coronary vessel wall. The use of the technique is increasing, both for research- and clinical purposes. This study sought to investigate the intra- and interobserver reliability, as well as the intra-catheter reproducibility of quantitative FD-OCT-assessment of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative FD-OCT-evaluation of strut coverage in 10 randomly selected 6-month follow-up Nobori® biolimus-eluting stents (N-BESs). Methods: Ten N-BESs (213 cross sectional areas (CSAs) and 1897 struts) imaged with OCT 6 months post-implantation were randomly selected and analyzed by 2 experienced analysts, and the same 10 N-BESs were analyzed by one of the analysts 3 months later. Further, 2 consecutive pullbacks randomly performed in another 10 N-BESs (219 CSAs and 1860 struts) were independently assessed by one of the analysts. Results: The intraobserver variability with regard to relative difference of mean luminal area and mean stent area at the CSA-level was very low: 0.1% ± 1.4% and 0.5% ± 3.2%. Interobserver variability also proved to be low: − 2.1% ± 3.3% and 2.1% ± 4.6%, and moreover, very restricted intra-catheter variation was observed: 0.02% ± 6.8% and − 0.18% ± 5.2%. The intraobserver-, interobserver- and intra-catheter reliability for the qualitative evaluation of strut coverage was found to be: kappa (κ) = 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.93, p < 0.01), κ = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85–0.91, p < 0.01), and κ = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68–0.78, p < 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: FD-OCT is a reproducible and reliable imaging tool for quantitative evaluation of stented coronary segments, and for qualitative assessment of strut coverage. - Highlights: • Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is increasingly adopted in the catherization laboratories. • This

  6. Intra- and interobserver reliability and intra-catheter reproducibility using frequency domain optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative assessment of stent strut coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth, E-mail: Lisbeth.antonsen@rsyd.dk; Thayssen, Per; Junker, Anders; Veien, Karsten Tange; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Hansen, Knud Nørregaard; Hougaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool (~ 10–15 μm), which enables near-histological in-vivo images of the coronary vessel wall. The use of the technique is increasing, both for research- and clinical purposes. This study sought to investigate the intra- and interobserver reliability, as well as the intra-catheter reproducibility of quantitative FD-OCT-assessment of morphometric stent parameters and qualitative FD-OCT-evaluation of strut coverage in 10 randomly selected 6-month follow-up Nobori® biolimus-eluting stents (N-BESs). Methods: Ten N-BESs (213 cross sectional areas (CSAs) and 1897 struts) imaged with OCT 6 months post-implantation were randomly selected and analyzed by 2 experienced analysts, and the same 10 N-BESs were analyzed by one of the analysts 3 months later. Further, 2 consecutive pullbacks randomly performed in another 10 N-BESs (219 CSAs and 1860 struts) were independently assessed by one of the analysts. Results: The intraobserver variability with regard to relative difference of mean luminal area and mean stent area at the CSA-level was very low: 0.1% ± 1.4% and 0.5% ± 3.2%. Interobserver variability also proved to be low: − 2.1% ± 3.3% and 2.1% ± 4.6%, and moreover, very restricted intra-catheter variation was observed: 0.02% ± 6.8% and − 0.18% ± 5.2%. The intraobserver-, interobserver- and intra-catheter reliability for the qualitative evaluation of strut coverage was found to be: kappa (κ) = 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.93, p < 0.01), κ = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85–0.91, p < 0.01), and κ = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68–0.78, p < 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: FD-OCT is a reproducible and reliable imaging tool for quantitative evaluation of stented coronary segments, and for qualitative assessment of strut coverage. - Highlights: • Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is increasingly adopted in the catherization laboratories. • This

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  8. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  9. Stochastic Partial Differential Equation Solver for Hydroacoustic Modeling: Improvements to Paracousti Sound Propagation Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices offer a clean, renewable alternative energy source for the future. Responsible utilization of MHK devices, however, requires that the effects of acoustic noise produced by these devices on marine life and marine-related human activities be well understood. Paracousti is a 3-D full waveform acoustic modeling suite that can accurately propagate MHK noise signals in the complex bathymetry found in the near-shore to open ocean environment and considers real properties of the seabed, water column, and air-surface interface. However, this is a deterministic simulation that assumes the environment and source are exactly known. In reality, environmental and source characteristics are often only known in a statistical sense. Thus, to fully characterize the expected noise levels within the marine environment, this uncertainty in environmental and source factors should be incorporated into the acoustic simulations. One method is to use Monte Carlo (MC) techniques where simulation results from a large number of deterministic solutions are aggregated to provide statistical properties of the output signal. However, MC methods can be computationally prohibitive since they can require tens of thousands or more simulations to build up an accurate representation of those statistical properties. An alternative method, using the technique of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE), allows computation of the statistical properties of output signals at a small fraction of the computational cost of MC. We are developing a SPDE solver for the 3-D acoustic wave propagation problem called Paracousti-UQ to help regulators and operators assess the statistical properties of environmental noise produced by MHK devices. In this presentation, we present the SPDE method and compare statistical distributions of simulated acoustic signals in simple models to MC simulations to show the accuracy and efficiency of the SPDE method. Sandia National Laboratories

  10. Understanding Mn-nodule distribution and evaluation of related deep-sea mining impacts using AUV-based hydroacoustic and optical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peukert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ship- and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV-based multibeam data from the German ferromanganese-nodule (Mn-nodule license area in the Clarion–Clipperton Zone (CCZ; eastern Pacific are linked to ground-truth data from optical imaging. Photographs obtained by an AUV enable semi-quantitative assessments of nodule coverage at a spatial resolution in the range of meters. Together with high-resolution AUV bathymetry, this revealed a correlation of small-scale terrain variations ( <  5 m horizontally,  <  1 m vertically with nodule coverage. In the presented data set, increased nodule coverage could be correlated with slopes  >  1.8° and concave terrain. On a more regional scale, factors such as the geological setting (existence of horst and graben structures, sediment thickness, outcropping basement and influence of bottom currents seem to play an essential role for the spatial variation of nodule coverage and the related hard substrate habitat. AUV imagery was also successfully employed to map the distribution of resettled sediment following a disturbance and sediment cloud generation during a sampling deployment of an epibenthic sledge. Data from before and after the disturbance allow a direct assessment of the impact. Automated image processing analyzed the nodule coverage at the seafloor, revealing nodule blanketing by resettling of suspended sediment within 16 h after the disturbance. The visually detectable impact was spatially limited to a maximum of 100 m distance from the disturbance track, downstream of the bottom water current. A correlation with high-resolution AUV bathymetry reveals that the blanketing pattern varies in extent by tens of meters, strictly following the bathymetry, even in areas of only slightly undulating seafloor ( < 1 m vertical change. These results highlight the importance of detailed terrain knowledge when engaging in resource assessment studies for nodule

  11. Childhood immunization rates in rural Intibucá, Honduras: an analysis of a local database tool and community health center records for assessing and improving vaccine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zarychta, Alan; Ranz, Joseph B; Carroll, Mary; Singleton, Lori M; Wilson, Paria M; Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P

    2012-12-07

    Vaccines are highly effective at preventing infectious diseases in children, and prevention is especially important in resource-limited countries where treatment is difficult to access. In Honduras, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports very high immunization rates in children. To determine whether or not these estimates accurately depict the immunization coverage in non-urban regions of the country, we compared the WHO data to immunization rates obtained from a local database tool and community health center records in rural Intibucá, Honduras. We used data from two sources to comprehensively evaluate immunization rates in the area: 1) census data from a local database and 2) immunization data collected at health centers. We compared these rates using logistic regression, and we compared them to publicly available WHO-reported estimates using confidence interval inclusion. We found that mean immunization rates for each vaccine were high (range 84.4 to 98.8 percent), but rates recorded at the health centers were significantly higher than those reported from the census data (p ≤ 0.001). Combining the results from both databases, the mean rates of four out of five vaccines were less than WHO-reported rates (p 0.05), except for diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine (p=0.02) and oral polio vaccine (p Honduras were high across data sources, though most of the rates recorded in rural Honduras were less than WHO-reported rates. Despite geographical difficulties and barriers to access, the local database and Honduran community health workers have developed a thorough system for ensuring that children receive their immunizations on time. The successful integration of community health workers and a database within the Honduran decentralized health system may serve as a model for other immunization programs in resource-limited countries where health care is less accessible.

  12. Hydroacoustic Antifouling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hoore, S.; De Vuyst, T.; De Vos, L.; Dobbelaere, A.

    2017-01-01

    Biofouling has a major impact on the global shipping industry. The fouling demands extensive efforts to clean the fouled vessels, increases the expenses for the shipping companies and worsens a number of environmental problems, such as carbon dioxide emissions due to increased drag, or the transport of organisms outside their habitat. In the past, toxic paints were found to be the solution for this problem. The ban of TBT (tributyltin), because of its negative impact on the environment, has l...

  13. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam, 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2010-07-31

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2009 through early spring 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines for fisheries managers and engineers to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study was from November 1, 2009 to April 10, 2010. The study was divided into three study periods: Period 1, November 1 - December 15, 2009 for a fall/winter sluiceway and turbine study; Period 2, December 16, 2009 - February 28, 2010 for a turbine only study; Period 3, March 1 - April 10, 2010 for a spring sluiceway and turbine study. Sluiceway operations were scheduled to begin on March 1 for this study; however, because of an oil spill cleanup near the sluice outfall, sluiceway operations were delayed until March 8, 2010, therefore the spring study period did not commence until March 8. The study objectives were to (1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA between November 1 and December 15, 2009 and March 1 and April 10, 2010, and (2) estimate the numbers and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units between December 16, 2009 and February 28, 2010. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics. For Period 1, overwintering summer steelhead fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. A total of 879 {+-} 165 (95% CI) steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse and sluiceway during November 1 to December 15, 2009. Ninety two

  15. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No.4 July 2003 - September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Zachary M.; Pulli, Jay J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B272 Quarterly technical report summarizing BBN's efforts to improve DOE's hydroacoustic modeling and analysis capability for nuclear explosion monitoring. BBN's work during the third quarter of 2003 was focused on preparations for and participation in the 2003 Seismic Research Review Meeting, unit testing and bug fixes to HydroCAM 4.1, data collection and analysis, and procuring high-resolution bathymetric data. In an attempt to save money, BBN scaled back its labor in the third quarter, delaying some deliverables but saving contract funding in case our next increment is delayed. We have succeeded in finding the correct Naval contact that can help us procure high-resolution bathymetry data. Although these data may require the release of a classified version of HydroCAM, we are optimistic that we will be able to acquire and integrate high-resolution bathymetric data near the Indian Ocean IMS stations. HydroCAM 4.1, which includes the ability to make blockage predictions using varying resolution bathymetric data, has completed unit testing and is now under integration (release) testing. We hope to deliver that functionality to DOE and AFTAC in November. BBN improved its database of hydroacoustic events in the Indian Ocean by including meta-data for associated arrivals. For each earthquake event, BBN is now picking the direct arrival at each station (Diego Garcia North and South, and Cape Leeuwin) and associating that arrival with the origin information that we are compiling. The data for 2001, 2002 and 2003 (to date) will be delivered to LLNL for integration into the Knowledge Base during the fourth quarter of 2003

  16. Awareness and Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub- national levels possess a high degree of autonomy in a number of sectors including health. It is important to assess the level of coverage of the scheme among the formal sector workers in Nigeria as a proxy to gauge the extent of coverage of the scheme and derive suitable lessons that could be used in its expansion.

  17. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA) and identify underserved populations and ...

  18. Assessment of the feasibility and coverage of a modified universal hearing screening protocol for use with newborn babies of migrant workers in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Beier; Cheng, Xiaohua; En, Hui; Liu, Bo; Peng, Shichun; Zhen, Yong; Cai, Zhenghua; Huang, Lihui; Zhang, Luo; Han, Demin

    2013-08-08

    Although migrant workers account for the majority of newborns in Beijing, their children are less likely to undergo appropriate universal newborn hearing screening/rescreening (UNHS) than newborns of local non-migrant residents. We hypothesised that this was at least in part due to the inadequacy of the UNHS protocol currently employed for newborn babies, and therefore aimed to modify the protocol to specifically reflect the needs of the migrant population. A total of 10,983 healthy babies born to migrant mothers between January 2007 and December 2009 at a Beijing public hospital were investigated for hearing abnormalities according to a modified UNHS protocol. This incorporated two additional/optional otoacoustic emissions (OAE) tests at 24-48 hours and 2 months after birth. Infants not passing a screening test were referred to the next test, until any hearing loss was confirmed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. A total of 98.91% (10983/11104) of all newborn children underwent the initial OAE test, of which 27.22% (2990/10983) failed the test. 1712 of the failed babies underwent the second inpatient OAE test, with739 failing again; thus significantly decreasing the overall positive rate for abnormal hearing from 27.22% to 18.36% ([2990-973 /10983)]; p = 0). Overall, 1147(56.87%) babies underwent the outpatient OAE test again after1-month, of whom 228 failed and were referred for the second outpatient OAE test (i.e. 2.08% (228/10983) referral rate at 1month of age). 141 of these infants underwent the referral test, of whom 103 (73.05%) tested positive again and were referred for a final ABR test for hearing loss (i.e. final referral rate of 1.73% ([228-38/10983] at 2 months of age). Only 54 infants attended the ABR test and 35 (0.32% of the original cohort tested) were diagnosed with abnormal hearing. Our study shows that it is feasible and practical to achieve high coverage rates for screening hearing loss and decrease the referral rates in

  19. Understanding Mn-nodule distribution and evaluation of related deep-sea mining impacts using AUV-based hydroacoustic and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Anne; Schoening, Timm; Alevizos, Evangelos; Köser, Kevin; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Greinert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    In this study, ship- and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-based multibeam data from the German ferromanganese-nodule (Mn-nodule) license area in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ; eastern Pacific) are linked to ground-truth data from optical imaging. Photographs obtained by an AUV enable semi-quantitative assessments of nodule coverage at a spatial resolution in the range of meters. Together with high-resolution AUV bathymetry, this revealed a correlation of small-scale terrain variations ( 1.8° and concave terrain. On a more regional scale, factors such as the geological setting (existence of horst and graben structures, sediment thickness, outcropping basement) and influence of bottom currents seem to play an essential role for the spatial variation of nodule coverage and the related hard substrate habitat. AUV imagery was also successfully employed to map the distribution of resettled sediment following a disturbance and sediment cloud generation during a sampling deployment of an epibenthic sledge. Data from before and after the disturbance allow a direct assessment of the impact. Automated image processing analyzed the nodule coverage at the seafloor, revealing nodule blanketing by resettling of suspended sediment within 16 h after the disturbance. The visually detectable impact was spatially limited to a maximum of 100 m distance from the disturbance track, downstream of the bottom water current. A correlation with high-resolution AUV bathymetry reveals that the blanketing pattern varies in extent by tens of meters, strictly following the bathymetry, even in areas of only slightly undulating seafloor ( < 1 m vertical change). These results highlight the importance of detailed terrain knowledge when engaging in resource assessment studies for nodule abundance estimates and defining mineable areas. At the same time, it shows the importance of high-resolution mapping for detailed benthic habitat studies that show a heterogeneity at scales of 10 to 100 m

  20. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  1. Assessment of coverage of preventive treatment and insecticide-treated mosquito nets in pregnant women attending antenatal care services in 11 districts in Mozambique in 2011: the critical role of supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-05-25

    Malaria during pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and pregnancy outcome and the World Health Organization recommends the administration of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) to all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the uptake of IPTp and ITNs in pregnant women attending ANC services and correlate with ANC attendance and frequency of stock-outs in 22 health facilities Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 2011 in 22 health units in 11 districts situated in 11 provinces in Mozambique. Two health facilities were selected per district (one urban and one rural). Data were collected by reviewing logbooks of antenatal consultations as well as from monthly district reports. During the period under investigation, a total of 23,524 pregnant women attended their 1st antenatal care visits, of which 12,775 (54.3%) and 7581 (32.2%) received one and two doses of IPTp, respectively. In regard to ITNs, a total of 16,436 (69.9%) pregnant women received ITNs. Uptake of IPTp and ITNs by pregnant women at ANC services was higher in southern Mozambique and lower in districts situated in the northern part of the country. Stock-outs of SP and ITNs were reported in 50.0% (11/22) and 54.5% (12/22) of the health facilities, respectively. Coverage of IPTp and ITN in health facilities with stock-outs of SP and ITNs was much lower as compared to health facilities with no stock-outs. Altogether, data from this study shows that coverage of the 2nd dose of IPTp, as well as ITNs, was low in pregnant women attending ANC services in Mozambique. In addition, this data also shows that stock-outs of SP and ITNs were frequent and led to lower coverage of IPTp and ITN, representing a serious barrier for the accomplishment of targets. In conclusion, this study recommends that

  2. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  3. Bridging health technology assessment (HTA with multicriteria decision analyses (MCDA: field testing of the EVIDEM framework for coverage decisions by a public payer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Michèle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consistent healthcare decisionmaking requires systematic consideration of decision criteria and evidence available to inform them. This can be tackled by combining multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA and Health Technology Assessment (HTA. The objective of this study was to field-test a decision support framework (EVIDEM, explore its utility to a drug advisory committee and test its reliability over time. Methods Tramadol for chronic non-cancer pain was selected by the health plan as a case study relevant to their context. Based on extensive literature review, a by-criterion HTA report was developed to provide synthesized evidence for each criterion of the framework (14 criteria for the MCDA Core Model and 6 qualitative criteria for the Contextual Tool. During workshop sessions, committee members tested the framework in three steps by assigning: 1 weights to each criterion of the MCDA Core Model representing individual perspective; 2 scores for tramadol for each criterion of the MCDA Core Model using synthesized data; and 3 qualitative impacts of criteria of the Contextual Tool on the appraisal. Utility and reliability of the approach were explored through discussion, survey and test-retest. Agreement between test and retest data was analyzed by calculating intra-rater correlation coefficients (ICCs for weights, scores and MCDA value estimates. Results The framework was found useful by the drug advisory committee in supporting systematic consideration of a broad range of criteria to promote a consistent approach to appraising healthcare interventions. Directly integrated in the framework as a "by-criterion" HTA report, synthesized evidence for each criterion facilitated its consideration, although this was sometimes limited by lack of relevant data. Test-retest analysis showed fair to good consistency of weights, scores and MCDA value estimates at the individual level (ICC ranging from 0.676 to 0.698, thus lending some

  4. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  5. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  6. Massachusetts health reform: employer coverage from employees' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The national health reform debate continues to draw on Massachusetts' 2006 reform initiative, with a focus on sustaining employer-sponsored insurance. This study provides an update on employers' responses under health reform in fall 2008, using data from surveys of working-age adults. Results show that concerns about employers' dropping coverage or scaling back benefits under health reform have not been realized. Access to employer coverage has increased, as has the scope and quality of their coverage as assessed by workers. However, premiums and out-of-pocket costs have become more of an issue for employees in small firms.

  7. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Levitt, Pam; Deikman, Doug; Vlahos, Bob

    1999-01-01

    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 26,800 square miles in northwestern Colorado. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three Colorado State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) former district offices at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Project in the Uinta-Piceance Basin Province and the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment Project in the Colorado Plateau.

  8. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage......The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...

  9. Why do health technology assessment coverage recommendations for the same drugs differ across settings? Applying a mixed methods framework to systematically compare orphan drug decisions in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicod, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) coverage recommendations differ across countries for the same drugs. Unlike previous studies, this study adopts a mixed methods research design to investigate, in a systematic manner, these differences. HTA recommendations for ten orphan drugs appraised in England (NICE), Scotland (SMC), Sweden (TLV) and France (HAS) (N = 35) were compared using a validated methodological framework that breaks down these complex decision processes into stages facilitating their understanding, analysis and comparison, namely: (1) the clinical/cost-effectiveness evidence, (2) its interpretation (e.g. part of the deliberative process) and (3) influence on the final decision. This allowed qualitative and quantitative identification of the criteria driving recommendations and highlighted cross-country differences. Six out of ten drugs received diverging HTA recommendations. Reasons for cross-country differences included heterogeneity in the evidence appraised, in the interpretation of the same evidence, and in the different ways of dealing with the same uncertainty. These may have been influenced by agency-specific evidentiary, risk and value preferences, or stakeholder input. "Other considerations" (e.g. severity, orphan status) and other decision modulators (e.g. patient access schemes, lower discount rates, restrictions, re-assessments) also rendered uncertainty and cost-effectiveness estimates more acceptable. The different HTA approaches (clinical versus cost-effectiveness) and ways identified of dealing with orphan drug particularities also had implications on the final decisions. This research contributes to better understanding the drivers of these complex decisions and why countries make different decisions. It also contributed to identifying those factors beyond the standard clinical and cost-effectiveness tools used in HTA, and their role in shaping these decisions.

  10. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  11. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as they are dangerous to cruise it over

  12. Establishing a Dynamic Database of Blue and Fin Whale Locations from Recordings at the IMS CTBTO hydro-acoustic network. The Baleakanta Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, R. J.; Kuzma, H.

    2013-12-01

    Falling as they do into the frequency range of continuously recording hydrophones (15-100Hz), blue and fin whale songs are a significant source of noise on the hydro-acoustic monitoring array of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). One researcher's noise, however, can be a very interesting signal in another field of study. The aim of the Baleakanta Project (www.baleakanta.org) is to flag and catalogue these songs, using the azimuth and slowness of the signal measured at multiple hydrophones to solve for the approximate location of singing whales. Applying techniques borrowed from human speaker identification, it may even be possible to recognize the songs of particular individuals. The result will be a dynamic database of whale locations and songs with known individuals noted. This database will be of great value to marine biologists studying cetaceans, as there is no existing dataset which spans the globe over many years (more than 15 years of data have been collected by the IMS). Current whale song datasets from other sources are limited to detections made on small, temporary listening devices. The IMS song catalogue will make it possible to study at least some aspects of the global migration patterns of whales, changes in their songs over time, and the habits of individuals. It is believed that about 10 blue whale 'cultures' exist with distinct vocal patterns; the IMS song catalogue will test that number. Results and a subset of the database (delayed in time to mitigate worries over whaling and harassment of the animals) will be released over the web. A traveling museum exhibit is planned which will not only educate the public about whale songs, but will also make the CTBTO and its achievements more widely known. As a testament to the public's enduring fascination with whales, initial funding for this project has been crowd-sourced through an internet campaign.

  13. Lander based hydroacoustic monitoring of marine single bubble releases in Eckernförde Bay utilizing the multibeam based GasQuant II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Greinert, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel is currently developing a Imagenex Delta T based lander system for monitoring and quantifying marine gas release (bubbles). The GasQuant II is built as the successor of the GasQuant I system (Greinert, 2008), that has been successfully used for monitoring tempo-spatial variability of gas release in the past (Schneider von Deimling et al., 2010). The new system is lightweight (40 kg), energy efficient, flexible to use and built for ROV deployment with autonomous operation of up to three days. A prototype has been successfully deployed in Eckernförde Bay during the R/V ALKOR cruise AL447 in October/November 2014 to monitor the tempo-spatial variability of gas bubble seepage and to detect a possible correlation with tidal variations. Two deployments, one in forward- and one in upward looking mode, reveal extensive but scattered single bubble releases rather than distinct and more continuous sources. While these releases are difficult to detect in forward looking mode, they can unambiguously be detected in the upward looking mode even for minor gas releases, bubble rising speeds can be determined. Greinert, J., 2008. Monitoring temporal variability of bubble release at seeps: The hydroacoustic swath system GasQuant. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Vol. 113 Issue C7 CiteID C07048 113, 7048. doi:10.1029/2007JC004704 Schneider von Deimling, J., Greinert, J., Chapman, N.R., Rabbel, W., Linke, P., 2010. Acoustic imaging of natural gas seepage in the North Sea: Sensing bubbles controlled by variable currents. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 155. doi:10.4319/lom.2010.8.155

  14. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  15. Root coverage with bridge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession in anterior teeth is a common concern due to esthetic reasons or root sensitivity. Gingival recession, especially in multiple anterior teeth, is of huge concern due to esthetic reasons. Various mucogingival surgeries are available for root coverage. This case report presents a new bridge flap technique, which allows the dentist not only to cover the previously denuded root surfaces but also to increase the zone of attached gingiva at a single step. In this case, a coronally advanced flap along with vestibular deepening technique was used as root coverage procedure for the treatment of multiple recession-type defect. Here, vestibular deepening technique is used to increase the width of the attached gingiva. The predictability of this procedure results in an esthetically healthy periodontium, along with gain in keratinized tissue and good patient′s acceptance.

  16. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  17. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  18. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  19. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  20. Young Adults’ Selection and Use of Dependent Coverage under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependent coverage expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA required health insurance policies that cover dependents to offer coverage for policyholder’ children up to age 26. It has been well documented that the provision successfully reduced the uninsured rate among the young adults. However, less is known about whether dependent coverage crowded out other insurance types and whether young adults used dependent coverage as a fill-in-the-gap short-term option. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2008 Panel, the paper assesses dependent coverage uptake and duration before and after the ACA provision among young adults aged 19–26 versus those aged 27–30. Regressions for additional coverage outcomes were also performed to estimate the crowd-out rate. It was found that the ACA provision had a significant positive impact on dependent coverage uptake and duration. The estimated crowd-out rate ranges from 27 to 42%, depending on the definition. Most dependent coverage enrollees used the coverage for 1 or 2 years. Differences in dependent coverage uptake and duration remained among racial groups. Less healthy individuals were also less likely to make use of dependent coverage.

  1. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... family member is an individual whose relationship to the enrollee meets the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 8901... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. An individual who enrolls under this subpart may elect coverage for self alone or self and family...

  2. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and includes...

  3. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any...

  4. [Coverage by health insurance or discount cards: a household survey in the coverage area of the Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo Ferreira; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2017-10-26

    This study was designed to assess the reasons for health insurance coverage in a population covered by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil. We describe overall health insurance coverage and according to types, and analyze its association with health-related and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 31.3% of persons (95%CI: 23.8-39.9) who reported "health insurance" coverage, 57.0% (95%CI: 45.2-68.0) were covered only by discount cards, which do not offer any kind of coverage for medical care, but only discounts in pharmacies, clinics, and hospitals. Both for health insurance and discount cards, the most frequently cited reasons for such coverage were "to be on the safe side" and "to receive better care". Both types of coverage were associated statistically with age (+65 vs. 15-24 years: adjusted odds ratios, aOR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.28-6.90; and aOR = 3.67; 95%CI: 2.22-6.07, respectively) and socioeconomic status (additional standard deviation: aOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.62-3.14; and aOR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.34-2.97). In addition, health insurance coverage was associated with schooling (aOR = 7.59, 95%CI: 4.44-13.00) for complete University Education and aOR = 3.74 (95%CI: 1.61-8.68) for complete Secondary Education, compared to less than complete Primary Education. Meanwhile, neither health insurance nor discount card was associated with health status or number of diagnosed diseases. In conclusion, studies that aim to assess private health insurance should be planned to distinguish between discount cards and formal health insurance.

  5. Avaliação da cobertura vacinal do esquema básico para o primeiro ano de vida Assessment of immunization coverage for the basic schedule in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides S. de Miranda

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1991 avaliou-se a cobertura vacinal em crianças de 12 a 23 meses de idade no território de responsabilidade de um Posto de Atenção Primária à Saúde, na periferia da Zona Norte de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, cinco anos após sua implantação, com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade das ações de saúde desenvolvidas no serviço. Foram investigadas todas as crianças através de um inquérito domiciliar, observando-se a carteira de vacinas e as informações da mãe. Em 1986, um inquérito inicial havia identificado uma cobertura vacinal inferior a 60% para cada uma das vacinas. A atual cobertura vacinal (doses comprovadas para três doses da vacina DPT (Difteria, Pertussis e Tétano, três doses da Sabin (antipoliomielite, uma dose da anti-sarampo (VAS e uma dose de BCG são, respectivamente 87, 89, 88 e 79%. Apesar das altas coberturas observadas por tipos de vacinas, quando se verificou para cada criança se o esquema básico do primeiro ano de vida estava completo (3 doses de DPT + 3 doses de Sabin + 1 dose de VAS + 1 dose de BCG, encontrou-se apenas 75% das crianças na citada situação. A cobertura vacinal é heterogênea dentro do território, sendo maior naquelas áreas caracterizadas por piores condições socioeconômicas, onde a equipe de saúde havia intensificado esforços. A comparação com o método administrativo de avaliação de cobertura, realizado mensalmente, mostrou a não-adequação desse, que subestimava a cobertura vacinal. Avaliou-se a situação vacinal das mães, para vacina antitetânica, e apenas 49% das crianças estavam protegidas contra o tétano neonatal. Os dados obtidos subsidiaram a imediata reestruturação das ações do programa, com vistas a atingir uma cobertura vacinal de 100%, e melhorar a qualidade das ações de saúde prestadas pela equipe.Immunization coverage was evaluated in all 12-23 month-old children living in the area were five years before a Primary Care Practice had been set up

  6. Interactive computation of coverage regions for indoor wireless communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, A. Lynn; Bhat, Nitin; Rappaport, Theodore S.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes a system which assists in the strategic placement of rf base stations within buildings. Known as the site modeling tool (SMT), this system allows the user to display graphical floor plans and to select base station transceiver parameters, including location and orientation, interactively. The system then computes and highlights estimated coverage regions for each transceiver, enabling the user to assess the total coverage within the building. For single-floor operation, the user can choose between distance-dependent and partition- dependent path-loss models. Similar path-loss models are also available for the case of multiple floors. This paper describes the method used by the system to estimate coverage for both directional and omnidirectional antennas. The site modeling tool is intended to be simple to use by individuals who are not experts at wireless communication system design, and is expected to be very useful in the specification of indoor wireless systems.

  7. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  8. Insurance Coverage for Rehabilitation Therapies and Association with Social Participation Outcomes among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Mansha; Kim, Yoonsang

    2016-01-01

    (1) To profile children's health insurance coverage rates for specific rehabilitation therapies; (2) to determine whether coverage for rehabilitation therapies is associated with social participation outcomes after adjusting for child and household characteristics; (3) to assess whether rehabilitation insurance differentially affects social participation of children with and without disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of secondary survey data on 756 children (ages 3-17) from 370 households living in low-income neighborhoods in a Midwestern U.S. city. Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models were estimated. Significantly higher proportions of children with disabilities had coverage for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech and language pathology, yet gaps in coverage were noted. Multivariate analysis indicated that rehabilitation insurance coverage was significantly associated with social participation (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.013-2.75). This trend was sustained in subgroup analysis. Findings support the need for comprehensive coverage of all essential services under children's health insurance programs.

  9. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  10. Country-level predictors of vaccination coverage and inequalities in Gavi-supported countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Catherine; Johri, Mira; Nandi, Arijit; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Hansen, Peter M; Harper, Sam

    2017-04-25

    Important inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage persist between countries and population groups. Understanding why some countries achieve higher and more equitable levels of coverage is crucial to redress these inequalities. In this study, we explored the country-level determinants of (1) coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis- (DTP3) containing vaccine and (2) within-country inequalities in DTP3 coverage in 45 countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. We used data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2005 and 2014. We measured national DTP3 coverage and the slope index of inequality in DTP3 coverage with respect to household wealth, maternal education, and multidimensional poverty. We collated data on country health systems, health financing, governance and geographic and sociocultural contexts from published sources. We used meta-regressions to assess the relationship between these country-level factors and variations in DTP3 coverage and inequalities. To validate our findings, we repeated these analyses for coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV). We found considerable heterogeneity in DTP3 coverage and in the magnitude of inequalities across countries. Results for MCV were consistent with those from DTP3. Political stability, gender equality and smaller land surface were important predictors of higher and more equitable levels of DTP3 coverage. Inequalities in DTP3 coverage were also lower in countries receiving more external resources for health, with lower rates of out-of-pocket spending and with higher national coverage. Greater government spending on heath and lower linguistic fractionalization were also consistent with better vaccination outcomes. Improving vaccination coverage and reducing inequalities requires that policies and programs address critical social determinants of health including geographic and social exclusion, gender inequality and the availability of

  11. Hydroacoustic observations of the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.; Hauk, T.; Breitfeller, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The NPE was observed by three hydrophone arrays located off of the coast of California: (1) a special sonobuoy pattern deployed for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by COMPATWINGSSPAC, U.S. Navy, (2) the SwellEx vertical line array deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and (3) an array of the U.S. Navy SOSUS system. The P phase from the event was just visible in the sonobuoy data, very clear on the vertical line array (after beamforming), and moderately well recorded on the SOSUS array. Calibration of the SwellEx array hydrophones and electronics allows us to estimate the pressure level of the NPE P phase at 75-80 dB re 1 uPascal**2/Hz between 2 and 9 Hz. We use observations of the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test to demonstrate several beamforming methods that use vertical line arrays to suppress the predominantly horizontally propagating ambient acoustic noise. Such arrays could be used to supplement seismic systems for monitoring inaccessible continental regions from adjacent oceans.

  12. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  13. Quantifying the impact of cross coverage on physician's workload and performance in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Zagar, Timothy; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the difference in workload and performance of radiation oncology physicians during radiation therapy treatment planning tasks under the conditions of "cross coverage" versus planning a patient with whom they were familiar. Eight physicians (3 experienced faculty physicians and 5 physician residents) performed 2 cases. The first case represented a "cross-coverage" scenario where the physicians had no prior information about the case to be planned. The second exposure represented a "regular-coverage" scenario where the physicians were familiar with the patient case to be planned. Each case involved 3 tasks to be completed systematically. Workload was assessed both subjectively (perceived) using National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), and objectively (physiological) throughout the task using eye data (via monitoring pupil size and blink rate). Performance of each task and the case was measured using completion time. Subjective willingness to approve or disapprove the generated plan was obtained after completion of the case only. Forty-eight perceived and 48 physiological workload assessments were obtained. Overall, results revealed a significant increase in perceived workload (high NASA-TLX score) and decrease in performance (longer completion time and reduced approval rate) during cross coverage. There were nonsignificant increases in pupil diameter and decreases in the blink rate during cross-coverage versus regular-coverage scenario. In both cross-coverage and regular-coverage scenarios the level of experience did not affect workload and performance. The cross-coverage scenario significantly increases perceived workload and degrades performance versus regular coverage. Hence, to improve patient safety, efforts must be made to develop policies, standard operating procedures, and usability improvements to electronic medical record and treatment planning systems for "easier" information processing to deal with

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of the seismicity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores from hydroacoustic data: Insights into seismogenic processes in a ridge-hot spot context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, J.; Perrot, J.; Royer, J.-Y.; Martin, C.; LourençO, N.; Luis, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Haxel, J.; Fowler, M. J.; Fox, C. G.; Lau, A. T.-K.; Bazin, S.

    2012-02-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic was monitored from May 2002 to September 2003 by the `SIRENA array' of autonomous hydrophones. The hydroacoustic signals provide a unique data set documenting numerous low-magnitude earthquakes along the section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) located in a ridge-hot spot interaction context. During the experiment, 1696 events were detected along the MAR axis between 40°N and 51°N, with a magnitude of completeness level ofmb≈ 2.4. Inside the array, location errors are in the order of 2 km, and errors in the origin time are less than 1 s. From this catalog, 15 clusters were detected. The distribution of source level (SL) versus time within each cluster is used to discriminate clusters occurring in a tectonic context from those attributed to non-tectonic (i.e. volcanic or hydrothermal) processes. The location of tectonic and non-tectonic sequences correlates well with regions with positive and negative Mantle Bouguer Anomalies (MBAs), indicating the presence of thinner/colder and thicker/warmer crust respectively. At the scale of the entire array, both the complete and declustered catalogs derived from the hydroacoustic signals show an increase of the seismicity rate from the Azores up to 43°30'N suggesting a diminishing influence of the Azores hot spot on the ridge-axis temperature, and well correlated with a similar increase in the along-axis MBAs. The comparison of the MAR seismicity with the Residual MBA (RMBA) at different scales leads us to think that the low-magnitude seismicity rates are directly related to along-axis variations in lithosphere rheology and temperatures.

  15. Evaluation of Coverage and Barriers to Access to MAM Treatment in West Pokot County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basquin, Cecile; Imelda, Awino; Gallagher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite an increased number of nutrition treatment coverage assessments conducted, they often focus on Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) treatment. In a recent experience in Kenya, Action Against Hunger| ACF International (ACF) conducted a coverage assessment to evaluate access to SAM and Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) treatment. ACF supports the Ministry of Health (MoH) in delivering SAM and MAM treatment at health facility level through an Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition (IMAM) programme in West Pokot county since 2011. In order to evaluate the coverage of Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) and Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) components, the Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC) methodology was used. The goals of the coverage assessment were i) to estimate coverage for OTP and SFP; ii) to identify barriers to access to SAM and MAM treatment; iii) to evaluate whether any differences exist between barriers to access to SAM versus to MAM treatment as SFP coverage and uptake of MAM services were never assessed before; and iv) to build local capacities in assessing coverage and to provide recommendations for the MoH-led IMAM programme. With the support of the Coverage Monitoring Network (CMN), ACF led the SLEAC assessment as part of an on-the-job training exercise for MoH and partners in July 2013, covering all of West Pokot county. SLEAC is a rapid and low-resource survey method that uses a three-tier classification approach to evaluate and classify coverage, i.e., low coverage: < 20%; moderate: 20% -50%; and high coverage: ≤ 50%. In a first sampling stage, villages in each of the four sub-counties were randomly selected using systematic sampling. In a second sampling stage, in order to also assess MAM coverage, a house-to-house approach was applied to identify all or near all acutely malnourished children using Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tape and identification of bilateral

  16. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  17. Health Technology Assessment: Global Advocacy and Local Realities; Comment on “Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes, Not Just More Evidence on Cost-Effectiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalipso Chalkidou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA can help countries attain and sustain universal health coverage (UHC, as long as it is context-specific and considered within deliberative processes at the country level. Institutionalising robust deliberative processes requires significant time and resources, however, and countries often begin by demanding evidence (including local CEA evidence as well as evidence about local values, whilst striving to strengthen the governance structures and technical capacities with which to generate, consider and act on such evidence. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, such capacities could be developed initially around a small technical unit in the health ministry or health insurer. The role of networks, development partners, and global norm setting organisations is crucial in supporting the necessary capacities.

  18. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, D.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Endrayanto, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells

  19. 5 CFR 531.402 - Employee coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee coverage. 531.402 Section 531... GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.402 Employee coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this subpart applies to employees who— (1) Are classified and paid under the...

  20. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  2. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  3. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  4. Coverage matters: insurance and health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    ...? How does the system of insurance coverage in the U.S. operate, and where does it fail? The first of six Institute of Medicine reports that will examine in detail the consequences of having a large uninsured population, Coverage Matters...

  5. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  6. Disparities in Private Health Insurance Coverage of Skilled Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Tovino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and

  7. 12 CFR 713.5 - What is the required minimum dollar amount of coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage required, but a federal credit union's board of directors should purchase additional or enhanced... its own internal risk assessment, its fraud trends and loss experience, and factors such as its cash...

  8. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John

    2014-01-01

    therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. METHODS: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised...... epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits......, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under scenarios of existing and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses assessed the extension of eligibility to include individuals with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μ...

  9. Effective cataract surgical coverage: An indicator for measuring quality-of-care in the context of Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramke

    Full Text Available To define and demonstrate effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC, a candidate UHC indicator that combines a coverage measure (cataract surgical coverage, CSC with quality (post-operative visual outcome.All Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB surveys with datasets on the online RAAB Repository on April 1 2016 were downloaded. The most recent study from each country was included. By country, cataract surgical outcome (CSOGood, 6/18 or better; CSOPoor, worse than 6/60, CSC (operated cataract as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract and eCSC (operated cataract and a good outcome as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract were calculated. The association between CSC and CSO was assessed by linear regression. Gender inequality in CSC and eCSC was calculated.Datasets from 20 countries were included (2005-2013; 67,337 participants; 5,474 cataract surgeries. Median CSC was 53.7% (inter-quartile range[IQR] 46.1-66.6%, CSOGood was 58.9% (IQR 53.7-67.6% and CSOPoor was 17.7% (IQR 11.3-21.1%. Coverage and quality of cataract surgery were moderately associated-every 1% CSC increase was associated with a 0.46% CSOGood increase and 0.28% CSOPoor decrease. Median eCSC was 36.7% (IQR 30.2-50.6%, approximately one-third lower than the median CSC. Women tended to fare worse than men, and gender inequality was slightly higher for eCSC (4.6% IQR 0.5-7.1% than for CSC (median 2.3% IQR -1.5-11.6%.eCSC allows monitoring of quality in conjunction with coverage of cataract surgery. In the surveys analysed, on average 36.7% of people who could benefit from cataract surgery had undergone surgery and obtained a good visual outcome.

  10. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    James M Dupree

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of h...

  11. Conventional sunscreen application does not lead to sufficient body coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Z; Schornstein, T; Sutor, A; Neufang, G; Hagens, R

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sunscreen application habits and relative body coverage after single whole body application. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were asked to use the test product once, following their usual sunscreen application routine. Standardized UV photographs, which were evaluated by Image Analysis, were conducted before and immediately after product application to evaluate relative body coverage. In addition to these procedures, the volunteers completed an online self-assessment questionnaire to assess sunscreen usage habits. After product application, the front side showed significantly less non-covered skin (4.35%) than the backside (17.27%) (P = 0.0000). Females showed overall significantly less non-covered skin (8.98%) than males (13.16%) (P = 0.0381). On the backside, females showed significantly less non-covered skin (13.57%) (P = 0.0045) than males (21.94%), while on the front side, this difference between females (4.14%) and males (4.53%) was not significant. In most cases, the usual sunscreen application routine does not provide complete body coverage even though an extra light sunscreen with good absorption properties was used. On average, 11% of the body surface was not covered by sunscreen at all. Therefore, appropriate consumer education is required to improve sunscreen application and to warrant effective sun protection. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Health Technology Assessment: Global Advocacy and Local Realities Comment on "Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes, Not Just More Evidence on Cost-Effectiveness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Li, Ryan; Culyer, Anthony J; Glassman, Amanda; Hofman, Karen J; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-08-29

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can help countries attain and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), as long as it is context-specific and considered within deliberative processes at the country level. Institutionalising robust deliberative processes requires significant time and resources, however, and countries often begin by demanding evidence (including local CEA evidence as well as evidence about local values), whilst striving to strengthen the governance structures and technical capacities with which to generate, consider and act on such evidence. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such capacities could be developed initially around a small technical unit in the health ministry or health insurer. The role of networks, development partners, and global norm setting organisations is crucial in supporting the necessary capacities. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  14. Variation in Private Payer Coverage of Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James D; Wilkinson, Colby L; Anderson, Jordan E; Chenoweth, Matthew D

    2016-10-01

    Payers in the United States issue coverage determinations to guide how their enrolled beneficiaries use prescription drugs. Because payers create their own coverage policies, how they cover drugs can vary, which in turn can affect access to care by beneficiaries. To examine how the largest private payers based on membership cover drugs indicated for rheumatoid arthritis and to determine what evidence the payers reported reviewing when formulating their coverage policies. Coverage policies issued by the 10 largest private payers that make their policies publicly available were identified for rheumatoid arthritis drugs. Each coverage determination was compared with the drug's corresponding FDA label and categorized according to the following: (a) consistent with the label, (b) more restrictive than the label, (c) less restrictive than the label, or (d) mixed (i.e., more restrictive than the label in one way but less restrictive in another). Each coverage determination was also compared with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2012 treatment recommendations and categorized using the same relative restrictiveness criteria. The policies were then reviewed to identify the evidence that the payers reported reviewing. The identified evidence was divided into the following 6 categories: randomized controlled trials; other clinical studies (e.g., observational studies); health technology assessments; clinical reviews; cost-effectiveness analyses; and clinical guidelines. Sixty-nine percent of coverage determinations were more restrictive than the corresponding FDA label; 15% were consistent; 3% were less restrictive; and 13% were mixed. Thirty-four percent of coverage determinations were consistent with the ACR recommendations, 33% were more restrictive; 17% were less restrictive; and 17% were mixed. Payers most often reported reviewing randomized controlled trials for their coverage policies (an average of 2.3 per policy). The payers reported reviewing an average of

  15. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  16. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Federal Employees Health Benefit Plan Equivalent Coverage (FEHBP—Equivalent Health Insurance Coverage). A... coverage. Health benefits coverage that is offered and generally available to State employees in the State... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section...

  17. Impact of conflict on infant immunisation coverage in Afghanistan: a countrywide study 2000–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino Kaoruko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant immunisation is an effective public health intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality of vaccine preventable diseases. However, some developing countries fail to achieve desirable vaccination coverage; Afghanistan is one such country. The present study was performed to evaluate the progress and variation in infant immunisation coverage by district and region in Afghanistan and to assess the impact of conflict and resource availability on immunisation coverage. Results This study analysed reports of infant immunisation from 331 districts across 7 regions of Afghanistan between 2000 and 2003. Geographic information system (GIS analysis was used to visualise the distribution of immunisation coverage in districts and to identify geographic inequalities in the process of improvement of infant immunisation coverage. The number of districts reporting immunisation coverage increased substantially during the four years of the study. Progress in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG immunisation coverage was observed in all 7 regions, although satisfactory coverage of 80% remained unequally distributed. Progress in the third dose of Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT3 immunisation differed among regions, in addition to the unequal distribution of immunisation coverage in 2000. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a significant negative association between lack of security in the region and achievement of 80% coverage of immunisation regardless of available resources for immunisation, while resource availability showed no relation to immunisation coverage. Conclusion Although progress was observed in all 7 regions, geographic inequalities in these improvements remain a cause for concern. The results of the present study indicated that security within a country is an important factor for affecting the delivery of immunisation services.

  18. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Summary of DOD Acquisition Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This report will provide the DoD audit community with information to support their planning efforts and provide management with information on the extent of audit coverage of DoD acquisition programs...

  20. NOAA Weather Radio - County Coverage by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using SAME SAME Non-Zero Codes DOCUMENTS NWR

  1. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  2. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  3. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  4. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  5. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  6. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  7. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  8. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  9. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  10. Coverage for SCS Pre-1941 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was generated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at the New Mexico State Office to show the coverage for the Pre-1941 aerial photography...

  11. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  13. Is a 'convenience' sample useful for estimating immunization coverage in a small population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jean E; Jones, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Rapid survey methodologies are widely used for assessing immunization coverage in developing countries, approximating true stratified random sampling. Non-random ('convenience') sampling is not considered appropriate for estimating immunization coverage rates but has the advantages of low cost and expediency. We assessed the validity of a convenience sample of children presenting to a travelling clinic by comparing the coverage rate in the convenience sample to the true coverage established by surveying each child in three villages in rural Papua New Guinea. The rate of DTF immunization coverage as estimated by the convenience sample was within 10% of the true coverage when the proportion of children in the sample was two-thirds or when only children over the age of one year were counted, but differed by 11% when the sample included only 53% of the children and when all eligible children were included. The convenience sample may be sufficiently accurate for reporting purposes and is useful for identifying areas of low coverage.

  14. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  15. 45 CFR 148.124 - Certification and disclosure of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... method of counting creditable coverage, and the requesting entity may identify specific information that... a payroll deduction for health coverage, a health insurance identification card, a certificate of...

  16. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, FM; Moyes, CL; Pigott, DM; Marinho, F; Deshpande, A; Longbottom, J; Browne, AJ; Kraemer, MUG; O’Reilly, KM; Hombach, J; Yactayo, S; de Araújo, VEM; da Nόbrega, AA; Mosser, JF; Stanaway, JD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. Methods: ...

  17. Television news coverage of obesity in China, 1982-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhe; Xu, Rui Qing; Zhao, Kun; Li, Ke Ji

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how obesity was covered in television news in China, including the trends over time and the characteristics of obesity-related news. The frame analysis was adopted to assess the content of obesity-related news broadcasted in China Central Television (CCTV) from 1982 to 2009. To investigate the characteristics of the news, the obesity-related news was divided into subgroups according to populations concerned, as well as the period in which the news was broadcasted. The differences between subgroups were examined. A total of 1 599 pieces of news reported obesity, in which 1 278 pieces (79.92%) aired in "wealthy" period (2006-2009). More news was concerned with adults (1 134, 70.92%). "Individual behavior" dominated most of the cause frames (389, 24.33%), solution frames (522, 32.65%), and responsibility frames (860, 53.78%). There was more news mentioning individual factors in news aired in "wealthy" period and news concerning children. The coverage of social-structure causes was higher in news concerning children, while the coverage of social-structure solutions was higher in news concerning children and news aired in "wealthy" period. Although the coverage of obesity was modest, it showed an incremental trend as the economy grew. Obesity was mostly depicted as an individual problem in terms of responsibility, causes and solutions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  19. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  20. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  1. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  3. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  4. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1) poverty, 2) poor dietary diversity, and 3) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1) consumption of the vehicle, 2) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches are needed

  5. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Richard K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8× to 10× redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26× and 21×, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21× value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study.

  6. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of the...

  7. 28 CFR 55.6 - Coverage under section 203(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.6 Coverage under section 203(c). (a) Coverage formula. There are four ways in which a political subdivision can become subject to section 203(c). 2 2 The criteria for coverage are contained in section 203(b). (1) Political...

  8. Microstrip Antenna Design for Femtocell Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mircostrip antenna is designed for multielement antenna coverage optimization in femtocell network. Interference is the foremost concern for the cellular operator in vast commercial deployments of femtocell. Many techniques in physical, data link and network-layer are analysed and developed to settle down the interference issues. A multielement technique with self-configuration features is analyzed here for coverage optimization of femtocell. It also focuses on the execution of microstrip antenna for multielement configuration. The antenna is designed for LTE Band 7 by using standard FR4 dielectric substrate. The performance of the proposed antenna in the femtocell application is discussed along with results.

  9. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Evaluation of Voluntary Varicella Vaccination Coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping; Zhang, Bing; Li, Qian

    2016-06-03

    In 2014 a 2-doses varicella vaccine (VarV) schedule was recommended by the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We aimed to assess the coverage of the 1st dose of VarV (VarV₁) and the 2nd dose of VarV (VarV₂) among children aged 2-6 years through the Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System (ZJIIS) and to explore the determinants associated with the VarV coverage. Children aged 2-6 years (born from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013) registered in ZJIIS were enrolled. Anonymized individual records of target children were extracted from the ZJIIS database on 1 January 2016, including their VarV and (measles-containing vaccine) MCV vaccination information. The VarV₁ and VarV₂ coverage rates were evaluated for each birth cohorts. The coverage of VarV also was estimated among strata defined by cities, gender and immigration status. We also evaluated the difference in coverage between VarV and MCV. A total of 3,028,222 children aged 2-6 years were enrolled. The coverage of VarV₁ ranged from 84.8% to 87.9% in the 2009-2013 birth cohorts, while the coverage of VarV₂ increased from 31.8% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Higher coverage rates for both VarV₁ and VarV₂ were observed among resident children in relevant birth cohorts. The coverage rates of VarV₁ and VarV₂ were lower than those for the 1st and 2nd dose of MCV, which were above 95%. The proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV₁ at the recommended age increased from 34.6% for the 2009 birth cohort to 75.2% for the 2013 birth cohort, while the proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV₂ at the recommended age increased from 19.7% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Our study showed a rapid increasing VarV₂ coverage of children, indicating a growing acceptance of the 2-doses VarV schedule among children's caregivers and physicians after the new recommendation released. We

  11. Hydrogeology, Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps are most useful as a generalized tool to assess regional potential aquifer vulnerability., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Hydrogeology dataset current as of 1998. Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps...

  12. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Bärnighausen, Till

    2007-04-14

    Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 1 million deaths among children in developing countries every year. Although health workers are needed to do vaccinations, the role of human resources for health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been investigated. Our aim was to test whether health worker density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in developing countries. We did cross-country multiple regression analyses with coverage of three vaccinations--measles-containing vaccine (MCV); diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP3); and poliomyelitis (polio3)--as dependent variables. Aggregate health worker density was an independent variable in one set of regressions; doctor and nurse densities were used separately in another set. We controlled for national income per person, female adult literacy, and land area. Health worker density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV p=0.0024; DTP3 p=0.0004; polio3 p=0.0008). However, when the effects of doctors and nurses were assessed separately, we found that nurse density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV p=0.0097; DTP3 p=0.0083; polio3 p=0.0089), but doctor density was not (MCV p=0.7953; DTP3 p=0.7971; polio3 p=0.7885). Female adult literacy was positively associated, and land area negatively associated, with vaccination coverage. National income per person had no effect on coverage. A higher density of health workers (nurses) increases the availability of vaccination services over time and space, making it more likely that children will be vaccinated. After controlling for other determinants, the level of income does not contribute to improved immunisation coverage. Health workers can be a major constraining factor on vaccination coverage in developing countries.

  13. Examining levels, distribution and correlates of health insurance coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazungu, Jacob S; Barasa, Edwine W

    2017-09-01

    To examine the levels, inequalities and factors associated with health insurance coverage in Kenya. We analysed secondary data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) conducted in 2009 and 2014. We examined the level of health insurance coverage overall, and by type, using an asset index to categorise households into five socio-economic quintiles with quintile 5 (Q5) being the richest and quintile 1 (Q1) being the poorest. The high-low ratio (Q5/Q1 ratio), concentration curve and concentration index (CIX) were employed to assess inequalities in health insurance coverage, and logistic regression to examine correlates of health insurance coverage. Overall health insurance coverage increased from 8.17% to 19.59% between 2009 and 2014. There was high inequality in overall health insurance coverage, even though this inequality decreased between 2009 (Q5/Q1 ratio of 31.21, CIX = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.0.71) and 2014 (Q5/Q1 ratio 12.34, CIX = 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.52). Individuals that were older, employed in the formal sector; married, exposed to media; and male, belonged to a small household, had a chronic disease and belonged to rich households, had increased odds of health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage in Kenya remains low and is characterised by significant inequality. In a context where over 80% of the population is in the informal sector, and close to 50% live below the national poverty line, achieving high and equitable coverage levels with contributory and voluntary health insurance mechanism is problematic. Kenya should consider a universal, tax-funded mechanism that ensures revenues are equitably and efficiently collected, and everyone (including the poor and those in the informal sector) is covered. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Progress towards the Conventionon Biological Diversity terrestrial2010 and marine 2012 targets forprotected area coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Lauren; Burgess, Neil David; Fish, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    coverage targets. National protected areas data from the WDPA have been used to measure progress in protected areas coverage at global, regional and national scale. The mean protected area coverage per nation was 12.2% for terrestrial area, and only 5.1% for near-shore marine area. Variation in protected......Protected area coverage targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for both terrestrial and marine environments provide a major incentive for governments to review and upgrade their protected area systems. Assessing progress towards these targets will form an important component...... of the work of the Xth CBD Conference of Parties meeting to be held in Japan in 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the largest assembly of data on the world's terrestrial and marine protected areas and, as such, represents a fundamental tool in tracking progress towards protected area...

  15. 24 CFR 51.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage. 51.302 Section 51.302 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... significantly prolongs the physical or economic life of existing facilities or which, in the case of Accident...

  16. 5 CFR 880.304 - FEGLI coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under § 880.205, FEGLI premiums and benefits will be computed using the date of death established under...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Continuation of Benefits § 880.304 FEGLI coverage. (a) FEGLI premiums will not be collected during periods when an annuitant is a missing...

  17. 44 CFR 17.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.610 Coverage. (a) This... covered by this subpart, except where specifically modified by this subpart. In the event of any conflict... are deemed to control with respect to the implementation of drug-free workplace requirements...

  18. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... eliminating annual and lifetime dollar limits would result in dramatic premium hikes for student plans and.... Industry and university commenters noted that student health insurance coverage benefits typically... duplication of benefits and makes student plans more affordable. Industry commenters noted that student health...

  19. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  20. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only to flexible work schedules and compressed work schedules established under subchapter 11 of chapter 61 of...

  1. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 18,000 pounds maximum payload capacity, carriers need only maintain coverage of $2,000,000 per... than 30 seats or 7,500 pounds maximum cargo payload capacity, and a maximum authorized takeoff weight... not be contingent upon the financial condition, solvency, or freedom from bankruptcy of the carrier...

  2. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... Criminal Investigation of the Internal Revenue Service. (11) The Office of Investigative Programs of the... Firearms; (13) The Criminal Division of the Department of Justice; (14) The Central Imagery Office; (15...

  3. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  4. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  5. Radiographic Underestimation of In Vivo Cup Coverage Provided by Total Hip Arthroplasty for Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Wang, HaoYang; Huang, ZeYu; Shen, Bin; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Zhou, Zongke

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of using 2-dimensional anteroposterior pelvic radiography to assess acetabular cup coverage among patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unclear in retrospective clinical studies. A group of 20 patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (20 hips) underwent cementless THA. During surgery but after acetabular reconstruction, bone wax was pressed onto the uncovered surface of the acetabular cup. A surface model of the bone wax was generated with 3-dimensional scanning. The percentage of the acetabular cup that was covered by intact host acetabular bone in vivo was calculated with modeling software. Acetabular cup coverage also was determined from a postoperative supine anteroposterior pelvic radiograph. The height of the hip center (distance from the center of the femoral head perpendicular to the inter-teardrop line) also was determined from radiographs. Radiographic cup coverage was a mean of 6.93% (SD, 2.47%) lower than in vivo cup coverage for these 20 patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (Pcup coverage (Pearson r=0.761, Pcup (P=.001) but not the position of the hip center (high vs normal) was significantly associated with the difference between radiographic and in vivo cup coverage. Two-dimensional radiographically determined cup coverage conservatively reflects in vivo cup coverage and remains an important index (taking 7% underestimation errors and the effect of greater underestimation of larger cup size into account) for assessing the stability of the cup and monitoring for adequate ingrowth of bone. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(1):e46-e51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Proton Therapy Coverage for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Wagner, Marcus; Mahajan, Chaitali; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Falchook, Aaron; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig C.; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prostate motion on dose coverage in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 prostate positions were analyzed on 10 treatment plans for 10 prostate patients treated using our low-risk proton therapy prostate protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo scans were registered for all cases. The planning target volume included the prostate with a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior expansion. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm one-dimensional vectors and 10-mm multidimensional vectors (Points A-D). The beam was realigned for the 5- and 10-mm displacements. The prescription dose was 78 Gy equivalent (GE). Results: The mean percentage of rectum receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ) was 7.9%, the bladder V 70 was 14.0%, and the femoral head/neck V 50 was 0.1%, and the mean pelvic dose was 4.6 GE. The percentage of prostate receiving 78 Gy (V 78 ) with the 5-mm movements changed by -0.2% (range, 0.006-0.5%, p > 0.7). However, the prostate V 78 after a 10-mm displacement changed significantly (p 78 coverage had a large and significant reduction of 17.4% (range, 13.5-17.4%, p 78 coverage of the clinical target volume. The minimal prostate dose was reduced 33% (25.8 GE), on average, for Points A-D. The prostate minimal dose improved from 69.3 GE to 78.2 GE (p < 0.001) with realignment for 10-mm movements. Conclusion: The good dose coverage and low normal doses achieved for the initial plan was maintained with movements of ≤5 mm. Beam realignment improved coverage for 10-mm displacements

  7. Neighborhood Deprivation and Childhood Asthma Outcomes, Accounting for Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A

    2018-01-09

    Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2016-07-31

    In responses to Norheim's editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC) reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete trade-offs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only cost-effectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of fee-for-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all districts and sub

  9. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  10. Effects of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Patel, Bimal V; Brunetti, Louis

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Part D coverage gap reform on diabetes medication adherence. Retrospective data analysis based on pharmacy claims data from a national pharmacy benefit manager. We used a difference-in-difference-indifference method to evaluate the impact of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications. Two cohorts (2010 and 2011) were constructed to represent the last year before Affordable Care Act (ACA) reform and the first year after reform, respectively. Each patient had 2 observations: 1 before and 1 after entering the coverage gap. Patients in each cohort were divided into groups based on type of gap coverage: no coverage, partial coverage (generics only), and full coverage. Following ACA reform, patients with no gap coverage and patients with partial gap coverage experienced substantial drops in copayments in the coverage gap in 2011. Their adherence to diabetes medications in the gap, measured by percentage of days covered, improved correspondingly (2.99 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.48, P = .019 for patients with no coverage; 6.46 percentage points, 95% CI 3.34-9.58, P gap in 2011. However, their adherence did not increase (-0.13 percentage point, P = .8011). In the first year of ACA coverage gap reform, copayments in the gap decreased substantially for all patients. Patients with no coverage and patients with partial coverage in the gap had better adherence in the gap in 2011.

  11. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),* ,† which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  12. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  13. New laboratory methods to study tooth surface coverage and interproximal plaque control by dentifrice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Herles, Susan M; Barnes, Virginia M

    2004-01-01

    To develop and test an in vitro tooth model for use in conjunction with laboratory methods to study interproximal effects and efficacy of dentifrices. The application of the model should offer visual evaluation of dentifrice coverage of the tooth surface, and measure dental plaque control at posterior interdental spaces with a dentifrice. The dentifrice products tested with the model were: Colgate Total 2 in 1 Toothpaste and Mouthwash (CTTM), Colgate Total dentifrice (CTD), and Colgate Regular dentifrice (CRD). Extracted human posterior teeth were disinfected, cleaned, aligned, and mounted in denture acrylic. In the area coverage method, tooth surface coverage and penetration of two different forms of dentifrice products (CTTM and CRD) were compared using digital photography. In the interproximal plaque control method, the teeth were coated with human saliva and incubated anaerobically with a mixture of representative oral bacteria for six hours at 37 degrees C. In vitro dental plaque was assessed after brushing the facial surface with one of the three dentifrice products using a clinical plaque scoring index. The area coverage method demonstrated that both dentifrice products tested covered approximately 70% of the facial tooth surface; the CTTM dentifrice coverage on the lingual tooth surface was significantly higher than the coverage for the CRD dentifrice. With the interproximal plaque control method, in the presence of an active ingredient, the CTTM dentifrice had equivalent efficacy to the CTD dentifrice. Both CTTM and CTD were significantly superior to the CRD for interproximal dental plaque control. Using the developed tooth model, two assessment methods have been shown to have the potential to demonstrate tooth surface coverage, and to assess the potential efficacy of a dentifrice for the control of interproximal dental plaque. This process can indicate potential clinical evaluation of an oral care product, and support clinical findings with controlled

  14. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    , not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... covering women and their children in 182 randomly selected village clusters in rural Guinea-Bissau. BCG coverage was assessed for children born in 2010, when the restricted vial-opening policy was universally implemented, and in 2012-2013, where BHP provided BCG to all children at monthly visits...

  15. Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van der Velden, Koos; de Vos, Sjoerd; Knippenberg, Hans; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2011-02-14

    The Netherlands has experienced epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases largely confined to the Bible belt, an area where -among others- orthodox protestant groups are living. Lacking information on the vaccination coverage in this minority, and its various subgroups, control of vaccine preventable diseases is focused on the geographical area of the Bible belt. However, the adequacy of this strategy is questionable. This study assesses the influence of presence of various orthodox protestant subgroups (orthodox protestant denominations, OPDs) on municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt. We performed an ecological study at municipality level. Data on number of inhabitants, urbanization level, socio-economical status, immigration and vaccination coverage were obtained from national databases. As religion is not registered in the Netherlands, membership numbers of the OPDs had to be obtained from church year books and via church offices. For all municipalities in the Netherlands, the effect of presence or absence of OPDs on vaccination coverage was assessed by comparing mean vaccination coverage. For municipalities where OPDs were present, the effect of each of them (measured as membership ratio, the number of members proportional to total number of inhabitants) on vaccination coverage was assessed by bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis in a model containing the determinants immigration, socio-economical status and urbanization as well. Mean vaccination coverage (93.5% ± 4.7) in municipalities with OPDs (n = 135) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in 297 municipalities without OPDs (96.9% ± 2.1). Multiple regression analyses showed that in municipalities with OPDs 84% of the variance in vaccination coverage was explained by the presence of these OPDs. Immigration had a significant, but small explanatory effect as well. Membership ratios of all OPDs were negatively related to vaccination coverage; this relationship was strongest for

  16. Coverage and compliance MDA programme for lymphatic filariasis in Bidar district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharukaswami. Mallayya. Koradhanyamath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio demographic characteristics of beneficiaries of the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme, to assess the coverage, compliance and causes for noncompliance towards MDA in the district, to assess the awareness regarding elephantiasis among beneficiaries and to assess the knowledge of drug distributors towards the filariasis and MDA programme. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 3 rural and 1 urban clusters in Bidar district for the period of 1 week. 50 houses were selected in each cluster by systematic random sampling method and data was collected in a structured proforma by interview technique. Results: Majority of beneficiaries were at the age group of 15-60 years (72.3% and male (53%. The overall coverage of MDA in Bidar district was 62.3%. Compliance among those who had received the tablets was 60.4%. Coverage and compliance was more in rural areas compared to urban. The most common reason quoted for not consuming drugs was fear of adverse effects (72.2% The incidence of adverse events was 0.2%. Even though 75% of them were aware of the disease elephantiasis, only 45.4% had knowledge regarding MDA programme. The knowledge of drug distributors towards MDA and filariasis was found to be adequate. Conclusions: Coverage and compliance towards MDA in Bidar district was poor. The coverage and compliance in rural areas was higher compared to the urban areas.

  17. [Options for flap coverage in pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, S; Antohi, N; Stîngu, C; Stan, V; Parasca, S

    2010-01-01

    Despite improvements in reconstructive techniques for pressure sores, recurrences are still seen frequently, and success rate remains variable. During 2003 - 2007, at the Emergency Hospital for Plastic Surgery and Burns in Bucharest, 27 patients underwent surgical repair of 45 pressure sores located at sacral (22 ulcers), ischial (12 ulcers) and trochanteric (11 ulcers) regions. The mean patient age was 57, 1 years (range 26 to 82 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 6 months (range 2 months - 2 years). There were 18 complications for the 45 sores (40%). At 6 months postoperatively, recurrence was noted in 12 ulcers (27%). Details regarding indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages for different coverage options are outlined. The authors advocate the importance of surgical coverage in reducing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs.

  18. State Medicaid Expansions for Parents Led to Increased Coverage and Prenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate impacts of state Medicaid expansions for low-income parents on the health insurance coverage, pregnancy intention, and use of prenatal care among mothers who became pregnant. Person-level data for women with a live birth from the 1997-2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The sample was restricted to women who were already parents using information on previous live births and combined with information on state Medicaid policies for low-income parents. I used a measure of expanded generosity of state Medicaid eligibility for low-income parents to estimate changes in health insurance, pregnancy intention, and prenatal care for pregnant mothers associated with Medicaid expansion. I found an increase in prepregnancy health insurance coverage and coverage during pregnancy among pregnant mothers, as well as earlier initiation of prenatal care, associated with the expansions. Among pregnant mothers with less education, I found an increase in the adequacy of prenatal care utilization. Expanded Medicaid coverage for low-income adults has the potential to increase a woman's health insurance coverage prior to pregnancy, as well as her insurance coverage and medical care receipt during pregnancy. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Bad news: The influence of news coverage and Google searches on Gardasil adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Porsius, Jarry T; Faasse, Jonathan; Martin, Leslie R

    2017-12-14

    Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical treatment, and media coverage may heighten such concerns. The present study sought to assess the influence of news coverage (number of news articles per month) on adverse event reporting in response to Gardasil vaccination in New Zealand over a 7.5-year period, and whether the influence of news coverage was mediated by internet search activity (Google search volumes). Multiple linear regression analyses and simple mediation analyses were used, controlling for year and number of vaccinations delivered. News coverage in the previous month, and Google search volumes in the same month, were significant predictors of adverse event reporting, after accounting for vaccination rates and year. Concurrent Google search volumes partially mediated the effect of prior news coverage. The results suggest that some of the adverse events reported were not related to the vaccination itself, but to news coverage and internet search volumes, which may have contributed to public concerns about potentially unpleasant or harmful outcomes. These findings have implications for the importance of psychological and social factors in adverse event reporting, and the role of the news media in disseminating health information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Within-Subject Comparison of Maxillary Implant-Supported Overdentures with and without Palatal Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Tahmaseb, Ali; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported outcomes for maxillary implant-supported overdentures with and without palatal coverage. Twenty-one maxillary edentulous patients (six women, 15 men) were included. In total, 42 implants were inserted in the anterior maxilla. All patients received implant-supported overdentures on two retentive anchors with palatal coverage for 2 months. Thereafter, patient satisfaction was assessed by means of questionnaires capturing the oral health impact profile (OHIP) on functional limitation, physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical, psychological and social disability, and handicap. Additionally, cleaning ability, general satisfaction, speech, comfort, esthetics, stability, and chewing ability were rated. Subsequently, palatal coverage was reduced, and the patients wore the overdentures for another 2 months. Patient satisfaction was obtained in the same way as above, and the evaluated parameters were compared for the two overdenture designs. There were no significant differences between implant-supported overdentures with and without palatal coverage for any of the OHIP domains. The evaluation of additional parameters revealed significantly higher patient satisfaction for esthetics (mean difference 8.8 mm ± 24.6) and taste (mean difference 28.4 mm ± 29.9) without palatal coverage, p overdentures supported by two implants were equally satisfactory with and without palatal coverage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Media Hyping and the "Herceptin Access Story": An Analysis of Canadian and UK Newspaper Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Julia; Collins, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    In May 2005, preliminary trial results pronouncing the effectiveness of Herceptin (trastuzumab) for treatment of early-stage breast cancer were disseminated at a high-profile scientific meeting. Herceptin was subsequently approved for use in the public healthcare systems of Canada and the United Kingdom, although the differences between the two decision timelines were stark. The authors compared UK and Canadian newspaper coverage of the Herceptin story to assess how it may have been "hyped" in each country. They analyzed a diverse sample of newspapers and coded clippings for reporters' framing of the drug's efficacy, costs and funding approval process. Canadian news coverage preceded formal publication of the trial results, while UK coverage mirrored major national events. Reporters in both countries used predominantly individualistic perspectives and framed Herceptin's efficacy in salutary terms. Framing of costs was more neutral in Canadian than in UK newspapers. Funding approval framing focused on inequitable access in the UK and timeliness in Canada. News coverage of drug access stories varies across jurisdictions in terms of intensity and some aspects of framing. Such variations likely reflect different journalistic practices and dominant political rhetoric. Greater attention should be given to the role that news coverage of drug access plays in shaping public opinion and policy action, especially when this coverage precedes scientific debate. Copyright © 2009 Longwoods Publishing.

  2. Proper joint analysis of summary association statistics requires the adjustment of heterogeneity in SNP coverage pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Wheeler, William; Song, Lei; Yu, Kai

    2017-07-07

    As meta-analysis results published by consortia of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) become increasingly available, many association summary statistics-based multi-locus tests have been developed to jointly evaluate multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to reveal novel genetic architectures of various complex traits. The validity of these approaches relies on the accurate estimate of z-score correlations at considered SNPs, which in turn requires knowledge on the set of SNPs assessed by each study participating in the meta-analysis. However, this exact SNP coverage information is usually unavailable from the meta-analysis results published by GWAS consortia. In the absence of the coverage information, researchers typically estimate the z-score correlations by making oversimplified coverage assumptions. We show through real studies that such a practice can generate highly inflated type I errors, and we demonstrate the proper way to incorporate correct coverage information into multi-locus analyses. We advocate that consortia should make SNP coverage information available when posting their meta-analysis results, and that investigators who develop analytic tools for joint analyses based on summary data should pay attention to the variation in SNP coverage and adjust for it appropriately. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  4. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.

  5. Recommendation system for immunization coverage and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Uzair Aslam; Huang, Mengxing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yu; Mehmood, Anum; Di, Wu

    2018-01-02

    Immunization averts an expected 2 to 3 million deaths every year from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and measles; however, an additional 1.5 million deaths could be avoided if vaccination coverage was improved worldwide. 1 1 Data source for immunization records of 1.5 M: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/ New vaccination technologies provide earlier diagnoses, personalized treatments and a wide range of other benefits for both patients and health care professionals. Childhood diseases that were commonplace less than a generation ago have become rare because of vaccines. However, 100% vaccination coverage is still the target to avoid further mortality. Governments have launched special campaigns to create an awareness of vaccination. In this paper, we have focused on data mining algorithms for big data using a collaborative approach for vaccination datasets to resolve problems with planning vaccinations in children, stocking vaccines, and tracking and monitoring non-vaccinated children appropriately. Geographical mapping of vaccination records helps to tackle red zone areas, where vaccination rates are poor, while green zone areas, where vaccination rates are good, can be monitored to enable health care staff to plan the administration of vaccines. Our recommendation algorithm assists in these processes by using deep data mining and by accessing records of other hospitals to highlight locations with lower rates of vaccination. The overall performance of the model is good. The model has been implemented in hospitals to control vaccination across the coverage area.

  6. An analysis of the policy coverage and examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... topics in subjects such as Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Life Orientation, ... The aim of the research reported here was to investigate the coverage and ... In analysing the coverage and examination of environmental-impact topics, ...

  7. Determinants of vaccination coverage among pastoralists in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of vaccination coverage among pastoralists in north eastern Kenya. ... Attitudes, and Practices (KAPs) on vaccination coverage among settled and ... We used a structured instrument to survey pastoralist mothers with children ...

  8. original article assessment of effective coverage of voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    Within a single generation, it has .... Sex. Male. Female. 2959. 2698. 52.3. 47.7. Residence. Urban. Rural. 4328. 1329. 76.5. 26.5 ..... biological, social and economic disadvantages. (8). ... Rural. AIDS and development program, school of ...

  9. A psycholexical route to content coverage in personality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality, which has resulted in a widely accepted framework of personality trait description, is used for the development of the construction of a personality questionnaire. The principles and theoretical notions leading to the Big Five trait model are discussed, and

  10. Assessment of vitamin A supplementation coverage and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A plays vital role in the physiology of vision and immunity. Globally quarters of a billion children are Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A supplementation of children and mothers during postpartum period is a key strategy to avert the deficiency. However the effect of Vitamin A supplementation on incidence of ...

  11. Assessment of Vaccination Coverage of Sheep and Goat using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Hence, use of high quality and effective vaccines to cover a large number ... recent WTO agreements- the need to control the risk of disease spread is greatly enhanced. Given that .... Presented in the Workshop on PANVAC activities on quality ...

  12. original article assessment of effective coverage of voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    was facility heads, district health office heads and counselors in respective health facility. Data collectors and ... existence of policy document, plan and national guidelines, number of service provider received training ..... lower than the finding of study in Djibouti (6,. 7). More urban residents have been tested for. HIV than ...

  13. Mobile-robot navigation with complete coverage of unstructured environments

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; González de Santos, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    There are some mobile-robot applications that require the complete coverage of an unstructured environment. Examples are humanitarian de-mining and floor-cleaning tasks. A complete-coverage algorithm is then used, a path-planning technique that allows the robot to pass over all points in the environment, avoiding unknown obstacles. Different coverage algorithms exist, but they fail working in unstructured environments. This paper details a complete-coverage algorithm for unstructured environm...

  14. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.410 Health benefits coverage options. (a) Types of...

  16. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage Enhancement Option. 457.172 Section 457.172..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.172 Coverage Enhancement Option. The Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United...

  17. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1065 - Self-employment coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment coverage. 404.1065 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment § 404.1065 Self-employment coverage. For an individual to have self-employment coverage under social security, the...

  19. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  20. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. [55 FR 36820...

  1. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an ACS are provided in RUS Telecommunications Engineering and Construction Manual section 205. (e... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage... the borrower's records contain sufficient information as to subscriber development to enable cost...

  2. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the Department...

  3. Personality Disorder Models and their Coverage of Interpersonal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor F.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction is a defining feature of personality disorders (PDs) and can serve as a criterion for comparing PD models. In this study, the interpersonal coverage of four competing PD models was examined using a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric patients who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEO-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II PQ; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995). Participants also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC; Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) to assess interpersonal dysfunction. Analyses compared the severity and style of interpersonal problems that characterize PD models. Previous research with DSM-5 Section II and III models was generally replicated. Extraversion and Agreeableness facets related to the most well defined interpersonal problems across normal-range and pathological traits. Pathological trait models provided more coverage of dominance problems, whereas normal-range traits covered nonassertiveness better. These results suggest that more work may be needed to reconcile descriptions of personality pathology at the level of specific constructs. PMID:26168406

  4. Fatigue resistance of teeth restored with cuspal-coverage composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the influence of palatal cuspal coverage on the in vitro fatigue resistance and failure mode of Class II resin composite restorations including replacement of the buccal cusp in premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model was made of a maxillary premolar with an MOD

  5. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among adults in rural China: are economic barriers relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dawei; Wang, Jian; Wangen, Knut Reidar

    2014-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections cause major health problems in China. The Expanded Program of Immunization has succeeded in reducing infection rates among infants and children, but HBV vaccination coverage rates among adults remain low. The objective was to investigate how individual adult HBV vaccination decisions are influenced by economic factors, socioeconomic status, and demographic characteristics, and to assess how potential vaccination policies could affect HBV vaccination coverage rates among adults. We interviewed 22,618 adults, aged 15-59 years, from 7948 households, in 45 villages from 7 provinces. A questionnaire was used to collect information. The actual vaccine status was modeled using a polychotomous logistic regression with three outcomes; unvaccinated, partial vaccination, and complete vaccination. A subsample of unvaccinated adults gave responses to a hypothetical vaccination policy that offered HBV vaccination free of charge and various amounts of money to compensate for direct and indirect vaccination-related costs. The polychotomous logistic regression results suggest that vaccination user fees, time needed to get a vaccination, and vaccination-related travel costs were negatively associated with HBV vaccination coverage rates. Higher income was associated with higher coverage rates, and coverage rates decrease with age, with no significant difference between the genders. In the subsample that responded to the hypothetical policy, 55-72% (depending on the amount of money offered as compensation) stated they would accept a vaccination if it was offered free of charge. Our polychotomous logistic regression results suggest that higher HBV vaccination coverage rates among adults are obtainable and that user fees, time needed to get a vaccination, and travel costs have acted as economic barriers to vaccination. This is supported by the responses to the hypothetical policy, which suggest that adult coverage rates could surge if HBV vaccine is

  6. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  7. Is expanding Medicare coverage cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennig Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposals to expand Medicare coverage tend to be expensive, but the value of services purchased is not known. This study evaluates the efficiency of the average private supplemental insurance plan for Medicare recipients. Methods Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Death Index, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed to estimate the costs, changes in life expectancy, and health-related quality of life gains associated with providing private supplemental insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. Model inputs included socio-demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics. Parameter estimates from regression models were used to predict quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs associated with private supplemental insurance relative to Medicare only. Markov decision analysis modeling was then employed to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Medicare supplemental insurance is associated with increased health care utilization, but the additional costs associated with this utilization are offset by gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy. The incremental cost-effectiveness of private supplemental insurance is approximately $24,000 per QALY gained relative to Medicare alone. Conclusion Supplemental insurance for Medicare beneficiaries is a good value, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable to medical interventions commonly deemed worthwhile.

  8. Linguistic analysis of IPCC summaries for policymakers and associated coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Dessai, Suraje; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Renzi, Barbara Gabriella; Napolitano, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is the most widely read section of IPCC reports and the main springboard for the communication of its assessment reports. Previous studies have shown that communicating IPCC findings to a variety of scientific and non-scientific audiences presents significant challenges to both the IPCC and the mass media. Here, we employ widely established sentiment analysis tools and readability metrics to explore the extent to which information published by the IPCC differs from the presentation of respective findings in the popular and scientific media between 1990 and 2014. IPCC SPMs clearly stand out in terms of low readability, which has remained relatively constant despite the IPCC’s efforts to consolidate and readjust its communications policy. In contrast, scientific and quality newspaper coverage has become increasingly readable and emotive. Our findings reveal easy gains that could be achieved in making SPMs more accessible for non-scientific audiences.

  9. Increasing cellular coverage within integrated terrestrial/satellite mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1995-01-01

    When applying the hierarchical cellular concept, the satellite acts as giant umbrella cell covering a region with some terrestrial cells. If a mobile terminal traversing the region arrives to the border-line or limits of a regular cellular ground service, network transition occurs and the satellite system continues the mobile coverage. To adequately assess the boundaries of service of a mobile satellite system an a cellular network within an integrated environment, this paper provides an optimized scheme to predict when a network transition may be necessary. Under the assumption of a classified propagation phenomenon and Lognormal shadowing, the study applies an analytical approach to estimate the location of a mobile terminal based on a reception of the signal strength emitted by a base station.

  10. Extending Coverage and Lifetime of K-coverage Wireless Sensor Networks Using Improved Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Ebrahimnezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available K-coverage wireless sensor networks try to provide facilities such that each hotspot region is covered by at least k sensors. Because, the fundamental evaluation metrics of such networks are coverage and lifetime, proposing an approach that extends both of them simultaneously has a lot of interests. In this article, it is supposed that two kinds of nodes are available: static and mobile. The proposed method, at first, tries to balance energy among sensor nodes using Improved Harmony Search (IHS algorithm in a k-coverage and connected wireless sensor network in order to achieve a sensor node deployment. Also, this method proposes a suitable place for a gateway node (Sink that collects data from all sensors. Second, in order to prolong the network lifetime, some of the high energy-consuming mobile nodes are moved to the closest positions of low energy-consuming ones and vice versa after a while. This leads increasing the lifetime of network while connectivity and k-coverage are preserved. Through computer simulations, experimental results verified that the proposed IHS-based algorithm found better solution compared to some related methods.

  11. Extracting Vegetation Coverage in Dry-hot Valley Regions Based on Alternating Angle Minimum Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yang, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation coverage is one of the most important indicators for ecological environment change, and is also an effective index for the assessment of land degradation and desertification. The dry-hot valley regions have sparse surface vegetation, and the spectral information about the vegetation in such regions usually has a weak representation in remote sensing, so there are considerable limitations for applying the commonly-used vegetation index method to calculate the vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions. Therefore, in this paper, Alternating Angle Minimum (AAM) algorithm of deterministic model is adopted for selective endmember for pixel unmixing of MODIS image in order to extract the vegetation coverage, and accuracy test is carried out by the use of the Landsat TM image over the same period. As shown by the results, in the dry-hot valley regions with sparse vegetation, AAM model has a high unmixing accuracy, and the extracted vegetation coverage is close to the actual situation, so it is promising to apply the AAM model to the extraction of vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions.

  12. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  13. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Riana A; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D W; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A G; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T S; Mardiana, I W; Kesuma, I K G N; Sumantra, I P; Doherty, Paul F; Salman, M D; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys ( n  = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark-recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011-2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit ( banjar ) was 43 (range 0-307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0-83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (Bali to have the highest chance of eliminating rabies, concerted effort should be made to vaccinate free-roaming dogs particularly in suburban and rural areas, with advertising to ensure that owners vaccinate pups. Long-lasting, cheap, and quick methods are needed to mark vaccinated animals and reassure communities of the reach of vaccination campaigns.

  14. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country.

  15. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  16. Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in

  17. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  18. Sensitivity of postplanning target and OAR coverage estimates to dosimetric margin distribution sampling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huijun; Gordon, J James; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2011-02-01

    accuracy of coverage estimates depends on angular and radial DMD sampling parameters omega or omega eff and delta, as well as the employed sampling technique. Target deltaQ/ sampling parameters omega or omega eef = 20 degrees, delta =1 mm. Better accuracy (target /deltaQ sampling points decreases, the isotropic sampling method maintains better accuracy than fixed angular sampling. Coverage estimates for post-planning evaluation are essential since coverage values of targets and OARs often differ from the values implied by the static margin-based plans. Finer sampling of the DMD enables more accurate assessment of the effect of geometric uncertainties on coverage estimates prior to treatment. DMD sampling with omega or omega eff = 10 degrees and delta = 0.5 mm should be adequate for planning purposes.

  19. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  20. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  1. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  2. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  3. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to serve for the ecological monitoring efficiency of Poyang Lake, an improved hybrid algorithm, mixed with differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, is proposed and applied to optimize the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. And then, the affect of the population size and the number of iterations on the coverage performance are both discussed and analyzed. The four kinds of statistical results about the coverage rate are obtained through lots of simulation experiments.

  4. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this...

  5. An Evaluation of Voluntary Varicella Vaccination Coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China

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    Yu Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 a 2-doses varicella vaccine (VarV schedule was recommended by the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We aimed to assess the coverage of the 1st dose of VarV (VarV1 and the 2nd dose of VarV (VarV2 among children aged 2–6 years through the Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System (ZJIIS and to explore the determinants associated with the VarV coverage. Methods: Children aged 2–6 years (born from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 registered in ZJIIS were enrolled. Anonymized individual records of target children were extracted from the ZJIIS database on 1 January 2016, including their VarV and (measles-containing vaccine MCV vaccination information. The VarV1 and VarV2 coverage rates were evaluated for each birth cohorts. The coverage of VarV also was estimated among strata defined by cities, gender and immigration status. We also evaluated the difference in coverage between VarV and MCV. Results: A total of 3,028,222 children aged 2–6 years were enrolled. The coverage of VarV1 ranged from 84.8% to 87.9% in the 2009–2013 birth cohorts, while the coverage of VarV2 increased from 31.8% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Higher coverage rates for both VarV1 and VarV2 were observed among resident children in relevant birth cohorts. The coverage rates of VarV1 and VarV2 were lower than those for the 1st and 2nd dose of MCV, which were above 95%. The proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV1 at the recommended age increased from 34.6% for the 2009 birth cohort to 75.2% for the 2013 birth cohort, while the proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV2 at the recommended age increased from 19.7% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Conclusions: Our study showed a rapid increasing VarV2 coverage of children, indicating a growing acceptance of the 2-doses VarV schedule among children’s caregivers and physicians after

  6. Universal health coverage in Rwanda: dream or reality.

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    Nyandekwe, Médard; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Baptiste Kakoma, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been a global concern for a long time and even more nowadays. While a number of publications are almost unanimous that Rwanda is not far from UHC, very few have focused on its financial sustainability and on its extreme external financial dependency. The objectives of this study are: (i) To assess Rwanda UHC based mainly on Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) from 2000 to 2012; (ii) to inform policy makers about observed gaps for a better way forward. A retrospective (2000-2012) SWOT analysis was applied to six metrics as key indicators of UHC achievement related to WHO definition, i.e. (i) health insurance and access to care, (ii) equity, (iii) package of services, (iv) rights-based approach, (v) quality of health care, (vi) financial-risk protection, and (vii) CBHI self-financing capacity (SFC) was added by the authors. The first metric with 96,15% of overall health insurance coverage and 1.07 visit per capita per year versus 1 visit recommended by WHO, the second with 24,8% indigent people subsidized versus 24,1% living in extreme poverty, the third, the fourth, and the fifth metrics excellently performing, the sixth with 10.80% versus ≤40% as limit acceptable of catastrophic health spending level and lastly the CBHI SFC i.e. proper cost recovery estimated at 82.55% in 2011/2012, Rwanda UHC achievements are objectively convincing. Rwanda UHC is not a dream but a reality if we consider all convincing results issued of the seven metrics.

  7. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

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    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  8. State contraceptive coverage laws: creative responses to questions of "conscience".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailard, C

    1999-08-01

    The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) guaranteed contraceptive coverage for employees of the federal government. However, opponents of the FEHBP contraceptive coverage questioned the viability of the conscience clause. Supporters of the contraceptive coverage pressed for the narrowest exemption, one that only permit religious plans that clearly states religious objection to contraception. There are six of the nine states that have enacted contraceptive coverage laws aimed at the private sector. The statutes included a provision of conscience clause. The private sector disagrees to the plan since almost all of the employees¿ work for employers who only offer one plan. The scope of exemption for employers was an issue in five states that have enacted the contraceptive coverage. In Hawaii and California, it was exemplified that if employers are exempted from the contraceptive coverage based on religious grounds, an employee will be entitled to purchase coverage directly from the plan. There are still questions on how an insurer, who objects based on religious grounds to a plan with contraceptive coverage, can function in a marketplace where such coverage is provided by most private sector employers.

  9. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  10. Inquérito de cobertura vacinal: avaliação empírica da técnica de amostragem por conglomerados proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde Immunization coverage survey: empirical assessment of the cluster sampling method proposed by the World Health Organization

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    2005-03-01

    íplice viral (12,9% e para o esquema completo (11,2%. CONCLUSÃO: O método de inquérito de cobertura vacinal proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde é capaz de fornecer dados representativos da população, desde que os procedimentos metodológicos de seleção da amostra sejam rigorosamente seguidos no campo.OBJECTIVE: To assess sample representativeness and the precision of estimates of immunization coverage obtained with the 30 by 7 cluster sampling method proposed by the World Health Organization, by applying the method to determine immunization coverage in two municipalities (Diadema and São Caetano do Sul in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000. METHOD: The representativeness of the samples was determined by comparing the census sectors picked by lot for the surveyed sectors and for the nonsurveyed sectors in both municipalities, in terms of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (age distribution of the population, schooling, proportion of households headed by a women, monthly income of household head, and sanitary conditions of the home (piped-in water, connected to the sewer system. The precision of the coverage estimates for the vaccines in the basic immunization schedule-BCG; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT; poliomyelitis; hepatitis B; measles; and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-was determined by calculating the design effect and the width of the confidence intervals. Precision was considered to be satisfactory if the design effect was below 2.0 and the confidence interval width was below 10%. RESULTS: In both municipalities the comparison between the surveyed and nonsurveyed sectors showed a similar distribution in terms of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Concerning the precision of the estimates, the design effect was below 2.0 for all the vaccines, both in São Caetano do Sul and Diadema. In Diadema, the confidence interval width was below 10% for all the vaccines, except for MMR (10.1%. In São Caetano do Sul, only 89% of

  11. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J.; Sognikin, Edmond; Akosa, Amanda; Mathieu, Els M.; Deming, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Methodology/Principal Findings Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications) within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey. Significance In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose

  12. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J; Sognikin, Edmond; Akosa, Amanda; Mathieu, Els M; Deming, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications) within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey. In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving resources.

  13. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  14. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  15. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

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    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  16. Newspaper coverage of human-pig chimera research: A qualitative study on select media coverage of scientific breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan-Brown, Abena; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources. We looked at newspaper coverage of the human-pig chimera study in the two weeks after the publication of the article describing the breakthrough in Cell. This time period spanned from January 26 to February 9, 2017. We used the LexisNexis Academic database and identified articles using the search string "hybrid OR chimera AND pig OR human OR embryo." The relevant articles were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two researchers openly coded the articles independently using themes that emerged from the raw texts. Our search yielded 31 unique articles, after extensive screening for relevance and duplicates. Through our analysis, we were able to identify several themes in a majority of the texts. Almost every article gave descriptive information about the chimera experiment with details about the study findings. All of the articles mentioned the benefits of the study, citing both immediate- and long-term goals, which included creating transplantable human organs, disease and drug development, and personalized medicine, among others. Some of the articles highlighted some ethical, social, and health concerns that the study and its future implications pose. Many of the articles also offered reassurances over the concerns brought up by the experiment. Our results appeared to align with similar research performed on the media representation of sensitive scientific news coverage. We also explored the inconsistency between

  17. The association between acculturation and health insurance coverage for immigrant children from socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-06-01

    Among immigrant children whose parents have historically had lower education, the study explored which immigrant children were most likely to have coverage based on maternal region of origin. The direct and indirect relationship of acculturation on immigrant children's coverage was also assessed. A subsample of US-born children with foreign-born mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort was analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions (n = 1,686). Children whose mothers emigrated from the Caribbean or Indochina had greater odds of being insured compared to children whose mothers emigrated from Mexico. Moreover, Latin American children did not statistically differ from Mexican children in being uninsured. Maternal citizenship was positively associated with children's coverage; while living in a household with a mother who migrated as a child was negatively associated with private insurance. To increase immigrant children's coverage, Latin American and Mexican families may benefit from additional financial assistance, rather than cultural assistance.

  18. Stakeholders apply the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework to facilitate coverage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Philipp; Oxman, Andrew D; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Murad, M Hassan; Amato, Laura; Parmelli, Elena; Davoli, Marina; Morgan, Rebecca L; Mustafa, Reem A; Sultan, Shahnaz; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Akl, Elie A; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-06-01

    Coverage decisions are complex and require the consideration of many factors. A well-defined, transparent process could improve decision-making and facilitate decision-maker accountability. We surveyed key US-based stakeholders regarding their current approaches for coverage decisions. Then, we held a workshop to test an evidence-to-decision (EtD) framework for coverage based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. A total of 42 individuals (including 19 US stakeholders as well as international health policymakers and GRADE working group members) attended the workshop. Of the 19 stakeholders, 14 (74%) completed the survey before the workshop. Almost all of their organizations (13 of 14; 93%) used systematic reviews for coverage decision-making; few (2 of 14; 14%) developed their own evidence synthesis; a majority (9 of 14; 64%) rated the certainty of evidence (using various systems); almost all (13 of 14; 93%) denied formal consideration of resource use; and half (7 of 14; 50%) reported explicit criteria for decision-making. At the workshop, stakeholders successfully applied the EtD framework to four case studies and provided narrative feedback, which centered on contextual factors affecting coverage decisions in the United States, the need for reliable data on subgroups of patients, and the challenge of decision-making without formal consideration of resource use. Stakeholders successfully applied the EtD framework to four case studies and highlighted contextual factors affecting coverage decisions and affirmed its value. Their input informed the further development of a revised EtD framework, now publicly available (http://gradepro.org/). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Universal coverage of IVF pays off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, M P; Connolly, M P; Kadoch, I-J; Phillips, S; Bissonnette, F

    2014-06-01

    What was the clinical and economic impact of universal coverage of IVF in Quebec, Canada, during the first calendar year of implementation of the public IVF programme? Universal coverage of IVF increased access to IVF treatment, decreased the multiple pregnancy rate and decreased the cost per live birth, despite increased costs per cycle. Public funding of IVF assures equality of access to IVF and decreases multiple pregnancies resulting from this treatment. Public IVF programmes usually mandate a predominant SET policy, the most effective approach for reducing the incidence of multiple pregnancies. This prospective comparative cohort study involved 7364 IVF cycles performed in Quebec during 2009 and 2011 and included an economic analysis. IVF cycles performed in the five centres offering IVF treatment in Quebec during 2009, before implementation of the public IVF programme, were compared with cycles performed at the same centres during 2011, the first full calendar year following implementation of the programme. Data were obtained from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register (CARTR). Comparisons were made between the two periods in terms of utilization, pregnancy rates, multiple pregnancy rates and costs. The number of IVF cycles performed in Quebec increased by 192% after the new policy was implemented. Elective single-embryo transfer was performed in 1.6% of the cycles during Period I (2009), and increased to 31.6% during Period II (2011) (P IVF programme increased government costs per IVF treatment cycle from CAD$3730 to CAD$4759. Despite increased costs per cycle, the efficiency defined by the cost per live birth, which factored in downstream health costs up to 1 year post delivery, decreased from CAD$49 517 to CAD$43 362 per baby conceived by either fresh and frozen cycles. The costs described in the economic model are likely an underestimate as they do not factor in many of the long-term costs that can occur after 1 year of age. The

  20. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cobertura efectiva de las intervenciones en salud de América Latina y el Caribe: métrica para evaluar los sistemas de salud Effective coverage of health interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean: metrics for the assessment of health systems performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir la cobertura efectiva para once intervenciones de salud en nueve países de América Latina utilizando las encuestas de demografía y salud o registros administrativos que abarcan la salud infantil, de la mujer y el adulto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las intervenciones y se armonizaron definiciones y métodos de cálculo de acuerdo con la información disponible para lograr la comparabilidad entre países. RESULTADOS: Chile es el país con mejores indicadores de coberturas crudas y efectivas, seguido por México y Colombia, y existen brechas importantes entre regiones, departamentos o estados. CONCLUSIONES: La métrica de cobertura efectiva es un indicador sensible que relaciona la necesidad de las intervenciones en salud, su utilización y calidad, lo que permite valorar los programas de salud al aportar datos precisos de dónde y a quién deben dirigirse los recursos y esfuerzos nacionales para que los países alcancen los propósitos y metas planteados.OBJECTIVE: To measure effective coverage for ll health interventions in Latin America including the children's, women's and adult health, as part of program evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interventions were selected; the definitions and calculation methods were harmonized according to the information available to ensure comparability between countries. RESULTS: Chile has better indicators of crude and effective coverage followed by Mexico and Colombia.There are significant gaps between regions, counties or states. CONCLUSIONS: The health metric on effective coverage is a sensitive indicator that links three important aspects: Coverage of health interventions, use of health services, and access to such services. Effective coverage is a good tool to evaluate health programs performance, and also provides data of where and to whom the system should address national efforts and resources to achieve the purposes and goals set.

  2. Hydroacoustics and infrasound: Possibilities for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The data provided by the International Monitoring system and the Products generated by the International data Center will be a unique source not only for CTBT verification but also for other activities. Although the utility of hydro acoustic and infrasonic data for such purposes is less obvious than that of seismic and radionuclide data, there are several possible applications for hazard and disaster warning purposes, and many potential long-term benefits for research and development. Such wider benefits from the monitoring system will best be realized through open international cooperation

  3. The Hydroacoustics of Beveled Steps and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    vibrations on externally mounted car mirrors in a wind-tunnel experiment. Hot-wire anemometers were used to measure mean velocities and turbulent...Hz and good agreement for each case showing that the local aerodynamic sources were dominant over mechanical inputs such as road roughness or engine...not measure the far-field sound radiation the conclusions drawn about dominant aerodynamic sources are important to the subject. Glegg et al (2014

  4. Aero-Hydroacoustics for Ships. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    be seen by evaluating the tangential gradient (l/r) 9p(rlc)/ 3d as = ’/2 and noting that it1" vanishes there. Thus we see that the normal velocity...W.H. and T. Roestel, "Berechnung der Druck -vCrteilun- and Flugeiprofilen in gashaltiger Wasscrstr6mun :," ZAI4M, Vol. 54, pp. 571-588 (197O4) S 3 S...Griffin and Ramberg measured greater vortex strengths with a peak-to-peak cyl- inder displacement of O. 3d than with no motion. This increase in circulation

  5. Deep coverage of the beer proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochalová, Martina; Konečná, Hana; Stejskal, Karel; Potěšil, David; Fridrichová, Danuše; Srbová, Eva; Ornerová, Kateřina; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2017-06-06

    We adopted an approach based on peptide immobilized pH gradient-isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) separation, coupled with LC-MS/MS, in order to maximize coverage of the beer proteome. A lager beer brewed using traditional Czech technology was degassed, desalted and digested. Tryptic peptides were separated by isoelectric focusing on an immobilized pH gradient strip and, after separation, the gel strip was divided into seven equally sized parts. Peptides extracted from gel fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This approach resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of proteins identified (over 1700) when compared to analysis of unfractionated beer processed by a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP). Over 1900 protein groups (PGs) in total were identified by both approaches. The study significantly extends knowledge about the beer proteome and demonstrates its complexity. Detailed knowledge of the protein content, especially gluten proteins, will enhance the evaluation of potential health risks related to beer consumption (coeliac disease) and will contribute to improving beer quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  7. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippins, Ashley; Murthy, Neil; Meghani, Mehreen; Solsman, Amy; Apaisam, Carter; Basilius, Merlyn; Eckert, Maribeth; Judicpa, Peter; Masunu, Yolanda; Pistotnik, Kelsey; Pedro, Daisy; Sasamoto, Jeremy; Underwood, J Michael

    2018-05-25

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, † USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. This was the first concurrent assessment of childhood vaccination coverage across five USAPI jurisdictions (American Samoa; Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia [FSM]; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [CNMI]; Republic of the Marshall Islands [RMI]; and Republic of Palau). § Differences in vaccination coverage between main and outer islands ¶ were assessed for two jurisdictions where data were adequate.** Series coverage in this report includes the following doses of vaccines: ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); ≥3 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); i.e., 4:3:1:3:3:4. Coverage with ≥3 doses of rotavirus vaccine was also assessed. Completion of the recommended series of each of these vaccines †† was <90% in all jurisdictions except Palau. Coverage with the full recommended six-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:4) ranged from 19.5% (Chuuk) to 69.1% (Palau). In RMI and Chuuk, coverage was lower in the outer islands than in the main islands for most vaccines, with differences ranging from 0.9 to 66.8 percentage points. Medical record abstraction enabled rapid vaccination coverage assessment and timely dissemination of results to guide programmatic decision-making. Effectively monitoring vaccination coverage, coupled with implementation of data-driven interventions

  8. Cluster-sample surveys and lot quality assurance sampling to evaluate yellow fever immunisation coverage following a national campaign, Bolivia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Pineda, Silvia; Halkyer, Percy; Crespo, Gladys; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    To estimate the yellow fever (YF) vaccine coverage for the endemic and non-endemic areas of Bolivia and to determine whether selected districts had acceptable levels of coverage (>70%). We conducted two surveys of 600 individuals (25 x 12 clusters) to estimate coverage in the endemic and non-endemic areas. We assessed 11 districts using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). The lot (district) sample was 35 individuals with six as decision value (alpha error 6% if true coverage 70%; beta error 6% if true coverage 90%). To increase feasibility, we divided the lots into five clusters of seven individuals; to investigate the effect of clustering, we calculated alpha and beta by conducting simulations where each cluster's true coverage was sampled from a normal distribution with a mean of 70% or 90% and standard deviations of 5% or 10%. Estimated coverage was 84.3% (95% CI: 78.9-89.7) in endemic areas, 86.8% (82.5-91.0) in non-endemic and 86.0% (82.8-89.1) nationally. LQAS showed that four lots had unacceptable coverage levels. In six lots, results were inconsistent with the estimated administrative coverage. The simulations suggested that the effect of clustering the lots is unlikely to have significantly increased the risk of making incorrect accept/reject decisions. Estimated YF coverage was high. Discrepancies between administrative coverage and LQAS results may be due to incorrect population data. Even allowing for clustering in LQAS, the statistical errors would remain low. Catch-up campaigns are recommended in districts with unacceptable coverage.

  9. Coverage of Entrepreneurship in Principles of Economics Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin A.; Rushing, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Updates a study of the coverage of entrepreneurship contained in principles of economics textbooks originally carried out in the mid-1980s. Analyzes coverage of the same topics in 14 popular introductory texts. Concludes that entrepreneurship still has not worked its way into economics-principles texts. (DSK)

  10. Local Coverage of Three Mile Island during 1981-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Local newspaper coverage of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident was examined in a study to determine what changes, if any, were made by local media and what lessons they had learned from it. Data were collected through interviews with 21 media representatives. TMI coverage in the six newspapers was examined using each…

  11. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.7 - “Enterprise” coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEnterpriseâ coverage. 1620.7 Section 1620.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.7 “Enterprise” coverage. (a) The terms “enterprise” and “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of...

  13. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  14. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  15. Improved HIV testing coverage after scale-up of ... - Lusaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved HIV testing coverage after scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs in urban Zambia: Evidence from serial hospital surveillance. ... Background: We evaluated changing HIV testing coverage and prevalence rates before and after expanding city-wide antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

  16. Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Michael J. Kuhlman1, Student Member, IEEE, Petr Švec2, Member, IEEE, Krishnanand...Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  17. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  18. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  19. Anterior palatal island advancement flap for bone graft coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. Keywords: Anterior maxilla, bone graft, dental implant, ...

  20. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  1. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  2. 12 CFR 717.20 - Coverage and definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.20 Coverage and definitions (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies...-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial contract...

  3. 12 CFR 334.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  4. 12 CFR 571.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 571.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies to... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  5. Computing Convex Coverage Sets for Faster Multi-Objective Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose new algorithms for multi-objective coordination graphs (MO-CoGs). Key to the efficiency of these algorithms is that they compute a convex coverage set (CCS) instead of a Pareto coverage set (PCS). Not only is a CCS a sufficient solution set for a large class of problems,

  6. 20 CFR 404.1913 - Precluding dual coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precluding dual coverage to avoid inequitable or anomalous coverage situations for certain workers. However... 404.1913 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) General. Employment or self-employment or services recognized as equivalent under the Act or the social...

  7. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage. (a) Section 4(f)(4). A covered State, a political subdivision of a covered State, or a separately covered political subdivision may terminate the application of section 4(f)(4) by obtaining the...

  8. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and lack of health facilities also contributed to the low level of immunization coverage. For TT immunization to improve in the area studied, factors impeding immunization must be addressed. Keywords: tetanus, immunization, coverage. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 233- ...

  9. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zambia. As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward achieving universal health service coverage, many face ethical challenges. In its 2010 World Health Report, the World Health Assembly called on the ...

  10. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  11. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  12. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Coverage: A Randomised, Community-Based Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Acera

    Full Text Available Opportunistic cervical cancer screening can lead to suboptimal screening coverage. Coverage could be increased after a personalised invitation to the target population. We present a community randomized intervention study with three strategies aiming to increase screening coverage.The CRICERVA study is a community-based clinical trial to improve coverage of population-based screening in the Cerdanyola SAP area in Barcelona.A total of 32,858 women residing in the study area, aged 30 to 70 years were evaluated. A total of 15,965 women were identified as having no registration of a cervical cytology in the last 3.5 years within the Public Health data base system. Eligible women were assigned to one of four community randomized intervention groups (IGs: (1 (IG1 N = 4197 personalised invitation letter, (2 (IG2 N = 3601 personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet, (3 (IG3 N = 6088 personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet + personalised phone call and (4 (Control N = 2079 based on spontaneous demand of cervical cancer screening as officially recommended. To evaluate screening coverage, we used heterogeneity tests to compare impact of the interventions and mixed logistic regression models to assess the age effect. We refer a "rescue" visit as the screening visit resulting from the study invitation.Among the 13,886 women in the IGs, 2,862 were evaluated as having an adequate screening history after the initial contact; 4,263 were lost to follow-up and 5,341 were identified as having insufficient screening and thus being eligible for a rescue visit. All intervention strategies significantly increased participation to screening compared to the control group. Coverage after the intervention reached 84.1% while the control group reached 64.8%. The final impact of our study was an increase of 20% in the three IGs and of 9% in the control group (p<0.001. Within the intervention arms, age was an important determinant of rescue visits

  13. Extent of Drug Coverage across Generic Drug Discount Programs offered by Community Pharmacies: A look at five Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshali K. Patel, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions are expensive to treat because of the ongoing prescription cost burden. Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs that offer generics at discounted price may prove beneficial to reduce pharmacy costs for the same.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which GDDPs provide drug coverage for five common chronic conditions.Methods: A content analyses of preexisting information was conducted. Extent of coverage based on top 200 generic drugs prescribed during 2008 for the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension, mental disorders, arthritis, pulmonary/respiratory conditions, and diabetes were identified. Commonly prescribed medications for these diseases were identified using published peer reviewed clinical guidelines. List of drugs covered under a GDDP for stores, Wal-Mart, Walgreens, CVS, Kroger, HEB, Target, and Randalls were obtained and compared to assess drug coverage by retail dollar sales and sales volume. Descriptive statistics and frequency/percentage of coverage were reported using SAS 9.2.Results: GDDPs covered the highest number of drugs for hypertension (21-27 across different GDDPs and the least (3-5 across different GDDPs for pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Arthritis (5-11, mental disorders (6-11 and diabetes (5-7 had similar coverage. When compared to the top 200 drugs by retail dollars spent during 2008, hypertension (68%-87% and diabetes (63%-88% had the highest coverage followed by respiratory conditions (30%-50%, arthritis (22%-48%, and mental disorders (21%-38%. Similar result was obtained when GDDP coverage was compared with the top 200 generic drugs by sales volume, where diabetes (63-88% and hypertension (57%-74% had the highest coverage and mental disorders remained the lowest (23%-37%.Conclusion/Implications: Drug coverage in GDDPs varied by pharmacies across the five common chronic conditions evaluated which may limit accessibility of these programs for

  14. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.; Eperon, G. E.; Snaith, H. J.; Chapman, S. J.; Goriely, A.

    2014-01-01

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  15. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  17. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  18. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  19. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  20. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Akseer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Methods Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q gaps (Q5-Q1 and the slope index of inequality (SII, while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1 and the concentration index (CIX. The lives saved tool (LiST modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Results Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS, skilled birth attendance (SBA, and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4 where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the

  1. CANDU safety analysis system establishment; development of trip coverage and multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The trip coverage analysis model requires the geometry network for primary and secondary circuit as well as the plant control system to simulate all the possible plant operating conditions throughout the plant life. The model was validated for the power maneuvering and the Wolsong 4 commissioning test. The trip coverage map was produced for the large break loss of coolant accident and the complete loss of class IV power event. The reliable multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis requires the high capability for thermal hydraulic modelling. To acquire such a basic capability and verify the applicability of GOTHIC code, the assessment of heat transfer model, hydrogen mixing and combustion model was performed. Also, the assessment methodology for flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition is established. 22 refs., 120 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  2. Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage: A Comparative Analysis in 5 South Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Karan, Anup; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Parsons, Alexander; Abe, Sarah Krull; Bilano, Ver; Awan, Rabia; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Achieving universal health coverage is one of the key targets in the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. To investigate progress toward universal health coverage in 5 South Asian countries and assess inequalities in health services and financial risk protection indicators. In a population-based study, nationally representative household (335 373 households) survey data from Afghanistan (2014 and 2015), Bangladesh (2010 and 2014), India (2012 and 2014), Nepal (2014 and 2015), and Pakistan (2014) were used to calculate relative indices of health coverage, financial risk protection, and inequality in coverage among wealth quintiles. The study was conducted from June 2012 to February 2016. Three dimensions of universal health coverage were assessed: access to basic services, financial risk protection, and equity. Composite and indicator-specific coverage rates, stratified by wealth quintiles, were then estimated. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess inequalities in service and financial indicators. Access to basic care varied substantially across all South Asian countries, with mean rates of overall prevention coverage and treatment coverage of 53.0% (95% CI, 42.2%-63.6%) and 51.2% (95% CI, 45.2%-57.1%) in Afghanistan, 76.5% (95% CI, 61.0%-89.0%) and 44.8% (95% CI, 37.1%-52.5%) in Bangladesh, 74.2% (95% CI, 57.0%-88.1%) and 83.5% (95% CI, 54.4%-99.1%) in India, 76.8% (95% CI, 66.5%-85.7%) and 57.8% (95% CI, 50.1%-65.4%) in Nepal, and 69.8% (95% CI, 58.3%-80.2%) and 50.4% (95% CI, 37.1%-63.6%) in Pakistan. Financial risk protection was generally low, with 15.3% (95% CI, 14.7%-16.0%) of respondents in Afghanistan, 15.8% (95% CI, 14.9%-16.8%) in Bangladesh, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.7%-18.2%) in India, 11.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-11.9%) in Nepal, and 4.4% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.9%) in Pakistan reporting incurred catastrophic payments due to health care costs. Access to at least 4 antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, and presence

  3. Minimum Lateral Bone Coverage Required for Securing Fixation of Cementless Acetabular Components in Hip Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Fujii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the minimum lateral bone coverage required for securing stable fixation of the porous-coated acetabular components (cups in hip dysplasia. Methods. In total, 215 primary total hip arthroplasties in 199 patients were reviewed. The average follow-up period was 49 months (range: 24–77 months. The lateral bone coverage of the cups was assessed by determining the cup center-edge (cup-CE angle and the bone coverage index (BCI from anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. Further, cup fixation was determined using the modified DeLee and Charnley classification system. Results. All cups were judged to show stable fixation by bone ingrowth. The cup-CE angle was less than 0° in 7 hips (3.3% and the minimum cup-CE angle was −9.2° (BCI: 48.8%. Thin radiolucent lines were observed in 5 hips (2.3%, which were not associated with decreased lateral bone coverage. Loosening, osteolysis, dislocation, or revision was not observed in any of the cases during the follow-up period. Conclusion. A cup-CE angle greater than −10° (BCI > 50% was acceptable for stable bony fixation of the cup. Considering possible errors in manual implantation, we recommend that the cup position be planned such that the cup-CE angle is greater than 0° (BCI > 60%.

  4. Impact of insurance coverage on utilization of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupa R; Mena, Leandro; Nunn, Amy; McBride, Timothy; Harrison, Laura C; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Liu, Jingxia; Mayer, Kenneth H; Chan, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce U.S. HIV incidence. We assessed insurance coverage and its association with PrEP utilization. We reviewed patient data at three PrEP clinics (Jackson, Mississippi; St. Louis, Missouri; Providence, Rhode Island) from 2014-2015. The outcome, PrEP utilization, was defined as patient PrEP use at three months. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the association between insurance coverage and PrEP utilization. Of 201 patients (Jackson: 34%; St. Louis: 28%; Providence: 28%), 91% were male, 51% were White, median age was 29 years, and 21% were uninsured; 82% of patients reported taking PrEP at three months. Insurance coverage was significantly associated with PrEP utilization. After adjusting for Medicaid-expansion and individual socio-demographics, insured patients were four times as likely to use PrEP services compared to the uninsured (OR: 4.49, 95% CI: 1.68-12.01; p = 0.003). Disparities in insurance coverage are important considerations in implementation programs and may impede PrEP utilization.

  5. Impact of insurance coverage on utilization of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa R Patel

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP can reduce U.S. HIV incidence. We assessed insurance coverage and its association with PrEP utilization. We reviewed patient data at three PrEP clinics (Jackson, Mississippi; St. Louis, Missouri; Providence, Rhode Island from 2014-2015. The outcome, PrEP utilization, was defined as patient PrEP use at three months. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the association between insurance coverage and PrEP utilization. Of 201 patients (Jackson: 34%; St. Louis: 28%; Providence: 28%, 91% were male, 51% were White, median age was 29 years, and 21% were uninsured; 82% of patients reported taking PrEP at three months. Insurance coverage was significantly associated with PrEP utilization. After adjusting for Medicaid-expansion and individual socio-demographics, insured patients were four times as likely to use PrEP services compared to the uninsured (OR: 4.49, 95% CI: 1.68-12.01; p = 0.003. Disparities in insurance coverage are important considerations in implementation programs and may impede PrEP utilization.

  6. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York…

  7. Spanish youth is emigrating: A bibliometric approach to the media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Clara; Recordà, Aniol

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emigration of young Spanish people searching for labor opportunities. A decade after the beginning of the worldwide economic crisis in 2007, the rapid deterioration of living conditions and lack of opportunities for personal development combined with the breakdown of professional expectations have led thousands of young people to emigrate from Spain, creating the so-called youth exodus. The press has paid recurrent attention to this phenomenon, often using eye-catching headlines such as 'Brain Drain'. Given the regular interest of the media in this phenomenon, the objective of this research is to analyze the media coverage of the drain of Spanish talent capital, or the emigration of young Spanish people seeking a better future, to create a distributive map that defines the characteristics and trends of this coverage. The analyzed corpus comprises 346 articles from eight Spanish and eleven international newspapers. The articles were coded based on descriptive variables (i.e., author, publication year, newspaper and language) and categorical variables (i.e., section, method, approach to the phenomenon, assessment of the phenomenon and overview of the phenomenon). The results indicate a significant increase in press coverage over the past few years and reveal associations between assessment of the phenomenon and year and between assessment of the phenomenon and section. As a result of this research, new investigative lines are unveiled regarding the social construction of the phenomenon in the media and the identity and individual construction of the 'truncated careers' of young Spanish people.

  8. Detecting Boundary Nodes and Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of coverage holes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs means that some special events have broken out and the function of WSNs will be seriously influenced. Therefore, the issues of coverage holes have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we focus on the identification of boundary nodes and coverage holes, which is crucially important to preventing the enlargement of coverage holes and ensuring the transmission of data. We define the problem of coverage holes and propose two novel algorithms to identify the coverage holes in WSNs. The first algorithm, Distributed Sector Cover Scanning (DSCS, can be used to identify the nodes on hole borders and the outer boundary of WSNs. The second scheme, Directional Walk (DW, can locate the coverage holes based on the boundary nodes identified with DSCS. We implement the algorithms in various scenarios and fully evaluate their performance. The simulation results show that the boundary nodes can be accurately detected by DSCS and the holes enclosed by the detected boundary nodes can be identified by DW. The comparisons confirm that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.

  9. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly considered to mitigate

  10. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  11. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. 24/7 pediatric radiology attending coverage: times are changing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, IL (United States); Thakrar, Kiran H. [University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Body Imaging, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The job of the pediatric radiologist long ago ceased to be an 8-to-5 role. Many practices have adopted evening shifts of in-house attending radiologists to cover the busy evening activity. With the ever-increasing role of imaging in clinical decisions and patient management, there is a need - if not a demand - to further extend attending pediatric radiology coverage. In this article, we discuss the needs and justification for extending pediatric radiology coverage at a tertiary-care children's hospital. We also describe the approach we took toward implementing 24/7 attending in-house coverage of pediatric radiology. (orig.)

  13. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  14. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  15. CHIP premiums, health status, and the insurance coverage of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2010-01-01

    This study uses the introduction of premiums into Kentucky's Children's Health Insurance Program (KCHIP) to examine whether the enrollment impact of new premiums varies by child health type. We also examine the extent to which children find alternative coverage after premium nonpayment. Public insurance claims data suggest that those with chronic health conditions are less likely to leave public coverage. We find little evidence of a differential impact of premiums on enrollment among the chronically ill. Our survey of nonpayers shows that 56% of responding families found alternative private or public health coverage for their children after losing CHIP.

  16. User experience with a health insurance coverage and benefit-package access: implications for policy implementation towards expansion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shafiu; Aji, Budi; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Souares, Aurelia; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Developing countries are devising strategies and mechanisms to expand coverage and benefit-package access for their citizens through national health insurance schemes (NHIS). In Nigeria, the scheme aims to provide affordable healthcare services to insured-persons and their dependants. However, inclusion of dependants is restricted to four biological children and a spouse per user. This study assesses the progress of implementation of the NHIS in Nigeria, relating to coverage and benefit-package access, and examines individual factors associated with the implementation, according to users' perspectives. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was done between October 2010 and March 2011 in Kaduna state and 796 users were randomly interviewed. Questions regarding coverage of immediate-family members and access to benefit-package for treatment were analysed. Indicators of coverage and benefit-package access were each further aggregated and assessed by unit-weighted composite. The additive-ordinary least square regression model was used to identify user factors that may influence coverage and benefit-package access. With respect to coverage, immediate-dependants were included for 62.3% of the users, and 49.6 rated this inclusion 'good' (49.6%). In contrast, 60.2% supported the abolishment of the policy restriction for non-inclusion of enrolees' additional children and spouses. With respect to benefit-package access, 82.7% of users had received full treatments, and 77.6% of them rated this as 'good'. Also, 14.4% of users had been refused treatments because they could not afford them. The coverage of immediate-dependants was associated with age, sex, educational status, children and enrolment duration. The benefit-package access was associated with types of providers, marital status and duration of enrolment. This study revealed that coverage of family members was relatively poor, while benefit-package access was more adequate. Non-inclusion of family members could

  17. New around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department: a satisfaction survey among clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Shin, Cheong Il; Song, Su Jin; Cha, Won Cheol; Na, Dong Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinician satisfaction of a newly introduced around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department. Seventeen emergency physicians (8 board certified physicians, 9 residents) were invited to fill out a survey pertaining to the newly introduced radiology coverage system for the emergency department. The questionnaire included 10 questions covering three major topics. The first topic related to the around-the-clock radiology coverage by two full-time radiology residents. The second topic focused on the preliminary interpretations of radiology residents. The last topic included the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists. The answers to each question were assessed using a scoring system of 1 to 5. The mean satisfaction score of the around-the-clock radiology coverage system by the two full-time radiology residents was 4.6 (range 3-5). The mean score for the preliminary interpretation system by the radiology residents was 4.8 (range 4-5). The score for the reliability of the preliminary versus the final interpretation was 4.1 (range 4-5). Lastly, the mean score for the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists was 4.9 (range 4-5). The results of this study indicate a high satisfaction rating among clinicians' of the new around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department

  18. Assessment of the pelagic fish populations using CEN multi-mesh gillnets: consequences for the characterization of the fish communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deceliere-Vergès

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of CEN standard pelagic nets to the assessment of fish communities is tested by comparing three metrics (species composition, species abundance, and size structures measured in accordance with the standard (i.e. using benthic nets only to those calculated from the total effort (i.e. including pelagic nets. Hydroacoustic surveys were used simultaneously to assess fish densities in the pelagic habitat. The results show that in most cases the pelagic nets did not provide any extra information about these three metrics. However, their inclusion in the calculation of CPUE and size structures may affect the picture of the fish communities, especially in lakes containing salmonid populations. This study highlights the need to sample pelagic fish when assessing fish communities in order to determine lake quality.

  19. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2018. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  20. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  1. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  2. [Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  3. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  4. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  5. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M G; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Valêncio, C; Pinto, A R; Nascimento, M Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  6. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  7. Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  8. 14 CFR 440.13 - Standard conditions of insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... against that licensee, permittee or additional insured). (5) Each exclusion from coverage must be...; or (ii) Includes in each of its policies or insurance obtained under this part a contract clause in...

  9. Duplicate Health Insurance Coverage: Determinants of Variation Across States

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, Harold S.; Maerki, Susan C.

    1982-01-01

    Although it is recognized that many people have duplicate private health insurance coverage, either through separate purchase or as health benefits in multi-earner families, there has been little analysis of the factors determining duplicate coverage rates. A new data source, the Survey of Income and Education, offers a comparison with the only previous source of state level data, the estimates from the Health Insurance Association of America. The R2 between the two sets is only .3 and certai...

  10. Primary care practice and health professional determinants of immunisation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cameron C; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Turner, Nikki; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Kerse, Ngaire; Jones, Rhys; York, Deon; Desmond, Natalie; Stewart, Joanna

    2011-08-01

    To identify primary care factors associated with immunisation coverage. A survey during 2005-2006 of a random sample of New Zealand primary care practices, with over-sampling of practices serving indigenous children. An immunisation audit was conducted for children registered at each practice. Practice characteristics and the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, nurses and caregivers were measured. Practice immunisation coverage was defined as the percentage of registered children from 6 weeks to 23 months old at each practice who were fully immunised for age. Associations of practice, doctor, nurse and caregiver factors with practice immunisation coverage were determined using multiple regression analyses. One hundred and twenty-four (61%) of 205 eligible practices were recruited. A median (25th-75th centile) of 71% (57-77%) of registered children at each practice was fully immunised. In multivariate analyses, immunisation coverage was higher at practices with no staff shortages (median practice coverage 76% vs 67%, P = 0.004) and where doctors were confident in their immunisation knowledge (72% vs 67%, P= 0.005). Coverage was lower if the children's parents had received information antenatally, which discouraged immunisation (67% vs 73%, P = 0.008). Coverage decreased as socio-economic deprivation of the registered population increased (P < 0.001) and as the children's age (P = 0.001) and registration age (P = 0.02) increased. CONCLUSIONS Higher immunisation coverage is achieved by practices that establish an early relationship with the family and that are adequately resourced with stable and confident staff. Immunisation promotion should begin antenatally. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  12. Graphene transfer process and optimization of graphene coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Sabki Syarifah Norfaezah; Shamsuri Shafiq Hafly; Fauzi Siti Fazlina; Chon-Ki Meghashama Lim; Othman Noraini

    2017-01-01

    Graphene grown on transition metal is known to be high in quality due to its controlled amount of defects and potentially used for many electronic applications. The transfer process of graphene grown on transition metal to a new substrate requires optimization in order to ensure that high graphene coverage can be obtained. In this work, an improvement in the graphene transfer process is performed from graphene grown on copper foil. It has been observed that the graphene coverage is affected b...

  13. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  14. Financial considerations insurance and coverage issues in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael

    2004-12-01

    To increase healthcare workers' knowledge of reimbursement concerns. Chronological survey of transplants reimbursed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center from December 1997 to October 2003, which include accounts of 30 patients who received intestine transplants. Gross billed hospital charges for the past 30 transplantations ranged from dollars 112094 to dollars 667597. Length of stay ranged from 18 to 119 days. Charges include organ procurement fees. All 30 intestine transplants were reimbursed by third-party healthcare coverage; combination of coverage; and/or patient and family payments, which resulted in adherence to financial guidelines prearranged by the hospital. Financial guidelines are usually cost plus a percentage. Thirteen transplantations occurred after April 2001, when Medicare made a national coverage decision to reimburse this form of transplantation. Since then, obtaining surgical authorization and reimbursement is easier. Most insurance companies and state public health agencies accept intestinal transplantations as a form of treatment. Researching transplant coverage before evaluation is essential to be compensated adequately. Financial guidelines will secure the fiscal success of the program. Educating patients to insurance and entitlements may reduce the out-of-pocket cost to patients. Transplant financial coordinators coordinate these efforts for the facility. The best coverage option for the patient and transplant programs is a combination of commercial healthcare coverage, secondary entitlement program, and fund-raising. With length of stay ranging up to 119 days and a lifetime of posttransplant outpatient follow-up care, it is beneficial for the facility to also have a fundraising program to assist patients.

  15. [Neonatal screening - the challenge of an universal and effective coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botler, Judy; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; da Cruz, Marly Marques; George, Pâmela

    2010-03-01

    Newborn screening programs (NSP) aim to detect carriers of several congenital diseases among asymptomatic infants in order to warrant effective intervention. Specimen collection is the first step of a process that should be done in an universal and timely manner. A review of coverage and time of collection was done in NSP of several countries. The search was made in various sources, from 1998 to 2008, with "neonatal screening" and "coverage" as key words. The lack of a typical study design did not allow to the rigor required for a systematic review. Data were grouped in macro-regions. Canada had coverage of 71% in 2006 while the European coverage was of 69% in 2004, with data of 38 countries. In Asia and Pacific region, there were data of 19 countries. In Middle East and North Africa, there were data of 4 countries. In Latin America, the coverage was 49% in 2005, with data of 14 countries. In Brazil, coverage was 80%. Twelve reports had information about timeliness. The conclusion is that epidemiological transition has contributed to NSP success. Developed regions had more universal and timelier collection. In Brazil, government initiative increased access to the NSP, but late collections lead to the need of educational actions and participation of professional organizations in developing specific guidelines definition.

  16. Exploring the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering health services to dense populations is more practical than to dispersed populations, other factors constant. This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level. Methods We use cross-sectional data to conduct cross-country, OLS regressions at the national level to estimate the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage. We separately estimate the effect of two measures of density on three population-level coverage rates (6 tests in total. Our coverage indicators are the fraction of the maternal population completing four antenatal care visits and the utilization rates of both skilled birth attendants and in-facility delivery. The first density metric we use is the percentage of a population living in an urban area. The second metric, which we denote as a density score, is a relative ranking of countries by population density. The score’s calculation discounts a nation’s uninhabited territory under the assumption those areas are irrelevant to service delivery. Results We find significantly positive relationships between our maternal health indicators and density measures. On average, a one-unit increase in our density score is equivalent to a 0.2% increase in coverage rates. Conclusions Countries with dispersed populations face higher burdens to achieve multinational coverage targets such as the United Nations’ Millennial Development Goals.

  17. Did we make it to the news? Effects of actual and perceived media coverage on media orientations of communication professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, S.; Wonneberger, A.

    The aim of this study is to assess the mass media orientations of communication professionals: Is past media coverage for their organization related to the way communication professionals currently evaluate the importance of the media for their organizations? Following the debates on mediatization

  18. Socio-economic determinants and inequities in coverage and timeliness of early childhood immunisation in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, Lu; Soremekun, Seyi; ten Asbroek, Augustinus; Manu, Alexander; O'Leary, Maureen; Hill, Zelee; Danso, Samuel; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the extent of socio-economic inequity in coverage and timeliness of key childhood immunisations in Ghana. Secondary analysis of vaccination card data collected from babies born between January 2008 and January 2010 who were registered in the surveillance system supporting the ObaapaVita

  19. Coverage and Financial Risk Protection for Institutional Delivery: How Universal Is Provision of Maternal Health Care in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Gupta, Rakesh; Sharma, Atul; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    India aims to achieve universal access to institutional delivery. We undertook this study to estimate the universality of institutional delivery care for pregnant women in Haryana state in India. To assess the coverage of institutional delivery, we analyze service coverage (coverage of public sector institutional delivery), population coverage (coverage among different districts and wealth quintiles of the population) and financial risk protection (catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment as a result of out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery). We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a randomly selected sample of 12,191 women who had delivered a child in the last one year from the date of data collection in Haryana state. Five indicators were calculated to evaluate coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery--proportion of public sector deliveries, out-of-pocket expenditure, percentage of women who incurred no expenses, prevalence of catastrophic expenditure for institutional delivery and incidence of impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery. These indicators were calculated for the public and private sectors for 5 wealth quintiles and 21 districts of the state. The coverage of institutional delivery in Haryana state was 82%, of which 65% took place in public sector facilities. Approximately 63% of the women reported no expenditure on delivery in the public sector. The mean out-of-pocket expenditures for delivery in the public and private sectors in Haryana were INR 771 (USD 14.2) and INR 12,479 (USD 229), respectively, which were catastrophic for 1.6% and 22% of households, respectively. Our findings suggest that there is considerably high coverage of institutional delivery care in Haryana state, with significant financial risk protection in the public sector. However, coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery vary substantially across districts and among different socio

  20. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda O. Basaleem; Khaled A. Al-Sakkaf; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  1. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  2. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  3. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  4. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrewt@udel.edu

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for forming a layer of covalently bound nanoparticles is offered. • A nearly perfect monolayer of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles was formed on gold. • Spectroscopic techniques confirmed covalent binding by the “click” reaction. • The influence of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage was investigated. - Abstract: This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using “click chemistry” between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  5. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  6. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  7. Evaluation of immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune, Maharashtra, using the 30 cluster sampling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. One of the most cost-effective and easy methods for child survival is immunization. Despite all the efforts put in by governmental and nongovernmental institutes for 100% immunization coverage, there are still pockets of low-coverage areas. In India, immunization services are offered free in public health facilities, but, despite rapid increases, the immunization rate remains low in some areas. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG indicators also give importance to immunization. Objective: To assess the immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC using the WHO′s 30 cluster sampling method for evaluation of immunization coverage. Results: A total of 1913 houses were surveyed. A total of 210 children aged 12-23 months were included in the study. It was found that 86.67% of the children were fully immunized against all the six vaccine-preventable diseases. The proportion of fully immunized children was marginally higher in males (87.61% than in females (85.57%, and the immunization card was available with 60.95% of the subjects. The most common cause for partial immunization was that the time of immunization was inconvenient (36%. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve universal coverage of immunization in the rural area of Pune district.

  8. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India

    OpenAIRE

    Piot, Bram; Mukherjee, Amajit; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. Methods The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in...

  9. Quantitative evaluation of fault coverage for digitalized systems in NPPs using simulated fault injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Joon

    2004-02-01

    Even though digital systems have numerous advantages such as precise processing of data, enhanced calculation capability over the conventional analog systems, there is a strong restriction on the application of digital systems to the safety systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This is because we do not fully understand the reliability of digital systems, and therefore we cannot guarantee the safety of digital systems. But, as the need for introduction of digital systems to safety systems in NPPs increasing, the need for the quantitative analysis on the safety of digital systems is also increasing. NPPs, which are quite conservative in terms of safety, require proving the reliability of digital systems when applied them to the NPPs. Moreover, digital systems which are applied to the NPPs are required to increase the overall safety of NPPs. however, it is very difficult to evaluate the reliability of digital systems because they include the complex fault processing mechanisms at various levels of the systems. Software is another obstacle in reliability assessment of the systems that requires ultra-high reliability. In this work, the fault detection coverage for the digital system is evaluated using simulated fault injection method. The target system is the Local Coincidence Logic (LCL) processor in Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). However, as the LCL processor is difficult to design equally for evaluating the fault detection coverage, the LCL system has to be simplified. The simulations for evaluating the fault detection coverage of components are performed by dividing into two cases and the failure rates of components are evaluated using MIL-HDBK-217F. Using these results, the fault detection coverage of simplified LCL system is evaluated. In the experiments, heartbeat signals were just emitted at regular interval after executing logic without self-checking algorithm. When faults are injected into the simplified system, fault occurrence can be detected by

  10. Determining the dimensions of essential medical coverage required by military body armour plates utilising Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R

    2016-09-01

    . With regards to anthropometric measurements; it is recommended, based on this work, that torso height is used instead of stature for sizing body armour. Coverage assessments should now be undertaken for side protection as well as for other non-Caucasian populations and females, with anthropometric surveys utilising the three landmarks recommended in this study. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uterotonic use immediately following birth: using a novel methodology to estimate population coverage in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Jim; Dwivedi, Vikas; Varallo, John; Singh, Gajendra; Pallipamula, Suranjeen Prasad; Amade, Nazir; de Luz Vaz, Maria; Bishanga, Dustan; Plotkin, Marya; Al-Makaleh, Bushra; Suhowatsky, Stephanie; Smith, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-22

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. While incidence of PPH can be dramatically reduced by uterotonic use immediately following birth (UUIFB) in both community and facility settings, national coverage estimates are rare. Most national health systems have no indicator to track this, and community-based measurements are even more scarce. To fill this information gap, a methodology for estimating national coverage for UUIFB was developed and piloted in four settings. The rapid estimation methodology consisted of convening a group of national technical experts and using the Delphi method to come to consensus on key data elements that were applied to a simple algorithm, generating a non-precise national estimate of coverage of UUIFB. Data elements needed for the calculation were the distribution of births by location and estimates of UUIFB in each of those settings, adjusted to take account of stockout rates and potency of uterotonics. This exercise was conducted in 2013 in Mozambique, Tanzania, the state of Jharkhand in India, and Yemen. Available data showed that deliveries in public health facilities account for approximately half of births in Mozambique and Tanzania, 16% in Jharkhand and 24% of births in Yemen. Significant proportions of births occur in private facilities in Jharkhand and faith-based facilities in Tanzania. Estimated uterotonic use for facility births ranged from 70 to 100%. Uterotonics are not used routinely for PPH prevention at home births in any of the settings. National UUIFB coverage estimates of all births were 43% in Mozambique, 40% in Tanzania, 44% in Jharkhand, and 14% in Yemen. This methodology for estimating coverage of UUIFB was found to be feasible and acceptable. While the exercise produces imprecise estimates whose validity cannot be assessed objectively in the absence of a gold standard estimate, stakeholders felt they were accurate enough to be actionable. The exercise

  12. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2011-01-01

    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.

  13. Enhancing Political Will for Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregbeshola, Bolaji S

    2017-01-01

    Universal health coverage aims to increase equity in access to quality health care services and to reduce financial risk due to health care costs. It is a key component of international health agenda and has been a subject of worldwide debate. Despite differing views on its scope and pathways to reach it, there is a global consensus that all countries should work toward universal health coverage. The goal remains distant for many African countries, including Nigeria. This is mostly due to lack of political will and commitment among political actors and policymakers. Evidence from countries such as Ghana, Chile, Mexico, China, Thailand, Turkey, Rwanda, Vietnam and Indonesia, which have introduced at least some form of universal health coverage scheme, shows that political will and commitment are key to the adoption of new laws and regulations for reforming coverage. For Nigeria to improve people's health, reduce poverty and achieve prosperity, universal health coverage must be vigorously pursued at all levels. Political will and commitment to these goals must be expressed in legal mandates and be translated into policies that ensure increased public health care financing for the benefit of all Nigerians. Nigeria, as part of a global system, cannot afford to lag behind in striving for this overarching health goal.

  14. The German press coverage on France after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jaeger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available How is the continuing reconciliation process between the former "hereditary enemies" Germany and France reflected in German daily newspapers between 1946 and 1970? Using quantitative content analysis, a representative sample of coverage of France and French-related topics published during this period was examined with an emphasis on a the choice of news topics and possible deviations from the predictions of Galtung’s news-factors model and on b how protagonists and events were portrayed in these articles. A further qualitative analysis was made of some promising journalistic attempts to achieve "constructive" coverage during the same period. This was intended a to determine whether and how several theoretical deductions from Kempf’s conflict model of de-escalation processes are manifest in post-conflict coverage and b to identify the stylistic "tools" journalists used – even unintentionally – to further a better understanding of the former enemy and – in the long run – to build peace and reconciliation between Germany and France. The overarching questions addressed by this study are: (What can we learn from coverage during a successful reconciliation process, and how can these lessons be transferred to contemporary coverage of post-war processes? Major findings of the two studies will be presented.

  15. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  16. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  17. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bryant-Lukosius

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.

  18. 2009–2010 Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among College Students From 8 Universities in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehling, Katherine A.; Blocker, Jill; Ip, Edward H.; Peters, Timothy R.; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe the 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccine coverage of college students. Participants 4090 college students from eight North Carolina universities participated in a confidential, web-based survey in October-November 2009. Methods Associations between self-reported 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccination and demographic characteristics, campus activities, parental education, and email usage were assessed by bivariate analyses and by a mixed-effects model adjusting for clustering by university. Results Overall, 20% of students (range 14%–30% by university) reported receiving 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccine. Being a freshman, attending a private university, having a college-educated parent, and participating in academic clubs/honor societies predicted receipt of influenza vaccine in the mixed-effects model. Conclusions The self-reported 2009–2010 influenza vaccine coverage was one-quarter of the 2020 Healthy People goal (80%) for healthy persons 18–64 years of age. College campuses have the opportunity to enhance influenza vaccine coverage among its diverse student populations. PMID:23157195

  19. Sociodemographic Disparities in Local Smoke-Free Law Coverage in 10 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; King, Brian A; Babb, Stephen D; Xu, Xin; Hallett, Cynthia; Hopkins, Maggie

    2015-09-01

    We assessed sociodemographic disparities in local 100% smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in all indoor areas of nonhospitality worksites, restaurants, and bars in 10 states. We obtained data on local 100% smoke-free laws (US Tobacco Control Laws Database) and subcounty characteristics (2006-2010 American Community Survey) for Alabama, Alaska, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. Outcomes included (1) 100% smoke-free law covering restaurants, bars, and workplaces; (2) 100% smoke-free law covering restaurants, bars, or workplaces; and (3) number of venue types covered by 100% smoke-free laws (0-3). Sociodemographics included total population, urban status, percentage racial/ethnic minority, per capita income, percentage with high-school diploma, percentage with blue-collar jobs, and percentage of workers who live and work in the same locality. Across states, localities with less-educated residents, smaller proportions of workers living and working in the same locality, or both generally had lower odds of being covered by 100% smoke-free laws. Coverage varied across states for other sociodemographics. Disparities exist in local smoke-free law coverage. Identifying patterns in coverage can inform state efforts to address related disparities.

  20. Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N

    2016-03-01

    Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz Governorate, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.

  2. ENHANCED IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE THROUGH INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDHOOD CLUSTER DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Sheh; Somronghtong, Ratana; Kumar, Ramesh; Ghaffar, Abdul; Chapman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Systematic review by using PRISMA statement ("preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses") has been conducted in English. published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p 0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP an.d measles.

  3. The effect of EDTA in attachment gain and root coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M; Cohen, Robert E; Andreana, Sebastiano; Dentino, Andrew R

    2006-06-01

    Root surface biomodification using low pH agents such as citric acid and tetracycline has been proposed to enhance root coverage following connective tissue grafting. The authors hypothesized that root conditioning with neutral pH edetic acid would improve vertical recession depth, root surface coverage, pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels. Twenty teeth in 10 patients with Miller class I and II recession were treated with connective tissue grafting. The experimental sites received 24% edetic acid in sterile distilled water applied to the root surface for 2 minutes before grafting. Controls were pretreated with only sterile distilled water. Measurements were evaluated before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between experimental and control groups. We found significant postoperative improvements in vertical recession depth, root surface coverage, and clinical attachment levels in test and control groups, compared to postoperative data. Pocket depth differences were not significant (P<.01).

  4. Coverage-maximization in networks under resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Subrata; Brusch, Lutz; Deutsch, Andreas; Ganguly, Niloy

    2010-06-01

    Efficient coverage algorithms are essential for information search or dispersal in all kinds of networks. We define an extended coverage problem which accounts for constrained resources of consumed bandwidth B and time T . Our solution to the network challenge is here studied for regular grids only. Using methods from statistical mechanics, we develop a coverage algorithm with proliferating message packets and temporally modulated proliferation rate. The algorithm performs as efficiently as a single random walker but O(B(d-2)/d) times faster, resulting in significant service speed-up on a regular grid of dimension d . The algorithm is numerically compared to a class of generalized proliferating random walk strategies and on regular grids shown to perform best in terms of the product metric of speed and efficiency.

  5. Newspaper coverage of youth and tobacco: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Wakefield, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    The presentation of smoking as a "youth" issue is a powerful component of current tobacco-control efforts. Agenda setting theory demonstrates that the media serve as a potent forum in which the consideration and presentation of perspectives of social problems take place. This analysis of 643 U.S. youth-focused newspaper articles examines the messages being conveyed to the public and policymakers through coverage of tobacco issues focused on youth. Data illustrate that the issue of youth tobacco use is newsworthy but also suggest that youth-focused issues garner little commentary coverage. Rather, straightforward reports of "feel good" stories dominate the coverage, and youth-focused articles tend to conceptualize the problem of tobacco as being one of a need for greater individual-level education rather than structural or policy changes.

  6. Coverage Dependent Assembly of Anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Deloach, Andrew; Einstein, Theodore; Dougherty, Daniel

    A study of adsorbate-adsorbate and surface state mediated interactions of anthraquinone (AnQ) on Au(111) is presented. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the coverage dependence of AnQ structure formation. Ordered structures are observed up to a single monolayer (ML) and are found to be strongly dependent on molecular surface density. While the complete ML forms a well-ordered close-packed layer, for a narrow range of sub-ML coverages irregular close-packed islands are observed to coexist with a disordered pore network linking neighboring islands. This network displays a characteristic pore size and at lower coverages, the soliton walls of the herringbone reconstruction are shown to promote formation of distinct pore nanostructures. We will discuss these nanostructure formations in the context of surface mediated and more direct adsorbate interactions.

  7. Protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted to protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps. Authors noticed that many tailing dumps In Tajikistan do not correspond to modern requirements of territories remediation published by IAEA and current norms of the Republic of Tajikistan. The most dangerous is radionuclide migration i.e., distribution of radioactive substances beyond the uranium tailing dumps territories. One of the basic distribution ways is atmospheric migration. At the same time potentially dangerous factors are: dust rising from open surfaces is the source for contamination distribution to neighboring territories; direct external exposure of public located in close distance to the sites; radioactive gas radon exhalation originating a threat if radionuclides penetration to the human body through breathing passages. Different methods of tailing's negative impact minimization, including coverage with neutral soil layer, coverage with fine-ground worked-out bentonite clay were proposed.

  8. Realizing right to health through universal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of right to health is an essential step to work towards improvement of public health and to attain highest standard of physical and mental health of the people. Right to health in India is implicit part of right to life under Article 19 mentioned in the Constitution of India but is not recognized per se. Universal Health Coverage adopts rights based approach and principles of universality, equity, empowerment and comprehensiveness of care. The Universal Coverage Report of India makes recommendations in six identified areas to revamp the health systems in order to ensure right to health of Indians. These areas are: health financing and financial protection; health service norms; human resources for health; community participation and citizen engagement; access to medicines, vaccines and techno- logy; management and institutional reforms. This paper attempts to determine the ways inwhich Universal Health Coverage can make a contribution in realizing right to health and thus human rights in developing countries.

  9. Risk factors for low vaccination coverage among Roma children in disadvantaged settlements in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Kristefer; McWeeney, Gerry; Emiroglu, Nedret; Ostlin, Piroska; Koller, Theadora; Licari, Lucianne; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2012-08-10

    Full vaccination coverage for children under 59 months of age in Serbia is over 90%. This study assesses vaccination coverage and examines its association with birth registration among Roma children who resided in disadvantaged settlements in Belgrade, Serbia. The First Roma Health and Nutrition Survey in Belgrade settlements, 2009, was conducted among households of 468 Roma children between the ages of 6-59 months. The 2005 WHO Immunization Coverage Cluster Survey sampling methodology was employed. Vaccinations were recorded using children's vaccination cards and through verification steps carried out in the Primary Health Care Centers. For those who had health records the information on vaccination was recorded. About 88% of children had vaccination cards. The mean rate of age appropriate full immunization was 16% for OPV and DTP and 14.3% for MMR. Multivariate analyses indicated that children whose births were registered with the civil authorities were more likely to have their vaccination cards [OR=6.1, CI (2.5, 15.0)] and to have their full, age appropriate, series vaccinations for DTP, OPV, MMR and HepB [OR=3.8, CI (1.5, 10.0), OR=3.2, CI (1.5, 6.6), OR=4.8, CI (1.1, 21.0), OR=5.4, CI (1.4, 21.6), respectively]. The immunization coverage among Roma children in settlements is far below the WHO/UNICEF MDG4 target in achieving prevention and control of vaccine preventable diseases. It demonstrates the need to include "invisible" populations into the health systems in continuous, integrated, comprehensive, accessible and sensitive modes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among high-risk populations in Thailand, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Prapasiri, Prabda; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Leetongin, Grit; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Rattanayot, Jarowee; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2015-01-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. National records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. From 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; pThailand. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Inequities in coverage of preventive child health interventions: the rural drinking water supply program and the universal immunization program in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Pavitra

    2005-02-01

    I assessed whether the Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (RDWSP) and the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) have achieved equitable coverage in Rajasthan, India, and explored program characteristics that affect equitable coverage of preventive health interventions. A total of 2460 children presenting at 12 primary health facilities in one district of Rajasthan were enrolled and classified into economic quartiles based on possession of assets. Immunization coverage and prime source of drinking water were compared across quartiles. A higher access to piped water by wealthier families (P< .001) was compensated by higher access to hand pumps by poorer families (P<.001), resulting in equal access to a safe source (P=.9). Immunization coverage was inequitable, favoring the wealthier children (P<.001). The RDWSP has achieved equitable coverage, while UIP coverage remains highly inequitable. Programs can make coverage more equitable by formulating explicit objectives to ensure physical access to all, promoting the intervention's demand by the poor, and enhancing the support and monitoring of frontline workers who deliver these interventions.

  12. Media Coverage, Journal Press Releases and Editorials Associated with Randomized and Observational Studies in High-Impact Medical Journals: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T M Wang

    Full Text Available Publication of clinical research findings in prominent journals influences health beliefs and medical practice, in part by engendering news coverage. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs should be most influential in guiding clinical practice. We determined whether study design of clinical research published in high-impact journals influences media coverage.We compared the incidence and amount of media coverage of RCTs with that of observational studies published in the top 7 medical journals between 1 January 2013 and 31 March 2013. We specifically assessed media coverage of the most rigorous RCTs, those with >1000 participants that reported 'hard' outcomes. There was no difference between RCTs and observational studies in coverage by major newspapers or news agencies, or in total number of news stories generated (all P>0.63. Large RCTs reporting 'hard' outcomes did not generate more news coverage than small RCTs that reported surrogate outcomes and observational studies (all P>0.32. RCTs were more likely than observational studies to attract a journal editorial (70% vs 46%, P = 0.003, but less likely to be the subject of a journal press release (17% vs 50%, P0.99, nor were they more likely to be the subject of a journal press release (14% vs 38%, P = 0.14.The design of clinical studies whose results are published in high-impact medical journals is not associated with the likelihood or amount of ensuing news coverage.

  13. Socio-economic determinants and inequities in coverage and timeliness of early childhood immunisation in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Lu; Soremekun, Seyi; ten Asbroek, Augustinus; Manu, Alexander; O'Leary, Maureen; Hill, Zelee; Danso, Samuel; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2014-07-01

    To assess the extent of socio-economic inequity in coverage and timeliness of key childhood immunisations in Ghana. Secondary analysis of vaccination card data collected from babies born between January 2008 and January 2010 who were registered in the surveillance system supporting the ObaapaVita and Newhints Trials was carried out. 20 251 babies had 6 weeks' follow-up, 16 652 had 26 weeks' follow-up, and 5568 had 1 year's follow-up. We performed a descriptive analysis of coverage and timeliness of vaccinations by indicators for urban/rural status, wealth and educational attainment. The association of coverage with socio-economic indicators was tested using a chi-square-test and the association with timeliness using Cox regression. Overall coverage at 1 year of age was high (>95%) for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), all three pentavalent diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-haemophilus influenzae B-hepatitis B (DPTHH) doses and all polio doses except polio at birth (63%). Coverage against measles and yellow fever was 85%. Median delay for BCG was 1.7 weeks. For polio at birth, the median delay was 5 days; all other vaccine doses had median delays of 2-4 weeks. We found substantial health inequity across all socio-economic indicators for all vaccines in terms of timeliness, but not coverage at 1 year. For example, for the last DPTHH dose, the proportion of children delayed more than 8 weeks were 27% for urban children and 31% for rural children (P < 0.001), 21% in the wealthiest quintile and 41% in the poorest quintile (P < 0.001), and 9% in the most educated group and 39% in the least educated group (P < 0.001). However, 1-year coverage of the same dose remained above 90% for all levels of all socio-economic indicators. Ghana has substantial health inequity across urban/rural, socio-economic and educational divides. While overall coverage was high, most vaccines suffered from poor timeliness. We suggest that countries achieving high coverage should include timeliness

  14. CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for Geo (COVERAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.; Zlotnicki, V.

    2017-12-01

    The CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for GEO (COVERAGE) initiative seeks to facilitate joint utilization of different satellite data streams on ocean physics, better integrated with biological and in situ observations, including near real-time data streams in support of oceanographic and decision support applications for societal benefit. COVERAGE aligns with programmatic objectives of CEOS (the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) and the missions of GEO-MBON (Marine Biodiversity Observation Network) and GEO-Blue Planet, which are to advance and exploit synergies among the many observational programs devoted to ocean and coastal waters. COVERAGE is conceived of as 3 year pilot project involving international collaboration. It focuses on implementing technologies, including cloud based solutions, to provide a data rich, web-based platform for integrated ocean data delivery and access: multi-parameter observations, easily discoverable and usable, organized by disciplines, available in near real-time, collocated to a common grid and including climatologies. These will be complemented by a set of value-added data services available via the COVERAGE portal including an advanced Web-based visualization interface, subsetting/extraction, data collocation/matchup and other relevant on demand processing capabilities. COVERAGE development will be organized around priority use cases and applications identified by GEO and agency partners. The initial phase will be to develop co-located 25km products from the four Ocean Virtual Constellations (VCs), Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Winds. This aims to stimulate work among the ocean VCs while developing products and system functionality based on community recommendations. Such products as anomalies from a time mean, would build on the theme of applications with a relevance to CEOS/GEO mission and vision. Here we provide an overview of the COVERAGE initiative with an

  15. State Medicaid Coverage, ESRD Incidence, and Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Mitani, Aya A.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of low-income nonelderly adults covered by Medicaid varies widely by state. We sought to determine whether broader state Medicaid coverage, defined as the proportion of each state’s low-income nonelderly adult population covered by Medicaid, associates with lower state-level incidence of ESRD and greater access to care. The main outcomes were incidence of ESRD and five indicators of access to care. We identified 408,535 adults aged 20–64 years, who developed ESRD between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. Medicaid coverage among low-income nonelderly adults ranged from 12.2% to 66.0% (median 32.5%). For each additional 10% of the low-income nonelderly population covered by Medicaid, there was a 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.0% to 2.6%) decrease in ESRD incidence. Among nonelderly adults with ESRD, gaps in access to care between those with private insurance and those with Medicaid were narrower in states with broader coverage. For a 50-year-old white woman, the access gap to the kidney transplant waiting list between Medicaid and private insurance decreased by 7.7 percentage points in high (>45%) versus low (Medicaid coverage states. Similarly, the access gap to transplantation decreased by 4.0 percentage points and the access gap to peritoneal dialysis decreased by 3.8 percentage points in high Medicaid coverage states. In conclusion, states with broader Medicaid coverage had a lower incidence of ESRD and smaller insurance-related access gaps. PMID:24652791

  16. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0-28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  17. Camera Coverage Estimation Based on Multistage Grid Subdivision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual coverage is one of the most important quality indexes for depicting the usability of an individual camera or camera network. It is the basis for camera network deployment, placement, coverage-enhancement, planning, etc. Precision and efficiency are critical influences on applications, especially those involving several cameras. This paper proposes a new method to efficiently estimate superior camera coverage. First, the geographic area that is covered by the camera and its minimum bounding rectangle (MBR without considering obstacles is computed using the camera parameters. Second, the MBR is divided into grids using the initial grid size. The status of the four corners of each grid is estimated by a line of sight (LOS algorithm. If the camera, considering obstacles, covers a corner, the status is represented by 1, otherwise by 0. Consequently, the status of a grid can be represented by a code that is a combination of 0s or 1s. If the code is not homogeneous (not four 0s or four 1s, the grid will be divided into four sub-grids until the sub-grids are divided into a specific maximum level or their codes are homogeneous. Finally, after performing the process above, total camera coverage is estimated according to the size and status of all grids. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method’s accuracy is determined by the method that divided the coverage area into the smallest grids at the maximum level, while its efficacy is closer to the method that divided the coverage area into the initial grids. It considers both efficiency and accuracy. The initial grid size and maximum level are two critical influences on the proposed method, which can be determined by weighing efficiency and accuracy.

  18. 28 CFR 55.5 - Coverage under section 4(f)(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.5 Coverage under section 4(f)(4). (a) Coverage formula. Section 4(f)(4) applies to any State or political subdivision in...) Coverage may be determined with regard to section 4(f)(4) on a statewide or political subdivision basis. (1...

  19. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  20. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  1. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  2. Quad-Tree Visual-Calculus Analysis of Satellite Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Martin W.; Hockney, George; Kwan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of analysis of coverage of areas of the Earth by a constellation of radio-communication or scientific-observation satellites has been developed. This method is intended to supplant an older method in which the global-coverage-analysis problem is solved from a ground-to-satellite perspective. The present method provides for rapid and efficient analysis. This method is derived from a satellite-to-ground perspective and involves a unique combination of two techniques for multiresolution representation of map features on the surface of a sphere.

  3. Estimating IBD tracts from low coverage NGS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Albrechtsen, Anders; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    that the new method provides a marked increase in accuracy even at low coverage. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The methods presented in this work were implemented in C/C ++ and are freely available for non-commercial use from https://github.com/fgvieira/ngsF-HMM CONTACT: fgvieira@snm.ku.dk SUPPLEMENTARY...... method for estimating inbreeding IBD tracts from low coverage NGS data. Contrary to other methods that use genotype data, the one presented here uses genotype likelihoods to take the uncertainty of the data into account. We benchmark it under a wide range of biologically relevant conditions and show...

  4. Communication-Free Distributed Coverage for Networked Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yazicioglu, A. Yasin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present a communication-free algorithm for distributed coverage of an arbitrary network by a group of mobile agents with local sensing capabilities. The network is represented as a graph, and the agents are arbitrarily deployed on some nodes of the graph. Any node of the graph is covered if it is within the sensing range of at least one agent. The agents are mobile devices that aim to explore the graph and to optimize their locations in a decentralized fashion by relying only on their sensory inputs. We formulate this problem in a game theoretic setting and propose a communication-free learning algorithm for maximizing the coverage.

  5. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  6. Financial incentives and coverage of child health interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Arora, Paul; Wazny, Kerri; Gaffey, Michelle F; Lenters, Lindsey; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used strategies to alleviate poverty, foster development, and improve health. Cash transfer programs, microcredit, user fee removal policies and voucher schemes that provide direct or indirect monetary incentives to households have been used for decades in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and more recently in Southeast Asia. Until now, no systematic review of the impact of financial incentives on coverage and uptake of health interventions targeting children under 5 years of age has been conducted. The objective of this review is to provide estimates on the effect of six types of financial incentive programs: (i) Unconditional cash transfers (CT), (ii) Conditional cash transfers (CCT), (iii) Microcredit (MC), (iv) Conditional Microcredit (CMC), (v) Voucher schemes (VS) and (vi) User fee removal (UFR) on the uptake and coverage of health interventions targeting children under the age of five years. We conducted systematic searches of a series of databases until September 1st, 2012, to identify relevant studies reporting on the impact of financial incentives on coverage of health interventions and behaviors targeting children under 5 years of age. The quality of the studies was assessed using the CHERG criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect when multiple studies meeting our inclusion criteria were available. Our searches resulted in 1671 titles identified 25 studies reporting on the impact of financial incentive programs on 5 groups of coverage indicators: breastfeeding practices (breastfeeding incidence, proportion of children receiving colostrum and early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and duration of breastfeeding); vaccination (coverage of full immunization, partial immunization and specific antigens); health care use (seeking healthcare when child was ill, visits to health facilities for preventive reasons, visits to health facilities for any reason, visits for health

  7. Geo-spatial reporting for monitoring of household immunization coverage through mobile phones: Findings from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A M; Ali, M; K, Ayub; Kalimuddin, H; Zubair, K; Kazi, A N; A, Artani; Ali, S A

    2017-11-01

    The addition of Global Positioning System (GPS) to a mobile phone makes it a very powerful tool for surveillance and monitoring coverage of health programs. This technology enables transfer of data directly into computer applications and cross-references to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) maps, which enhances assessment of coverage and trends. Utilization of these systems in low and middle income countries is currently limited, particularly for immunization coverage assessments and polio vaccination campaigns. We piloted the use of this system and discussed its potential to improve the efficiency of field-based health providers and health managers for monitoring of the immunization program. Using "30×7" WHO sampling technique, a survey of children less than five years of age was conducted in random clusters of Karachi, Pakistan in three high risk towns where a polio case was detected in 2011. Center point of the cluster was calculated by the application on the mobile. Data and location coordinates were collected through a mobile phone. This data was linked with an automated mHealth based monitoring system for monitoring of Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) in Karachi. After each SIA, a visual report was generated according to the coordinates collected from the survey. A total of 3535 participants consented to answer to a baseline survey. We found that the mobile phones incorporated with GIS maps can improve efficiency of health providers through real-time reporting and replacing paper based questionnaire for collection of data at household level. Visual maps generated from the data and geospatial analysis can also give a better assessment of the immunization coverage and polio vaccination campaigns. The study supports a model system in resource constrained settings that allows routine capture of individual level data through GPS enabled mobile phone providing actionable information and geospatial maps to local public health managers, policy makers

  8. A difficult balancing act: policy actors' perspectives on using economic evaluation to inform health-care coverage decisions under the Universal Health Insurance Coverage scheme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.

  9. Comparison of NIS and NHIS/NIPRCS vaccination coverage estimates. National Immunization Survey. National Health Interview Survey/National Immunization Provider Record Check Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D L; Ezzati-Rice, T M; Stokley, S; Zhao, Z

    2001-05-01

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) produce national coverage estimates for children aged 19 months to 35 months. The NIS is a cost-effective, random-digit-dialing telephone survey that produces national and state-level vaccination coverage estimates. The National Immunization Provider Record Check Study (NIPRCS) is conducted in conjunction with the annual NHIS, which is a face-to-face household survey. As the NIS is a telephone survey, potential coverage bias exists as the survey excludes children living in nontelephone households. To assess the validity of estimates of vaccine coverage from the NIS, we compared 1995 and 1996 NIS national estimates with results from the NHIS/NIPRCS for the same years. Both the NIS and the NHIS/NIPRCS produce similar results. The NHIS/NIPRCS supports the findings of the NIS.

  10. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    influences the weather and climate of a place, thus acting as an ... earth by absorbing the most energetic part of the ... effect of cloud coverage on the surface ozone over. Kolkata. 2. ..... Burrows W R 1997 CART regression models for predicting.

  11. Women's Magazines' Coverage of Smoking Related Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Lauren

    1989-01-01

    Examines the extent to which women's magazines with a strong interest in health covered various health hazards associated with smoking. Finds that six major women's magazines have virtually no coverage of smoking and cancer. Suggests that self-censorship may have helped determine editorial content more than pressure from tobacco companies. (RS)

  12. Measuring test coverage of SoA services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Harry M.; Verhoef, Chris

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of testing in a SoA environment is that testers do not have access to the source code of the services they are testing. Therefore they are not able to measure test coverage at the code level, as is done in conventional white-box testing. They are compelled to measure test

  13. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for electric motors. Specifically, DOE seeks information to assist DOE in determining whether to develop energy conservation standards for certain types of electric motors that are currently...

  14. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR...

  15. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR...

  16. 24 CFR 3500.5 - Coverage of RESPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residential property if the loan is used as, or may be converted to, permanent financing by the same lender or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage of RESPA. 3500.5 Section 3500.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued...

  17. Analysis of Cameroon newspaper coverage of cross border conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nexus of conflict reporting: Analysis of Cameroon newspaper coverage of cross ... The conflicts taking place in the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria and Gabon have raised ... Consequently, it is in the interest of the public .... of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA, 2014), ... As what concerns the case of Nigeria, UNHCR.

  18. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its convenience for providers and women, cost effectiveness, and high acceptability ... Using data from the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence ... Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. ... 7 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK.

  19. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...

  20. 30 CFR 735.14 - Coverage of grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems, including data processing systems; (6) A planning process including a data base and information... ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.14 Coverage of grants. (a) Program development grants. An agency may use... the initial administration and enforcement grant to the extent not covered by indirect costs or other...

  1. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... effective and efficient operation of Government. As a part of OPM's overall leadership responsibilities in...

  2. Media coverage of chronic diseases in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wardt, E.M.; van der Wardt, Elly M.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Wiegman, O.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the quantity or quality of information on rheumatic diseases provided by the mass media. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the media coverage of rheumatic diseases compared with other chronic diseases in the Netherlands. - Materials and Methods:

  3. 15 CFR 730.5 - Coverage of more than exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., shipments from a U.S. foreign trade zone, and the electronic transmission of non-public data that will be... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of more than exports. 730.5 Section 730.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued...

  4. 42 CFR 416.44 - Condition for coverage-Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Environment. 416.44 Section... for coverage—Environment. The ASC must have a safe and sanitary environment, properly constructed, equipped, and maintained to protect the health and safety of patients. (a) Standard: Physical environment...

  5. 29 CFR 825.106 - Joint employer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facts and circumstances. A PEO does not enter into a joint employment relationship with the employees of... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.106 Joint employer...

  6. 29 CFR 825.105 - Counting employees for determining coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations of the employer-employee relationship under the Act; and that determination of the relation cannot... later return to active employment. If there is no employer/employee relationship (as when an employee is... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counting employees for determining coverage. 825.105...

  7. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  8. Coverage analysis of lists of genes involved in heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rationale of our study was to specifically evaluate sequence coverage using ... Catherine Badens and Martin Krahn contributed equally to this work. the analysis of ... (Life Technologies) with sequencing data processing using the Torrent ... map4 parameter, which is the default option to balance rapid- ity and maintain a ...

  9. A mass campaign too often? results of a vaccination coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the routine and mass immunisation coverage in children aged between 12 and 23 months in the Dikgale-Soekmekaar district, Northern Province, South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional community-based vaccination prevalence survey using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. Methods. Data on ...

  10. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  11. Public Perception of Media Coverage of the Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to investigate the awareness level, attention and attitude of the public towards media coverage of the activities of the Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC). It also considered the appraisal of how the public select, organize and interpret stimuli about the commission.

  12. "Peking Review's" Coverage of the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong

    Triggered by inconsistencies and omissions in the reporting of casualty statistics and earthquake magnitude of the 1976 Tangshen (China) earthquake, this paper examines coverage of the natural disaster by "Peking Review," China's only foreign language news weekly. The paper's main section analyzes in detail "Peking Review's"…

  13. Nuclear Bashing in Chernobyl Coverage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    Critics of coverage of nuclear power have charged that the media overemphasize the importance of nuclear accidents, encourage public fear, and omit information vital to public understanding of nuclear power and risk. Some also feel there is an anti-nuclear bias among reporters and editors. A study was conducted to determine if such charges were…

  14. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  15. Coverage dependent molecular assembly of anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Andrew S.; Conrad, Brad R.; Einstein, T. L.; Dougherty, Daniel B.

    2017-11-01

    A scanning tunneling microscopy study of anthraquinone (AQ) on the Au(111) surface shows that the molecules self-assemble into several structures depending on the local surface coverage. At high coverages, a close-packed saturated monolayer is observed, while at low coverages, mobile surface molecules coexist with stable chiral hexamer clusters. At intermediate coverages, a disordered 2D porous network interlinking close-packed islands is observed in contrast to the giant honeycomb networks observed for the same molecule on Cu(111). This difference verifies the predicted extreme sensitivity [J. Wyrick et al., Nano Lett. 11, 2944 (2011)] of the pore network to small changes in the surface electronic structure. Quantitative analysis of the 2D pore network reveals that the areas of the vacancy islands are distributed log-normally. Log-normal distributions are typically associated with the product of random variables (multiplicative noise), and we propose that the distribution of pore sizes for AQ on Au(111) originates from random linear rate constants for molecules to either desorb from the surface or detach from the region of a nucleated pore.

  16. Increasing Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccination in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Smith, Helen; Peng, Zhuoxin; Xu, Biao; Wang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study used a system evaluation method to summarize China's experience on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine, especially the strategies employed to improve the uptake of timely birth dosage. Identifying successful methods and strategies will provide strong evidence for policy makers and health workers in other countries with high hepatitis B prevalence. We conducted a literature review included English or Chinese literature carried out in mainland China, using PubMed, the Cochrane databases, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, and other relevant databases. Nineteen articles about the effectiveness and impact of interventions on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were included. Strong or moderate evidence showed that reinforcing health education, training and supervision, providing subsidies for facility birth, strengthening the coordination among health care providers, and using out-of-cold-chain storage for vaccines were all important to improving vaccination coverage. We found evidence that community education was the most commonly used intervention, and out-reach programs such as out-of-cold chain strategy were more effective in increasing the coverage of vaccination in remote areas where the facility birth rate was respectively low. The essential impact factors were found to be strong government commitment and the cooperation of the different government departments. Public interventions relying on basic health care systems combined with outreach care services were critical elements in improving the hepatitis B vaccination rate in China. This success could not have occurred without exceptional national commitment. PMID:27175710

  17. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  18. Coverage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Rural Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…

  19. Towards a Wide-coverage Tableau Method for Natural Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzianidze, Lasha; Murata, Tsuyoshi; Mineshima, Koji; Bekki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The rst step towards a wide-coverage tableau prover for natural logic is presented. We describe an automatized method for obtaining Lambda Logical Forms from surface forms and use this method with an implemented prover to hunt for new tableau rules in textual entailment data sets. The collected

  20. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee and spouse who have no children divorce on May 1, 2001, and the spouse elects COBRA continuation... divorce on June 1, 2001, and one of the children remains with the employee. The spouse elects COBRA... other reference in §§ 54.4980B-1 through 54.4980B-10 to coverage in effect immediately before (or on the...

  1. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance coverage. 73.3 Section 73.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... sufficient to confirm its identity and location; (2) A clear and unequivocal declaration that the property is...

  2. Print News Coverage of School-Based HPV Vaccine Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana; Smith, Katherine C.; Andon, Lindsay; Vernick, Jon; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based HPV vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005-2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages, and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. PMID:25099421

  3. Monitoring Requirements Coverage Using Reconstructed Views : An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lormans, M.; Gross, H.; Van Deursen, A.; Van Solingen, R.; Stehouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Requirements views, such as coverage and status views, are an important asset for monitoring and managing software development. We have developed a method that automates the process for reconstructing these views, and built a tool, ReqAnalyst, to support this method. In this paper, we investigate to

  4. Camera Network Coverage Improving by Particle Swarm Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.C.; Lei, B.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how to improve the field of view (FOV) coverage of a camera network. We focus on a special but practical scenario where the cameras are randomly scattered in a wide area and each camera may adjust its orientation but cannot move in any direction. We propose a particle swarm

  5. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  6. Lexical Coverage of TED Talks: Implications for Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…

  7. Suicide Coverage Continues to Be a Dilemma for the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Dow

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the adviser of the Hillcrest High School (Dallas, Texas) and the student staff covered the suicide of a fellow student. Notes that the adviser, who is committed to student decision making, made sure the student staff raised the appropriate ethical questions when deciding on the type, amount, and duration of coverage of the suicide.…

  8. Updating Coverage of Operant Conditioning in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Miller, Erin; Ecott, Cheryl; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Offers an example of determining what the experts of psychology deem as essential concepts in their subfield by investigating the current principles in operant conditioning through surveys of the board of editors of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior." Recommends concepts that are appropriate for up-to-date coverage of operant…

  9. Agricultural News Coverage In The Print Media In Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on the comparative analysis of agricultural news coverage in three categories of newspapers in Nigeria. The three newspapers under study were New Nigerian, Pointer and Vanguard newspapers. Data were analysed using frequency counts, and percentages and Analysis of Variance. The pointer ...

  10. Capacity and coverage of power controlled CDMA cellular systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage and capacity are among the ambitious challenges to be met by the third generation (3G) systems for successful deployment of its services to both residential and commercial subscribers. This paper reports on the performance study of CDMA systems in relation to an optimum step-regulated SNR-based ...

  11. 12 CFR 222.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.20 Coverage and definitions. (a...-existing business relationship—(i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial contract...

  12. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC.

  13. With Coverage from Multiple Perspectives, Newspaper Represents Multiple Factions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Stacy

    1999-01-01

    Describes the coverage of the shootings at Columbine High School by the staff of "The Express," the student newspaper of Maize High School, Maize, Kansas. Notes that the school had its own so-called Trench Coat Mafia and that the feelings of this group of students were featured in one of the articles. (RS)

  14. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabral Schveitzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.

  15. Chernobyl coverage: how the US media treated the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.M.; Gorney, C.M.; Egolf, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study attempted to uncover whether enough background information about nuclear power and the nuclear industries in the USA, USSR and Eastern and Western Europe had been included during the first two weeks of US coverage of the Chernobyl accident so that Americans would not be misled in their understanding of and attitudes toward nuclear power in general. It also sought to determine if reporters took advantage of the Chernobyl accident to attack nuclear technology or the nuclear industry in general. Coverage was analysed in five US newspapers and on the evening newscasts of the three major US television networks. Despite heavy coverage of the accident, no more than 25% of the coverage was devoted to information on safety records, history of accidents and current status of nuclear industries. Not enough information was provided to help the public's level of understanding of nuclear power or to put the Chernobyl accident in context. However, articles and newscasts generally balanced use of pro- and anti-nuclear statements, and did not include excessive amounts of fear-inducing and negative information. (author)

  16. The Role of Media Coverage in Meeting Operational Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell-Musumarra, Mary

    2003-01-01

    ...: Operation Desert Storm, Operation Restore Hope (Somalia) and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It describes some of the motivations and concerns of the news media, and examines doctrine from the perspective of the media's requirements for information. Finally, recommendations are made to improve future media coverage of operations.

  17. 78 FR 54986 - Information Reporting of Minimum Essential Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... employees, and offer that coverage to spouses and dependents, all with no employee contribution, to forgo... health benefits provided through a contribution to a health savings account. Health savings accounts are... agenda will be available free of charge at the hearing. Drafting Information The principal authors of...

  18. 44 CFR 63.5 - Coverage for contents removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for contents removal. 63.5 Section 63.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... the definition of “Direct Physical Loss by or from Flood” in the SFIP for the expense of removing...

  19. 42 CFR 410.40 - Coverage of ambulance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., which are defined in § 414.605 of this chapter: (1) Basic life support (BLS) (emergency and nonemergency). (2) Advanced life support, level 1 (ALS1) (emergency and nonemergency). (3) Advanced life support... Coverage of ambulance services. (a). Basic rules. Medicare Part B covers ambulance services if the...

  20. Determinants of the demand for health insurance coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.M. Winssen van (Kayleigh)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe health insurance density in the Netherlands is among the highest in the world. This is shown by the fact that, in 2016, only 12 per cent of the Dutch insured opted for a reduction of health insurance coverage in the form of a voluntary deductible, while, at the same time, 84 per