WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydro-wind generation bids

  1. Combined hydro-wind generation bids in a pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge L.; Usaola, Julio; Martinez-Crespo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Present regulatory trends are promoting the direct participation of wind energy in electricity markets. The final result of these markets sets the production scheduling for the operation time, including a power commitment from the wind generators. However, wind resources are uncertain, and the final power delivered usually differs from the initial power committed. This imbalance produces an overcost in the system, which must be paid by those who produce it, e.g., wind generators among others. As a result, wind farm revenue decreases, but it could increase by allowing wind farms to submit their bids to the markets together with a hydro generating unit, which may easily modify its production according to the expected imbalance. This paper presents a stochastic optimization technique that maximizes the joint profit of hydro and wind generators in a pool-based electricity market, taking into account the uncertainty of wind power prediction. (author)

  2. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  3. The impacts of different bidding segment numbers on bidding strategies of generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, C.W.; Wen, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, generation companies design bidding strategies to maximize their individual profits subject to the constraints imposed by bidding rules. For a generation company, obviously, the optimal bidding strategy and hence the potential of exercising market power may be different if different bidding rules are employed. Hence, a well-designed bidding protocol is vital to the effective and efficient operation of an electricity market. Based on the widely used stepwise bidding rules, the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the bidding strategies of generation companies are investigated. This study is focused on a price-taker generation company in an electricity market. A probabilisic model is used to simulate electricity price in the competitive market environment. With a given number of bidding segments, the optimal bidding strategy for a price-taker generation company is then developed. The effects of risk preferences as well as information asymmetry on the optimal bidding strategy are also examined. With particular references to the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the optimal bidding strategy, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and methodology. (author)

  4. Bidding price analysis for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Wei; Luonan Chen; Hsiao Dong Chiang

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to analyze the bidding price of each participant (power suppliers and large consumers) in a pay-as-bid market. The bidding price will be decomposed into a variety of components corresponding to five factors, such as the incremental values of the subject bidder's generation on the system operational costs, on the income or payment of other bidders, and on the binding tradable constraints, and the first-order approximation of the subjective participant's bidding price. From an economic viewpoint, each component provides useful information for participants to design the strategic planning. The advantages of the method include that the decomposition is well defined without assumptions and that each decomposition term has its own economical and/or engineering meaning. The proposed method is numerically verified through computer simulations on a three-bus example system and a modified IEEE 30-bus power system with both generator and large consumer bidding. (author)

  5. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  6. Optimal bidding strategies for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushuan Wen; David, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    There exists the potential for gaming such as strategic bidding by participants (power suppliers and large consumers) in a deregulated power market, which is more an oligopoly than a laissez-faire market. Each participant can increase his or her own profit through strategic bidding but this has a negative effect on maximising social welfare. A method to build bidding strategies for both power suppliers and large consumers in a poolco-type electricity market is presented in this paper. It is assumed that each supplier/large consumer bids a linear supply/demand function, and the system is dispatched to maximise social welfare. Each supplier/large consumer chooses the coefficients in the linear supply/demand function to maximise benefits, subject to expectations about how rival participants will bid. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimisation problem, and solved by a Monte Carlo approach. A numerical example with six suppliers and two large consumers serves to illustrate the essential features of the method. (author)

  7. Strategic bidding of generating units in competitive electricity market with considering their reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the restructured power systems, they are typically scheduled based on the offers and bids to buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) subject to operational and security constraints. Generally, no account is taken of unit reliability when scheduling it. Therefore generating units have no incentive to improve their reliability. This paper proposes a new method to obtain the equilibrium points for reliability and price bidding strategy of units when the unit reliability is considered in the scheduling problem. The proposed methodology employs the supply function equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a unit's bidding strategy. Units change their bidding strategies and improve their reliability until Nash equilibrium points are obtained. GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language has been used to solve the market scheduling problem using DICOPT optimization software with mixed integer non-linear programming. (author)

  8. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  9. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.; Taylor, P.

    1995-01-01

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  10. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  11. Multi-objective optimal strategy for generating and bidding in the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chunhua; Sun Huijuan; Guo Jianfeng; Liu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model is established. ► A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm is designed. ► Fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract the general best solution. ► The proposed approach of generating and bidding is efficient for maximizing profit and minimizing both risk and emissions. - Abstract: Based on the coordinated interaction between units output and electricity market prices, the benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model with objectives of maximal profit and minimal bidding risk and emissions is established. A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm, which successfully integrates Pareto non-dominated sorting with differential evolution algorithm and improves individual crowding distance mechanism and mutation strategy to avoid premature and unevenly search, is designed to achieve Pareto optimal set of this model. Moreover, fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract one of the Pareto optimal solutions as the general best solution. Several optimization runs have been carried out on different cases of generation bidding and scheduling. The results confirm the potential and effectiveness of the proposed approach in solving the multi-objective optimization problem of generation bidding and scheduling. In addition, the comparison with the classical optimization algorithms demonstrates the superiorities of the proposed algorithm such as integrality of Pareto front, well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions, high search speed.

  12. Stochastic optimal generation bid to electricity markets with emissions risk constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, F-Javier; Cifuentes-Rubiano, Julián; Corchero, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    There are many factors that influence the day-ahead market bidding strategies of a generation company (GenCo) within the framework of the current energy market. Environmental policy issues are giving rise to emission limitation that are becoming more and more important for fossil-fueled power plants, and these must be considered in their management. This work investigates the influence of the emissions reduction plan and the incorporation of the medium-term derivative commitments in the optimal generation bidding strategy for the day-ahead electricity market. Two different technologies have been considered: the high-emission technology of thermal coal units and the low-emission technology of combined cycle gas turbine units. The Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL) and the Spanish National Emissions Reduction Plan (NERP) defines the environmental framework for dealing with the day-ahead market bidding strategies. To address emission limitations, we have extended some of the standard risk management methodologies developed for financial markets, such as Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), thus leading to the new concept of Conditional Emission at Risk (CEaR). This study offers electricity generation utilities a mathematical model for determining the unit's optimal generation bid to the wholesale electricity market such that it maximizes the long-term profits of the utility while allowing it to abide by the Iberian Electricity Market rules as well as the environmental restrictions set by the Spanish National Emissions Reduction Plan. We analyze the economic implications for a GenCo that includes the environmental restrictions of this National Plan as well as the NERP's effects on the expected profits and the optimal generation bid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  14. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  15. New approach to bidding strategies of generating companies in day ahead energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the restructured power systems, generating companies (Genco) are responsible for selling their product in the energy market. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate to maximize its profit. Therefore, this paper intends to propose a rational method to answer this question. In the proposed methodology, the hourly forecasted market clearing price (FMCP) is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. The forecasted price is the basis of the bidding strategies of each Genco, which can be achieved by solving a bi-level optimization problem using GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language. The first level, called upper sub-problem is used to maximize the individual Genco's payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, hereafter called the lower sub-problem uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer's payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. Similar to the other game problems, the Nash equilibrium strategies are the optimum bidding strategies of Gencos. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities. (author)

  16. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  17. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  18. Bid specifications and bid evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Bid specifications are in view of the size of these projects important and comprehensive documents. The basic content and set up of the specifications are discussed such as: 1) Bid invitation letter, 2) instruction to bidders, 3) draft contract (terms and conditions), 4) technical specifications, 5) side data and information. - The evaluations of bids for nuclear power stations is due to the complexity of such bids a difficult undertaking. Evaluation methods and approaches which can be applied for such bid evaluations are discussed as well as the preparations which are required for carrying out such evaluations. (orig.) [de

  19. Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an electricity market generating companies and large consumers need suitable bidding models to maximize their profits. Therefore, each supplier and large consumer will bid strategically for choosing the bidding coefficients to counter the competitors bidding strategy. In this paper, bidding strategy problem modeled as an ...

  20. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Nazarian, H.

    2007-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world can be classified as pool-based electricity markets; pure bilateral contract markets; and hybrid markets. The bidding strategy has emerged as an important issue for producers in pool-based electricity markets. Power producers can use several approaches to develop bidding strategies that determine the optimal bid to maximize profit. The various approaches fall into 2 categories, notably forecasting market clearing prices, and estimating the behaviour of other competitors. This paper presented a simple and efficient approach for developing a bidding strategy in pay-as-bid electricity markets. It used the multiple step bid to estimate the optimal bid. One step was allocated to revenue earning while the other steps were allocated to information acquiring. Information acquiring steps obtain information from the market for estimating the optimal bid of the next day. The proposed method was used at a specified power generating unit operating in the Iranian electricity market. The study showed that the proposed bidding strategy can increase the total revenue of the unit by thirty nine per cent. 22 refs., 8 figs

  1. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP and forecasted reserve price (FRP is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is used to maximize the individual Genco’s payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer’s payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. In this paper use of the game theory in exist optimization model. The paper proposes a linear programming approach. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities.

  2. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  3. Value of Flexible Resources, Virtual Bidding, and Self-Scheduling in Two-Settlement Electricity Markets With Wind Generation – Part I: Principles and Competitive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Part one of this two-part paper presents new models for evaluating flexible resources in two-settlement electricity markets (day-ahead and real-time) with uncertain net loads (demand minus wind). Physical resources include wind together with fast- and slow-start demand response and thermal...... of certain equivalencies of the four models. We show how virtual bidding enhances market performance, since, together with self-scheduling by slow-start generators, it can help deterministic day-ahead market to choose the most efficient unit commitment....

  4. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Suyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market participators will choose different bidding strategies based on their own cases. We analyze the applicability of bidding strategies under the different conditions, and give suggestions on how to select bidding strategy for the different market participators under different conditions.

  5. 23 CFR 635.113 - Bid opening and bid tabulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.113 Bid opening and bid tabulations. (a) All bids... contractors, during the period following the opening of bids and before the award of the contract shall not be...

  6. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II: ISO Models and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    In Part II of this paper, we present formulations for three two-settlement market models: baseline cost-minimization (Stoch-Opt); and two sequential market models in which an independent system operator (ISO) runs real-time (RT) balancing markets after making day-ahead (DA) generating unit...... commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq......-SS build on components of the two-settlement equilibrium model (Stoch-MP) defined in Part I of this paper [1]. We then provide numerical results for all four models. A simple single-node case illustrates the economic impacts of flexibility, virtual bidding, and self-schedules, and is followed by a larger...

  7. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  8. Economic bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, T.

    1975-01-01

    When it is intended to install a new nuclear power station, the usual procedure is to invite for tenders. In due course, bids will be received from various manufacturers, out of which the most favourable one is then to be selected. Appraisal is concluded in the Economic Bid Evaluation, the purpose of which is to define the economically most favourable bid by comparing overall costs and benefits of the various alternatives. Thus, Economic Bid Evaluation is a most important instrument for deciding on award of contract. (orig.) [de

  9. The BID`s of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    , the aim is to present a theoretical and analytical framework for understanding such ? urban mini territories? both in relation to urban power an politics, and in relation to the spatial layout of such forms of urban intervention. In section two the paper shortly describe the phenomenon of New York BIDs....... In the third part of the paper empirical field data from selected New York BIDs are presented. Finally the paper ends with a section in which concluding remarks will be accompanied by reflections on the comparative similarities and differences to European cities....

  10. Competitive bidding might create antitrust problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased use and complexity of competitive bidding systems for new generating capacity there is the possibility that federal antitrust laws may be violated. Anyone violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act could face stiff penalties. Falling into this category of violations are agreements among competitors, price fixing, and elimination of competitors through the allocations of customers and/or territories. It does not have to be in writing for someone to be charged with bid rigging. In fact, it is stated that bid rigging is typically proved from the testimony of one of the persons involved. According to this paper, a charge of rigging the bids can come from: One or more bidders offering to provide power at a higher price than another bidder. Two or more bidders offering to supply power at the same price. One or more potential bidders not submitting a bid or intentionally bidding high. One bidder and not the others offering a more favorable construction schedule or an alternative proposal. One firm offering to renegotiate if its bid is rejected while the other bidders refuse. These are just some of the agreements that are illegal. The penalties for such violations of the Sherman Act are severe: fines of up to $100,000 and up to three years in jail for individuals; up to $1 million in fines for corporations

  11. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Suyan; Chen Fei; Qiao Yahui; Zhang Wenzhe; Zhang Kaifeng; Yuan Kun; Dai Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market partic...

  12. How does the revelation of previous bid affect new bid?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yingzi; Gallardo, R. Karina; McCracken, Vicki A.; Yue, Chengyan; Luby, James; McFerson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the revelation of posted bids in second-price experimental auctions for apple quality attributes under the experimental design where information is added progressively across rounds. We find that the revelation of posted bids does not bias the following bids and that increased information about the apple increases the accuracy of participants’ following bids. Therefore, the final round bids are used to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay for the apple ...

  13. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  14. Who wins olympic bids?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to many cities around the world. This article examines 147 variables’ potential to discriminate successful from unsuccessful Olympic bids. Our stepwise, rank-ordered logistic regression model includes 10 determinants supporting the contention that economic, political and sports/Olympic factors are important for winning the host city election. IOC members favor cities if more than 2/3 of the population support the bid, but disfavor biddin...

  15. Bid Responsiveness and the Acceptable Nonconforming Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    the. fuidaIenta prin ciples of responsiveness. The Conhl trot ler, hnwever, has ta ken this sairn "reasonable- tit’, ’ t. ,t ’’ , T (I I e l iLd i I...cvo rcome otherwise material deviation i f; the bid, thereby renderin gj it a(,ceptable. Tne Comptroller General’s o) p loach to the , i..sue ft

  16. Technical bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchhausen, E. v.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown which kind of problems arise for the owners of the project and what is the recommendable method of approach. A detailed description of the necessary working team, information in delegation of work and tasks of procedure, criteria of valuation and classification method. Examples of schemes are shown which are the basis of the technical bid evaluation: tables 'data of system/component' and 'scope of supply'. The procedure of normalization of the bids and of specifying the owners supplies are explained. The content of the final report is described. (HP) [de

  17. Essays on bid rigging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seres, Gyula

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in

  18. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Noel Simas Barbosa

    Full Text Available Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG. RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015. For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG and the levelized cost of water (LCOW are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  19. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  20. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  1. Competitive bidding for independent power: developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliman, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States electric utilities are using competitive bidding programs to procure power supplies from non-utility generators and, in some cases, to establish contracts with energy service companies for the implementation of demand-side management projects. Such programs are viewed as a path to efficient contracts in the private power industry. But bidding programs are complex, subject to pitfalls, and are developing very quickly. This paper reports on that development as of the early 1990s and, as an illustration, briefly describes and analyzes the bidding program of an electric utility in the State of New York. (author). 2 tabs

  2. Contract Bidding for Rehabilitation Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Alan D.

    This book for sheltered workshop administrators outlines and explains the essential elements of an accurate work bid. Part 1 discusses issues that need to be resolved prior to calculating costs for a potential job. Part 2 describes the factors necessary for determining accurate bids, including direct costs (job setup, direct labor, direct…

  3. Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kailash Chand; Bhakar, Rohit; Tiwari, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Game theoretic bidding strategy approach developed to optimize wind power producers bids. • Rival behavior modeled through Stochastic Cournot model. • Location based dual imbalance price mechanism proposed to obtain imbalance charges. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach increases profit of strategic wind power producers significantly. - Abstract: In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by WPPs is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic WPPs can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges

  4. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a country is a major undertaking for all entities involved. The necessary planning work and co-ordination of the different fields of interest, from the point of view of governments, authorities, industries, universities and of the general public, must be done on a long term basis. This IAEA report may help support the work of the utility in the bidding process, especially in the economic bid evaluation. The different methods, aspects and parameters described should be regarded as a guide. The report's target criterion of lowest levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) is a very useful and practical way of ranking bids. In view of the huge investment needed, the owner's country must be fully committed to a nuclear programme. A nuclear programme also requires a guarantee of long term financing, which implies the provision of local and foreign contributions. The necessary staff for all of the various areas of a nuclear programme must be recruited and trained. Within the planning phase, the bid invitation specification (BIS) has to be prepared and sent out in order to receive bids for the scope of supply and services desired by the owner. The evaluation of the bids received from the suppliers in response to the BIS is a huge and long-term task. The evaluation process should lead to the selection of the best bidder and at least to the final decision on the partners constructing the NPP. The responsibility for the entire bidding process lies with the plant owner. For technology transfer, two requirements need to be satisfied: the owner needs a well established and experienced engineering capability, and the supplier must be ready to transfer the agreed technology in such a way as to support the project goals. During the bid evaluation process, all aspects of the technical, financial and contractual approaches must be considered. Nowadays, political, socioeconomic and public acceptance aspects play a

  5. Financing power facilities in the competitive bidding environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (open-quote FERC close-quote) issued proposed rules and guidelines for the use of competitive bidding by state utility commissions to chose new power supplies. Since then, more than 20 states have implemented bidding programs to determine the price and sources of incremental generating capacity. This presentation discusses the impact of the use of competitive bidding on how landers and equity investors perceive the risks of project-supported financing arrangements and describes the actions that project developers have taken to adapt the project financing process to win bidding contests and as importantly, successfully obtain project financing in spite of the open-quotes credit crunchclose quotes market environment

  6. Bid invitations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    Types of bid invitations, basic requirements on bid invitation documents, basic content of a turnkey bid invitation (bid invitation letter, instructions to the bidders, terms and conditions of the draft contract, technical specifications, site data and information), nuclear fuel procurement, differences turnkey - non-turnkey, legal, commerical, and technical matters concerning the contract document. (HP) [de

  7. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted to...

  8. The Netherlands Bid Bood (GBIF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, W.

    2001-01-01

    GBIF=Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Bid Book was prepared for the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences, the Netherlands by a working group, co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam.

  9. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  10. Assessment of control energy bidding in the course of generation systems operation planning; Bewertung von Regelenergieangeboten im Rahmen der Betriebsplanung von Erzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, T.; Verstege, J. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). VDI

    2005-07-01

    In this contribution a computer-aided short-term scheduling method based on mixed-integerlinear-programming is proposed which deals with the challenges of the control energy market. The generation system operator obtains an instrument for maximising profits at the gateway of generation and trading by using all degrees of freedom. In particular, the difficulties in modelling combined heat and power generation systems including energy storage and control power are discussed and the impacts on an example system clarify the necessity of the new mathematic formulations. (orig.)

  11. tBid and cardiolipin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    The abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... and absence of CL. We interpret this as a formation of patches of protein-lipid clusters that in effect reduce the amount of expandable fluid membrane area. The rupture tension falls significantly as soon as tBid is present on the outer vesicle membrane....

  12. Emerging behavior in electronic bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I.; Jeong, H.; Kahng, B.; Barabási, A.-L.

    2003-07-01

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of agents on two major online auction sites. The measurements indicate that the total number of bids placed in a single category and the number of distinct auctions frequented by a given agent follow power-law distributions, implying that a few agents are responsible for a significant fraction of the total bidding activity on the online market. We find that these agents exert an unproportional influence on the final price of the auctioned items. This domination of online auctions by an unusually active minority may be a generic feature of all online mercantile processes.

  13. Strategic Bidding in Multi-Unit Auctions with Capacity Constrained Bidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a simple model to describe bidding behavior in multi-unit uniform price procurement auctions when firms are capacity constrained. Using data from the New York City procurement auctions for power generating capacity, I find that firms use simple bidding strategies to coordinate......'s capacities and its profits of undercutting increase....

  14. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profits...

  15. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  16. 36 CFR 223.51 - Bid monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid monitoring. 223.51 Section 223.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Bid monitoring. Each Regional Forester shall monitor bidding patterns on timber sales to determine if...

  17. 42 CFR 414.910 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding process. 414.910 Section 414.910 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Under Part B § 414.910 Bidding process. (a) Entities may bid to furnish CAP drugs in all competitive...

  18. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.231... methods. The Contracting Officer or designated forest officer shall offer advertised sales of special forest products through sealed bid or sealed bid followed by oral auction. The method selected shall: (a...

  19. 30 CFR 256.44 - Bids disqualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by law, regulation, lease or stipulation to lease shall not disqualify an otherwise qualified bid; or... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bids disqualified. 256.44 Section 256.44... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.44 Bids disqualified. The...

  20. 10 CFR 452.5 - Bidding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for the reverse auction. (e) Bid evaluation and incentive awards selection procedures include the... bids, preference will be given to the lowest tied bidder based on DOE's evaluation of the extent to... feedstock suppliers. (4) In the event more than one lowest tied bid equally meets the standards in paragraph...

  1. Biomass: towards more co-generation than gasification? Interview with Jean-Christophe Pouet; Figures for the heat fund; biomass in the Parisian heat network; gasification still at the promise stage; Engie bets on bio-methane of 2. generation; a new bidding for biomass co-generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; De Santis, Audrey; Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    After some brief presentations of some highlights in the biomass sector in France, Ukraine, UK and Brazil, a set of articles proposes an overview of recent developments and perspectives for the biomass-based energy and heat production in France. It presents and comments some emerging projects based on biomass gasification as technologies have evolved for a higher economic profitability. It discusses the action of the Heat Fund (Fonds chaleur) which supports investors in a context constrained by the hard competition with fossil energies, notably with gas as discussed in an interview with a member of the ADEME. Some tables and graphs give data about biomass installations supported by the Heat fund, about subsidies awarded by the ADEME, about the production of the various heat sources. An article comments the operation of a biomass-based plant near Paris which supplies the Parisian heat network. A project of methane production from dry biomass from local resources by Engie near Lyons (methane of second generation). The last article comments a new bidding process for co-generation projects which can be an opportunity for new projects, and not only big ones

  2. COMPETITIVE BIDDING IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE: EFFECT OF BENCHMARK CHANGES ON PLAN BIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices in Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006–2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power. PMID:24308881

  3. Competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage: effect of benchmark changes on plan bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices that Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006-2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 48 CFR 14.202-8 - Electronic bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic bids. 14.202-8... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-8 Electronic bids. In accordance with subpart 4.5, contracting officers may authorize use of electronic commerce for submission of bids. If...

  5. 48 CFR 14.202-1 - Bidding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding time. 14.202-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-1 Bidding time. (a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations, consistent...

  6. Terror in the Board Room: The Bid-Opening Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, James

    2009-01-01

    Competitive bids and the bid-opening process are the cornerstones of public school purchasing. The bid-opening process does not begin on the day of the bid opening. It begins with good planning by the purchasing agent to ensure that the advertised bid complies with the public school contracts law. In New Jersey, that raises the following…

  7. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  8. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  9. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88... methods. (a) Competitive sales of National Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for each sale will: (1) Insure open and fair competition, (2) Insure...

  10. 40 CFR 73.71 - Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding. 73.71 Section 73.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.71 Bidding...

  11. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  12. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  13. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  14. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  15. A dynamic replicator model of the players' bids in an oligopolistic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the replicator dynamics of the power suppliers' bids in an oligopolistic electricity market are derived for both the fixed and variable demand cases. The replicator dynamics stability analysis is also performed. The dynamics of the electricity markets are the results of players' decisions. The physical parameters of the power systems (such as the lines capacities, voltage limitations, etc.) also affect the market dynamics indirectly, through the changes in players' behaviors. Assuming rational players, an optimal bidding strategy for constructing the supply function (SF) of a generating firm is presented and based on that, the dynamics of the bid replicators are studied. Both fixed demands and price sensitive demands are taken into account. The replicator model is presented in the well-known state space structure. A case study is presented to show the applicability of the developed dynamic replicator bid model, and also to show how the Nash-SFE equilibrium evolves over time. (author)

  16. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  17. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Badri; Jadid, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (Iran); Rashidinejad, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran); Moghaddam, M.P. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  18. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri, A.; Jadid, S.; Rashidinejad, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  19. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected if...

  20. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... nonresponsive an individual bid that is not in compliance with the Government's bid acceptance time, since...

  1. The Committee System For Competitive Bids In Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt ...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Law 103-354 will accept the bid or bids which are in the best financial interest of the Government... agency under Public Law 103-354 office. All bids will be date and time stamped. Advertisements and... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sealed bid sales. 1955.147 Section 1955.147...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.95 - Public bidding on bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public bidding. The Agency will not submit a bid at the advertised sale unless required by State law, nor... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bidding on bonds. 1780.95 Section 1780.95... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.95 Public bidding on bonds. Bonds...

  4. 23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.111 Tied bids. (a) The STD may tie or permit the tying of Federal-aid...-financed highway projects may be combined in one contract if the conditions of the projects are so similar...

  5. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, P.W.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M. [Little (Arthur D.), London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. We believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries - for governments and companies alike. The means of combating `tactical overbidding` rests largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasising that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations. (author)

  6. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, P.W.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. We believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries - for governments and companies alike. The means of combating 'tactical overbidding' rests largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasising that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations. (author)

  7. Bid Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    for larger rms does not guarantee market prices below that cap. A suffciently high bid floor only for smaller firms destroys some or all pure strategy equilibria despite their prices being above the bid floor. With a general bid floor this happens only with considerably higher bid floors.......This paper examines the effect of bid regulations on the range of potential equilibrium prices in a multi-unit uniform price auction with heterogenous bidders. General bid caps destroy equilibria with prices above the bid cap and create new equilibria with prices way below the cap. A cap only...

  8. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  9. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  10. Research on Power Producer’s Bidding Behavior Based on the Best-Response Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s electricity market is facing many problems, the research on power producer’s bidding behavior can promote the healthy and sustainable development of China’s electricity market. As a special commodity, the “electricity” possesses complicated production process. The instable market constraint condition, nonsymmetric information, and a lot of random factors make the producer’s bidding process more complex. Best-response dynamic is one of the classic dynamic mechanisms of the evolutionary game theory, which applies well in the repeated game and strategy evolution that happen among a few bounded rational players with a quick learning capability. The best-response dynamic mechanism is employed to study the power producer’s bidding behavior in this paper, the producer’s best-response dynamic model is constructed, and how the producers would engage in bidding is analyzed in detail. Taking two generating units in South China regional electricity market as the example, the producer’s bidding behavior by following the producer’s best-response dynamic model is verified. The relationships between the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS of power producer’s bidding and the market demand, and ceiling and floor price as well as biding frequency are discussed in detail.

  11. Conjectural variation based learning model of strategic bidding in spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun Song; Yixin Ni; Fushuan Wen; Wu, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    In actual electricity market, which operates repeatedly on the basis of one hour or half hour, each firm might learn or estimate other competitors' strategic behaviors from available historical market operation data, and rationally aims at its maximum profit in the repeated biddings. A conjectural variation based learning method is proposed in this paper for generation firm to improve its strategic bidding performance. In the method, each firm learns and dynamically regulates its conjecture upon the reactions of its rivals to its bidding according to available information published in the electricity market, and then makes its optimal generation decision based on the updated conjectural variation of its rivals. Through such learning process, the equilibrium reached in the market is proven a Nash equilibrium. Motivation of generation firm to learn in the changing market environment and consequence of learning behavior in the market are also discussed through computer tests. (author)

  12. Subsalt bids, strategies analyzed from Gulf of Mexico Sale 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the bid distributions for the 10 most expensively acquired blocks at the March 1994 Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 147 indicates that the global distribution of bids splits into two groups at a bid of around $2 million. Both the low bid group--25 bids--and the high bid group--17 bids--follow approximately log normal distributions with different slopes. On an individual block basis, four blocks had sufficient numbers of bids (≥5) to indicate a statistical ''mix'' of low and high group bids, but no preference with respect to physical location of the blocks is apparent. On a corporate basis, two bidding groups--Amoco on its own or with partners, Anadarko on its own or with partners--each made a sufficient number of bids to indicate that both groups followed a very similar bidding pattern, both of which are approximately log normally distributed, but that the Amoco groups was systematically conservative relative to the Anadarko group. The paper discusses the overall distribution of bids, distribution by blocks, and bids by corporation

  13. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, P.D.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. Companies are faced with a trade off between profitability of potential discoveries and probability of winning the bid. The authors believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. This tactic is hard to recognize and may have a good chance of success, due to the strength of the oil company's bargaining position upon discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries --- for governments and companies alike. This paper reports that the means of combating tactical underbidding rest largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasizing that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations

  14. Modelling contractor’s bidding decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to provide a set of tools to facilitate the main stages of the competitive bidding process for construction contractors. These involve 1 deciding whether to bid, 2 calculating the total price, and 3 breaking down the total price into the items of the bill of quantities or the schedule of payments to optimise contractor cash flows. To define factors that affect the decision to bid, the authors rely upon literature on the subject and put forward that multi-criteria methods are applied to calculate a single measure of contract attractiveness (utility value. An attractive contract implies that the contractor is likely to offer a lower price to increase chances of winning the competition. The total bid price is thus to be interpolated between the lowest acceptable and the highest justifiable price based on the contract attractiveness. With the total bid price established, the next step is to split it between the items of the schedule of payments. A linear programming model is proposed for this purpose. The application of the models is illustrated with a numerical example.

  15. Metalearning to support competitive electricity market players' strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    a dynamic artificial neural network to create its own output, taking advantage on several learning algorithms already implemented in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System). The proposed metalearner considers different weights for each strategy, based on their individual performance......Electricity markets are becoming more competitive, to some extent due to the increasing number of players that have moved from other sectors to the power industry. This is essentially resulting from incentives provided to distributed generation. Relevant changes in this domain are still occurring...

  16. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  17. Bidding in common value fair division games

    OpenAIRE

    Brünner, Tobias; Becker, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In a fair division game an indivisible object with an unknown common value is owned by a group of individuals and should be allocated to one of them while the others are compensated monetarily. Implementing fair division games in the lab, we fi nd many occurrences of the winner's curse under the first-price rule but only few occurrences under the second-price rule. Moreover, bidding behavior is very heterogeneous across subjects. A considerable share of our subjects anticipates that other bid...

  18. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong-Joo; Kim, Balho H.; Hur, Don

    2007-01-01

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  19. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the verity of the common perception that single-bid orders are more costly, lower in performance quality, and shorter in pre-award process time than competitively-bid orders...

  20. 48 CFR 14.202-4 - Bid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be described adequately in the specification or purchase description. (2) Bid samples will be used... the bidder's intention was to qualify the bid. (See 14.404-2(d) if the qualification does not conform...

  1. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    .... To this end, we look at why single-bid orders exist in the current procurement system, how these orders measure up to competitively-bid orders in cost and performance, and how customer satisfaction...

  2. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  3. 47 CFR 1.2103 - Competitive bidding design options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding design options. 1.2103 Section 1.2103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2103 Competitive bidding design options. (a) The...

  4. 23 CFR 635.112 - Advertising for bids and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.112 Advertising for bids and proposals. (a) No work shall be undertaken on any Federal-aid project, nor shall any project be advertised for bids... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising for bids and proposals. 635.112 Section 635...

  5. 48 CFR 52.228-1 - Bid Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as accepted. (c) The amount of the bid guarantee shall be ____ percent of the bid price or $____, whichever is less. (d) If the successful bidder, upon acceptance of its bid by the Government within the period specified for acceptance, fails to execute all contractual documents or furnish executed bond(s...

  6. 47 CFR 25.403 - Bidding application and certification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding application and certification procedures. 25.403 Section 25.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.403 Bidding...

  7. 48 CFR 731.771 - Bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Nonprofit Organizations 731.771 Bid and proposal costs. Pending the establishment of Government-wide principles in...) below, bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period of both successful and unsuccessful bids...

  8. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Thimmapuram, Prakash R.; Yamakado, Malo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  9. Transportation Service Procurement Bid Construction Problem from Less Than Truckload Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mixed integer programming for a transportation service procurement bid construction problem from a less than full truckload perspective, in which the bidders (carriers generate their best bid (package using a bundled price to maximize their utility and increase the chance of winning the business. The models are developed from both the carriers and shippers perspectives to establish a relationship between the quoted price and the likelihood of winning to assist the carriers in balancing the potential benefits and the possibility of winning the bid. An intelligent algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization is then designed to solve the proposed model and hypothetical data sets are used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  10. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  11. Sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding work faced with certain risk in recent years, the domestic nuclear power enterprises in the bidding work never stop research and explore the effective ways to guard against legal risks, and has made considerable progress, the eighteenth big country advocates the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development policy, in the face of the subsequent nuclear power construction projects have started, nuclear power enterprise bidding risk management work shoulder heavy responsibilities article through nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management present situation, proposed the sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management countermeasures. (author)

  12. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  13. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15

  14. Competitive bidding in Medicare: who benefits from competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. We analyzed 2006-2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition.

  15. Research on bidding quotation game of international project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Xu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Bidding competition of international projects is more and more fierce currently. However, China started late relatively in the field, it is still lack of experience in the aspect of participation in bidding of international projects, and more effective bidding quotation system is not formed till present. Therefore, China can not win through systemic bidding quotation methods compared with many powerful bidding enterprises in the international field. Research on the field is also focused by many aspects as a result. It is urgent to solve related problems. Game theory is combined for analyzing the effectiveness and operability of bidding quotation models mainly based on current situation of bidding market in China international projects during research process in the paper. The research starts with the perspective of bidders for analyzing their game with tenderers and other bidders. The results have operational value aiming at bidders.

  16. Risk analysis of bidding strategies in an electricity pay as bid auction: A new theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2007-01-01

    Considering the uncertainties in the power market, the bidding problem has an important role for the power supplier to reach his goals, and using risk management methods to protect against the market risk is unavoidable. Thus, in this paper, the bidding decision making problem is formulated from a supplier's viewpoint in a spot market. The spot market works based on a pay as bid auction or a discriminatory price auction. The market clearing price (MCP) is uncertain, and we consider a probabilistic model for it. Regarding the literature of the bidding problem and forecasting methods of MCP, a normal probability density function, pdf (N(μ m , σ m )), is a proper distribution for the MCP. The statistical parameters of MCP vary on different times (peak and off peak), and considering the concept of supplier risk, their effects on the supplier expected benefit and expected sell from selling energy will be discussed analytically. An important section of this research work concerns the optimal bidding strategy when μ m and σ m vary in different conditions of the power market. Thus, the coefficient of variation index (CV), as a proper measure, mathematically defined as σ m divided by μ m , is introduced to measure the market risk index. In this paper, the CV index is used to analyze and manage the supplier risk and introduce the optimal strategy. Then, for a constant amount of the CV as a theorem, it is proved that: (1) the maximum of the expected sell occurs at a constant level of the supplier risk and (2) the optimal bid price linearly depends on the standard deviation of the MCP. This theorem is generalized for the case that the expected value of the supplier benefit is considered as an objective function in the bidding process. Some numerical examples are presented, and application of the proposed theorem is discussed

  17. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Erick M.; Correia, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  18. Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Benegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.

  19. Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B.; Ashlock, D.

    1999-01-01

    This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator

  20. A New Paradigm to Address Bid Protests

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Francois; Angelis, Diana; Coughlan, Peter; Franck, Raymond; Kidalov, Max; LaCivita, C.J.; Gates, William

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release distribution unlimited. The goal of this study is to offer senior decision-makers a useful framework to evaluate, articulate, and recommend modifications of the government''s bid protest policy to improve procurement outcomes. Most countries allow disappointed bidders to protest public procurement decisions as an oversight mechanism to minimize fraud and errors by procurement officials. The expectation is...

  1. Effects of Suboptimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Shabalin, Pasha; Bichler, Martin

    Though the VCG auction assumes a central place in the mechanism design literature, there are a number of reasons for favoring iterative combinatorial auction designs. Several promising ascending auction formats have been developed throughout the past few years based on primal-dual and subgradient algorithms and linear programming theory. Prices are interpreted as a feasible dual solution and the provisional allocation is interpreted as a feasible primal solution. iBundle( 3) (Parkes and Ungar 2000), dVSV (de Vries et al. 2007) and the Ascending Proxy auction (Ausubel and Milgrom 2002) result in VCG payoffs when the coalitional value function satisfies the buyer submodularity condition and bidders bid straightforward, which is an expost Nash equilibrium in that case. iBEA and CreditDebit auctions (Mishra and Parkes 2007) do not even require the buyer submodularity condition and achieve the same properties for general valuations. In many situations, however, one cannot assume bidders to bid straightforward and it is not clear from the theory how these non-linear personalized price auctions (NLPPAs) perform in this case. Robustness of auctions with respect to different bidding behavior is therefore a critical issue for any application. We have conducted a large number of computational experiments to analyze the performance of NLPPA designs with respect to different bidding strategies and different valuation models. We compare the results of NLPPAs to those of the VCG auction and those of iterative combinatorial auctions with approximate linear prices, such as ALPS (Bichler et al. 2009) and the Combinatorial Clock auction (Porter et al. 2003).

  2. Range war: IPALCO's bid for PSI resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    IPALCO Enterprises Inc. announced a hostile, unsolicited bid to acquire PSI Resources on March 15. IPALCO's bid for PSI is aggressive and well thought out, which befits the strong incentive that it had to take action. Besides topping Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric's offering price made late last year, IPALCO took the initiative on three other fronts. First, it filed a lawsuit in federal court in Indianapolis to block the merger between PSI and Cincinnati. The suit claims that the proposed merger violates Indiana law and that PSI and Cincinnati have made false and misleading statements about the benefits of their proposed merger. Second, IPALCO announced it will oppose the merger between PSI and Cincinnati in proceedings before Indiana regulators. Third, IPALCO said it plans to nominate a slate of five candidates to stand election for PSI's Board of Directors at the company's annual shareholders meeting this spring. However, these initiatives and IPALCO's accompanying appeal to Hoosier loyality are little more than diversionary tactics. In the final analysis, whether PSI merges with IPALCO or with Cincinnati will depend rather simply on who is willing to make the highest bid

  3. MANDATORY TAKEOVER BIDS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Capital Market Law (Law no 297/2004 lays down rules regarding public offers (to buy or sell of securities admitted to trading on a regulated market. Such offers are not unknown in the general framework of companies’ regulations, i.e. Company Law no 31/1990. Actually a public limited liability company (joint stock company can use a public subscriptions (offering shares for sale to raise the registered capital for incorporation of the company or to increase the company’s share capital already established. But all such operations are voluntary decisions. The founders or the shareholders of the company are those who decide to launch a public subscriptions. Capital Market Law comes with something new and at least peculiar at first sight: mandatory takeover bid, meaning a mandatory public offer made by an offeror to the holders of the securities of a company (offeree to acquire all or some of those securities. Can someone be forced to buy securities on the regulated market? The Capital Market Law responds affirmatively, but only if such takeover bid follows or has as its objective the acquisition of control of the offeree company in accordance with national law. The takeover bid remains under supervision and authorization of the national authority of the Capital Market (FSA – Financial Supervisory Authority.

  4. Normal boundary intersection method for suppliers' strategic bidding in electricity markets: An environmental/economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.

  5. New approach for strategic bidding of Gencos in energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    In restructured and de-regulated power systems, generating companies (Gencos) are responsible for supplying electricity for both energy and reserve markets, which usually operate simultaneously. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate for each market to maximize its profit, so this paper intends to answer to this question. In this paper, first, the combined energy and reserve markets are considered, and the Nash equilibrium points are determined. Then, the bidding strategies for each Genco at these points will be presented. The bids for the energy and 10 min spinning reserve (TMSR) markets are separated in the second stage, and again, the bidding strategies for each Genco for the two separated markets will be demonstrated. Comparison of the results shows that the separated bidding strategies, while being simplified with the algebraic optimization model and reducing the time consumed, give the same results as the combined ones. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) nine bus test system is employed to illustrate and verify the results of the proposed method

  6. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders.

  7. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  8. Impact of Railroad Contracts on Grain Bids to Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Steven D. Hanson; C. Phillip Baumel; Daniel Schnell

    1989-01-01

    The deregulation of railroads by the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 reversed nearly a century of prohibition of contracts between railroads shippers/receivers. This paper presents an analysis of the impact that railroad contracts have on grain bids to corn, wheat, and soybean farmers. The empirical results indicate that destination contracts had significant impacts on prices bid to corn and soybean farmers, while origin contracts had significant and large impacts on prices bid to wheat farmers.

  9. Advertising and Sealed Bid Auctions in a Transshipment Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    distributors promote their sales by advertising . While the maximum quantity demanded by each customer is fixed and given, his bids on the various...brands are determined by the advertising and other promotional efforts. The bid response function for each consumer is supposed to be given and known. The...the optimal distribution of the product, and the bids of the consumers . A numerical example is provided and the solution routine is discussed.

  10. Strategic Bidding in Hybrid CPC/CPM Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhu; Kenneth C. Wilbur

    2008-01-01

    Websites increasingly allow advertisers to choose whether to bid for advertising on a per-impression or per-click basis. We present the first analysis of this new hybrid auction market. The conventional wisdom in this industry is that brand advertisers (e.g., Coca-Cola) will bid for impressions, while direct response advertisers (e.g., Amazon.com) will bid for clicks. We find that in an auction setting similar to that used by Facebook and Google, brand advertisers may have an incentive to bid...

  11. 48 CFR 14.406 - Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an unreadable electronic bid. If a bid received at the Government facility by electronic data... electronic bid. 14.406 Section 14.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... bid as originally submitted; and (b) That the unreadable condition of the bid was caused by Government...

  12. 42 CFR 414.412 - Submission of bids under a competitive bidding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... D of this part. (c) Furnishing of items. A bid must include all costs related to furnishing an item... capital, stock or profits of another supplier; (ii) A controlling interest exists if one or more of owners... controlling interest and each supplier which has an ownership or controlling interest in it. (3) Commonly...

  13. Empirical observations of bidding patterns in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xinmin; Grozev, George; Batten, David

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, electricity industries have been undergoing reform worldwide. However, there are various, sometimes contradictory, conclusions about the performance of these restructured electricity markets. Market performance depends largely on how each market participant responds to the market design -- including market rules, market operational procedures, and information revelation. In this paper, we identify and examine the strategies adopted by generators in Australia's National Electricity Market, based on publicly available data for the period from May 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003. We try to understand and answer some basic questions like how generators respond collectively or individually to changes in market conditions (e.g. load changes) and why they behave in this way. The statistics calculated from the data show that wide variations in the frequency of strategic bidding and rebidding exist; that generators more frequently use capacity offers as a strategic tool than price offers; that large generating units are more likely to use capacity strategies to control market prices; and that generators are capable of responding to changes in market conditions

  14. Empirical observations of bidding patterns in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin Hu; Grozev, G.; Batten, D.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, electricity industries have been undergoing reform worldwide. However, there are various, sometimes contradictory, conclusions about the performance of these restructured electricity markets. Market performance depends largely on how each market participant responds to the market design - including market rules, market operational procedures, and information revelation. In this paper, we identify and examine the strategies adopted by generators in Australia's National Electricity Market, based on publicly available data for the period from May 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003. We try to understand and answer some basic questions like how generators respond collectively or individually to changes in market conditions (e.g. load changes) and why they behave in this way. The statistics calculated from the data show that wide variations in the frequency of strategic bidding and rebidding exist; that generators more frequently use capacity offers as a strategic tool than price offers; that large generating units are more likely to use capacity strategies to control market prices; and that generators are capable of responding to changes in market conditions. (author)

  15. Optimal bidding strategy for microgrids in joint energy and ancillary service markets considering flexible ramping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianxiao; Zhong, Haiwang; Tang, Wenyuan; Rajagopal, Ram; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Flexible ramping products are modelled in the framework of a microgrid. •Microgrids’ optimal bidding model is proposed in energy and ancillary service markets. •A hybrid stochastic and robust optimization approach is adopted. •The effectiveness of the proposed bidding model is verified based on real-world data. -- Abstract: Due to the volatile nature of wind and photovoltaic power, wind farms and solar stations are generally thought of as the consumers of ramping services. However, a microgrid (MG) is able to strategically integrate various distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide both energy and ancillary services (ASs) for the bulk power system. To evaluate the ramping capabilities of an MG in the joint energy and AS markets, an optimal bidding strategy is developed in this paper considering flexible ramping products (FRPs). By aggregating and coordinating various DERs, including wind turbines (WTs), photovoltaic systems (PVs), micro-turbines (MTs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), the MG is able to optimally allocate the capacities for energy, spinning reserve and ramping. Taking advantage of the synergy among DERs, the MG can maximize its revenues from different markets. Moreover, the flexibility of the MG for the bulk power system can be fully explored. To address the uncertainties introduced by renewable generation and market prices, a hybrid stochastic/robust optimization (RO) approach is adopted. Case studies based on a real-world MG with various DERs demonstrate the market behavior of the MG using the proposed bidding model.

  16. Review of US utility demand-side bidding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we review utility experiences with demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs. Since 1987, about 35 US utilities have signed long-term contracts with developers of DSM resources (ie energy service companies and customers) to provide a quantity of demand and energy savings at specified prices. Total resource costs range between 5.4 and 8 cents/kWh for DSM bidding programs where complete information on program costs is available. Almost all DSM bidding programs have been cost-effective compared with the utility's own supply-side alternatives, although there is substantial disagreement regarding the value of these programs compared with the utility's own DSM programs. In most bidding programs, payments to bidders account for between 70 and 90% of total program costs. Variation in winning bid prices is influenced primarily by DSM bid ceiling prices, differences in the mix of measures and markets targeted by developers, and the degree of performance risk borne by the DSM developer. Bids targeting residential customers averaged 6.2 cents/kWh compared with about 5.0 cents/kWh for commercial/industrial bids. We also compared the costs of acquiring lighting savings in DSM bidding contracts with a sample of 20 utility sponsored commercial/industrial lighting programs. We found that, on average total resource costs were slightly higher in bidding programs (6.1 vs 5.6 cents/kWh), although ratepayers bear significantly less performance risk in bidding programs compared with traditional utility-sponsored DSM programs. (author)

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.225 - What are the additional requirements in the bid process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.225 What are the additional requirements in the bid process? All sales except fixed price sales must contain a certification of independent price...

  18. 48 CFR 536.213-371 - Bids that include options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bids that include options... Contracting for Construction 536.213-371 Bids that include options. (a) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section, you may include options in contracts if it is in the Government's interest...

  19. Extending the bidding format to promote demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanchao; Holzer, Jesse T.; Ferris, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extended bidding structure to allow more realistic demand characteristics and behaviors to be expressed via flexible bids. In today's ISO-run energy markets, demand bid formats are all separable over time. However, a significant and growing segment of demand can be shifted across time and therefore has no way to bid its true valuation of consumption. We propose additional bid types that allow deferrable, adjustable and storage-type loads to better express their value, and thus elicit demand response in the most natural way – via direct participation in the market. We show that the additional bid types are easily incorporated into the existing market with no technological barrier and that they preserve the market's efficiency and incentive-compatibility properties. Using real market data, we give a numerical demonstration that the extended bid format could substantially increase social welfare, and also present additional insight on storage expansion scenarios. - Highlights: • Three new bid types are proposed to enrich demand-side participation. • Time value of electricity demand can be clearly conveyed to central dispatcher. • The extended format preserves market efficiency and incentive compatibility. • Energy storage is most effective to neutralize price volatility, with a limitation.

  20. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... send invitations to bid only to persons or organizations on its QBL for the specific project (see... factors, other than lowest dollar amount of the bid, which are to be considered in evaluating the proposals of qualified bidders (e.g., power consumption, losses, etc.) must be stated in the “Notice and...

  1. 7 CFR 1726.202 - Informal competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons or organizations on its qualified bidder list for the specific project (see § 1726.23). (b... a responsive bid. (d) Evaluation basis. Any factors, other than lowest dollar amount of the bid, which are to be considered in evaluating the proposals of qualified bidders (e.g., power consumption...

  2. Bidding: Getting the Best Price for School Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBella, Cecilia M.

    1998-01-01

    Sharon (Massachusetts) Public Schools developed an alternative procurement process for school food services that complies with state public bidding laws while evading "low-bid" constraints. The new process features evaluative criteria covering nutrition education, community outreach, management expertise, site visits, and price…

  3. 48 CFR 245.7303 - Formal bid procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... descriptions attached. (d) In addition to mailing or delivering notice of the proposed sale to prospective... type of sale, i.e., sealed bid, spot bid, auction; and (G) The location of the property. (f) The plant..., signed by the witnessing Government representative. ...

  4. New bidding strategy formulation for day-ahead energy and reserve markets based on evolutionary programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaviriyanupap, Pathom; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for a day-ahead market is formulated. The proposed algorithm is developed from the viewpoint of a generation company wishing to maximize a profit as a participant in the deregulated power and reserve markets. Separate power and reserve markets are considered, both are operated by clearing price auction system. The optimal bidding parameters for both markets are determined by solving an optimization problem that takes unit commitment constraints such as generating limits and unit minimum up/down time constraints into account. This is a non-convex and non-differentiable which is difficult to solve by traditional optimization techniques. In this paper, evolutionary programming is used to solve the problem. The algorithm is applied to both single-sided and double-sided auctions, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme compared with those obtained from a sequential quadratic programming. (author)

  5. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  6. Bidding in sequential electricity markets: The Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Juul, Nina; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    problem as a multi-stage stochastic program. We investigate whether higher risk exposure can explain the hesitation, often observed in practice, to bid into the balancing market, even in cases of higher expected price levels. Furthermore, we quantify the gain from coordinated bidding, and by deriving......For electricity market participants trading in sequential markets with differences in price levels and risk exposure, coordinated bidding is highly relevant. We consider a Nordic power producer who engages in the day-ahead spot market and the near real-time balancing market. In both markets......, clearing prices and dispatched volumes are unknown at the time of bidding. However, in the balancing market, the agent faces an additional risk of not being dispatched. Taking into account the sequential clearing of these markets and the gradual realization of market prices, we formulate the bidding...

  7. Bid Preparation and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plant Project Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib, Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan and Nur Farizan Amadzun

    2011-01-01

    Bid preparation and evaluation is one of the main activities in Nuclear Power Plant Project management. International Atomic Energy Agency guide and Korean experience was studied for Malaysian requirement in realization of first Nuclear Power Plant. Several aspects shall be taken into consideration such as political scenario, financial capabilities, sitting, human resource, technologies, fuel supplies and decommissioning for long term exceeded hundred years. Bidding process and activities is proposed for our country requirement. The main activities included but unlimited to Bid Invitation Specification, Bid Evaluation Process, Technical Evaluation, Economic Bid Evaluation and Contracting. On the end of day, Malaysia need safe and reliable Nuclear Power Plant. Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme also get benefit from spin-off localization products and services as well as Technology Transfer Programme. (author)

  8. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  9. Understanding the unbundled utility conservation bidding proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    For several years regulatory advisers have been engaged in controversy about the propriety of integrating energy conservation measures into the total resource planning processes of electric utilities, and of proposed methods of doing so in the competitive supply procurement programs which have been initiated by some utilities. Two prominent economists conceived a method for doing this in competitive bidding programs and at the same time overcoming objections to previous proposals which were based on perceived violations of basic economic principles. They explained their concept and its operation in an article published here in June of last year. In this article another economist subjects the concept to further analysis, identifying its essential elements, and point to inevitable results of their application

  10. Investors flock to Venezuelan bidding rounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Venezuelan government has disproved the long-cherished oil industry mantra that low tax rates attract private sector investors. At a time when most company managements feel they need to collect balance sheet assets at any price. Venezuela is ensuring that it remains the upmarket not the bargain basement investor target. Despite offering some of the most punitive and complicated fiscal terms worldwide, a near certainty that taxes will rise in the future and state oil company control of the join ventures' operating committees, oil investors of all sizes cannot keep away. The third marginal field reactivation round, launched late last year attracted a staggering 259 companies, both foreign and local, which prequalified to bid. (Author)

  11. Determination of the Prosumer's Optimal Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Rossi, Federico; Russo, Angela

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a microgrid connected with a medium-voltage (MV) distribution network. It is assumed that the microgrid, which is managed by a prosumer, operates in a competitive environment and participates in the day-ahead market. Then, as the first step of the short-term management problem, the prosumer must determine the bids to be submitted to the market. The offer strategy is based on the application of an optimization model, which is solved for different hourly price profiles of energy exchanged with the main grid. The proposed procedure is applied to a microgrid and four different its configurations were analyzed. The configurations consider the presence of thermoelectric units that only produce electricity, a boiler or/and cogeneration power plants for the thermal loads, and an electric storage system. The numerical results confirmed the numerous theoretical considerations that have been made.

  12. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...)(1)(i), a designated bidder is offered the right to meet the highest bid. Refusal or failure to meet... and the bid guarantee. Sealed bid envelopes must be clearly marked on the front lower left corner with ``Sealed Bid, BLM Land Sale, N-90450.'' The sealed bid envelope must contain the $20,000 bid guarantee, the...

  13. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the

  14. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  15. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Weng, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  16. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here...

  17. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Weng, M.-T. [Chung Yuan Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chung Li (China)

    2001-03-01

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  18. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments.

  19. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision...

  20. 48 CFR 14.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions that do not vary from the terms and conditions of the invitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or...

  1. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  3. Invitation and Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to the bid invitation, technical and economic evaluation and contracting, it updates information included in the existing IAEA documents in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry, compiles a more compact and user friendly guidebook integrating the existing IAEA documents on the subject. It provides the necessary information to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the invitation, the technical and economic evaluation of bids, and contracting as an integrated process. Furthermore, this publication indicates how and to what degree the activities preceding the preparation of the bid invitation specification, the evaluation of bids and contracting could influence the process.

  4. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  5. 25 CFR 163.17 - Deposit with bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit a written request to have their bids considered for acceptance will be retained pending acceptance... damages available under applicable law or terms of the contract. (f) In the event of an administrative...

  6. Strategic bidding in electricity markets using particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucekaya, Ahmet D.; Valenzuela, Jorge; Dozier, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Profit maximization for power companies is highly related to the bidding strategies used. In order to sell electricity at high prices and maximize profit, power companies need suitable bidding models that consider power operating constraints and price uncertainty within the market. In this paper, we present two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to determine bid prices and quantities under the rules of a competitive power market. The first method uses a conventional PSO technique to find solutions. The second method uses a decomposition technique in conjunction with the PSO approach. This new decomposition-based PSO dramatically outperforms the conventional form of PSO. We show that for nonlinear cost functions PSO solutions provide higher expected profits than marginal cost-based bidding. (author)

  7. Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A considerable amount of work has also been reported on the game theory applications ... probability distribution function (Song et al, 1999) and as a continuous ..... compared with GA and Monte Carlo method, therefore the bidding strategies.

  8. Common Agency and Coordinated Bids in Sponsored Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta; Francesco Decarolis

    2012-01-01

    As auctions are becoming the main mechanism for selling advertisement space on the web, marketing agencies specialized in bidding in online auctions are proliferating. We analyze theoretically how bidding delegation to a common marketing agency can undermine both revenues and efficiency of the generalized second price auction, the format used by Google and Microsoft-Yahoo!. Our characterization allows us to quantify the revenue losses relative to both the case of full competition and the case...

  9. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  10. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  11. The U.S. Agency-Level Bid Protest Mechanism: A Model for Bid Challenge Procedures in Developing Nations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troff, Erik A

    2005-01-01

    ... comply with established procurement rules. The decisive question for a developing nation is which of the available structural options best integrates the essential elements of an effective bid protest system in the context of existing legal...

  12. Improve The Capacity Of Competition About The Financial In The Bid Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to experts enhancing competitiveness is an important solution for enterprises to build competitive capacity in bidding deciding the majority of win or lose in bidding. A good contractor can be eliminated in the first round because the bid does not meet the requirements of the investor. In order to have a good quality of bids enterprises should pay attention to the following tasks organizing the preparation of bidding dossiers setting the bidding prices selecting the optimum construction methods and work implementation plans. after bidding. Improving the quality of the bid preparation process should start from improving the quality of the staff in charge of bidding. At present the experience of bidding of many enterprises is limited especially the experience of working with foreign investors. Therefore businesses need to build a team of qualified professionals in the field of bidding. The training and professional fostering in this field should be carried out annually. They focus on foreign languages informatics knowledge of law and knowledge on international bidding. This is considered important preparatory steps that enterprises want to improve their competitiveness when participating in bidding especially participation in bidding packages using international donors and bidding packages cannot ignore it.

  13. Influence of feasibility constrains on the bidding strategy selection in a day-ahead electricity market session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, Alberto; Massucco, Stefano; Silvestro, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Large part of liberalized electricity markets, including the Italian one, features an auction mechanism, called day-ahead energy market, which matches producers' and buyers' simple bids, consisting of energy quantity and price pairs. The match is achieved by a merit-order economic dispatch procedure independently applied for each of the hours of the following day. Power plants operation should, however, take into account several technical constraints, such as maximum and minimum production bounds, ramp constraints and minimum up and downs times, as well as no-load and startup costs. The presence of these constraints forces to adjust the scheduling provided by the market in order to obtain a feasible scheduling. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility and the limits of taking into account the power plants technical constraints in the bidding strategy selection procedure of generating companies (Gencos). The analysis is carried out by using a computer procedure based both on a simple static game-theory approach and on a cost-minimization unit-commitment algorithm. For illustrative purposes, we present the results obtained for a system with three Gencos, each owning several power plants, trying to model the bidding behaviour of every generator in the system. This approach, although complex from the computational point of view, allows an analysis of both price and quantity bidding strategies and appears to be applicable to markets having different rules and features. (author)

  14. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bao-guang; Liu, Li-ping; Chen, George G.; Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K.C.; Ho, Rocky L.K.; Lin, Marie C.; Lai, Paul B.S.

    2014-01-01

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo

  15. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  16. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June

  17. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  18. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  19. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Neitemeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4 to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation.In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Keywords: Ferroptosis, BID, Mitochondria, CRISPR, Oxytosis, Neuronal death

  20. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  1. Issues in bidding for contracts for occupational therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, S; Law, M

    2001-06-01

    There is an increasing number of occupational therapists in Canada who are involved in bidding for contracts to deliver occupational therapy services. Occupational therapists working in an institutional or community-based setting may not have had the responsibility of developing a proposal or a marketing plan for bidding purposes. However, the responsibility of developing a bid to compete for a service delivery contract often rests on occupational therapists who are sole practitioners in a private practice setting. The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues in the literature such as service delivery plans, marketing strategies and costing of services that can assist the occupational therapist in the development of a contractual bid. A specific clinical example, school therapy services, has been used to illustrate how these strategies can be applied to practice. Success in contractual bids appears to be primarily influenced by cost of the service, the expertise of the service provider, ability to provide coordinated care, ease of access for clients, and inclusion of methods to measure client outcome.

  2. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  3. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  4. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1976-01-01

    A bid evaluation method is described which, it is claimed, facilitates a distinct and objective judgement of bids, taking into account the importance of the components, systems, and technical aspects evaluated with regard to the operation and safety of a nuclear power station. The evaluation basically consists of a cost assessment of the scope of supply deviations and a numerical evaluation of the technical design, the latter being a particularly novel feature of the method. The logic applied in both processes is shown. Main evaluation criteria which are applied for most components and systems are given as reliability, function and performance, safety, operation and maintenance, and materials. The judgements given to these evaluation criteria form the basis of the numerical bid evaluation described, which is carried out with the aid of computer programs. (U.K.)

  5. Applications of Classifying Bidding Strategies for the CAT Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Mark L.; Narayana, Manjunath

    In the CAT Tournament, specialists facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers with the intention of maximizing profit from commission and other fees. Each specialist must find a well-balanced strategy that allows it to entice buyers and sellers to trade in its market while also retaining the buyers and sellers that are currently subscribed to it. Classification techniques can be used to determine the distribution of bidding strategies used by all traders subscribed to a particular specialist. Our experiments showed that Hidden Markov Model classification yielded the best results. The distribution of strategies, along with other competition-related factors, can be used to determine the optimal action in any given game state. Experimental data shows that the GD and ZIP bidding strategies are more volatile than the RE and ZIC strategies. An MDP framework for determining optimal actions given an accurate distribution of bidding strategies is proposed as a motivator for future work.

  6. Study on Comparison of Bidding and Pricing Behavior Distinction between Estimate Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Emi; Namerikawa, Susumu

    The most characteristic trend on bidding and pricing behavior distinction in recent years is the increasing number of bidders just above the criteria for low-price bidding investigations. The contractor's markup is the difference between the bidding price and the execution price. Therefore, the contractor's markup is the difference between criteria for low-price bidding investigations price and the execution price in the public works bid in Japan. Virtually, bidder's strategies and behavior have been controlled by public engineer's budgets. Estimation and bid are inseparably linked in the Japanese public works procurement system. The trial of the unit price-type estimation method begins in 2004. On another front, accumulated estimation method is one of the general methods in public works. So, there are two types of standard estimation methods in Japan. In this study, we did a statistical analysis on the bid information of civil engineering works for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation in 2008. It presents several issues that bidding and pricing behavior is related to an estimation method (several estimation methods) for public works bid in Japan. The two types of standard estimation methods produce different results that number of bidders (decide on bid-no bid strategy) and distribution of bid price (decide on mark-up strategy).The comparison on the distribution of bid prices showed that the percentage of the bid concentrated on the criteria for low-price bidding investigations have had a tendency to get higher in the large-sized public works by the unit price-type estimation method, comparing with the accumulated estimation method. On one hand, the number of bidders who bids for public works estimated unit-price tends to increase significantly Public works estimated unit-price is likely to have been one of the factors for the construction companies to decide if they participate in the biddings.

  7. Bid process and contracting for remediation in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to provide cost effective and timely reclamation services to high priority leaking underground storage tank sites the New Mexico Environment Department has implemented a reclamation bidding process for qualified state contractors. The bid process was implemented in an attempt to make reclamation contractors more competitive and to encourage innovative technologies and contracting mechanisms. Overall the Bureau has received positive feedback from contractors participating in the process, especially regarding innovative technology and contracting. In addition, the process has provided excellent training for project managers and has allowed a critical review of the reclamation process for UST sites in general

  8. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  9. 48 CFR 614.402-70 - Waiver of public opening of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of public opening of bids. Overseas posts may request waiver of the public opening of bids if that activity is inconsistent with local law or legal practice, or with post security. For that purpose, the...

  10. Bidding Strategies in Agent-based Continuous Double Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ma (Huiye); H.-F. Leung

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractOnline auctions are a platform to trade goods on the Internet. In this context, negotiation capabilities for software agents in continuous double auctions (CDAs) are a central concern. Agents need to be able to prepare bids for and evaluate offers on behalf of the users they represent

  11. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  12. Application of fuzzy mathematics in assessment of mine design bidding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Sen

    1988-12-01

    Assessment of mine design bidding is mainly to evaluate the quality of a mine design. The paper established a 3-stage model to assess quality of mine design using fuzzy criterion. A concept of assessment figures was proposed in the analysis of the results. Finally, a mine design was assessed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: theory and experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2007), s. 513-535 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.353, year: 2007

  14. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: an experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    -, č. 269 (2005), s. 1-75 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp269.pdf

  15. Sealed-Bid Auction of Dutch Mussels : Statistical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analy- sis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  16. Sealed-bid auction of Netherlands mussels: statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analysis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  17. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y. [Hijjawi Faculty of Engineering; Yarmouk University; Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  18. 48 CFR 252.247-7008 - Evaluation of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other factors, the Contracting Officer will evaluate bids on the basis of advantages or disadvantages to... evaluation, the Contracting Officer will assume that the administrative cost to the Government for issuing... Government, including the administrative costs in paragraph (b)(1). (c) When drayage is necessary for the...

  19. 48 CFR 811.104-74 - Bid evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents... offered products are clearly identified in the bid and are equal in all material respects to the products... brand name and make or model number, descriptive material, and any modifications of brand name products...

  20. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  1. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or... be sold, resold or transferred in consideration of money or any other thing of value; and (vi) If the.... (a) Competitive bidding requirement. To select the telecommunications carriers that will provide...

  2. Procurement of construction services: a case study on bidding competition in Singapore public sector contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, B. L.; Yan, Y.

    2018-04-01

    There are many variables that public clients need to consider in their bidding procedure to enhance efficiency in their procurement for construction services. This paper focusses on the competitive bidding process for public sector procurement of construction services in Singapore. A distinctive feature of the Singapore government competitive bidding process is that full bidding feedback information is released to all competing bidders (and public). The specific objectives are: (i) to examine the degree of competition in the construction markets; and (ii) to examine the bidding performance of competing bidders. Based on a collection of bidding data for a 15-month period, the results show the market environment of the Singapore public sector construction contracting is highly competitive with long bidder lists. In selection of contractors, only 50% of the contracts were awarded to lowest bidders. The results also show that the competing contractors can be broadly classified into three groups based on their bidding performance in terms of number of bidding attempts, bidding success rate and bidding competitiveness. These results provide a useful insight into the bidding competition in the Singapore public sector construction contracting, especially to new market entrants and foreign contractors who want to bid for jobs in Singapore.

  3. Elicited Bid Functions in a (a)Symmetric First-Price Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezanis-Christou, P.; Sadrieh, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments that examine bidding behavior in first-price sealed bid auctions with symmetric and asymmetric bidders.To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the

  4. 42 CFR 422.256 - Review, negotiation, and approval of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. 422.256... Information and Plan Approval § 422.256 Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. (a) Authority. Subject to... submitted under § 422.252 and conduct negotiations with MA organizations regarding these bids (including the...

  5. 47 CFR 1.2105 - Bidding application and certification procedures; prohibition of certain communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....2110, a statement to that effect and a declaration, under penalty of perjury, that the applicant is... the post-auction market structure. (ix) Certification under penalty of perjury that it has not entered... amount of their bids, bidding strategies or the particular licenses on which they will or will not bid...

  6. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? (a) For each of the bidding systems in...

  7. 42 CFR 423.265 - Submission of bids and related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidelines based on generally accepted actuarial principles. A qualified actuary must certify the plan's... member of the American Academy of Actuaries to be deemed qualified. Applicants may use qualified outside actuaries to prepare their bids. (d) Specific requirements for bids. The bid and supplemental information...

  8. 76 FR 20571 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... bidding is inappropriate and, therefore, prohibited. \\9\\ Tenaska Marketing Ventures, et al., 126 FERC ] 61... multiple affiliates at a competitive disadvantage. In theory, a company could employ this strategy to the... submitting their bids. For example, a marketing arm of an energy company may bid to secure capacity for its...

  9. Game Theory Analysis of Bidding for A Construction Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembłowski, Marian W.; Grzyl, Beata; Siemaszko, Agata

    2017-10-01

    The authors are concerned with a bidding problem. There are two companies (P1 and P2) bidding for a highway construction project. In order to be more competitive, P1 considers buying a new gravel pit near the construction site. The basic cost of the pit is known to both companies. However, there is also an additional, hidden, cost (C) known only to P1. P2 is uncertain whether the hidden cost is C = 0 or C = x. P1 plans to bid for the job, but has to decide whether to buy the gravel pit. P2, not having a complete knowledge about C, thus not knowing the strategy choice of P1, has to decide if to bid for the job. In effect we have two payoff matrices, one for the additional cost C = 0, and the other one for C = x. If the probability of P2 bidding for the project can be estimated by propagating intelligence information through a Bayesian Belief Network, the best strategy for P1 can be readily determined. Otherwise, the solution calls for changing this game of incomplete information (players may or may not know some information about the other players, e.g., their “type,” their strategies, payoffs) into a game of imperfect information (players are simply unaware of the actions chosen by other players). This is achieved by introducing an additional “Nature” node which for this problem determines with some probability “p” the additional cost C= 0 (thus, C = x with probability 1-p). The solution of this game turns out to depend on the probability “p”. For some values of p the game is solved with pure strategies, whereas for other values the game is in equilibrium when the players randomly mix their strategies.

  10. The evolution of the competitive bidding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.J.; Dingle, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1920s to the early 1970s, the structure of the electric utility industry remained fairly constant. Up until this time, the generation, transportation and distribution of electricity was provided by local electric utility companies. The dominant pricing method was cost-of-service based rates, which relies on the premise that generation of electricity is not a competitive market, but a natural monopoly. This environment included close scrutiny by state and federal regulatory bodies to ensure that electric utility companies were making prudent management decisions. This stable environment changed with the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978. The primary intent of PURPA was to encourage the use of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency measures, and cogeneration and small power production. The act guaranteed firms and developers Interconnection with the host utility company and administrated avoided costs for the basis of payment for sales of power by qualifying facilities to the host utility. By the early 1980s, the primary change that PURPA brought to the structure of the electric utility industry was the introduction of the small power producer (SPP). Since then, however, the emergence of new suppliers has challenged the basic infrastructure of the electric generation industry. Along the way, the concept that electric generation is a natural monopoly has been called into question

  11. 78 FR 59055 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., offering designated bidders the right to meet the highest valid bid. Refusal or failure to meet the highest... checks will not be accepted. Sealed bid envelopes must be clearly marked on the lower left corner with ``SEALED BID BLM LAND SALE'' and the identification number ``BLM SERIAL NUMBER N-85116.'' The bid envelope...

  12. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  13. Improving Agent Bidding in Power Stock Markets through a Data Mining Enhanced Agent Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysopoulos, Anthony C.; Symeonidis, Andreas L.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    Like in any other auctioning environment, entities participating in Power Stock Markets have to compete against other in order to maximize own revenue. Towards the satisfaction of their goal, these entities (agents - human or software ones) may adopt different types of strategies - from na?ve to extremely complex ones - in order to identify the most profitable goods compilation, the appropriate price to buy or sell etc, always under time pressure and auction environment constraints. Decisions become even more difficult to make in case one takes the vast volumes of historical data available into account: goods’ prices, market fluctuations, bidding habits and buying opportunities. Within the context of this paper we present Cassandra, a multi-agent platform that exploits data mining, in order to extract efficient models for predicting Power Settlement prices and Power Load values in typical Day-ahead Power markets. The functionality of Cassandra is discussed, while focus is given on the bidding mechanism of Cassandra’s agents, and the way data mining analysis is performed in order to generate the optimal forecasting models. Cassandra has been tested in a real-world scenario, with data derived from the Greek Energy Stock market.

  14. Bid Protests on DoD Source Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    values, Government Accountability Office 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF...Logistics (AT&L) closely monitors the Government Accountability Office (GAO) Bid Protest statistics for trends. These statistics combined with our trend...protests, cost claims, and requests for reconsideration. This report discusses protests only. The GAO reports case types by docket numbers (B-#) where

  15. Interconnected Power Systems Mexico-Guatemala financed by BID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the plans for the interconnection of the electric power systems of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico within the project Plan Pueba Panama. The objective of the interconnection is to create an electric market in the region that contributes to reduce costs and prices. The project will receive a financing of $37.5 millions of US dollars from the Banco Intrameramericano de Desarrollo (BID)

  16. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In continuation of its efforts to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need to introduce nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency is issuing this guidebook as part of a series of guidebooks and codes of practice and, in particular, as a necessary supplement to 'Economic Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants: A Guidebook', published by the IAEA in 1976 as Technical Reports Series No.175. The present publication is intended for project managers and senior engineers of electric utilities who are concerned with the evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It assumes that the reader has a good knowledge of the technical characteristics of nuclear power plants and of nuclear power project implementation. Its purpose is to provide the information necessary to organize, guide and supervise the technical evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It goes without saying that the technical staff carrying out the evaluation must have prior technical experience which cannot be provided by a guidebook

  18. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Riveros, J.; Bruninx, K.; Poncelet, K.; D’haeseleer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  19. Modeling methods for GenCo bidding strategy optimization in the liberalized electricity spot market-A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gong; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2011-01-01

    The electricity market has since 1980s been gradually evolving from a monopoly market into a liberalized one for encouraging competition and improving efficiency. This brings the opportunity for generation companies (GenCos) to make more profits while embracing more risks of not being dispatched. Therefore, it has become a core interest for the GenCos to develop optimal bidding strategies to maximize the profits and minimize the risks while participating in such a competitive market. The literature pertaining to this issue has grown rapidly in recent years, and many different modeling approaches, such as mathematical programming, game theory, and agent-based models, have been investigated under the liberalized market environment. Meanwhile, along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, the electricity market is facing more complexity and stochasticity from both uncertain generation and dynamic demands. The intermittent and unsteady nature of these renewable power sources motivates the GenCos to further optimize their bidding strategy by considering the new constraints. This paper presents a comprehensive literature analysis on the state-of-the-art research of bidding strategy modeling methods. -- Highlights: → Publications on bidding in electricity spot markets are comprehensively reviewed. → Insights on the evolution of solution methodologies of recent 10 years are provided. → The pros and cons of these solution approaches are also discussed. → Future research directions, with renewable energy participations, are pointed out.

  20. Analysis of equilibrium about bidding strategy of suppliers with future contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Chuanwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the supply function model is employed to simulate the bidding strategy of suppliers in the power pool, and models of the supply function with future contracts are presented. It is proved that only one of the parameters between slope and intercept of the bidding curve is an independent variable in order to achieve definite equilibrium. In the meantime, the equilibria of the bidding strategy about suppliers are studied when different intercepts of the bidding curve are chosen. Some examples are employed to study the Nash equilibrium strategies of suppliers with different future contracts in various bidding strategy models. The results show that the equilibria are different in different bidding strategy models, but the future contracts can effectively make spot prices decrease in all the models

  1. High Bids and Low Recovery: A Possible Case for Non-Performing Loan Auctions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility that the prices bid by asset reconstruction companies in India under a security receipt mechanism may not reflect the ultimate recoverable value of nonperforming loans. The paper establishes, using a model and simulations, that the price bid by asset reconstruction companies will reveal their own rational interest and can significantly exceed the recoverable value. The conclusions arrived in this paper raise concerns regarding the use of bids as an indicat...

  2. Which countries bid for the Olympic Games? Economic, political, and social factors and chances of winning

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyzes 132 factors on their potential to discriminate countries bidding for hosting the Olympic Games from non-bidding countries. Our binary, clustered model using generalized estimating equations (GEE) shows that countries recording long-term economic growth and pursuing a liberalization and globalization policy will consider an Olympic bid. In addition, countries with an urban population above 10 million, with stable election results and an improvement in health standard...

  3. Overexpression of BID in thyroids of transgenic mice increases sensitivity to iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background BID functions as a bridge molecule between death-receptor and mitochondrial related apoptotic pathways to amplify apoptotic signaling. Our previous studies have demonstrated a substantial increase in BID expression in primary normal thyroid epithelia cells treated with inflammatory cytokines, including the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β or IFNγ and TNFα. The aim of this study was to determine whether an increase in BID expression in thyroid can induce autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods A transgenic mouse line that expresses human BID in thyroid cells was established by fusing a mouse thyroglobulin (Tg) promoter upstream of human BID (Tg-BID). We tested whether the increased expression of pro-apoptotic BID in thyroid would induce autoimmune thyroiditis, both in the presence and absence of 0.3% iodine water. Results Our data show that Tg-BID mice in a CBA/J (H-2 k) background do not spontaneously develop autoimmune thyroiditis for over a year. However, upon ingestion of iodine in the drinking water, autoimmune thyroiditis does develop in Tg-BID transgenic mice, as shown by a significant increase in anti-Tg antibody and mononuclear cell infiltration in the thyroid glands in 30% of mice tested. Serum T4 levels, however, were similar between iodine-treated Tg-BID transgenic mice and the wild type mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that increased thyroid expression of BID facilitates the development of autoimmune thyroiditis induced by iodine uptake. However, the overexpression of BID itself is not sufficient to initiate thyroiditis in CBA/J (H-2 k) mice. PMID:24957380

  4. A multi-space model for Chinese bids evaluation with analyzing

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Linfan

    2006-01-01

    A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, $...$, also in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding....

  5. A Robust Open Ascending-price Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Yokoo, Makoto; Terada, Kenji

    This paper develops a new ascending-price multi-unit auction protocol that has following characteristics: (i) it has an open format, (ii) sincere bidding is an equilibrium strategy even if the marginal utilities of each agent can increase and agents can submit false-name bids. False-name bids are bids submitted under fictitious names such as multiple e-mail addresses, which can be done easily in the Internet. This is the first protocol that has these two characteristics. We show that our new protocol outperforms an existing protocol, which satisfies (ii), with respect to the social surplus and the seller's revenue.

  6. Winning PEMEX consulting contracts through international bidding : sharing a Canadian success strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes and overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which described how Enbridge Technology obtained a contract with Mexico's PEMEX Refining through an international open bid. The scope of the contract was to advise PEMEX on how to modernize and automate their national liquids pipeline system. The value of the contract was US$11.6 million. The time span was from April 1998 to October 1999. A flow chart was included which illustrated the typical international bidding process. Enbridge prepared their bid by paying attention to bid basis details and emphasized their technical qualifications. 1 fig

  7. The Race for Sponsored Links: Bidding Patterns for Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2010-01-01

    Paid placements on search engines reached sales of nearly $11 billion in the United States last year and represent the most rapidly growing form of online advertising today. In its classic form, a search engine sets up an auction for each search word in which competing websites bid for their sponsored links to be displayed next to the search results. We model this advertising market, focusing on two of its key characteristics: (1) the interaction between the list of search results and the lis...

  8. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end.

  9. Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case...

  10. 48 CFR 52.214-10 - Contract Award-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the solicitation, will be most advantageous to the Government considering only price and the price... quantity less than the quantity offered, at the unit prices offered, unless the bidder specifies otherwise in the bid. (d) A written award or acceptance of a bid mailed or otherwise furnished to the...

  11. 47 CFR 27.209 - Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment. 27.209 Section 27.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360 MHz Bands § 27.209 Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment...

  12. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. 25.401 Section 25.401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1251 - Maritime communications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime communications subject to competitive... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures § 80.1251 Maritime communications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for VPCSA...

  14. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands : Chapter 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; van Het Kaar, R.H.; Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt

    2016-01-01

    Chapter dedicated to the Dutch implementation of EU Takeover Bids Directive. The case is particularly interesting because of the strong position of works councils within Dutch companies, including in restructuring situations. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands did not

  15. 48 CFR 14.203-2 - Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 14.203-2 Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. Procedures concerning display... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. 14.203-2 Section 14.203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  16. 30 CFR 260.110 - What bidding systems may MMS use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What bidding systems may MMS use? 260.110 Section 260.110 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER... MMS use? We will apply a single bidding system selected from those listed in this section to each...

  17. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do with my bid? 285.222 Section... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If sealed... any proposal submitted will be made by a panel composed of members selected by MMS. The details of the...

  18. Caspase-8 Binding to Cardiolipin in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Provides a Functional Docking Platform for Bid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalmar, Olivier; Franc¸ois-Moutal, Liberty; García-Sáez, Ana-Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-8 is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis in type II cells, the proapoptotic programme of which is triggered by truncated Bid. Indeed, caspase-8 and Bid are the known intermediates of this signalling pathway. Cardiolipin has been shown to provide an anchor and an essential activa...

  19. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding. The...

  20. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a...

  1. 75 FR 13212 - Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... (Caution to Bidders--Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the information needed to identify bid...: Under the PRA of 1995 (Public Law 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval...

  2. 47 CFR 24.717 - Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F. 24.717 Section 24.717 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....717 Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F. (a) Except with respect to licenses won in...

  3. Coordination of bidding strategies in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushuan Wen; David, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of building optimally coordinated bidding strategies for competitive suppliers in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets is addressed. It is assumed that each supplier bids 24 linear energy supply functions and 24 linear spinning reserve supply functions, one for each hour, into the energy and spinning reserve markets, respectively, and each market is cleared separately and simultaneously for all the 24 delivery hours. Each supplier makes decisions on unit commitment and chooses the coefficients in the linear energy and spinning reserve supply functions to maximise total benefits, subject to expectations about how rival suppliers will bid in both markets. Two different bidding schemes have been suggested for each hour, and based on them an overall coordinated bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is then developed. Stochastic optimisation models are first developed to describe these two different bidding schemes and a genetic algorithm (GA) is then used to build the optimally coordinated bidding strategies for each scheme and to develop an overall bidding strategy for the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets. A numerical example is utilised to illustrate the essential features of the method. (Author)

  4. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission....... The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity...... Market (IEM). The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction...

  5. Sequential bidding in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swider, Derk J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach for sequential bidding on day-ahead auction markets for spot energy and power systems reserve is presented. For the spot market a relatively simple method is considered as a competitive market is assumed. For the reserve market one bidder is assumed to behave strategically and the behavior of the competitors is summarized in a probability distribution of the market price. This results in a method for sequential bidding, where the bidding prices and capacities on the spot and reserve markets are calculated by maximizing a stochastic non-linear objective function of expected profit. With an exemplary application is shown that the trading sequence leads to increasing bidding capacities and prices in the reverse rank number of the markets. Hence, the consideration of a defined trading sequence greatly influences the mathematical representation of the optimal bidding behavior under price uncertainty in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve. (Author)

  6. Land bidding game with conflicting interest and its quantum solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Haozhen; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Li, Lvzhou; Zhang, Cai

    Recently, the first conflicting interest quantum game based on the nonlocality property of quantum mechanics has been introduced in A. Pappa, N. Kumar, T. Lawson, M. Santha, S. Y. Zhang, E. Diamanti and I. Kerenidis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 020401. Several quantum games of the same genre have also been proposed subsequently. However, these games are constructed from some well-known Bell inequalities, thus are quite abstract and lack of realistic interpretations. In the present paper, we modify the common interest land bidding game introduced in N. Brunner and N. Linden, Nat. Commun. 4 (2013) 2057, which is also based on nonlocality and can be understood as two companies collaborating in developing a project. The modified game has conflicting interest and reflects the free rider problem in economics. Then we show that it has a fair quantum solution that leads to better outcome. Finally, we study how several types of paradigmatic noise affect the outcome of this game.

  7. 31 CFR 356.12 - What are the different types of bids and do they have specific requirements or restrictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Treasury bills. A competitive bid must show the discount rate bid, expressed with three decimals in .005... competitively, either at a single yield or discount rate, or at different yields or discount rates. However, a competitive bid at a single yield or discount rate that exceeds 35 percent of the offering amount will be...

  8. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... otherwise authorized by law or regulation. Any release containing contractor bid or proposal information or..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as...

  9. Modelling the transition from cost-based to bid-based pricing in a deregulated electricity-market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, Donald J. [BC Hydro, 6911 Southpoint Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Alberta is a province in western Canada with a deregulated electricity-market. Market clearing prices for most hours reflect the cost of either coal-fired or gas-fired thermal generation. Whenever there is a chronic shortage of generation or even a temporary one due to an outage, prices can be bid much higher than fuel costs would suggest. The province of British Columbia borders Alberta to the west and its electric utility, BC Hydro, has a history of trade with the utilities in Alberta. BC Hydro has predominantly hydroelectric resources and large storage reservoirs. Prior to Alberta's deregulation in 1996, BC Hydro was able to enter into mutually beneficial load-factoring contracts with the Alberta utilities. Now, as long as the transmission is available, BC Hydro can buy low priced off-peak coal-fired energy and sell into the high priced periods without having to share the benefits. BC Hydro uses a combination of econometric and Monte Carlo modelling to simulate hourly price-duration curves for Alberta that capture both cost-based and bid-based characteristics. This approach provides a good fit with the stochastic dynamic programming model that BC Hydro has developed for its mid-term hydro scheduling. (author)

  10. Modelling the transition from cost-based to bid-based pricing in a deregulated electricity-market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Alberta is a province in western Canada with a deregulated electricity-market. Market clearing prices for most hours reflect the cost of either coal-fired or gas-fired thermal generation. Whenever there is a chronic shortage of generation or even a temporary one due to an outage, prices can be bid much higher than fuel costs would suggest. The province of British Columbia borders Alberta to the west and its electric utility, BC Hydro, has a history of trade with the utilities in Alberta. BC Hydro has predominantly hydroelectric resources and large storage reservoirs. Prior to Alberta's deregulation in 1996, BC Hydro was able to enter into mutually beneficial load-factoring contracts with the Alberta utilities. Now, as long as the transmission is available, BC Hydro can buy low priced off-peak coal-fired energy and sell into the high priced periods without having to share the benefits. BC Hydro uses a combination of econometric and Monte Carlo modelling to simulate hourly price-duration curves for Alberta that capture both cost-based and bid-based characteristics. This approach provides a good fit with the stochastic dynamic programming model that BC Hydro has developed for its mid-term hydro scheduling

  11. A Comparative Study on the Bidding Behavior of Pay as Bid and Uniform Price Electricity Market Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Khazraj, Hesam; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    High prices are expected for high demand times in the electricity markets and vice versa. The System Capacity Margin (SCM) demonstrates the abundance of electricity in the market. Naturally, higher SCM causes to lower price but, the players' behavior distortions have been frequently addressed...... in the literature. The overall producers’ bidding behaviors participating in Iran Electricity Market (IEM) as the low wind penetrated case and the Danish Electricity Market (DEM) as a high wind penetrated case are studied in this paper. An index is introduced to describe the overall market players’ behaviors....... Considering the players' behavior and using adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system, a model is derived. Although the total trend of prices is descending while the SCM increases, the results show some unexpected behaviors in IEM. Finally, players' biding behavior are compared in DEM and IEM. Markov transition...

  12. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  13. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  14. Demand bidding construction for a large consumer through a hybrid IGDT-probability methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Kazem; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa; Sheikh El Eslami, Mohammad Kazem

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market for a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. It is considered that hourly market prices are normally distributed and this correlation is modeled by variance-covariance matrix. The uncertainty of procurement cost is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory which allows deriving robust bidding strategies with respect to price volatility. First Order Reliability Method is applied to construct the robust bidding curve. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  15. Use of Bidding Supply to Attend State Emergency Caused by Poor Planning and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Gomes de Medeiros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the law inherent in bidding in the country has been the subject of legal discussion, especially as the bidding exemption from the institute, particularly when justified in finding emergency situation, which requires the public administrator prompt and effective steps to eradicate or, least minimize the consequences harmful to the community. However, the biggest dilemma is to characterize the application possibilities of the legal provision, since with the passage of time has glimpsed the jurisprudential understanding change towards the dispensability of the bidding event when the emergency is the result of negligence of Public Administration.

  16. Study of impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on bidding strategies of GENCOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoling Chen; He, Y.; Song, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on the bidding strategies of GENCOs, including Physical Bilateral Contracts, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), Call Options and Put Options under discriminatory pricing mechanism. The integrated bidding decision model is applied, which has three main modules - probabilistic local marginal price simulator, market-oriented unit commitment model and multi-criteria decision system. The numerical results show that the GENCO will choose different bidding strategies if it holds different types of contract. The results also suggest that CfDs have the best performance for risk alleviation. (author)

  17. Liquidity Shocks, Market Maker Turnover, and Bidding Behavior in Treasury Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rudiger, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    aggressively. They also bid more aggressively for existing securities that are reissued when the regulation tightens the requirements for secondary market participation. Consistent with regulations which imply that auctioned securities are not a prime source of liquidity, we find that banks which face...... liquidity needs bid less aggressively for them. A novel implication of our results is that in institutional settings that feature turnover of market makers, bidding behavior should be modeled in a dynamic setting. We introduce a dynamic model and show that static estimates over-predict true valuations when...

  18. Optimal Bidding of a Microgrid Based on Probabilistic Analysis of Island Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyoung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Island operation of a microgrid increases operation survivability and reliability when there is a large accident in a main grid. However, because a microgrid typically has limited generation capability, a microgrid operator (MGO has to take the risk of island operation into account in its market participation and generation scheduling to ensure efficient operation. In this paper, a microgrid islanding event is interpreted as a trade suspension of a contract, and a set of islanding rules is presented in the form of a market rule. The risk of island operation is evaluated by modeling the microgrid islanding stochastically using an islanding probability function, which is defined in the form of a conditional probability to reflect the influence of outside conditions. An optimal bidding strategy is obtained for the MGO by formulating and solving an optimization problem to minimize the expected operating cost. The effectiveness of the proposed method was investigated by numerical simulations in which the proposed method and two other methods were applied to the same microgrid. Numerical sensitivity analyses of the coefficients of the islanding probability function were conducted to determine how an MGO copes with changes in outside conditions.

  19. Meeting the Northwest's Energy Needs Through Competitive Bidding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1990-07-01

    Utilities have traditionally met load growth requirements through building projects (self-build), purchasing power from other utilities, or from running conservation programs. During the 1980s, alternative capacity expansion approaches were developed. Resources are now also obtained through PURPA-based or competitive bidding acquisition programs. Self-build programs typically involve large-scale hydropower; coal-, natural gas-, and oil-fired projects; and nuclear thermal electric generating projects. Characteristics of these projects, in addition to size, include long lead times, capital intensiveness, substantial environmental impacts, and a significant risk of cost overruns. The risk element became immediately apparent to those investor-owned utilities that, because of decreased load growth, had thermal project investments disallowed in rate cases or were forced to terminate projects. Phrases such as prudent investment,'' used and useful,'' and least-cost planning'' became familiar to the utility industry. Many utilities, once burned, subsequently adopted a policy of never again constructing a base-loaded generating plant. 2 figs.

  20. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  1. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  2. Analysis of General Accounting Office Bid Protest Decisions on A-76 Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russial, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... Historically, industry has successfully protested a high percentage of A-76 procurements. This thesis examines General Accounting Office A-76 bid protest decisions issued between 5 February 1996 and 23 December 2002...

  3. A Data-Driven Bidding Model for a Cluster of Price-Responsive Consumers of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the market-bidding problem of a cluster of price-responsive consumers of electricity. We develop an inverse optimization scheme that, recast as a bilevel programming problem, uses price-consumption data to estimate the complex market bid that best captures the price......-response of the cluster. The complex market bid is defined as a series of marginal utility functions plus some constraints on demand, such as maximum pick-up and drop-off rates. The proposed modeling approach also leverages information on exogenous factors that may influence the consumption behavior of the cluster, e...... can be largely captured in the form of a complex market bid, so that this could be ultimately used for the cluster to participate in the wholesale electricity market....

  4. 48 CFR 52.214-7 - Late submissions, modifications, and withdrawals of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitted through an electronic commerce method authorized by the IFB, it was received at the initial point... Government processes resume. (e) Bids may be withdrawn by written notice received at any time before the...

  5. RISIKO INVESTASI, BID-ASK SPREAD, DAN COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL DI PASAR MODAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies investigated how financial information affected investment decisions. The study extendedthis line of research by examining the effect of risk, proxied by price per share, number of shareholders, numberof dealers, trading volume, accounting risk and market risk measures on the bid ask spread. Further, theresearch tried to test the relationship between bid ask spread and cost of equity capital. The samples of thisresearch were the manufacturing companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange which shared the dividendfor 3 years; there were 40 companies. Data analysis technique used multiple regression analysis. The results ofregression provided evidence of statistically significant effect of price per share, market value, asset size andprice variability on bid ask spread. At last, there was a positive relationship between bid ask spread and cost ofequity capital

  6. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  7. 36 CFR 223.86 - Bid restriction on resale of noncompleted contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids... business entity or the successor in interest of any of the foregoing business entities. A person is an...

  8. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service... for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et...

  9. The Benefits and Risks of Virtual Bidding in Multi-Settlement Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isemonger, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    While it is possible that multi-settlement markets can exist without virtual trading, it is equally clear that virtual trading can provide many market benefits. The main one: In the absence of explicit virtual bidding (EVB), the price arbitrage trades that are benign in other commodity markets affect the reliability of the underlying electricity markets, resulting in a situation where EVB is most useful when it neutralizes the deleterious reliability effects of implicit virtual bidding and physical arbitrage. (author)

  10. 30 CFR 285.224 - What happens if MMS accepts my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if MMS accepts my bid? 285.224... Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.224 What happens if MMS accepts my bid? If we... withdraw an OCS area in which we have held a lease sale before you and MMS execute the lease in that area...

  11. Refinancing, debt for equity agreements and takeover bids under Spanish law

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Varona, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the connection between agreed solutions to the insolvency of listed companies implying changes in corporate control and the rules governing takeover bids. The solution to insolvency problems sometimes leads to a change in corporate control, namely when the solution involves modifying the capital structure of the company. In such cases, when the insolvent entity is a listed company, takeover bid regulation must be taken into account, as it can render the operation impossi...

  12. The 2003 proposal for a directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the regulation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'.......The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'....

  13. Current Practices to Decrease Subcontractor Bid Shopping in the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    rarely done because most contractors refuse to accept such a condition (6s15). Those public agencies adhering to the doctrine of promissory estoppel ...also encourage bid shopping. The doctrine of promissory estoppel dictates that a subcontractor must stand by his bid quote if it is used by the prime...Holman was not awarded the subcontract. (3) It is unfair to bind the subcontractor under promissory estoppel without binding the general contractor. (4

  14. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof J Gorgolewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS. The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms.

  15. A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K.; Rocha, Patricio; Babayigit, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes that connect each path. Thus, suppliers rely on forecasts of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to develop their FTR bids. In this paper, we present a game theoretic modeling approach to develop FTR bidding strategies for power suppliers assuming that they have forecasts of LMPs. The game theoretic model considers multiple participants as well as network contingencies. We apply the game theoretic model on a sample network to assess impacts of variations of bid and network parameters on the FTR market outcome. (author)

  16. Aggregators’ Optimal Bidding Strategy in Sequential Day-Ahead and Intraday Electricity Spot Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Ayón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic optimization method that produces optimal bidding curves to be submitted by an aggregator to the day-ahead electricity market and the intraday market, considering the flexible demand of his customers (based in time dependent resources such as batteries and shiftable demand and taking into account the possible imbalance costs as well as the uncertainty of forecasts (market prices, demand, and renewable energy sources (RES generation. The optimization strategy aims to minimize the total cost of the traded energy over a whole day, taking into account the intertemporal constraints. The proposed formulation leads to the solution of different linear optimization problems, following the natural temporal sequence of electricity spot markets. Intertemporal constraints regarding time dependent resources are fulfilled through a scheduling process performed after the day-ahead market clearing. Each of the different problems is of moderate dimension and requires short computation times. The benefits of the proposed strategy are assessed comparing the payments done by an aggregator over a sample period of one year following different deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Results show that probabilistic strategy reports better benefits for aggregators participating in power markets.

  17. IMPROVING THE BIDS EVALUATION CRITERIA AND REDUCING TIME AND EFFORT OF THE ASSESSMENT BY DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muaid A. Shhatha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to specify the most effecting factors on the success of projects. Those studies titled the most influencing factor, which is the bid selection criterion. By this criterion, the most qualified bidder/contractor could be chosen where the contractor has a considerable impact upon projects successes. Moreover, the published studies helped a lot in correcting the improper adopted criterion in selecting the best bid, which is the lowest price bid. Awarding the bid depending on the lowest price bid ended many projects in failure. Therefore, this study aimed to revise the popular mistaken selection criterion, recommend an evaluation criterion, and develop a computer program that works on finding the best bid according to the recommended criterion. The suggested criterion was followed in selecting one of the contractors to construct some projects in Iraq. That projects were felicitously finished; the projects were completed on time and budget.

  18. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  20. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves-Ávila, J.P.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Ramos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  1. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  2. Group search optimiser-based optimal bidding strategies with no Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Kumar, Mukesh; Gupta, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    General strategic bidding procedure has been formulated in the literature as a bi-level searching problem, in which the offer curve tends to minimise the market clearing function and to maximise the profit. Computationally, this is complex and hence, the researchers have adopted Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions to transform the model into a single-level maximisation problem. However, the profit maximisation problem with KKT optimality conditions poses great challenge to the classical optimisation algorithms. The problem has become more complex after the inclusion of transmission constraints. This paper simplifies the profit maximisation problem as a minimisation function, in which the transmission constraints, the operating limits and the ISO market clearing functions are considered with no KKT optimality conditions. The derived function is solved using group search optimiser (GSO), a robust population-based optimisation algorithm. Experimental investigation is carried out on IEEE 14 as well as IEEE 30 bus systems and the performance is compared against differential evolution-based strategic bidding, genetic algorithm-based strategic bidding and particle swarm optimisation-based strategic bidding methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the obtained profit maximisation through GSO-based bidding strategies is higher than the other three methods.

  3. Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    Quantifying the statistical features of the bid-ask spread offers the possibility of understanding some aspects of market liquidity. Using quote data for the 116 most frequently traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange over the two-year period 1994-1995, we analyze the fluctuations of the average bid-ask spread S over a time interval deltat. We find that S is characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law P[S>x] approximately x(-zeta(S) ), with an exponent zeta(S) approximately = 3 for all 116 stocks analyzed. Our analysis of the autocorrelation function of S shows long-range power-law correlations, (S(t)S(t + tau)) approximately tau(-mu(s)), similar to those previously found for the volatility. We next examine the relationship between the bid-ask spread and the volume Q, and find that S approximately ln Q; we find that a similar logarithmic relationship holds between the transaction-level bid-ask spread and the trade size. We then study the relationship between S and other indicators of market liquidity such as the frequency of trades N and the frequency of quote updates U, and find S approximately ln N and S approximately ln U. Lastly, we show that the bid-ask spread and the volatility are also related logarithmically.

  4. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  5. Optimal Bidding and Operation of a Power Plant with Solvent-Based Carbon Capture under a CO2 Allowance Market: A Solution with a Reinforcement Learning-Based Sarsa Temporal-Difference Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL-based Sarsa temporal-difference (TD algorithm is applied to search for a unified bidding and operation strategy for a coal-fired power plant with monoethanolamine (MEA-based post-combustion carbon capture under different carbon dioxide (CO2 allowance market conditions. The objective of the decision maker for the power plant is to maximize the discounted cumulative profit during the power plant lifetime. Two constraints are considered for the objective formulation. Firstly, the tradeoff between the energy-intensive carbon capture and the electricity generation should be made under presumed fixed fuel consumption. Secondly, the CO2 allowances purchased from the CO2 allowance market should be approximately equal to the quantity of CO2 emission from power generation. Three case studies are demonstrated thereafter. In the first case, we show the convergence of the Sarsa TD algorithm and find a deterministic optimal bidding and operation strategy. In the second case, compared with the independently designed operation and bidding strategies discussed in most of the relevant literature, the Sarsa TD-based unified bidding and operation strategy with time-varying flexible market-oriented CO2 capture levels is demonstrated to help the power plant decision maker gain a higher discounted cumulative profit. In the third case, a competitor operating another power plant identical to the preceding plant is considered under the same CO2 allowance market. The competitor also has carbon capture facilities but applies a different strategy to earn profits. The discounted cumulative profits of the two power plants are then compared, thus exhibiting the competitiveness of the power plant that is using the unified bidding and operation strategy explored by the Sarsa TD algorithm.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of exenatide twice daily (BID) vs insulin glargine once daily (QD) as add-on therapy in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by oral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing; Gu, Shuyan; Shao, Hui; Dong, Hengjin; Zou, Dajin; Shi, Lizheng

    2015-01-01

    To estimate cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily (BID) vs insulin glargine once daily (QD) as add-on therapy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients not well controlled by oral anti-diabetic (OAD) agents. The Cardiff model was populated with data synthesized from three head-to-head randomized clinical trials of up to 30 weeks in China comparing exenatide BID vs insulin glargine as add-on therapies to oral therapies in the Chinese population. The Cardiff model generated outputs including macrovascular and microvascular complications, diabetes-specific mortality, costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost and QALYs were estimated with a time horizon of 40 years at a discount rate of 3% from a societal perspective. Compared with insulin glargine plus OAD treatments, patients on exenatide BID plus OAD gained 1.88 QALYs, at an incremental cost saving of Chinese Renminbi (RMB) 114,593 (i.e., cost saving of RMB 61078/QALY). The cost-effectiveness results were robust to various sensitivity analyses including probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The variables with the most impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratio included HbA1c level at baseline, health utilities decrement, and BMI at baseline. Compared with insulin glargine QD, exenatide BID as add-on therapy to OAD is a cost-effective treatment in Chinese patients inadequately controlled by OAD treatments.

  7. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Bid Ask Spread Pada Masa Sebelum Dan Sesudah Stock Split Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Quitsyah Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Bid Ask Spread is the difference of ask-price and bid-price of shares on the capital market. Bid ask spread is a factor that can influence the investor decision whether hold or sell their shares and make profit from spread of ask price and bid price. This is indicates that the stock liquidity as reflected in the stock price, trading volume, stock return will affect bid ask spread. Bid ask spread will increase if the risk of stock is increase, such as the less liquidity of stock, the higher ri...

  8. Iterative bidding in electricity markets: rationality and robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri, Ashish; Cortes, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an electricity market consisting of an independent system operator (ISO) and a group of generators. The goal is to solve the DC optimal power flow (DC-OPF) problem: have the generators collectively meet the power demand while minimizing the aggregate generation cost and respecting line flow limits in the network. The ISO by itself cannot solve the DC-OPF problem as generators are strategic and do not share their cost functions. Instead, each generator submits to the ISO a b...

  9. A supply function model for representing the strategic bidding of the producers in constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Lu, Wene; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. (author)

  10. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  11. Market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the New York Transmission Congestion Contract market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Using publicly available bidder level bids data for Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs) and the realized awards of TCCs in the NYISO monthly reconfiguration auctions from June 2000 to December 2004, we examine both market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the auctions. The data show significant under-pricing in the realized awards of TCCs. Theories suggest that under-pricing may arise from risk-aversion, monopsonistic market power or winner's curse. Our empirical analysis illustrates that all of the three effects play a role in the NYISO TCCs market. Both market performance and bidders' bidding strategies can be best explained by the theoretical model with asymmetric information and risk-averse bidders. (author)

  12. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiiskinen, Urpo; Matthaei, Stephan; Reaney, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    .9 in the exenatide bid cohort and €3265.5 in the insulin cohort (€1791.9 versus €2465.5 due to costs other than those of injectable therapy). When baseline direct cost and patients' and disease characteristics were controlled for, mean direct costs differed by country (P ...-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin) and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices....... RESULTS: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed...

  13. BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L Miguel; Krönke, Martin; Kufer, Thomas A; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Kashkar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti-apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase-mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP-mediated immune response by inducing the BID-dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain-dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization. PMID:25056906

  14. A Sequence Mining Method to Predict the Bidding Strategy of Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Vivia; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    In this work, we describe the process used in order to predict the bidding strategy of trading agents. This was done in the context of the Reverse TAC, or CAT, game of the Trading Agent Competition. In this game, a set of trading agents, buyers or sellers, are provided by the server and they trade their goods in one of the markets operated by the competing agents. Better knowledge of the strategy of the trading agents will allow a market maker to adapt its incentives and attract more agents to its own market. Our prediction was based on the time series of the traders’ past bids, taking into account the variation of each bid compared to its history. The results proved to be of satisfactory accuracy, both in the game’s context and when compared to other existing approaches.

  15. Differential evolution algorithm based automatic generation control for interconnected power systems with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaja Mohanty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and performance analysis of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm based Proportional–Integral (PI and Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID controllers for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of an interconnected power system. Initially, a two area thermal system with governor dead-band nonlinearity is considered for the design and analysis purpose. In the proposed approach, the design problem is formulated as an optimization problem control and DE is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. Three different objective functions are used for the design purpose. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with a recently published Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO technique for the same interconnected power system. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of DE optimized PI controller is better than CPSO optimized PI controllers. Additionally, controller parameters are tuned at different loading conditions so that an adaptive gain scheduling control strategy can be employed. The study is further extended to a more realistic network of two-area six unit system with different power generating units such as thermal, hydro, wind and diesel generating units considering boiler dynamics for thermal plants, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity.

  16. A new quantum sealed-bid auction protocol with secret order in post-confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiang-Hua; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    A new security protocol for quantum sealed-bid auction is proposed to resist the collusion attack from some malicious bidders. The most significant feature of this protocol is that bidders prepare their particles with secret order in post-confirmation for encoding bids. In addition, a new theorem and its proof are given based on the theory of combinatorial mathematics, which can be used as evaluation criteria for the collusion attack. It is shown that the new protocol is immune to the collusion attack and meets the demand for a secure auction. Compared with those previous protocols, the security, efficiency and availability of the proposed protocol are largely improved.

  17. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI. Summary report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-10

    This report provides a summary of the Air Force CALS Test Network (AFCTN) Test Report Transfer of Air Force Technical Procurement Bid Set Data to Small Businesses, Using CALS and EDI (AFCTN Test Report 94-034, UCRL-ID-118619). It represents a synthesis of the results, conclusions, and recommendations, as well as a more concise presentation of the issues and strategies as viewed from AFCTN`s perspective. This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s {open_quote}Blue Ribbon{close_quote} contractors, located throughout the United States. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote.

  18. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    to reduce the complexity of the model. This novel bidding model would help investor-owned battery storages better decide their bidding and operational schedules and investors to estimate the battery storage’s economic viability. The validity of the proposed model is proven by case study results....

  19. An analytical Study on Dynamics of Public Procurement System and Bidding-Strategy in Local Contractor's Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Nanerikawa, Susumu

    Public procurement system such as Overall-Evaluation dynamically has been changed on local public works in Japan. However some characteristics of Bidding-Strategy and procurement system have not enough clarified. This paper attempt to analysis for a syatem dynamics and mechanisum of Overall-Evaluation by developing new simulation model focused on Bidding-Strategy, to propose some improvement scenario.

  20. 48 CFR 32.405 - Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advance payments under sealed bid contracts. 32.405 Section 32.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Non-Commercial Items 32.405 Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts. (a... provisions of law relating to contracts, as explained in 50.101-1(a), also include making advance payments...

  1. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... fair market value of $53,000. The sale will be conducted as a modified competitive bid auction, whereby... than the Federally approved fair market value of $53,000. Each sealed bid must include a certified... values in the land proposed for sale. The proposed sale would include the conveyance of both the surface...

  2. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  3. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  4. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public... specified road construction. For each sale described in § 223.82(b), the bid form must include provision for a small business concern: (a) To elect road construction by the Forest Service and where such...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium of...

  6. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driak, D.; Dvorská, M.; Bolehovská, P.; Švandová, Iva; Novotný, J.; Halaška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 411-415 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Bad * Bid * cancerogenesis * human endometrium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  7. 47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA licenses...

  8. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  9. Bidding behaviour in multi-unit auctions – an experimental investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Grimm, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 537 (2009), s. 855-882 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multi-unit auctions * bidding behavior * laboratory experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2009

  10. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...

  11. Bid rounds: progress and future prospects; Rodadas de licitacoes: evolucao e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorelli Junior, D.C.; Silva, Paulo Alexandre S.; Campos, Thiago N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP is an institution integrating the indirect Federal Administration, under the special autarchic regime, as an entity regulating the petroleum industry, linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. The Minister of MME is the president of the National Council of Energy Policy - CNPE, which has the attribution of proposing national policies and specific measures to the President of the Republic. The ANP aims at promoting the regulation, contraction and inspection of the economic activities related to the petroleum industry, and shall elaborate the bidding protocols and promote the bidding for the concession of exploration, development and production activities, signing the relevant contracts and inspecting its execution. The Brazilian Bidding Rounds of blocks with exploratory risk, promoted by ANP, included areas from 22 of the 38 main Brazilian sedimentary basins divided into three exploratory models: High Potential Areas, New Frontier Areas and Mature Basins Areas. This work presents the framework evolution obtained in Bid Rounds, analyzing the main results of the auctions, and the future perspectives for management of the exploration and production activities according the national energy policy statements. (author)

  12. Informed trading and the bid-ask spread: evidence from an emerging market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 275-296 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : market microstructure * bid-ask spread * informed trading Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  13. 47 CFR 24.712 - Bidding credits for licenses won for frequency Block C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Block C. 24.712 Section 24.712 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....712 Bidding credits for licenses won for frequency Block C. (a) Except with respect to licenses won in... acquired in either the auction for frequency block C that began on December 18, 1995, or the reauction of...

  14. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R.E.H.; Rogner, H.-H.; Gregory, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  15. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  16. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and energy planning, but it can't be the only

  17. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and

  18. Reservation wage of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a bidding game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Huq, Molla

    2014-12-01

    BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, recently has been using female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in Dhaka urban slums to provide maternal and child health services. Due to erratic performance-based income and higher opportunity cost the urban CHWs lose motivation which contributes to high dropout and poor performance. This results challenges for the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the urban health program. CHWs also consider their performance-based income very low compare to their work load. So, CHWs raise their voice for a fixed income. In order to understand this problem we explored fixed income for CHWs and the correlates that influence it. We surveyed a sample of 542 current CHWs. We used bidding game approach to derive the equilibrium reservation wage for CHWs for providing full-time services. Then, we performed ordered logit models with bootstrap simulation to identify the determinants of reservation wage. The average reservation wage of CHWs to continue their work as full-time CHWs rather than volunteer CHWs was US$24.11 which was three times higher than their current performance-based average income of US$ 8.03. Those CHWs received additional health training outside BRAC were 72% and those who joined with an expectation of income were 62% more likely to ask for higher reservation wage. On the contrary, CHWs who were burdened with household loan were 65% and CHWs who had alternative income generating scope were 47% less likely to ask for higher reservation wage. Other important factors we identified were BRAC village organization membership, competition with other health services providers, performance as a CHW, and current and past monthly CHW income. The findings of this study are relevant to certain developing countries such as Bangladesh and Tanzania which commonly use volunteer CHWs, and where poor retention and performance is a common issue due to erratic and performance-based income. So, the study has implications in improving

  19. Experimental and numerical study of impact of voltage fluctuate, flicker and power factor wave electric generator to local distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Nik Azran Ab; Rashid, Wan Norhisyam Abd; Hashim, Nik Mohd Zarifie; Mohamad, Najmiah Radiah; Kadmin, Ahmad Fauzan

    2017-10-01

    Electricity is the most powerful energy source in the world. Engineer and technologist combined and cooperated to invent a new low-cost technology and free carbon emission where the carbon emission issue is a major concern now due to global warming. Renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind and wave are becoming widespread to reduce the carbon emissions, on the other hand, this effort needs several novel methods, techniques and technologies compared to coal-based power. Power quality of renewable sources needs in depth research and endless study to improve renewable energy technologies. The aim of this project is to investigate the impact of renewable electric generator on its local distribution system. The power farm was designed to connect to the local distribution system and it will be investigated and analyzed to make sure that energy which is supplied to customer is clean. The MATLAB tools are used to simulate the overall analysis. At the end of the project, a summary of identifying various voltage fluctuates data sources is presented in terms of voltage flicker. A suggestion of the analysis impact of wave power generation on its local distribution is also presented for the development of wave generator farms.

  20. Modeling bidding decision in engineering field with incomplete information: A static game–based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate investment decision about engineering projects is a key issue for project management. This article aims to study the process of bidding decision-making in engineering field under the condition of incomplete information and investigating the influence of bidders’ game behaviors on investment decision. With reasonable assumed scenes, this article uses an approach to describe the decision process for bidding. The approach is based on the static game theory. With the proposed model, the effectiveness of game participants and the objective function are put forward, and the characteristics of price quotation and the best strategies of bidders under the equilibrium condition are discussed. The results can give a better understanding of investment decision in engineering management and are helpful for tenderees to avoid excessive competition among bidders.

  1. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  2. Price-Taker Offering Strategy in Electricity Pay-as-Bid Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzi, Nicolò; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The recent increase in the deployment of renewable energy sources may affect the offering strategy of conventional producers, mainly in the balancing market. The topics of optimal offering strategy and self-scheduling of thermal units have been extensively addressed in the literature. The feasible...... operating region of such units can be modeled using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, and the trading problem as a linear programming problem. However, the existing models mostly assume a uniform pricing scheme in all market stages, while several European balancing markets (e.g., in Germany...... and Italy) are settled under a pay-as-bid pricing scheme. The existing tools for solving the trading problem in pay-as-bid electricity markets rely on non-linear optimization models, which, combined with the unit commitment constraints, result in a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. In contrast...

  3. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  6. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. ...

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site)

  8. The Price Is Right, but Are the Bids? An Investigation of Rational Decision Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B; Hughson, Eric; Vandezande, Kirk

    1996-01-01

    The television game show The Price Is Right is used as a laboratory to conduct a preference-free test of rational decision theory in an environment with substantial economic incentives. It is found that contestants' strategies are transparently suboptimal. In response to this evidence, simple rules of thumb are developed that are shown to explain observed bidding patterns better than rational decision theory. Further, learning during the show reduces the frequency of strategic errors. This is...

  9. Eesti tüübid : meie siin maal / Maris Rosenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenthal, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ja fotograaf Alar Madissoni projekti "Eesti tüübid" raames valminud fotonäitus "Meie siin maal" Tartus Raadi mõisapargis. Kaasaega dokumenteeriva projekti eesmärgiks oli jäädvustada kõigis Eesti maakondades elavaid eri generatsioonide ja sotsiaalsete rühmade esindajaid ERMi fotokogu täiendamiseks. Meenutusi pildistamistelt 2008. aasta suvel

  10. Manufacturers’ Bids for WIC Infant Formula Rebate Contracts, 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Victor; Davis, David

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the major purchaser of infant formula in the United States, and its mandatory rebate program saved WIC $1.9 billion in FY 2013. WIC State agencies are required by law to have competitively bid infant formula rebate contracts with infant formula manufacturers. Contracts are awarded to the manufacturer offering the WIC State agency the lowest net price (as determined by the manu...

  11. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  12. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  13. Aspects if stochastic models for short-term hydropower scheduling and bidding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsnes, Michael Martin [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Follestad, Turid [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Wolfgang, Ove [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Fosso, Olav B. [Dep. of electric power engineering NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses challenges met when turning from deterministic to stochastic decision support models for short-term hydropower scheduling and bidding. The report describes characteristics of the short-term scheduling and bidding problem, different market and bidding strategies, and how a stochastic optimization model can be formulated. A review of approaches for stochastic short-term modelling and stochastic modelling for the input variables inflow and market prices is given. The report discusses methods for approximating the predictive distribution of uncertain variables by scenario trees. Benefits of using a stochastic over a deterministic model are illustrated by a case study, where increased profit is obtained to a varying degree depending on the reservoir filling and price structure. Finally, an approach for assessing the effect of using a size restricted scenario tree to approximate the predictive distribution for stochastic input variables is described. The report is a summary of the findings of Work package 1 of the research project #Left Double Quotation Mark#Optimal short-term scheduling of wind and hydro resources#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The project aims at developing a prototype for an operational stochastic short-term scheduling model. Based on the investigations summarized in the report, it is concluded that using a deterministic equivalent formulation of the stochastic optimization problem is convenient and sufficient for obtaining a working prototype. (author)

  14. Business valuation: an analysis of projected cash flows versus takeover bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main financial statements is the Cash Flow. It became mandatory from the law # 11,638/2007 on, which changed the law # 6,404/1976 – the Corporations’ law, and the Cash Flow statement allows analysis about the companies’ operations activities effects, investing and financing, highlighting their main sources of financial allocation. In 2005 and 2006, 37 companies registered takeover bids in the Brazilian Securities Exchange Commission (CVM – Comissão de Valores Mobiliários. Based on these companies’ analysis of Projected Cash Flows (FCP – Fluxos de Caixa Projetados when the takeover bids were put in place and their Actual Cash Flows (FCR – Fluxo de Caixa Realizados the objective of this work was to compare those cash flows, to analyze the differences between the Statements of Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the actual ones, as well as to check if these companies’ cash were in line with the balances projected in the takeover bids. The obtained results via statistical analysis of differences between the Projected Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the effective Actual Cash Flows, all of them compared in the period between 2007 and 2013, did not show significant differences among them. IE: it was observed that, nevertheless the companies did not accomplish the promised Cash Flows delivery when the OPAs were put in place, the differences between the balances projected and the actual ones were not statistically significant.

  15. Assessing the environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Morales, Carlos; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-09-15

    Around 40% of electricity in Chile is supplied by renewables and the rest by fossil fuels. Despite the growing electricity demand in the country, its environmental impacts are as yet unknown. To address this gap, the current study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the life cycle environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile. Both the individual sources and the electricity mix over the past 10 years are considered. The following sources present in the electricity mix are evaluated: coal, oil, natural gas, biogas, biomass, wind, solar photovoltaics (PV) and hydropower. In total, 10 electricity technologies and 174 power plants installed across the country have been considered. Eleven environmental impacts have been estimated, including global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicities, as well as resource and ozone layer depletion. The results reveal that hydropower is environmentally the most sustainable option across the impacts, followed by onshore wind and biogas. Electricity from natural gas has 10%-84% lower impacts than biomass for seven categories. It is also 13%-98% better than solar PV for six impacts and 17%-66% than wind for four categories. Solar PV has the highest abiotic depletion potential due to the use of scarce elements in the manufacture of panels. While electricity generation has grown by 44% in the past 10 years, all the impacts except ozone layer depletion have increased by 1.6-2.7 times. In the short term, environmental regulations should be tightened to improve the emissions control from coal and biomass plants. In the medium term, the contribution of renewables should be ramped up, primarily increasing the hydro, wind and biogas capacity. Coal and oil should be phased out, using natural gas as a transitional fuel to help the stability of the grid with the increasing contribution of intermittent renewables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A combination of SILAC and nucleotide acyl phosphate labelling reveals unexpected targets of the Rsk inhibitor BI-D1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Alexander J; Trost, Matthias; Watts, Colin; Zaru, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors frequently have interesting effects that cannot be fully ascribed to the intended target kinase(s) but identifying additional targets that might explain the effects is not straightforward. By comparing two different inhibitors of the Rsk (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) kinases, we found that the increasingly used compound BI-D1870 had biological effects in murine DCs (dendritic cells) that could not be solely ascribed to Rsk or other documented targets. We assessed the ability of BI-D1870 and a second Rsk inhibitor, BIX 02565 to protect enzyme active sites from reaction with biotinylated nucleotide acyl phosphates. Using SILAC (stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture)-labelled DC lysates as a source of enzyme targets, we identify several kinases that interact with BI-D1870 but not with BIX 02565. We confirmed that these kinases, including Slk, Lok and Mst1, are inhibited by BI-D1870 but to a much lesser extent by BIX 02565 and that phosphorylation of some of their substrates is blocked by BI-D1870 in living cells. Our results suggest that the BI-D1870 inhibitor should be used with caution. The SILAC-based methodology we used should be useful for further comparative unbiased profiling of the target spectrum of kinase inhibitors with interesting biological effects under conditions that closely mimic those found in cells. © 2014 The author(s).

  17. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiiskinen U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urpo Kiiskinen,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Chantal Mathieu,4 Claes-Göran Östenson,5 Thure Krarup,6 Michael Theodorakis,7,* Jacek Kiljanski,8 Carole Salaun-Martin,9 Hélène Sapin,9 Bruno Guerci10 1Eli Lilly, Helsinki, Finland; 2Quakenbrück Diabetes Center, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 8Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 9Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 10Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Nutrition, Hôpital Brabois, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown above at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both, but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0

  18. Preliminary Study on Bidding Price Ratio Pattern of Public Works in Taiwan - a Case Study of Bridges, Elevated Highways, Tunnels and Subways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Paoshan; Wang, Hanhsiang; Chen, Pingfu; Yeh, Lihsu

    2018-01-01

    Commonly seen tender bid price information of the public works in Taiwan are the budget amount, floor price, awarding price and so on. The ratio of the awarding price to the floor price or budget price is the so-called bidding price ratio. This ratio is influenced by multifaceted factor interactions and is significant to decision making management in engineering projects. Low bidding price ratio may imply that the budget allocation by the tendering agency is inconsiderate or due to the improper market competition of low price bid rigging. High bidding price ratio in turn may indicate that the allocated budget is relatively low, bidder risks in increased contract execution uncertainty or even exclusive bidding scenario. Therefore, the correlation between the bidding price ratio and the aforementioned tender award information is the key issue of this study. This study gathered the tender information of the civil engineering projects in Taiwan within the past seven years. By performing statistical analysis and clustering the gathered data by bidding price ratio, this study investigated the influencing factors and regulations of bidding price ratio using data mining approach.

  19. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  20. Calibration of short rate term structure models from bid-ask coupon bond prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Gonçalves, Erika; Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In this work we use the method of maximum entropy in the mean to provide a model free, non-parametric methodology that uses only market data to provide the prices of the zero coupon bonds, and then, a term structure of the short rates. The data used consists of the prices of the bid-ask ranges of a few coupon bonds quoted in the market. The prices of the zero coupon bonds obtained in the first stage, are then used as input to solve a recursive set of equations to determine a binomial recombinant model of the short term structure of the interest rates.

  1. A bid solicitation and selection method for developing a competitive spot priced electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is in the beginning throes of a transformation from a cost-based regulated structure to a more market based less regulated system. Traditional unit commitment and economic dispatch methodologies can continue to provide reliable least-cost solutions, providing they are modified to accommodate a larger sphere of market participants. This paper offers a method for an entity such as an Independent System Operator (ISO) to solicit and evaluate bids for developing a spot priced electric market by replicating existing utility practices that are effective and efficient, while creating an open and equitable competitive marketplace for electricity

  2. G-Doob-Meyer Decomposition and Its Applications in Bid-Ask Pricing for Derivatives under Knightian Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to establish the bid-ask pricing framework for the American contingent claims against risky assets with G-asset price systems on the financial market under Knightian uncertainty. First, we prove G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition for G-supermartingale. Furthermore, we consider bid-ask pricing American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty, by using G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition; we construct dynamic superhedge strategies for the optimal stopping problem and prove that the value functions of the optimal stopping problems are the bid and ask prices of the American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty. Finally, we consider a free boundary problem, prove the strong solution existence of the free boundary problem, and derive that the value function of the optimal stopping problem is equivalent to the strong solution to the free boundary problem.

  3. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melíco, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies

  4. BID-ASK SPREAD DAN PERIODE KEPEMILIKAN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus Maulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis gives quite big impact to the Indonesian Stock Exchange and also changes the investor behavior as well. Fundamental exchange which is considered fragile becomes instability threat and reflects uncertain condition. This research aims to analyze and explain empirically the impact of variance return, trading volume, stock prices and return shares toward bid-ask spread which is the measurement of asymmetrical information cost, also the impact of variance return, market value, bid-ask spread and dividend pay out towards common shares holding periods in Indonesia Stock Exchange and some dominant variable that affect them.The findings of this research strengthen the presumption that in conducting the investment, investors in Indonesian Stock Exchange is more oriented to short term investment by expecting more on common shares than dividend. Most investors keep their ownership in common shares in Indonesian Stock Exchange for two years. Besides, the efficient investment strategy which optimizes profit is “switching strategy”, following the market movement every time exactly, using technical information to active shares by moving from the shares that the price is predicted to decline to the increased ones. Moreover, the researcher also got the evidence that the investors in Indonesian capital market conduct their investment irrationally, investor’s analysis is getting technical and gives less attention to the fundamental factors. The decision of selling and buying which is conducted by the investors on common shares is based on the trading activity, that is actually a measurement of the scale of asymmetry information.

  5. Cnooc's fourth bidding round offers first tracts in East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China National Offshore Oil Corp. (Cnooc) has unveiled details of China's fourth offshore bidding round. It features the first offering of acreage in the East China Sea. Cnooc, China's state agency for offshore oil cooperation with foreign firms, has sweetened fiscal and tax terms for operators in the fourth round, announced June 30 (OGJ, July 6, Newsletter). Cnooc put up for bids two groups of acreage in the East China Sea that cover a total area of almost 73,000 sq km. The northern acreage, consisting of four blocks, covers 18,800 sq km and is 230 km east of Shanghai. The southern acreage, consisting of 16 blocks, covers 54,000 sq km and is 110 km east of Wenzhou, Zhejiang province. The area waters are 50-100 m deep and relatively calm year round. Chines explorationists have conducted 60,000 line km of seismic surveys and drilled five wildcats in the two areas, Data indicate the two areas have thick sediments, good source rocks, and strong conditions for oil traps

  6. Does Bid/Ask Spread React to the Increase of Internet Search Traffic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article solely examines the effect of investor attentions on bid-ask spread. We find that investors’ attention surrogated by Internet Search Traffic (IST contribute positively and significantly toward bid-ask spread (SPREAD. This result indicates that the incoming information directs the market within the stack circumstance and thin trading activity. Here, our samples were obtained from the manufacturing index, in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the period of observation ranging from 2009 to 2011. The hypothesis testing in this research is performed by using panel data regression analysis (Fixed Effect Model. Test result reveals that the search of online information through Google is beneficially one of the efforts to reduce asymmetry information between informed investors and uninformed investors. Besides, we also note that asymmetric information not only exists between the informed and uninformed investors, but also happens to market makers and informed investors. Finally, our findings lead to a conclusion, in which the high search of information tends to help investors in making appropriate investment decisions.

  7. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  8. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi-Sistani, M.B.; Akbarzadeh-Tootoonchi, M.R.; Javidi-Dashte Bayaz, M.H.; Rajabi-Mashhadi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  9. Bidding cost evaluation with fuzzy methods on building project in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susetyo, Budi; Utami, Tin Budi

    2017-11-01

    National construction companies today demanded to become more competitive to face increasingly competition. Every construction company especially the contractor must work better than ever. Ability to prepare cost of the work that represents the efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of the work necessary to produce cost - competitive. The project is considered successful if the target meets the quality, cost and time. From the aspect of cost, the project has been designed in accordance with certain technical criteria to be taken into account based on standard costs. To ensure the cost efficiency of the bidding process carried out meet the rules of a fairly and competitive. The research objective is to formulate the proper way to compare several deals with the standard cost of the work. The fuzzy technique is used as a evaluation methods to decision making. The evaluation not merely based on the lowest prices. The methods is looking for the most valuable and reasonable prices. The comparison is conducted to determine the most cost-competitive and reasonable as the winner of the bidding.

  10. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  11. A critical Analysis of Bidding Exemption and Unenforceability – In Search of a Theory that Allows the Application in Specific Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cesar Lapa Boselli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a review of the legislation, doctrine and jurisprudence about the possibilities of public hiring without bidding, working on a theory for division of existing institutes and applying this theory in the central hypothesis of the article that it would be illegal to emergency hiring continuous service through the bidding process.

  12. Varying the number of bidders in the first-price sealed-bid auction: experimental evidence for the one-shot game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllbrunn, S.C.; Neugebauer, T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports experimental data on the behavior in the first-price sealed-bid auction for a varying number of bidders when values and bids are private information. This feedback-free design is proposed for the experimental test of the one-shot game situation. We consider both within-subjects and

  13. 31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351.10 Section... Provisions § 351.10 What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand...

  14. 7 CFR 1942.9 - Planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing. [See §§ 1942.17(p) and 1942.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing. [See...) ASSOCIATIONS Community Facility Loans § 1942.9 Planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing. [See §§ 1942....18(l) of this subpart will not be considered when an FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  15. Factores que influyen en la decisión de licitar o no licitar en la Franja de Gaza - perspectivas de los contratistas Factors affecting bid/no bid decision in the Gaza Strip -contractors' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La decisión de licitar o no licitar un determinado proyecto es crucial para la sobrevivencia de los contratistas. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar y clasificar los factores que determinan la decisión de licitar o no licitar, de acuerdo a su importancia relativa desde la perspectiva de contratistas locales que operan en la Franja de Gaza, Palestina. Se identificaron un total de setenta y ocho factores, por medio de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura, para evaluar los factores más importantes que afectan las decisiones de los contratistas por licitar no licitar en la Franja de Gaza. Se desarrolló una medición dentro de una muestra compuesta por setenta y tres contratistas clasificados bajo la categoría construcción, y sesenta y cinco de ellos respondieron a una razón de 89%. Los resultados ilustran que la reputación de los clientes, la capacidad financiera de éstos, el potencial financiero del proyecto y la disponibilidad constructiva de materias primas en los mercados locales, así como la estabilidad de la industria de la construcción, fueron los principales factores críticos que influyen en las decisiones de licitar o no licitar. Este estudio sugiere que los contratistas y clientes debieran mejorar sus sistemas financieros y aptitudes para poder mantenerse dentro del negocio.To bid or not to bid for a certain project is considered to be a crucial decision for contractors' survival. The objective of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that affect the bid/no bid decision according to their relative importance from the perspective of the local contractors operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. A total of seventy-eight factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the most important factors that affect the contractors' decisions to bid or not in the Gaza strip. A survey was conducted on a sample of seventy three contractors classified under the building category, and sixty

  16. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  17. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs...

  18. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  19. Requirement for aspartate-cleaved bid in apoptosis signaling by DNA-damaging anti-cancer regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Arlette B.; Tait, Stephen W. G.; de Vries, Evert; Eldering, Eric; Borst, Jannie

    2004-01-01

    Lymphoid malignancies can escape from DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs and gamma-radiation by blocking apoptosis-signaling pathways. How these regimens induce apoptosis is incompletely defined, especially in cells with nonfunctional p53. We report here that the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid is

  20. 7 CFR 1726.253 - Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative bid provision for payment to contractor for bulk purchase of materials. 1726.253 Section 1726.253... contractor for bulk purchase of materials. When construction is to be performed over an extended period of... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Modifications to RUS Standard Contract Forms...

  1. A complex bid model and strategy for dispatchable loads in real-time market-based demand response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Cuk, V.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The power system is moving into the new era of Smart Grid with the help of advance ICT and other developed technologies. These advancements made the demand response as an integral part of power and energy systems. Nowadays, the concept of Energy bidding is emerging in the Market-based Demand

  2. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...; 11-08807; MO 4500019774; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public... shall be accompanied by a cashier's check, certified check, or U.S. postal money order, and made payable... certified check, postal money order, bank draft or cashier's check made payable in U.S. dollars to the...

  3. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid, Spring SNPLMA Sale of Public Lands in Clark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ..., et al.; 13-08807; MO 4500049637; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid... the sale must also include a certified check, postal money order, bank draft, or cashier's check made... in the form of a certified check, U.S. postal money order, bank draft, cashier's check, or made...

  4. 76 FR 56793 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-89137; 11-08807; MO 4500022283; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of... money order, bank draft, or cashier's check made payable in U.S. dollars to the ``Department of the... of a certified check, U.S. postal money order, bank draft, or cashier's check made payable in U.S...

  5. 77 FR 67021 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ...; 12-08807; MO 4500036691; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public.... postal money order, bank draft, or cashier's check, and made payable in U.S. dollars to ``Department of... the form of a certified check, U.S. postal money order, bank draft or cashier's check made payable in...

  6. Bid-Induced Release of AIF/EndoG from Mitochondria Causes Apoptosis of Macrophages during Infection with Leptospira interrogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lin Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Leptospire-induced macrophage apoptosis through the Fas/FasL-caspase-8/3 pathway plays an important role in the survival and proliferation of the pathogen in hosts. Although, the release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and endonuclease G (EndoG in leptospire-infected macrophages has been described, the mechanisms linking caspase and mitochondrion-related host-cell apoptosis has not been determined. Here, we demonstrated that leptospire-infection induced apoptosis through mitochondrial damages in macrophages. Apoptosis was caused by the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of AIF and/or EndoG, leading to nuclear DNA fragmentation. However, the mitochondrion-related CytC-caspase-9/3 pathway was not activated. Next, we found that the release and translocation of AIF and/or EndoG was preceded by the activation of the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that caspase-8 was activated during the infection and caused the activation of Bid. Meanwhile, high reactive oxygen species (ROS trigged by the infection caused the dephosphorylation of Akt, which also activated Bid. In conclusion, Bid-mediated mitochondrial release of AIF and/or EndoG followed by nuclear translocation is a major mechanism of leptospire- induced apoptosis in macrophages, and this process is modulated by both caspase-8 and ROS-Akt signal pathways.

  7. Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer are vertically integrated: implications for the partial deregulation of EU electricity markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 313 (2006), s. 1-35 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : asymmetric auctions * bidding behavior * electricity markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp313.pdf

  8. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  9. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... County, California, for not less than the appraised fair market value of $41,000. The sale will be... fair market value of $41,000. Each sealed bid must include a certified check, money order, bank draft... concluded there are no known mineral values in the land proposed for sale. The proposed sale would include...

  11. A Sealed-Bid Two-Attribute Yardstick AuctionWithout Prior Scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Hougaard, Jens; Nielsen, Kurt; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    that following this type of equilibrium behavior often leads to winner’s curse. The simulations show that in auctions with more than 12 participants the chance of facing winner’s curse is around 95%. Truthful reporting, on the other hand, does not constitute a Nash equilibrium but it is ex post individually......We analyze a two-attribute single item procurement auction that uses yardstick competition to settle prices. The auction simplifies the procurement process by reducing the principal’s articulation of preferences to simply choosing the most preferred offer as if it was a market with posted prices...... rational. Using a simulation study we demonstrate that truthful bidding may indeed represent some kind of focal point....

  12. Support Vector Machines for decision support in electricity markets׳ strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Praça, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and validated...... by being included in ALBidS and then compared with the application of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), originating promising results: an effective electricity market price forecast in a fast execution time. The proposed approach is tested and validated using real electricity markets data from MIBEL......׳ research group has developed a multi-agent system: Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets (MASCEM), which simulates the electricity markets environment. MASCEM is integrated with Adaptive Learning Strategic Bidding System (ALBidS) that works as a decision support system for market players...

  13. Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Talwar, Arjun; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-30

    In competitive social environments, people often deviate from what rational choice theory prescribes, resulting in losses or suboptimal monetary gains. We investigate how competition affects learning and decision-making in a common value auction task. During the experiment, groups of five human participants were simultaneously scanned using MRI while playing the auction task. We first demonstrate that bidding is well characterized by reinforcement learning with biased reward representations dependent on social preferences. Indicative of reinforcement learning, we found that estimated trial-by-trial prediction errors correlated with activity in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we found that individual differences in social preferences were related to activity in the temporal-parietal junction and anterior insula. Connectivity analyses suggest that monetary and social value signals are integrated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Based on these results, we argue for a novel mechanistic account for the integration of reinforcement history and social preferences in competitive decision-making.

  14. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID...

  15. Varying the number of bidders in the first-price sealed-bid auction: experimental evidence for the one-shot game

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor Neugebauer; Sascha F llbrunn

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports experimental data on the behavior in the first-price sealed-bid auction for a varying number of bidders when values and bids are private information. This feedback-free design is proposed for the experimental test of the one-shot game situation. We consider both within-subject and betweensubjects variations. In line with the qualitative risk neutral Nash equilibrium prediction, the data show that bids increase in the number of bidders. However, in auctions involving a small ...

  16. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  17. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C Truttmann

    Full Text Available The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  18. Induction of Bim and Bid gene expression during accelerated apoptosis in severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefan U; Schewe, Jens-Christian; Lehmann, Lutz E; Müller, Stefan; Book, Malte; Klaschik, Sven; Hoeft, Andreas; Stüber, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In transgenic animal models of sepsis, members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate lymphocyte apoptosis and survival of sepsis. This study investigates the gene regulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in patients with early stage severe sepsis. In this prospective case-control study, patients were recruited from three intensive care units (ICUs) in a university hospital. Sixteen patients were enrolled when they fulfilled the criteria of severe sepsis. Ten critically ill but non-septic patients and 11 healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples were immediately obtained at inclusion. To confirm the presence of accelerated apoptosis in the patient groups, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine externalisation in CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocyte subsets were assessed using flow cytometry. Specific mRNAs of Bcl-2 family members were quantified from whole blood by real-time PCR. To test for statistical significance, Kruskal-Wallis testing with Dunn's multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis was performed. In all lymphocyte populations caspase-3 (p < 0.05) was activated, which was reflected in an increased phosphatidylserine externalisation (p < 0.05). Accordingly, lymphocyte counts were decreased in early severe sepsis. In CD4+ T-cells (p < 0.05) and B-cells (p < 0.001) the Bcl-2 protein was decreased in severe sepsis. Gene expression of the BH3-only Bim was massively upregulated as compared with critically ill patients (p < 0.001) and 51.6-fold as compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05). Bid was increased 12.9-fold compared with critically ill patients (p < 0.001). In the group of mitochondrial apoptosis inducers, Bak was upregulated 5.6-fold, while the expression of Bax showed no significant variations. By contrast, the pro-survival members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were both downregulated in severe sepsis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In early severe sepsis a gene expression pattern with

  19. Risk-averse portfolio selection of renewable electricity generator investments in Brazil: An optimised multi-market commercialisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Sebastian; Street, Alexandre; McKinnon, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Investment decisions in renewable energy sources such as small hydro, wind power, biomass and solar are frequently made in the context of enormous uncertainty surrounding both intermittent generation and the highly volatile electricity spot prices that are used for clearing of trades. This paper presents a new portfolio-based approach for selecting long-term investments in small-scale renewable energy projects and matching contracts for the sale of the resulting electricity. Using this approach, we have formulated a stochastic optimisation model that maximises a holding company's risk-averse measure of value. Using an illustrative example representative of investment decisions within the Brazilian electricity system, we investigate the sensitivity of the optimised portfolio composition and commercialisation strategy to contract prices in the free contracting environment and to the decision maker's attitude towards risk. The numerical results demonstrate it is possible to reduce significantly financial risks, such as the price-quantity risk, not only by exploiting the complementarity of the considered renewable sources generation profiles, but also by selecting the optimal mix of commercialisation contracts from different markets. We find that the multi-market strategy generally results in appreciably higher optimal value than single-market strategies and can be applied to a wide range of renewable generators and contracts. - Highlights: • Gives a portfolio-based multi-market, multi-asset approach to renewable investment. • Details how to model currently used contract types in each of the Brazilian markets. • Presents a test case using realistic contract and real renewable data from Brazil. • Shows that the approach controls financial risks and boosts optimal values. • Explains how relative contract prices and attitude to risk affect optimal decisions.

  20. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  1. DSM bidding - what field are we leveling, anyway? Or how do you level the field without killing the crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebens, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Since the first regulated monopoly was established, there has been regulatory concern over the open-quotes level playing fieldclose quotes issue. This concern can be valid, but its character is relatively nebulous, and situational. Most recently, regulators have expressed their concern over the level playing field issue relative to demand side bidding, and demand side management (DSM) incentives regulation which provides utility shareholder returns for DSM initiatives. The playing field issues relative to DSM can be extensive. Utility ESCO subsidiaries are being formed, utility service contracts for HVAC equipment exist, and utilities have special access to customers and customer energy information. At the same time, all source bidding processes are required in some states allowing DSM projects to effectively displace supply side projects, customers must choose between utility DSM programs and ESCO offerings, and the list goes on

  2. Oil and gas exploration and production activities in Brazil: The consideration of environmental issues in the bidding rounds promoted by the National Petroleum Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Jacqueline; La Rovere, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to address and analyze the environmental issues related to the Brazilian bidding rounds for exploration and production of oil and natural gas held by the National Petroleum Agency (ANP) from 1999 to 2005. To do so, after a brief retrospective of the seven rounds, the four main points of the bidding process are analyzed from an environmental perspective: the selection criteria for choosing the areas to be offered, the Minimum Exploration Program required by ANP, the eligibility criteria for the oil companies to take part of the bids and the concession agreements. Thus, it is possible to present the evolution of the environmental component insertion from the first to the seventh bidding round, and then to assess its efficiency in each round, apart from offering suggestions for its improvement. The suggestions presented are based on the related international experience and on the lessons learned during the last seven years

  3. Overview of government and market driven programs for the promotion of renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, T.; Andersson, G.; Soeder, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates some existing government instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation. The brief evaluation focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: feed-in tariffs, net metering, bidding process, fixed quotas, green certificate trading, green power exchange, green pricing. (author)

  4. Lock-in effects in competitive bidding schemes for payments for ecosystem services: Revisiting the fundamental transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Nora; Bizer, Kilian

    2013-01-01

    Competitive bidding is considered to be a cost-effective allocation mechanism for payments for ecosystem services. This article shows that competition is not a necessary condition for sustaining cost-effectiveness in the long run. In a repeated conservation auction, learning, specific investments and the creation of social capital bias the chances of winning a follow-up contract in favour of former auction winners. Applying the concept of fundamental transformation (Williamson 1985), we argue...

  5. Market stimulation of renewable-based power generation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Rena; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the types of renewable-based power generation technologies available in Australia that have the capacity to contribute to the growth of the renewable energy sector and then suggest what type of economic incentive instruments could be applied in order to stimulate investment in that sector. Currently in Australia there are hydro, wind, bioenergy, solar, geothermal and ocean technologies being used to produce renewable power. Of these all except hydro power has large amounts of potentially useful resources. In the cases of wind, bioenergy, solar, and geothermal, the technology is mature enough to be immediately deployed in large-scale. However, only in the cases of wind and bioenergy the costs and return on investments are proven to be viable in the current market. What is required on all fronts is an improved return on investments. Within the current electricity market competition with fossil-fuel based power is very difficult considering the ample supply of coal available in Australia and the heavy subsidies it receives. To become more competitive with electricity generated from coal-fired power plants, a feed-in tariff scheme could be implemented, and subsidies to the coal industry should be reduced if not removed. Another aspect impeding the growth of certain renewable power technologies is the high capital cost. This issue could be addressed with direct subsidies or tax exemptions, or aiding with easier access of finance options. However for particular industries such as wind and solar, it would be a further benefit if some effort is made to encourage component manufacturing within Australia. For technologies that require further technical development, funding towards R and D or pilot projects, and support for international collaboration projects would accelerate their path to deployment. It is critical that the Australian government continues to be a leader. In addition to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) and an

  6. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  7. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  8. BSEA: A Blind Sealed-Bid E-Auction Scheme for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the number of internet users, electronic commerce has grown significantly during the last decade. Electronic auction (e-auction is one of the famous e-commerce applications. Even so, security and robustness of e-auction schemes still remain a challenge. Requirements like anonymity and privacy of the b i d value are under threat from the attackers. Any auction protocol must not leak the anonymity and the privacy of the b i d value of an honest Bidder. Keeping these requirements in mind, we have firstly proposed a controlled traceable blind signature scheme (CTBSS because e-auction schemes should be able to trace the Bidders. Using CTBSS, a blind sealed-bid electronic auction scheme is proposed (BSEA. We have incorporated the notion of blind signature to e-auction schemes. Moreover, both the schemes are based upon elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, which provides a similar level of security with a comparatively smaller key size than the discrete logarithm problem (DLP based e-auction protocols. The analysis shows that BSEA fulfills all the requirements of e-auction protocol, and the total computation overhead is lower than the existing schemes.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  10. African electricity market liberalization, competition and structuring: Should double bid markets be set up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Founanou, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the possibility of using double auction mechanisms in the organization of the electricity markets in African countries. Today's electricity markets around the world are de-regulated and going through a restructuring process. In a context marked by the opening up to competition, a double auction for electricity supply is henceforth used to set prices in wholesale and retail electricity markets. Game theory analysis useful for studying the double auction prices proprieties. The double auction is a non-cooperative game, which is strategically equivalent to the auctions theory. The price formed, depending on the buyers and sellers' strategies, is a competitive price, which tends to the ideal price when competition operates intensely on both sides of market. For Africa, the presence of congestion costs and a chronic lack of capacity require the search for other solutions. We investigate optimal strategic behaviour when buyers and sellers are separated by a possibly constrained transmission line and show that bidders' strategies converge to truth-telling behaviour as the number of market participants increases. In the congestion case, this fails to occur. We also investigate how participants in wholesale electricity markets modify their bidding strategies as a function of the influence and behaviour of a transmission line owner. (author)

  11. An Optimization Framework for Combining the Petroleum Replenishment Problem with the Optimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chefi Triki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We address in this paper a periodic petroleum station replenishment problem (PPSRP that aims to plan the delivery of petroleum products to a set of geographically dispatched stations. It is assumed that each station is characterized by its weekly demand and by its frequency of service. The main objective of the delivery process is to minimize the total travelled distance by the vailable trucks over an extended planning horizon. The problem configuration is described through a set of trucks with several compartments each and a set of stations with demands and prefixed delivery frequencies. Given such input data, the minimization of the total distance is subject to assignment and routing constraints that express the capacity limitations of each truck's compartment in terms of the frequency and the pathways' restrictions. In this paper, we develop and solve the full space mathematical formulation for the PPSRP with application to the Omani context. Our ultimate aim is to include such a model into an integrated framework having the objective of advising petroleum distribution companies on how to prepare bids in case of participation in combinatorial auctions of the transportation procurement.

  12. Adenovirus-mediated truncated Bid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system promotes the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qifang; Yang, Ru; Lu, Weixian; Zhu, Weipei; Zhou, Jundong; Zheng, Cui; Zhou, Dongmei; Yu, Ling; Wu, Jinchang

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a small subset of cancer cells that contribute to cancer progression, metastasis, chemoresistance and recurrence. CD133-positive (CD133+) ovarian cancer cells have been identified as ovarian cancer stem cells. Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is an innovative therapeutic method for cancer treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a new gene therapy to specifically eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells by targeting CD133. We used the Cre/LoxP system to augment the selective expression of the truncated Bid (tBid) gene as suicide gene therapy in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The adenovirus (Ad)-CD133-Cre expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the CD133 promoter and Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid expressing tBid under the control of the CMV promoter were successfully constructed using the Cre/LoxP switching system. The co-infection of Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid and Ad-CD133-Cre selectively induced tBid overexpression, which inhibited cell growth and triggered the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The Cre/LoxP system-mediated tBid overexpression activated the pro-apoptotic signaling pathway and augmented the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. Furthermore, in xenograft experiments, co-infection with the two recombinant adenoviruses markedly suppressed tumor growth in vivo and promoted cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that the adenovirus-mediated tBid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system can effectively eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells, representing a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  13. A Comparison of Obama’s 2007 and Hillary Clinton’s 2015 Bids for Presidency Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sought to study Barack Obama’s 2007 bid for the presidency in his Announcement Speech and Hillary Rodham Clinton’s 2015 bid for the presidency  in her Campaign Launch Speech. It focused on how both candidates used the central ideas and their development into the main ideas of the speeches to declare their bids for President of the U.S.A. The research raised some questions regarding whether the two speeches had similarities, as both politicians were running in the presidential race on the Democratic Party’s path. The research method employed qualitative content analysis to study the core meaning of the speeches based on new analytical narratives viewed in terms of specific rhetorical strategies. Subsequently, the study interpreted the underlying thought behind the speeches by focusing on the central ideas and their elaboration into the main ideas. The article showed that Obama and Clinton shared some similarities as they attempted to earn the support of Americans of all backgrounds. They defended the cause of the middle-class economy. Obama focused more on a coalition of Americans of diverse background and change, whereas Clinton focused more on furthering the middle-class economy.

  14. Does Bid/Ask Spread React to the Increase of Internet Search Traffic? (P.181-196

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article solely examines the effect of investor attentions on bid-ask spread. We find that investors’ attention surrogated by Internet Search Traffic (IST contribute positively and significantly toward bid-ask spread (SPREAD. This result indicates that the incoming information directs the market within the stack circumstance and thin trading activity. Here, our samples were obtained from the manufacturing index, in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the period of observation ranging from 2009 to 2011. The hypothesis testing in this research is performed by using panel data regression analysis (Fixed Effect Model. Test result reveals that the search of online information through Google is beneficially one of the efforts to reduce asymmetry information between informed investors and uninformed investors. Besides, we also note that asymmetric information not only exists between the informed and uninformed investors, but also happens to market makers and informed investors. Finally, our findings lead to a conclusion, in which the high search of information tends to help investors in making appropriate investment decisions. Keywords: investors’ attention, internet search traffic, google trend, bid-ask spread

  15. Joint bidding restriction policy for selective E and P firms in the US Gulf of Mexico OCS: How persuasive is its effectiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iledare, Omowumi O.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    The principal Minerals Management Service (MMS) policy or regulation intended to promote competition (or inhibit collusion) in the lease market is the Restricted Joint Bidders List. It is compiled and published twice a year and applies to all lease sales held during the subsequent six-month period or until the next list is issued. This paper applies descriptive and econometric analyses to data on lease sales in the US Gulf of Mexico OCS region to evaluate the effectiveness of this policy. In the aggregate, empirical analyses suggest that the imposition of joint bid restrictions on some E and P firms reduces bidding effectiveness for petroleum leases on the OCS. The patterns of bidding for leases on the OCS by E and P firms restricted from bidding jointly do not seem to indicate anticompetitive behavior. Further, joint bidding is found to be consistently associated with higher average high bids and this seems to be consistent with, and perhaps enhances competition in the lease market

  16. Competition and natural monopoly: the case for generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelegry, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Some examples and references are used to support the existence of economies of scale associated with the electricity industry; for this, and in accordance with economic theory, the existence of a natural monopoly for electricity generation can be argued. The paper discusses the theory that competition in generation, with the aim of lowering the cost of electricity, can be achieved by other means than the competition between generators over the bidding price. One alternative is the competition between generators with reference to standards fixed by a Regulator, along with the progressive introduction of new low-cost installed capacity. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Generation companies decision-making modeling by linear control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Sheble, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes four decision-making procedures to be employed by electric generating companies as part of their bidding strategies when competing in an oligopolistic market: naive, forward, adaptive, and moving average expectations. Decision-making is formulated in a dynamic framework by using linear control theory. The results reveal that interactions among all GENCOs affect market dynamics. Several numerical examples are reported, and conclusions are presented. (author)

  18. Impact of the 2013 National Rollout of CMS Competitive Bidding Program: The Disruption Continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckrein, Gary A; Hirsch, Irl B; Parkin, Christopher G; Taylor, Bruce T; Xu, Liou; Marrero, David G

    2018-05-01

    Use of glucose monitoring is essential to the safety of individuals with insulin-treated diabetes. In 2011, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Medicare Competitive Bidding Program (CBP) in nine test markets. This resulted in a substantial disruption of beneficiary access to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) supplies and significant increases in the percentage of beneficiaries with either reduced or no acquisition of supplies. These reductions were significantly associated with increased mortality, hospitalizations, and costs. The CBP was implemented nationally in July 2013. We evaluated the impact of this rollout to determine if the adverse outcomes seen in 2011 persisted. This longitudinal study followed 529,627 insulin-treated beneficiaries from 2009 through 2013 to assess changes in beneficiary acquisition of testing supplies in the initial nine test markets (TEST, n = 43,939) and beneficiaries not affected by the 2011 rollout (NONTEST, n = 485,688). All Medicare beneficiary records for analysis were obtained from CMS. The percentages of beneficiaries with partial/no SMBG acquisition were significantly higher in both the TEST (37.4%) and NONTEST (37.6%) groups after the first 6 months of the national CBP rollout, showing increases of 48.1% and 60.0%, respectively (both P < 0.0001). The percentage of beneficiaries with no record for SMBG acquisition increased from 54.1% in January 2013 to 62.5% by December 2013. Disruption of beneficiary access to their prescribed SMBG supplies has persisted and worsened. Diabetes testing supplies should be excluded from the CBP until transparent, science-based methodologies for safety monitoring are adopted and implemented. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Does the Lowest Bid Price Evaluation Criterion Make for a More Efficient Public Procurement Selection Criterion? (Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.

  20. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  1. Mere end blot en bid af hverdagen- Måltidet i et leve- og bomiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    . Datamaterialet bygger på deltagerobservationer og interviews. Undersøgelsen viste, at den måde måltiderne var organiseret på gav tid og rum til en hjemlig atmosfære, til et levende fællesskab, til det at være noget og at være sig selv og til at have værdifulde gøremål. Måltiderne var ikke blot en bid – men en...

  2. Using rituals to bid farewell. A qualitative study of the meaning of rituals for those who lost a loved one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild Stølen, Karen Marie

    . A hermeneutic phenomenological method is employed. Five qualitative interviews are conducted with the next-of-kin to deceased persons. There are three general themes: using rituals to bid farewell; the importance of having sufficient time; and knowing that help is there. The themes are discussed in the light...... of Stifoss- Hanssen’s theory concerning the significance of rituals and Travelbee’s existential perspective on nursing, and other relevant scientific studies and theories. It is concluded that the next-of-kin make use of traditional and personal rituals. Social, Psychological and spiritual significance...

  3. What explains willingness to pay for smoking-cessation treatments - addiction level, quit-rate effectiveness or the opening bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jan Abel; Røgeberg, Ole J; Stavem, Knut

    2012-11-01

    Several countries have now passed laws that place limitations on where smokers may smoke. A range of smoking-cessation treatments have become available, many of which have documented increased quit rates. Population surveys show that most smokers wish to quit, and most non-smokers would prefer to reduce the prevalence of smoking in society. The strengths of these preferences, however, as measured by their willingness to pay (WTP), have not yet been investigated. This study aims to identify variables that explain variations in people's answers to WTP questions on smoking-cessation treatments. A representative sample of the Norwegian population was asked their WTP in terms of an earmarked contribution to a public smoking-cessation programme. A sub-group of daily smokers was, in addition, asked about their WTP for a hypothetical treatment that would remove their urge to smoke. The impact of variation in the question format (different opening bids) on stated WTP was compared with that of factors suggested by economic theory, such as quit-rate effectiveness, degree of addiction as measured by the 12-item Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-12), and degree of peer group influence as measured by the proportion of one's friends who smoke. In both programmes, the most important determinant for explaining variations in WTP was the size of the opening bid. Differences in quit-rate effectiveness did not matter for people's WTP for the smoking-cessation programme. Addiction, and having a small proportion of friends who smoke, were positively associated with smokers' WTP to quit smoking. Variations in WTP were influenced more by how the question was framed in terms of differences in opening bids, than by variables reflecting the quality (effectiveness) and need (addiction level) for the good in question. While the WTP method is theoretically attractive, the findings that outcomes in terms of different quit rates did not affect WTP, and that WTP answers can be manipulated by the

  4. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabona, Narcis; Pages, Adela

    2007-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  5. The dynamic still-face effect: do infants decrease bidding over time when parents are not responsive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V; Haltigan, John D; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-06-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease bidding and disengage from their impassive parent. Research has documented changes in mean levels of infant behavior between episodes of the SFP. The hypothesis that infant behavior changes within the SF episode has not been empirically tested. In this study, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that infant gazing at the parent, smiling, and social bidding (smiling while gazing at the parent) decreased with time in the SF episode, while infant cry-face expressions increased. Changes in infant behaviors within the SF episode were associated with infant attachment and infant internalizing problems. The dynamic still-face effect quantifies infant initiation of interaction in the face of parental unresponsiveness and is a potential predictor of individual differences in development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Research and Design of Bidding Decision System Based on Taobao Train%基于淘宝直通车的竞价决策系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周润博; 张忠能

    2014-01-01

    电子商务蓬勃发展的大环境下,广告主具有强烈的电商广告投放意愿,显然他们并未达到电商广告的核心业务SEM (搜索引擎营销优化)的专业要求。所以广告主希望借助第三方工具来进行搜索引擎广告投放的一站式服务来满足其业务需求。基于此,本文将提供一整套的竞价词托管式服务的解决方案。以淘宝直通车这一全新的搜索竞价模式作为研究对象,从语义抽取、关键词扩展、竞价词生成、模型化出价、广告效果正向反馈监控模型几方面进行分析和统计,为直通车广告主提供最优投放策略整体解决方案。第一阶段针对商品信息进行数据挖掘,实现关键词推荐引擎。第二阶段实现投放优化模块,实施定价策略,建立的点击量与PPC(“平均点击花费”)模型,实现在预算资金的约束下对不同竞价组合进行ROI(投入产出比)最大化的投资决策。以实际效果改善直通车竞价搜索用户体验。%Under the booming development of e-commerce, however, they neither know nor understand SEM business well, which has both high professional requirements and threshold of SEM (Search engine marketing and optimization). Advertisers are keen to use third-party tools to supply the one-stop service of search engine advertising to meet their business needs. Based on this, this ar-ticle will provide a complete set of bidding word hosted service solutions. Taobao trains as a new search auction model as my subject of academic studies .After analyzing and collecting statistics of semantic extraction, keywords expansion, bid word generation, mod-eling bids, advertising effect positive feedback monitoring model, this thesis offers the optimal solution of placing advertising, I want to provide train advertisers the best overall solution delivery strategy. The first phase focuses on product information for data mining, to achieve keyword recommendation

  7. BI-D1870 is a specific inhibitor of the p90 RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) isoforms in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Gopal P; Cummings, Lorna; Newell, Felicity S

    2007-01-01

    ), which then mediate many of the physiological processes that are regulated by these extracellular agonists. It can be difficult to assess the individual functions of each AGC kinase because their substrate specificities are similar. Here we describe the small molecule BI-D1870, which inhibits RSK1, RSK2......, RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor......)-induced phosphoryl-ation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and LKB1 in human embry-onic kidney 293 cells and Rat-2 cells. In contrast, BI-D1870 does not affect the agonist-triggered phosphorylation of substrates for six other AGC kinases. Moreover, BI-D1870 does not suppress the phorbol ester- or EGF...

  8. Environmental aspects to be considered on public bids and concession agreements; A variavel ambiental na licitacao e no contrato de concessao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Maria Alice; Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros, Maria Angelica [Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present article is to discuss the controversies and propose solutions in order to manage environmental aspects aiming at minimizing excessive and unnecessary risks and costs for bid participants and concessionaires of the Brazilian oil and gas E and P activities. (author)

  9. tBid and cardiolipin - trying an insight to the interplay of cell apoptosis key players in a simple model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya; Antonsson, Bruno

    he abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefor...

  10. Competition and natural monopoly. The case for generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelegry, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, economic theory has considered the generation, transport and distribution of electricity to be a natural monopoly, primarily as a result of the economies of scale associated with the electricity industry. Recently, and partly as a consequence of the deregulation trends within Europe, this paradigm of a natural monopoly in electricity generation has come under question. Some examples and references are used to support the existence of economies of scale and scope of electricity generation, and for this, and in accordance with economic theory, can be argued the existence of natural monopoly. Competition in generation is discussed, with the aim of lowering the cost of electricity that can be achieved by other means than the competition between generators over the bidding price. The advantages and disadvantages of the new generation are considered, such as gas in combined cycle, cogeneration systems and renewables. (R.P.)

  11. Identification of a cytochrome P4502E1/Bid/C1q-dependent axis mediating inflammation in adipose tissue after chronic ethanol feeding to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Becky M; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Tang, Hui; Hillian, Antoinette D; Feldstein, Ariel E; Stahl, Gregory L; Takahashi, Kazue; Nagy, Laura E

    2011-10-14

    Chronic, heavy alcohol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and liver injury. Here we have identified a CYP2E1/Bid/C1q-dependent pathway that is activated in response to chronic ethanol and is required for the development of inflammation in adipose tissue. Ethanol feeding for 25 days to wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice increased expression of multiple markers of adipose tissue inflammation relative to pair-fed controls independent of increased body weight or adipocyte size. Ethanol feeding increased the expression of CYP2E1 in adipocytes, but not stromal vascular cells, in adipose tissue and Cyp2e1(-/-) mice were protected from adipose tissue inflammation in response to ethanol. Ethanol feeding also increased the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei in adipose tissue of wild-type mice but not in Cyp2e1(-/-) or Bid (-/-) mice. Apoptosis contributed to adipose inflammation, as the expression of multiple inflammatory markers was decreased in mice lacking the Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway. The complement protein C1q binds to apoptotic cells, facilitating their clearance and activating complement. Making use of C1q-deficient mice, we found that activation of complement via C1q provided the critical link between CYP2E1/Bid-dependent apoptosis and onset of adipose tissue inflammation in response to chronic ethanol. In summary, chronic ethanol increases CYP2E1 activity in adipose, leading to Bid-mediated apoptosis and activation of complement via C1q, finally resulting in adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these data identify a novel mechanism for the development of adipose tissue inflammation that likely contributes to the pathophysiological effects of ethanol.

  12. Electricity market auction settings in a future Danish electricity system with a high penetration of renewable energy sources - A comparison of marginal pricing and pay-as-bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sorknaes, Peter; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    The long-term goal for Danish energy policy is to be free of fossil fuels through the increasing use of renewable energy sources (RES) including fluctuating renewable electricity (FRE). The Danish electricity market is part of the Nordic power exchange, which uses a Marginal Price auction system (MPS) for the day-ahead auctions. The market price is thus equal to the bidding price of the most expensive auction winning unit. In the MPS, the FRE bid at prices of or close to zero resulting in reduced market prices during hours of FRE production. In turn, this reduces the FRE sources' income from market sales. As more FRE is implemented, this effect will only become greater, thereby reducing the income for FRE producers. Other auction settings could potentially help to reduce this problem. One candidate is the pay-as-bid auction setting (PAB), where winning units are paid their own bidding price. This article investigates the two auction settings, to find whether a change of auction setting would provide a more suitable frame for large shares of FRE. This has been done with two energy system scenarios with different shares of FRE. From the analysis, it is found that MPS is generally better for the FRE sources. The result is, however, very sensitive to the base assumptions used for the calculations. -- Highlights: → In this study two different auction settings for the Danish electricity market are compared. → Two scenarios are used in the analyses, one representing the present system and one representing a future 100% renewable energy system. → We find that marginal price auction system is most suitable for supporting fluctuating renewable energy in both scenarios. → The results are very sensitive to the assumptions about bidding prices for each technology.

  13. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  14. Simulating European wind power generation applying statistical downscaling to reanalysis data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Monforti, F.; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    generation time series dataset for the EU-28 and neighbouring countries at hourly intervals and at different geographical aggregation levels (country, bidding zone and administrative territorial unit), for a 30 year period taking into account the wind generating fleet at the end of 2015. (C) 2017 The Authors...... and characteristics of the wind resource which is related to the accuracy of the approach in converting wind speed data into power values. One of the main factors contributing to the uncertainty in these conversion methods is the selection of the spatial resolution. Although numerical weather prediction models can...... could not be captured by the use of a reanalysis technique and could be translated into misinterpretations of the wind power peaks, ramping capacities, the behaviour of power prices, as well as bidding strategies for the electricity market. This study contributes to the understanding what is captured...

  15. Conceptual framework for load controlling : with demand reduction bidding & consumer retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Ahamed, I.; Al-Ammar, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Advancement in demand side management strategies enables smart grid to cope with the increasing energy demand and provide economic benefit to all of its stakeholders. Moreover, emerging concept of smart pricing and advances in load control and communication generate new business opportunities as a

  16. An electricity market with fast bidding, planning and balancing in smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn future energy systems, peaks in the daily electricity generation and consumption are expected to increase. The "smart grid" concept aims to maintain high levels of efficiency in the energy system by establishing distributed intelligence. Software agents (operating on devices with

  17. 7 CFR 1942.18 - Community facilities-Planning, bidding, contracting, constructing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... environments be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations under the Wild and... constructed in accordance with the seismic provisions of one of the following model building codes or the...

  18. On the quality and value of probabilistic forecasts of wind generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Juban, Jeremie; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2006-01-01

    the uncertainty information, can be seen as optimal for the management or trading of wind generation. This paper explores the differences and relations between the quality (i.e. statistical performance) and the operational value of these forecasts. An application is presented on the use of probabilistic...... predictions for bidding in a European electricity market. The benefits of a probabilistic view of wind power forecasting are clearly demonstrated....

  19. Nash equilibrium strategies of generating companies (Gencos) in the simultaneous operation of active and reactive power market, with considering voltage stability margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the behavior of Gencos in the active and reactive power markets. ► Genco’s strategy is modeled as a bi-level optimization problem. ► The ISO’s market clearing model is modified with applying generator APFs. ► Good forecast of Genco’s information will increase the accuracy of proposed method. ► Obtained profit of Gencos depend on their bidding strategy. - Abstract: As Gencos are responsible for providing active and reactive power generation, they should devise good bidding strategies for energy and reactive power market. The paper describes a method for analyzing the competition among transmission-constrained Gencos with incomplete information. The proposed methodology employs the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a Genco’s bidding strategy in energy market and uses Expected Payment Function (EPF) to construct a bidding framework in the reactive power market. The problem of finding the optimum strategy of Gencos is modeled as a bi-level optimization problem, where the upper sub-problem represents individual Genco’s payoff and the lower sub-problem solves the ISO’s market clearing problem. The ISO’s market clearing model is modified with applying generator Active Participation Factors to improve the voltage stability margin. The IEEE 39 bus test system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. O ajuste urbano: as políticas do Banco Mundial e do BID para as cidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fiori Arantes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao ajuste estrutural que se seguiu à crise da dívida no Terceiro Mundo, no início dos anos 80 - e ainda persiste como um ajuste permanente -, parece ter ocorrido um correspondente" ajuste urbano". Em ambos os casos, o Banco Mundial e, na América Latina, o BID, tiveram ação decisiva, em parceria com as elites e tecnocracias locais. As estratégias de ação dessas duas instituições financeiras, apesar de sua forte interferência nas políticas públicas dos países em desenvolvimento, constituem um tema novo e ainda pouco abordado pela pesquisa acadêmica. Em nosso caso, o objetivo foi desvendar o modelo de cidade que tem sido por elas defendido e qual seu significado. Na dissertação que realizei pela FAUUSP, constatei que os empréstimos do Banco Mundial e do BID - que aparecem aos gestores públicos como" tábuas de salvação" em tempos de crise -, não são" neutros" e carregam consigo uma agenda afirmativa: pretendem modelar um determinado padrão de uso do recurso público e de organização do Estado. As duas instituições difundem políticas públicas que seguem critérios empresariais de rentabilidade e um modelo de gestão estatal terceirizada, à mercê de um corpo técnico privado - formado por gerenciadoras de projeto, fundações privadas, ONGs e inúmeros consultores. Seu objetivo é transformar uma parcela dos governos locais nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente os que administram os territórios que dão suporte aos negócios transnacionais, em estruturas administrativas treinadas para responder aos grandes interesses privados, ao mesmo tempo em que se desembaraçam de qualquer compromisso com a democracia real.

  1. El financiamiento de las competencias profesionales del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en la educación superior tecnológica (EST de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez Padilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación que tiene lugar entre el gobierno mexicano con organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial (BM y, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID para el financiamiento de las competencias profesionales en las Instituciones de Educación Superior Tecnológicas (IEST. Desde la perspectiva teórica de la Nueva Gestión Pública (NGP se argumenta que el BID, a través de sus programas de competencias profesionales, tiene una gran influencia en las funciones y atribuciones de las Universidades Politécnicas (UUPP y, que dichos programas responden más a una lógica de compromisos institucionales que a una evaluación efectiva de resultados

  2. A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    20-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponin formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (12 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. Treatment of HepG2 cells with IH901 also induced the cleavage of cytosolic factors such as Bid and Bax and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) to mitochondria. A time-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was observed, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), and a specific inhibitor for caspase-8, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zIETD-fmk), abrogated Bid processing and translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Cytochrome c release was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, however, the inhibition by zIETD-fmk was not complete. The activation of caspase-8 was inhibited not only by zIETD-fmk but also by zVAD-fmk. The results, together with the kinetic change of caspase activation, indicate that activation of caspase-8 occurred downstream of caspase-3 and -9. Our data suggest that the activation of caspase-8 after early caspase-3 activation might act as an amplification loop necessary for successful apoptosis. Primary hepatocytes isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were not affected by IH901 (0-60 μM). The very low toxicity in normal hepatocytes and high activity in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells suggest that IH901 is a promising experimental cancer chemopreventive agent

  3. Claiming Rosa Parks: conservative Catholic bids for 'rights' in contemporary Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    When the Rosa Parks Prize was awarded to a conservative Argentine senator in 2009 for her outspoken opposition to contraception, sterilisation and abortion, it was clear that something odd was happening. This paper documents the appropriation of 'human rights' discourses by conservative Catholics in Latin America, where the recent success of reproductive and sexual rights social movements has generated a significant backlash. It specifically traces an effort by Catholic legal scholars to justify what they term 'a distinctively Latin American approach to human rights' while ignoring decades of human rights activism by others. Opponents of reproductive and sexual rights are deploying rights-talk selectively and strategically, it is argued, using this as secular cover to advance pro-life and pro-family policies.

  4. Security analysis with improved design of post-confirmation mechanism for quantum sealed-bid auction with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Ma, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2018-02-01

    Quantum sealed-bid auction (QSA) has been widely studied in quantum cryptography. For a successful auction, post-confirmation is regarded as an important mechanism to make every bidder verify the identity of the winner after the auctioneer has announced the result. However, since the auctioneer may be dishonest and collude with malicious bidders in practice, some potential loopholes could exist. In this paper, we point out two types of collusion attacks for a particular post-confirmation technique with EPR pairs. And it is not difficult to see that there exists no unconditionally secure post-confirmation mechanism in the existing QSA model, if the dishonest participants have the ability to control multiparticle entanglement. In the view of this, we note that some secure implementation could exist if the participants are supposed to be semi-quantum, i.e., they can only control single photons. Finally, two potential methods to design post-confirmation mechanism are presented in this restricted scenario.

  5. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage. PMID:23254290

  6. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Shiels

    Full Text Available It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences.A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters.The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6.These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links.

  7. Analysis tool public bidding the light of constitutional principles of cf / 88: a debate on the laws 8666 / 1993 and 12,462 / 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Júnior Siqueira dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at to promote a debate between the General Law of Administrative Contracts and Tenders (Law 8.666/93 and the Law Differentiated Scheme Public Contracting (Law 12.462/2011 Act regarding the observance of the Constitutional Principles of Public Administration in elaboration phase public bidding and execution of these instruments. This required from an initial study on Public Management which had as background rag and the Principles Bidding with emphasis on rol of the Chapeau of article 37 the Federal Constitution of 1988. Bidding procedures retro mentioned laws were also compared. The statement of reasons was made by literature search. As a result of the investigation, it was found that although there is a formal compliance with principled norm with regard respect the principles of public administration in both competitions governed by laws, not an application in hand and visible interest of the Public Power of the DRC in cases of greater relevance and urgency, which deconstructs the reason for this exceptional regime and calls into question the substantive norm of access to potential beneficiaries with full compliance.

  8. Survey report on awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kotomi

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes-such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports-after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study's subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports.

  9. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  10. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van

    2012-01-01

    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  11. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  12. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  13. Estimation of the Levelised Electricity Generation Cost for a PWR-Power Plant and Preliminary Evaluation of National Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, G; Hainoun, A

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed economic evaluation of the Levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) for a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor (PWR). The total generation costs are splited in base construction costs, supplementary costs, owner's costs, financial costs, fuel cycle costs and operation and maintenance costs. The evaluation covers also the sensitivity of the estimated energy unit cost to various factors (real annual discount rate, escalation rate, interest rate, load factor, ..) including the role of national participation, that depends upon the development of national infrastructure. For performing this study the IAEA's program package for economic bid evaluation (Bideval-3) has been employed. The program is designed to assist the user in the economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plant (NPP). It follows the recommended method of determining the present worth value of all costs components for generated electricity unit. The performed study aims at developing national expertise in the field of bid evaluation for electric power plants with main emphasis on NPP. Additional goal is to convoying the technical and economic development of NPP technology that can help in supporting the decision maker with adequate information related to the future development of energy supply system and measures required for ensuring national energy supply security. (author)

  14. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  15. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  16. Optimising generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, E.J.; Garcia, A.O.; Graffigna, F.M.; Verdu, C.A. (IMPSA (Argentina). Generators Div.)

    1994-11-01

    A new computer tool, the ARGEN program, has been developed for dimensioning large hydroelectric generators. This results in better designs, and reduces calculation time for engineers. ARGEN performs dimensional tailoring of salient pole synchronous machines in generators, synchronous condensers, and generator-motors. The operation and uses of ARGEN are explained and its advantages are listed in this article. (UK)

  17. An agent-based simulation of power generation company behavior in electricity markets under different market-clearing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, Danial Esmaeili; Kaya, Murat; Şahin, Güvenç

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets are expected to provide affordable electricity for consumers through promoting competition. Yet, the results do not always fulfill the expectations. The regulator's market-clearing mechanism is a strategic choice that may affect the level of competition in the market. We conceive of the market-clearing mechanism as composed of two components: pricing rules and rationing policies. We investigate the strategic behavior of power generation companies under different market-clearing mechanisms using an agent-based simulation model which integrates a game-theoretical understanding of the auction mechanism in the electricity market and generation companies' learning mechanism. Results of our simulation experiments are presented using various case studies representing different market settings. The market in simulations is observed to converge to a Nash equilibrium of the stage game or to a similar state under most parameter combinations. Compared to pay-as-bid pricing, bid prices are closer to marginal costs on average under uniform pricing while GenCos' total profit is also higher. The random rationing policy of the ISO turns out to be more successful in achieving lower bid prices and lower GenCo profits. In minimizing GenCos' total profit, a combination of pay-as-bid pricing rule and random rationing policy is observed to be the most promising. - Highlights: • An agent-based simulation of generation company behavior in electricity markets is developed. • Learning dynamics of companies is modeled with an extended Q-learning algorithm. • Different market clearing mechanisms of the regulator are compared. • Convergence to Nash equilibria is analyzed under different cases. • The level of competition in the market is studied.

  18. Nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    has grown in extending NPP operating life-times and actual licensed life-time extensions of up to 60 years are already a reality. Currently nuclear power is most suitable for electricity production, as are hydro, wind, and solar power. However, technological progress is likely to make possible the eventual cost-effective production of chemical fuels, including hydrogen, from all these sources. They could thus help meet transportation energy needs now largely met by oil. Nuclear power plants, whose comparative advantage is base-load electricity production around the clock, would be well suited to producing, while the cities sleep, the hydrogen transport fuel to keep them moving the next day. Finally, nuclear power might also be extensively used in the future for seawater desalination, thereby helping to address another pressing challenge of sustainable development - the provision of plentiful, safe, and secure supplies of clean fresh water for a growing global population. The choice of technologies to advance sustainable development in any given country is a sovereign choice, and each country will need a mix of technologies suited to its situation and needs. Given the advantages of nuclear power in contributing to sustainable development objectives, it should be an important part of the mix in many countries. The essence of the Brundtland Report's definition of sustainable development is the importance of expanding possibilities and keeping options open - not foreclosing them for future generations. In line with the Agenda 21 principle of differentiated responsibilities among countries, those countries who are able and willing have a particularly important role to play in keeping the nuclear option open, broadening the resource base, reducing harmful emissions, expanding electricity supplies, and increasing the world's technological and human capital

  19. War-gaming application for future space systems acquisition part 2: acquisition and bidding war-gaming modeling and simulation approaches for FFP and FPIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes cooperative and non-cooperative static Bayesian game models with complete and incomplete information for the development of optimum acquisition strategies associated with the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) solutions obtained from Part 1 of this paper [1]. The optimum acquisition strategies discussed focus on achieving "Affordability" by incorporating contractors' bidding strategies into the government acquisition strategies for acquiring future space systems. The paper discusses System Engineering (SE) frameworks, analytical and simulation approaches and modeling for developing the optimum acquisition strategies from both the government and contractor perspectives for Firm Fixed Price (FFP) and Fixed Price Incentive Firm (FPIF) contract types.

  20. Clinical and economic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating insulin glargine disposable pen versus exenatide BID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Onur; Wei, Wenhui; Baser, Erdem; Xie, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate clinical and economic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who failed oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD) therapy and initiated either insulin glargine with disposable pen (GLA-P) or exenatide BID (EXE). This retrospective study used data from a large US-managed care claims database and included adult T2DM patients initiating treatment with GLA-P or EXE in 2007 or 2008. Propensity score matching was used to control observed baseline differences between treatment groups. Primary study end-points included treatment persistence, A1C, healthcare utilization, and healthcare costs during the 1-year follow-up period. Two thousand three hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the study (GLA-P: 381; EXE: 1958); 626 patients were in the 1:1 matched cohort (54% male; mean age: 54 years; mean A1C: 9.2%). At follow-up, patients in the GLA-P group were significantly more persistent in treatment than EXE patients (48% vs 15% in persistence rate and 252 vs 144 days in persistence days; both p<0.001). GLA-P patients also had significantly lower A1C at follow-up (8.02% vs 8.32%; p=0.042) and greater A1C reduction from baseline (-1.23% vs -0.92%; p=0.038). There were no significant differences in claims-based hypoglycemia rates and overall diabetes-related healthcare utilization and cost. Since this was a retrospective analysis, causality of treatment benefits cannot be established. The study was specific to two treatments and may not generalize to other models of insulin administration. Some of the results, although statistically significant, may not be found clinically important. In a real-world setting among T2DM patients who failed to achieve or sustain glycemic goal with OADs, initiation of GLA-P instead of EXE may be a more effective option because it was associated with greater treatment persistence, greater A1C reduction without a significantly higher rate of hypoglycemia, and similar healthcare costs.

  1. Bidding for Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    the anonymity of buyer strategies implies coordination frictions - the sellers generally choose negative reserve prices and the equilibrium is constrained efficient. The advertisement of a negative reserve price is equivalent to the advertisement of an amenity that augments the value of the club good....... The function of this amenity is to ensure a critical mass of bidders at the seller’s location. For example, if a firm is attempting to assemble a team to utilize a club good at its location, it will also choose to advertise commitment to an additional amenity, such as a set of free health club memberships...

  2. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  3. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  4. Olympic Games Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Hosting international sport events, from world championships for a single sport to mega-events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup, have become big business over the past few decades. These events have grown tremendously since their early incarnations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The popularity and appeal of sport make hosting sporting events desirable for both local politicians and national sport leaders who work together to convince the public and the i...

  5. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  6. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  7. Biomass power generation in competitive markets - The impact of instruments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation as well as the impact of market regulations on the development of biomass power generation. The evaluation of the existing instruments focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. Feed-in tariffs and net metering are important instruments to get the different technologies 'off the ground', however, they can only be considered an interim solution as they do not necessarily lead to cost reduction. A bidding process is one way to achieve these cost reductions, but high transaction costs will support the development of large renewable energy projects, which is not always the desired effect. Fixed quotas combined with green certificate trading or a power exchange in combination with Green Pricing seem to lead to similar costs reduction, however, so far there is only limited experience with such instruments. The analysis of the impact of market regulations focuses on international electricity markets with a power exchange. Such markets exist, for example, in Scandinavia, England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand and California. The analysis showed that new distributed generation, for example based on biomass, faces significant market barriers. Furthermore, distributed generation is not treated equally within the market regulations compared to large-scale power generation

  8. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  9. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  10. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  14. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  15. Steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.-C.

    1980-01-01

    Steam generator particularly intended for use in the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor for vaporizing a secondary liquid, generally water, by the primary cooling liquid of the reactor and comprising special arrangements for drying the steam before it leaves the generator [fr

  16. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Coverage and Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program Bid Surety Bonds, State Licensure and Appeals Process for Breach of Contract Actions, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program and Fee Schedule Adjustments, Access to Care Issues for Durable Medical Equipment; and the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for calendar year 2017. It also finalizes policies for coverage and payment for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, including the inclusion of new quality measures beginning with payment year (PY) 2020 and provides updates to programmatic policies for the PY 2018 and PY 2019 ESRD QIP. This rule also implements statutory requirements for bid surety bonds and state licensure for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Competitive Bidding Program (CBP). This rule also expands suppliers' appeal rights in the event of a breach of contract action taken by CMS, by revising the appeals regulation to extend the appeals process to all types of actions taken by CMS for a supplier's breach of contract, rather than limit an appeal for the termination of a competitive bidding contract. The rule also finalizes changes to the methodologies for adjusting fee schedule amounts for DMEPOS using information from CBPs and for submitting bids and establishing single payment amounts under the CBPs for certain groupings of similar items with different features to address price inversions. Final changes also are made to the method for establishing bid limits for items under the DMEPOS CBPs. In addition, this rule summarizes comments on the impacts of coordinating Medicare and Medicaid Durable Medical Equipment for dually eligible beneficiaries. Finally, this rule also summarizes comments received in response to a request for information related to the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model and future payment models affecting renal care.

  17. Energy generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Current perceptions conjure images of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines when green building or sustainable development is discussed. How energy is used and how it is generated are core components of both green building and sustainable...

  18. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  19. New forms of development: branding innovative ideas and bidding for foreign aid in the maternal and child health service in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Smith, Pam; Sharma, Jeevan Raj; Chand, Obindra Bahadur

    2018-03-27

    Nepal has been receiving foreign aid since the early 1950s. Currently, the country's health care system is heavily dependent on aid, even for the provision of basic health services to its people. Globally, the mechanism for the dispersal of foreign aid is becoming increasingly complex. Numerous stakeholders are involved at various levels: donors, intermediary organisations, project-implementing partners and the beneficiaries, engaging not only in Nepal but also globally. To illustrate how branding and bidding occurs, and to discuss how this process has become increasingly vital in securing foreign aid to run MCH activities in Nepal. This paper is based on a qualitative study. The data collection method includes Key Informant Interviews, the review of relevant policy documents and secondary data, and finally field observation visits to four maternal and child health (MCH) projects, currently funded by foreign aid. Through these methods we planned to gain a comprehensive understanding of the aid dispersing mechanism, and the aid-securing strategies, used by organisations seeking funds to provide MCH services in Nepal. Study findings suggest that foreign aid for the provision of MCH services in Nepal is channeled increasingly to its beneficiaries, not through the Government system, but rather via various intermediary organisations, employing branding and bidding processes. These organisations adapt commercial models, seeking to justify their 'cost-effectiveness'. They argue that they are 'yielding good value for money', with short-term target oriented projects. This ethos is evident throughout the aid dispersing chain. Organisations use innovative ideas and intervention packages, branded internationally and nationally, and employ the appropriate language of commerce in their bid to secure funds. The paper raises an important question as to whether the current mechanisms of channeling foreign aid in the MCH sector, via intermediary organisations, can actually be cost

  20. ANALISIS REAKSI INVESTOR TERHADAP PENGUMUMAN RIGHT ISSUE DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA (Suatu Pengamatan pada Return, Abnormal Return, Aktivitas Volume Perdagangan dan Bid-Ask Spread Saham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI DEWI YUSUF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Development of stock market activity, which grows very fast lead to significant changes on the demand of information quality. To make the rational investor decision making, it is needed a relevant information in order to identify any work of the company. Event study is a study which analyze any market reactions toward an event which the information is published as announcement. Right issue announcement can affect market, it is depent on the existence of the content of the information in the right issue announcement above. If the right issue announcement contains some information so the market will react and the market won’t react if no information. The research sample is determined by a purposive sampling method, and there are 17 companies which announce right issue between 2000-2003. Statistical experiment used is T-test experiment (paired two samples for means. The Observation period which is done in 11 day, consist of 5 day before, 1 day in the moment, and 5 day after the announce right issue. Results show that there is a significant difference between return and abnormal return in the period of between at the moment, and after the announce right issue. The result in the before-after announce right issue period shows that there is no significant difference. The result in the variable activity of stock’s trade volume shows that there is signification difference in the before-at the moment and after period, but in the result of before-after period show that there is no significant difference there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period the result shows that there is no significant different there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period

  1. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, N.; Pivot, X.; Marcy, P.Y.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Dassonville, O.; Possonnet, G.; Vallicioni, J.; Ettore, F.; Falewee, M.N.; Milano, G.; Santini, J.; Lagrange, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m 2 (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m 2 /day at 1. course; 430 mg/m 2 /day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3 years for patients

  2. Real-time Trading Strategies for Proactive Distribution Company with Distributed Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi

    Distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed generation (DG) and demand response (DR), have been recognized worldwide as valuable resources. High integration of DG and DR in the distribution network inspires a potential deregulated environment for the distribution company (DISCO...... in the presented DL market and transact with TL real-time market. A one-leader multi-follower-type bi-level model is proposed to indicate the PDISCO's trading strategies. To participate in the TL real-time market, a methodology is presented to derive continuous bidding/offering strategies for a PDISCO. A bi...

  3. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  4. The allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor BI-D affects virion maturation but does not influence packaging of a functional RNA genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki van Bel

    Full Text Available The viral integrase (IN is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs. Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle.

  5. The allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor BI-D affects virion maturation but does not influence packaging of a functional RNA genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bel, Nikki; van der Velden, Yme; Bonnard, Damien; Le Rouzic, Erwann; Das, Atze T; Benarous, Richard; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The viral integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs). Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle.

  6. Generation Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  7. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  8. Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, R.L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Steam generators for nuclear reactors are designed so that deposition of solids on the surface of the inlet side of the tubesheet or the inlet header with the consequent danger of corrosion and eventual tube failure is obviated or substantially reduced. (U.K.)

  9. New transmission planning methodology for requesting proposals for wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Andrew L.

    The increasing interest in renewable energy technologies during the last decade has caused conventional transmission and generation expansion planning methodologies to be strained and in some cases abandoned. This is due both to the quantity of generator interconnection requests and the constraints imposed by deregulated energy industry structures. One technique used to control the influx of renewable generation while maintaining competitive principles is a Request for Proposals (RFP). However, lack of transmission planning due to a disconnection between generation and transmission owners, difficulty in identifying viable projects, and high risk for proponents stand as obstacles to the goals of an RFP. This research proposes a procedure which minimizes the effect of these obstacles; meeting the purchaser requirements for low price and combining conventional planning concepts with feedback from competitive structures. The general features of the method include definition of generation limits and study area, expansion plan design, transmission cost evaluation, optimal selection of requested generation levels, and final selection of successful proponents. The method is shown to be effective in creating an RFP where proponents are well-informed and provided with cost certainty to reduce bid price, buyers are able to determine end costs of their energy, and good expansion planning principles are maintained. A case study using a real system in New Mexico demonstrates these concepts.

  10. Trading wind generation from short-term probabilistic forecasts of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Chevallier, Christophe; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature of the wind resource, a wind power producer participating in a liberalized electricity market is subject to penalties related to regulation costs. Accurate forecasts of wind generation are therefore paramount for reducing such penalties and thus maximizing revenue......, as well as on modeling of the sensitivity a wind power producer may have to regulation costs. The benefits resulting from the application of these strategies are clearly demonstrated on the test case of the participation of a multi-MW wind farm in the Dutch electricity market over a year....... participation. Such strategies permit to further increase revenues and thus enhance competitiveness of wind generation compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. This paper formulates a general methodology for deriving optimal bidding strategies based on probabilistic forecasts of wind generation...

  11. Generating functional analysis of minority games with real market histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how the generating functional method of De Dominicis can be used to solve the dynamics of the original version of the minority game (MG), in which agents observe real as opposed to fake market histories. Here one again finds exact closed equations for correlation and response functions, but now these are defined in terms of two connected effective non-Markovian stochastic processes: a single effective agent equation similar to that of the 'fake' history models, and a second effective equation for the overall market bid itself (the latter is absent in 'fake' history models). The result is an exact theory, from which one can calculate from first principles both the persistent observables in the MG and the distribution of history frequencies

  12. Sustainability-guided promotion of renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the threat of global climate change, high fuel import dependence, and rapidly rising electricity demand levels have intensified the quest for more sustainable energy systems. This in turn has increased the need for policy makers to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources. Guaranteed prices coupled with a buy-back obligation for electricity fed into the grid is a popular renewables promotion instrument, especially in Europe. More recently, driven mainly by electricity market liberalisation efforts, quota targets for the share of renewables in combination with tradable 'green' certificates (TGC) have received considerable attention. TGC offer a greater theoretical potential for economic efficiency gains, due to price competition and the greater flexibility assigned to the obliged parties. While guaranteed prices and TGC schemes support the operation of renewable energy technology systems, bidding schemes for renewable energy generation capacity are used to raise economic efficiency on the plant construction side. All of these policy instruments suffer from the shortcoming that they do not explicitly account for the often widely varying environmental, social and economic impacts of the technologies concerned. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the design of renewable energy policy instruments that is based on integrated assessment. In particular, we argue that using participatory multicriteria evaluation as part of the design of renewable energy promotion policies would make it possible: (1) to differentiate the level of promotion in a systematic and transparent manner according to their socio-ecological economic impact, and (2) to explicitly account for the preferences of stakeholders. A further problem of existing TGC and bidding schemes is that diversity of supply could be severely diminished, if few low-cost technologies were allowed to dominate the renewable energy market. To ensure a certain diversity of

  13. Competitive positioning of power generation plants in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.

    1998-01-01

    As industrialized countries deregulate their electric power industries, there is a fundamental shift from guaranteed cost recovery to open market competition on a deregulated grid. Utilities generally competitively bid into a power exchange where the lowest cost power providers are dispatched first. Therefore, the competitiveness of utilities determines their profitability. This commercial structure compels power generators to seek out ways of improving their equipment and plant performance. The inevitability of this trend is demonstrated by a look at the installed base in the US where the move toward deregulation is gaining momentum. More than half of the generating plants in the US are over 20 years old. The average thermal efficiency nation-wide is 33%. In contrast, contemporary coal-and gas-fired plants can operate at efficiency levels up to 45 percent and 55 to 60%, respectfully. With new facilities coming on-line, existing plants will need to make improvements to be dispatched. When deregulation fully envelopes the US market, utilities will not all fit into one pattern; their strategies and actions will depend on a multiple set of factors. Their success will be based on their ability to change landscapes from guaranteed cost recovery to competitive bidding. This paper discussers technical and commercial options available to power producers to improve their competitive positions in a deregulated market as well as software for determining the competitiveness of specific power plants and the location-based market prices of electricity. Examples of the application of alternatives will be cited along with expected payback and impact on cents per kilowatt-hour production costs

  14. Thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The main components of a thermoelectric generator are housed in an evacuated cylindrical vessel. In the middle of it there is the radioactive heat source, e.g. 90 Sr or 238 Pu, enclosed by a gamma radiation shield. This one is surrounded by a heat-insulating screen from getter material or indicidual sheets of titanium. In the bottom of the screen there are arranged several thermocouples on a circle. The thermocouples themselves are contained within casings sealed gas-tight and filled with an inert gas, e.g. argon. By separating the internal space of the generator vessel from the thermocouple casings, made of e.g. n- respectively p-doped lead telluride cylinders, for both the optimal gas state may be obtained. (DG) [de

  15. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  16. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  17. 48 CFR 1403.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a particular procurement: (1) Individuals who generate contract requirements, including program and... the contracting activity directly involved in the procurement; (4) Supervisors in the CO's chain of... ethics official and servicing Ethics Counselors; (17) Members of Congress and members of their staff...

  18. Economic-environmental active and reactive power scheduling of modern distribution systems in presence of wind generations: A distribution market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Abouzar; Kazemi, Ahad; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new market-based approach is proposed to schedule active and reactive powers. • Multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs is introduced. • A new economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed. • At distribution level, a reactive power market is developed in presence of DERs. - Abstract: Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energy-balance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO_2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The

  19. Análisis sobre las decisiones de los contratistas para licitar en la industria de la construcción palestina Analysis of contractors' bidding decision in the Palestinian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambas, la determinación de licitar y la determinación del precio a licitar son muy importantes para cada contratista. La importancia de estas determinaciones descansa en el hecho que, el éxito o fracaso del negocio contratista, depende de los resultados derivados de tales determinaciones. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar y analizar los factores que, se estima, afectan las determinaciones de licitar y del margen de utilidad en la industria de la construcción de la Franja de Gaza. Una encuesta, tipo cuestionario, reveló las respuestas de 77 contratistas generales. Los resultados indicaron que la mayoría de los contratistas depende de procesos subjetivos para tomar la determinación de licitar o no licitar, y para las determinaciones de margen de utilidad, fundamentados en un juicio basado en la experiencia. Algunos factores son considerados importantes en ambas determinaciones, mientras que otros factores son considerados importantes sólo para un tipo de determinación y no para la otra. Los grupos más importantes que afectan la licitación/no licitación y el margen de utilidad, resultaron ser el grupo "cliente y consultor del proyecto" y el grupo "Condiciones del proyecto que contribuyen a la rentabilidad del mismo". Los resultados también indicaron que, la capacidad financiera actual del cliente, tamaño del proyecto y la situación financiera de la empresa, constituyen factores principales para decidir si licitar o no licitar. Con relación a la determinación de margen de utilidad, se determinó que la duración del proyecto, el ambiente político y los plazos de pago constituyen los principales factores que afectan la determinación de margen de utilidad. Este estudio proporciona algunas recomendaciones.Both the bid decision and the determination of the bid price are very important to every contractor. The importance of such decisions lies in the fact that, the success or failure of a contractor's business depends on the

  20. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  1. GENERATIVE LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina León

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project that studied leadership from the standpoint of the personal conceptions that influence the behavior of local government leaders, as well as those conceptions desired to generate the social transformation processes required in communities. Qualitative methodology was used. Categories of analysis were created based on Pearson’s (1992 model of psychological archetypes. A relevant finding was the limited advance shown by interviewees regarding self-knowledge and a fragmented vision between the observer and the observee, which hinders their ability to take on the challenges that current reality demands from them.

  2. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Generation and Ancillary Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal shifts in hydrological regimes predicted under climate change conditions have implications for the management of reservoirs and hydropower contributions to generation and ancillary services. California relies on large hydropower plants to provide flexible electricity generation, which will be increasingly important for supporting renewable resources. This study examines the impact of climate change on large hydropower generation in California. Four climate models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 are utilized to evaluate the impact of the climate change conditions on (1) the magnitude and profile of hydropower generation and (2) the ability of hydropower to provide spinning reserve. Under both RCP scenarios, impacts are regionally dependent, with precipitation projected to increase in northern California and decrease in southern California for the ten-year period investigated (2046-2055). The overall result is a net increase in inflow into large hydropower units as a majority of the hydropower plants studied are located in the northern part of the state. Increased inflow is primarily driven by increased runoff during the winter and does not necessarily result in increased generation, as extreme events yield greater overall spillage, up to 45% of total inflow. Increased winter hydropower generation paired with increased reservoir constraints in summer result in an 11 to 18% decrease in spinning reserve potential across the year. Under high inflow conditions there is a decreased flexibility for choosing generation versus spinning reserve as water needs to be released, regardless. During summer, hydropower units providing spinning reserve experienced decreased inflow and lower reservoir levels compared to the historical baseline, resulting in decreased spinning reserve bidding potential. Decreased bidding, especially during summer periods at peak electricity demand, can result in greater demand for other dispatchable

  3. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  4. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Credit risk in the pool-implications for private capital investments in Brazilian power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Katia; Alcaraz Garcia, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    The new Brazilian Electric Sector Regulation of 2004 introduced two negotiation markets: the regulated pool and the free market. Competition in the pool is enforced via energy auctions, where the winning generator has to sign long-term power purchase agreements simultaneously with all distributors at the bidding-price. To estimate the appropriate credit risk spread of the pool, we implement a clustering methodology to rank and rate the distributors. The results show an average spread between 5.75% and 8.5%, which corresponds to a credit rating of B- according to the spreads available in Reuters 2004. This estimation is at least 208 basis points higher than the credit rating Ba1/BB+ assigned to the distributors by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) in the periodic tariff revisions. Distributors with higher risk/spread are located in the South-Southeast, compared to the low risk/spread ones concentrated in the North-Northeast. We estimate the opportunity cost of capital in real terms in the range of 13-16% to account for the credit risk of the pool. Essential to determine the bidding price at the auctions, this estimation is higher than the 11.26% opportunity cost estimated by ANEEL. The pool's credit risk has to be taken into consideration, especially for compensating new private capital investments in Brazilian power generation

  6. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1999-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Experience and new challenges in the Chilean generation and transmission sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, O.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean electrical sector was deregulated in 1982, where unbundling was applied, and generation competition and marginal costing were introduced. Description of the main features of the generation market and system operation is presented, followed by a synthesis of the main achievements and difficulties experienced in the practical application. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. The challenges of a new legislation, where the system is expected to join the second generation of deregulation are discussed. Advantage and risks of opening the energy market with a bidding system separate from ancillary service market are analysed. The experience with the troubles faced in the reformed power sector after 18 years is used to look at the possible advantages of the second stage of deregulation. (author)

  9. 石油企业招投标管理中存在的问题以及对策%Problems and Countermeasures in Bidding Management of Petroleum Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任纪舟; 侯伟牛; 司邦

    2016-01-01

    近几年来,受经济利益驱动和制度不健全等因素的影响,使得石油企业招投标管理出现了很多的问题。针对目前石油招投标管理中存在的问题,探讨解决这些问题的方法以及对策。%In recent years,due to the restriction of economic benefit and the system is not perfect and other factors,makes the oil companies bidding management have many problems,then,combined with the current petroleum bidding management,discusses the methods to solve these problems and countermeasures.

  10. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  11. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Generation Capacity Investments in Electricity Markets : Perfect Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkan, G.; Ozdemir, O.; Smeers, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In competitive electricity markets, markets designs based on power exchanges where supply bidding (barring demand-side bidding) is at the sole short run marginal cost may not guarantee resource adequacy. As alternative ways to remedy the resource adequacy problem, we focus on three

  13. Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in the Iran electricity market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in Iran electricity market as a market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism has been considered in this paper. The data analysis procedure includes both correlation and predictability analysis of the most important load and price indices. The employed data are the experimental time series from Iran electricity market in its real size and is long enough to make it possible to take properties such as non-stationarity of market into account. For predictability analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and recurrence plots of the data have been investigated. The results of these analyses indicate existence of deterministic chaos in addition to non-stationarity property of the system which implies short-term predictability. In the next step, two artificial neural networks have been developed for forecasting the two price indices in Iran's electricity market. The models' input sets are selected regarding four aspects: the correlation properties of the available data, the critiques of Iran's electricity market, a proper convergence rate in case of sudden variations in the market price behavior, and the omission of cumulative forecasting errors. The simulation results based on experimental data from Iran electricity market are representative of good performance of the developed neural networks in coping with and forecasting of the market behavior, even in the case of severe volatility in the market price indices. (author)

  14. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  15. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comp...

  16. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  17. The Relationship Between Electricity Price and Wind Power Generation in Danish Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    of competitive electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system. The relationship between the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price) and the wind power generation in an electricity market is investigated in this paper. The spot price, the down regulation price...... and the up regulation price generally decreases when the wind power penetration in the power system increases. The statistical characteristics of the spot price for different wind power penetration are analyzed. The findings of this paper may be useful for wind power generation companies to make the optimal...... bidding strategy and may be also useful for the optimal operation of modern power systems with high wind power penetrations....

  18. Deregulated expression of A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins and Bid, Bad, and Bax proapoptotic genes in polycythemia vera patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Patricia Lino Gasparotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis deregulation might have a role in the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera (PV. This study evaluated Bcl-2 molecule expression in CD34+ cells and leukocytes in 12 PV patients. Gene expression was investigated by real time PCR using SybrGreen Quantitect kit and protein expression was evaluated by western-blotting. JAK2 V617F mutation was detected according to Baxter et al (2005. CD34+ cells from PV patients presented higher levels of A1 and Mcl-1 expression (median: 22.6 and 5.2, respectively in comparison with controls (0.9 and 0.5, p=0.004 and p=0.020; while Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression decreased in PV patients (0.18 and 1.19 compared with controls (1.39 and 2.01, p=0.006 and p=0.020. CD34+ cells in PV patients showed an elevated Bid expression (14.4 in comparison with healthy subjects (1.0; p=0.002. Patients' leukocytes showed an A1 augmentation (7.41, p=0.001 and a reduced expression of Bax (0.19; p=0.040 and Bad (0.2; p=0.030. There was no correlation between JAK2 V617F allele burden and molecular expression. PV patients showed alterations in Bcl-2 members' expression, which may interfere with control of apoptotic machinery and contribute to disease pathogenesis.A desregulação da apoptose parece participar da fisiopatologia da policitemia vera (PV. Este estudo avaliou a expressão das moléculas da família Bcl-2 em células hematopoéticas CD34 + e leucócitos de 12 pacientes com PV. Foram realizados: a quantificação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real utilizando kit Sybrgreen Quantitect, avaliação da expressão de proteínas por western-blot e detecção da mutação JAK2 V617F segundo Baxter et al. (2005. Células CD34 + dos pacientes com PV apresentaram maior expressão de A1 e Mcl-1 (mediana: 22,6 e 5,2, respectivamente em comparação com controles (0,9 e 0,5, p = 0,004 e p = 0,020 e expressão de Bcl-2 e Bcl-xL diminuída nestes pacientes (0,18 e 1,19 em relação aos controles (1,39 e 2,01, p = 0,006 e p = 0

  19. Simulating European wind power generation applying statistical downscaling to reanalysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Aparicio, I.; Monforti, F.; Volker, P.; Zucker, A.; Careri, F.; Huld, T.; Badger, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Wind speed spatial resolution highly influences calculated wind power peaks and ramps. •Reduction of wind power generation uncertainties using statistical downscaling. •Publicly available dataset of wind power generation hourly time series at NUTS2. -- Abstract: The growing share of electricity production from solar and mainly wind resources constantly increases the stochastic nature of the power system. Modelling the high share of renewable energy sources – and in particular wind power – crucially depends on the adequate representation of the intermittency and characteristics of the wind resource which is related to the accuracy of the approach in converting wind speed data into power values. One of the main factors contributing to the uncertainty in these conversion methods is the selection of the spatial resolution. Although numerical weather prediction models can simulate wind speeds at higher spatial resolution (up to 1 × 1 km) than a reanalysis (generally, ranging from about 25 km to 70 km), they require high computational resources and massive storage systems: therefore, the most common alternative is to use the reanalysis data. However, local wind features could not be captured by the use of a reanalysis technique and could be translated into misinterpretations of the wind power peaks, ramping capacities, the behaviour of power prices, as well as bidding strategies for the electricity market. This study contributes to the understanding what is captured by different wind speeds spatial resolution datasets, the importance of using high resolution data for the conversion into power and the implications in power system analyses. It is proposed a methodology to increase the spatial resolution from a reanalysis. This study presents an open access renewable generation time series dataset for the EU-28 and neighbouring countries at hourly intervals and at different geographical aggregation levels (country, bidding zone and administrative

  20. Self generation, small generation, and embedded generation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee for electric power restructuring has been directed to examine issues regarding cogeneration and small-scale, on-site generation and how they will fit within the framework of the bilateral contract market. The Committee will also have to deal with issues of generation embedded in a distribution system. The Committee has defined cogeneration as the simultaneous production of electricity and useful thermal energy. Self-generation has been defined as small-scale power generation by an end-user, while embedded generation has been defined as a generation facility that is located within a distribution utility but is not directly connected to the transmission system. The Committee has postponed its decision on whether embedded generation will be eligible to participate under the bilateral contract market for electricity. This report discusses general issues such as the physical support of generation, market support of generation, transition issues and policy issues. It also discusses generation support issues such as operating reserves, transmission tariff issues, and distribution tariffs. Market support issues such as transmission access for generation sales were also considered, along with market access for generation sales, and net metering for behind the meter generation. 7 refs., 1 tab