WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

  1. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  2. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  3. Emergency gas pipeline transportation with computer documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Methods developed by the staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in cooperation with the natural gas industry to expedite the emergency transfer of natural gas are described. The majority of the United States' natural gas fields are concentrated in the south central region, comprised of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas together with adjacent areas offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. This is the major source area for gas consumed in the northern, northeastern, southeastern, and far western population/industrial centers. The geographic pattern of gas flow through interstate pipelines emanates in gas producing areas and terminates in gas consuming areas. There are many other areas in the United States which produce gas but the amounts are comparatively small compared with Texas, Louisiana, and offshore Louisiana production. The various interconnections associated with a given pipeline for both receipts and deliveries are defined. The maximum volume capability in MMCFD and the volume being delivered in MMCFD are to be considered as estimated volumes. These volumes do not represent absolute volumes that are available but rather volumes for general planning purposes to define the magnitude of each interconnection. If an actual transportation route is desired, a routing may be derived from this report which then must be checked for actual volumes at a particular point in time. It is always possible that at the time of interest, there is no available capacity or deliveries.The data and information are arranged by pipeline company name followed by which companies supply gas to the named pipeline and to which companies the named pipeline delivers gas. Each receipt or delivery location is defined by the county and state.

  4. Transportation of heavy crude by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G.; Lachmann, J.

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a general summary of the operations which should be performed from the technical point of view, as well as the economic, for arriving at an optimum design for a pipeline and its utilization in the transportation of heavy crude oil. The characteristics are presented of the Boscan field crude which is one of the most difficult in the world to handle. Many of the different insulating coatings are named that have been used for covering piping or equipment which has to operate in a hot environment. Other parts of the study present some of the experiences which have occurred during the transport of heavy crude in cold water. The properties of the crude are listed as well as those of some of the interior coatings including polymers. Equations are given with which to calculate heat loss from heated lines and to determine pressure drop. Various insulation thicknesses are calculated with selection of the most economic value. In some pipelines of considerable length which transport heated heavy crude, it is necessary to provide reheating equipment at one or more locations prior to destination.

  5. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado... to Lion subject to certain conditions at specified price spreads. In support of the request for...

  6. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  7. Hydro-carbon liquid for use in motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-03-15

    A process for the manufacture of liquid hydro-carbon mixtures suitable as a fuel for internal-combustion engines is disclosed, which consists in dissolving a suitable quantity of shale oil, which has been purified with sulfuric acid, in petroleum spirit, then purifying the solution with sulfuric acid and subsequently with oxalic acid or other suitable decolorizing agent.

  8. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  9. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  10. An investigation on corrosion protection layers in pipelines transporting hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gabetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical reactions between carbon steel, water and chemical species produce corrosion layers (scales on the internal surface of pipelines transporting hydrocarbons. Scales act as a diffusion barrier and prevent the progress of corrosion, a dangerous failure initiator. The protective film (10-100 μm thickness can be removed locally by the action of the internal flow, or by other mechanisms. Adhesion with the substrate and the failure modes of the corrosion layer can be tested by indentation. Some results are presented of experiments performed on specimens with scales grown in a controlled environment.

  11. Optimization methods for pipeline transportation of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado

    2010-10-15

    Within three research projects on the optimization of natural gas transport in transmission pipeline systems, a number of various mathematical models, algorithms, and numerical experiments have been presented and discussed in this thesis. The proposed optimization methods are composed of NLP and MINLP models, as well as of exact and heuristic methods. In addition, the experimental analyses conducted on each project were devoted to gain insight into three major issues: 1) the assessment of the computability of the mathematical models, 2) the performance of the proposed optimization techniques, and 3) comparison of the proposed techniques with existing optimization algorithms and tools. Project 1 focused on minimizing the total fuel consumption incurred by compressor stations installed in a gas pipeline system. The project was mainly devoted to tackle large natural gas pipeline systems with cyclic structures. After conducting a painstaking study on the NLP model introduced in Section 4.3, three different methodologies were proposed to effectively overcome both the difficulties encountered in the steady-state flow model, namely the non-linearity and non-convexity, as well as the weaknesses found in previously suggested optimization approaches. As discussed in Chapter 4, the key to success in this project was to apply the strategic idea of discretizing the feasible operating domain of compressor stations, which in turn allowed the implementation of hybrid solution methods based on powerful optimization techniques such as DP, tabu search, and tree decomposition. The idea of working within a discretized space has been successfully applied since the liquid pipeline optimization conducted in the late 1960s by Jefferson, until the non-traditional optimization technique suggested by Carter in 1998. The computational experiments conducted on each proposed optimization method, coupled with comparisons with typical approaches found in the literature, indicated that a continual

  12. Bacterial degradation and corrosion of naphtha in transporting pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, A; Ponmariappan, S; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-11-01

    Five naphtha hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria including representative strains of the two classified species (Serratia marcescensAR1, Bacillus pumilusAR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, Bacillus megaterium AR4, and Bacillus cereus AR5) were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence in a naphtha-transporting pipeline. The naphtha-degrading strains were able to be involved in the corrosion process of API 5LX steel and also utilized the naphtha as the sole carbon source. The biodegradation of naphtha by the bacterial isolates was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Weight-loss measurement on the corrosion of API 5LX steel in the presence/absence of consortia grown in naphtha-water aqueous media was performed. The scanning electron microscope observation showed that the consortia were able to attack the steel API 5LX surface, creating localized corrosion (pit). The biodegradation of naphtha by the strains AR1, AR2, AR3, AR4, and AR5 showed biodegradation efficiency of about 76.21, 67.20, 68.78, 68.78, and 68.15, respectively. The role of degradation on corrosion has been discussed. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for the detection, monitoring, and control of microbial corrosion in a petroleum product pipeline.

  13. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenjia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to the method,the different types of users can pay reasonable fee.This method not only considers the investment income recovery but also considers the different types of users paying a reasonable fee.We hope the new pricing model can give a reference to the development of China's natural gas industry.

  14. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  15. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  16. Research on CO2 Quality Pipeline Transportation Based on Yanchang Oilfield CCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongchao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capture,utilization and storage (CCUS is now recognized as an important technology in the global scope of CO2 emission reduction, pipeline transportation is the main center to connect the capture point and the use storage point, the first issue to CO2 pipeline transportation is to solve CO2 source quality research. Yanchang Oilfield has the advantages of CCUS, its coal chemical capture of CO2 contains different impurities. In the CO2 pipeline transportation, the impurity content in CO2 is based on its end use and the actual situation of pipeline. The impurities will affect the efficiency of CO2-EOR, the choice of CO2 state equation, the changes of CO2 phase diagram and the capacity of pipeline transportation.

  17. CO2 slurry pipeline to transport solid marketable products to improve CCS economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide pipelines are anticipated to be a key element in CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) to transport the carbon dioxide to sequestration sites or to oil fields for use in enhanced oil recovery applications. However the economics of CCS are such that the operations are economically challenged. The concept of using super critical (liquid) carbon dioxide in a slurry pipeline is to use the pipeline constructed for environmental purposes to transport marketable products such as sulphur, petroleum coke, limestone and others to market thereby generating additional income to make CCS carbon dioxide transportation economically attractive.

  18. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  19. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the overall study were to (1) characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption in each of the five major pipeline-industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; (2) identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary R, D, and D programs to exploit those opportunities; (3) characterize and understand the influence of the Federal government on introduction of energy conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; and (4) assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation. This project final report is an executive summary presenting the results from the seven task reports.

  20. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  1. Life Cycle Analysis of Bitumen Transportation to Refineries by Rail and Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimana, Balwinder; Verma, Aman; Di Lullo, Giovanni; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina E; Olateju, Babatunde; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-03

    Crude oil is currently transported primarily by pipelines and rail from extraction sites to refineries around the world. This research evaluates energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for three scenarios (synthetic crude oil and dilbit with and without diluent return) in which 750 000 bpd of Alberta's bitumen is transported 3000 km to determine which method has a lower environmental impact. Each scenario has a pipeline and rail pathway, and the dilbit without diluent return scenario has an additional heated bitumen pathway, which does not require diluent. An Excel based bottom-up model is developed using engineering first-principles to calculate mass and energy balances for each process. Results show that pipeline transportation produced between 61% and 77% fewer GHG emissions than by rail. The GHG emissions decreased by 15% and 73% for rail and pipelines as the capacity increased from 100 000 to 800 000 bpd. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the uncertainty in the emissions and found that the uncertainty was larger for pipelines (up to ±73%) and smaller for rail (up to ±28%). The uncertainty ranges do not overlap, thus confirming that pipelines have lower GHG emissions, which is important information for policy makers conducting pipeline reviews.

  2. 19 CFR 18.31 - Pipeline transportation of bonded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cause to suspect fraud, Customs shall accept a bill of lading or equivalent document of receipt issued... transfer to another carrier, the bill of lading or equivalent document of receipt issued by the pipeline....2(b)). If there are no discrepancies between the bill of lading or equivalent document of receipt...

  3. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  4. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  6. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Determine the Requirements for Existing Pipeline, Tank and Terminal Systems to Transport Ethanol without Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    The potential exists for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of carbon steel pipelines transporting fuel grade ethanol (FGE) and FGE- gasoline blends. The objectives of SCC 4-4 were to: 1. Develop data necessary to make engineering assessments of the fea...

  8. Investing in CO2 transport infrastructure under uncertainty : A comparison between ships and pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364248149; Ramírez, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Faaij, A. P C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the value of flexibility can influence the investment decision between CO2 ship and pipeline transport and, therefore, the way the infrastructure develops. For this, the value of a carbon capture and storage project are calculated with the

  9. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  10. Online slug detection in multi-phase transportation pipelines using electrical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow......) has been examined as an alternative to the traditional pressure transmitters. A lab-scaled testing facility has been constructed in order to obtain test data from a ERT transmitter with 12 probes. Different flow regimes have been generated by a pump and a compressor where 2-phase flow can be tested...

  11. Online Slug Detection in Multi-phase Transportation Pipelines Using Electrical Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow......) has been examined as an alternative to the traditional pressure transmitters. A lab-scaled testing facility has been constructed in order to obtain test data from a ERT transmitter with 12 probes. Different flow regimes have been generated by a pump and a compressor where 2-phase flow can be tested...

  12. Conceptual design of multi-source CCS pipeline transportation network for Polish energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoli, Niccolo; Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an optimal CCS transport infrastructure for Polish energy sector in regards of selected European Commission Energy Roadmap 2050 scenario. The work covers identification of the offshore storage site location, CO2 pipeline network design and sizing for deployment at a national scale along with CAPEX analysis. It was conducted for the worst-case scenario, wherein the power plants operate under full-load conditions. The input data for the evaluation of CO2 flow rates (flue gas composition) were taken from the selected cogeneration plant with the maximum electric capacity of 620 MW and the results were extrapolated from these data given the power outputs of the remaining units. A graph search algorithm was employed to estimate pipeline infrastructure costs to transport 95 MT of CO2 annually, which amount to about 612.6 M€. Additional pipeline infrastructure costs will have to be incurred after 9 years of operation of the system due to limited storage site capacity. The results show that CAPEX estimates for CO2 pipeline infrastructure cannot be relied on natural gas infrastructure data, since both systems exhibit differences in pipe wall thickness that affects material cost.

  13. Conceptual design of multi-source CCS pipeline transportation network for Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoli Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify an optimal CCS transport infrastructure for Polish energy sector in regards of selected European Commission Energy Roadmap 2050 scenario. The work covers identification of the offshore storage site location, CO2 pipeline network design and sizing for deployment at a national scale along with CAPEX analysis. It was conducted for the worst-case scenario, wherein the power plants operate under full-load conditions. The input data for the evaluation of CO2 flow rates (flue gas composition were taken from the selected cogeneration plant with the maximum electric capacity of 620 MW and the results were extrapolated from these data given the power outputs of the remaining units. A graph search algorithm was employed to estimate pipeline infrastructure costs to transport 95 MT of CO2 annually, which amount to about 612.6 M€. Additional pipeline infrastructure costs will have to be incurred after 9 years of operation of the system due to limited storage site capacity. The results show that CAPEX estimates for CO2 pipeline infrastructure cannot be relied on natural gas infrastructure data, since both systems exhibit differences in pipe wall thickness that affects material cost.

  14. Natural hazards along the oil and gas transport pipelines in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xie; Yu, Zhao; Yong, Li

    2017-04-01

    The northwest China, including the provincial districts of Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Gansu, is the key area for transporting oil and gas from the west to the east, through where runs the China-Kazakhstan crude oil pipeline linking the Central Asia resources of oil and gas. The area is 283.6 km2and the pipeline is 15 650 km long, suffering severe disasters destroying the operation of oil and gas transport. Major disasters are torrential floods, debris flows, rockfalls, landslides, wind erosion, and ground subsidence, having the following characteristics: 1) most disasters are distributed along the rivers; 2) special strata are effective in controlling some types of disasters; 3) landslides, collapses and debris flows are especially concentrated in steep landforms; 4) the disasters are highly likely to occur under the extreme climate; 5) the disasters are distributed in parallel to the earthquake zones.

  15. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.pickl@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria); Wirl, Franz [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: {yields} Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. {yields} Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. {yields} Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. {yields} Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. {yields} Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. {yields} On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  16. New Sensor Cable for the Detection and Location of Leaks in Pipelines for Transportation of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Orduña-Reyes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, hydrocarbon leaks, generated mainly by corrosion of pipelines, cause large economic losses for Mexico.These leaks constitute a problem of serious consequences in Mexico and in other countries in the world. This workdescribes the results of the tests conducted on a new sensor cable for the detection and location of leaks in pipelinesfor transportation of hydrocarbons. When a liquid or gas enters in contact with the wall of the sensor cable, it causes ashort circuit in the wires; changing the measurement of the resistance may detect and locate the leak. The new sensorcable that is presented in this article has advantages over cables with similar characteristic made in other countries.The use of this sensor cable in pipelines of PEMEX will avoid economic losses, environmental damage and risks ofpossible explosions to the population. The experimental results demonstrate these advantages.

  17. Increasing percentage of uptime of pipeline transport system at production association LLC KINEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharatkin, P. N.; Yablokov, I. N.; Serzhan, S. L.

    2017-10-01

    The system of the preventive maintenance (PM), accepted at production association LLC KINEF, taking into account safe operation and health assessment, is analyzed. Statistical data of results of diagnostics are processed; options of the increase of the integrated reliability indicator of the system of pipeline transport are offered. The trend lines of a condition change of the pipeline in time and the approximate curves of diagnostic data of nondestructive inspection technique with creation of the long-term forecast of its technical condition was constructed. The option of correction of the accepted PM system with the analysis of quantitative change of an indicator of reliability was developed, by which application of the percentage of uptime will increase from 0.909 to 0.957.

  18. Limits of civil and environmental responsibility in transport through pipelines; Limites da responsabilidade civil e ambiental no transporte por dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Andreia Carneiro [EnviroCompliance Assessoria Ambiental (Brazil); Natalizim Luiz Guilherme Samico [Webler e Advogados Associados, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Throughout the historic evolution of the Brazilian legislation, including a brief analysis of the prevailing laws regarding the subject, this paper provides an ample vision of the civil and environmental liability in transport contracts, and, especially, in the transport of oil and gas through pipelines, discussing the present influence of environmental norms and the New Brazilian Civil Code. And what was brought to a conclusion is, if on one hand were kept the liability of the Sender (user company of the transportation service contracted with the Carrier) and Carrier (personal entity operator of the pipeline system), who respond jointly and regardless of fault for damages to third parties and the environment (extendible also to the owner of the product and to financial institutions that participate in some form in the contract), on the other hand the New Civil Code authorizes the National Petroleum Agency - ANP to rule the liabilities between the parties to the transport contract, providing greater safety to the system operators. (author)

  19. Brazil pipelines system crossings; Sistema de dutovias do Brasil - interferencias nos transportes terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Roberto; Barbosa, Sylvio [Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Abib, Osvaldo

    2005-07-01

    The Law 10.233/2001 of 2001 designated the National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT) as responsible for the gathering and organizing of information about Brazilian pipeline infrastructure. In order to fulfill this legal requirement, ANTT is developing the Brazilian Pipeline Catalog System (SISDUT) and is creating a geo referenced database. The priority is to collect information on the critical points, those where the pipelines intersect with road and rail networks. The SISDUT geo processing catalog will store all information required to manage and track critical points, such as: technical construction standards, as built plans, adjustments terms with roads and rail networks, special usage grants, inspection procedures, pictures taken on local visits, ANTT deliberations, usage of soil, etc. The system was designed using the Object Oriented Analysis and Design paradigms, modeled in the Unified Modeling Language. The database will be populated by ANTT and with data imported from partners. The queries for literal and geographic data will be available on the Internet using Web mapping. SISDUT system will allow spatial cross referencing among its many entities, allowing complex analysis and tracking of events in the critical points. (author)

  20. Innovation tube transport using helicopters to minimize the construction risk of Urucu-Manaus pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Jean Luis C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, Jeane R.; Rodrigues, Jose Alberto S.; Rocha, Katia Rosilene S. [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose is to focus on the Safety, Environment and Health (SEH) Management, integrated to pipeline construction and assembly, aiming at minimizing the risks involving the transportation and handling of 20-inch pipes. Please note that peculiar, challenging situations occur when constructing a gas pipeline at the Coari-Anama Section, which leads to some difficulty in the exploitation of oil and gas, where fragile elements represented by the environment and man are faced in this evolution and progress process. Overcoming the severe conditions while streaming 196.6-km-length of pipes in flooded lands no doubt represented a real challenge. State-of-the-art techniques have been implemented such as air transportation of pipes, with two large-sized helicopters being used (Kamov and S64 Skycrane). This has demanded integrated actions to be adopted, involving transportation of concrete pipes, double joints, pipesak, hydraulic excavators, net carrier containing assorted materials, skids and natural gas pressure, measurement and filtering equipment. Nevertheless, we have succeeded in reducing the rate of exposure to the construction and assembly process risks, thus minimizing occurrences and improving the conditions of processes, where, had the conventional method been used, would have led to a great amount of incidents and accidents, resulting mainly from the huge logistic difficulties, which would expose the task force to high potential risks. (author)

  1. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction...

  2. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17

    The Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) is designed to confirm the ability of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a major regional saline-water-bearing formation in the Illinois Basin, to store 1 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected over a period of three years. The CO{sub 2} will be provided by Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) from its Decatur, Illinois, ethanol plant. In order to transport CO{sub 2} from the capture facility to the injection well (also located within the ADM plant boundaries), a high-pressure pipeline of length 3,200 ft (975 m) has been constructed, running above the ground surface within the ADM plant footprint. We have qualitatively evaluated risks associated with possible pipeline failure scenarios that lead to discharge of CO{sub 2} within the real-world environment of the ADM plant in which there are often workers and visitors in the vicinity of the pipeline. There are several aspects of CO{sub 2} that make its transportation and potential leakage somewhat different from other substances, most notable is its non-flammability and propensity to change to solid (dry ice) upon strong decompression. In this study, we present numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods of the release and dispersion of CO{sub 2} from individual hypothetical pipeline failures (i.e., leaks). Failure frequency of the various components of a pipeline transportation system over time are taken from prior work on general pipeline safety and leakage modeling and suggest a 4.65% chance of some kind of pipeline failure over the three-years of operation. Following the Precautionary Principle (see below), we accounted for full-bore leakage scenarios, where the temporal evolution of the mass release rate from the high-pressure pipeline leak locations was simulated using a state-of-the-art Pipe model which considers the thermodynamic effects of decompression in the entire pipeline. Failures have been simulated at four representative locations along

  3. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  4. Experimental study on noise reduction effect of a muffler inserted in liquid transporting pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T.; Xu, W. W.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    In order to reduce the noise of liquid transporting pipelines caused by the motion of the power unit, a kind of compact hydrodynamic muffler used in pipes with small diameters is proposed which achieves good vibration damping as well as hydrodynamic noise reduction. Based on the rubber damper tube, according to the structure characteristics, the muffler is composed of two main parts, the rubber damper tube and the inner noise reducing structure. Experiment on insertion loss of the muffler in stationary state is conducted. It is found that the rubber damper tube itself has a good performance at noise reducing at the frequency band considered here, total insertion loss values can reach 10 dB and the inner structures improve the performance of the muffler at low frequency band.

  5. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  6. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  7. On the risks of transport of liquid and gaseous energy sources in pipelines; Zu den Risiken des Transports fluessiger und gasfoermiger Energietraeger in Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konersmann, Rainer; Kuehl, Christiane; Ludwig, Joerg

    2009-11-30

    The failure of a pipeline depends on many causal factors which cannot be predicted with certainty and which even vary by region. For the purposes of consistent traffic route and land use planning it would therefore be desirable to at least be able to estimate the consequential damages of a pipeline rupture. Publications on pipeline accidents are hardly available, at least not in German speaking regions. Where they are, they are usually fire brigade reports. However, these are not sufficient for a documentation of the whole situation. For this reason the Federal Institute for Materials Testing and Research has evaluated a large number of international inspection reports and publications and compiled them into the present research report giving special consideration to the types of risk and in particular consequential damage.

  8. Bed load proppant transport during slickwater hydraulic fracturing: insights from comparisons between published laboratory data and correlations for sediment and pipeline slurry transport

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Bed load transport is the movement of particles along the top of a bed through rolling, saltation, and suspension created by turbulent lift above the bed surface. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the idea that bed load transport is significant for proppant transport during hydraulic fracturing. However, scaling arguments suggest that bed load transport is only dominant in the laboratory and is negligible at the field scale. I review laboratory experiments that have been used to develop concepts of bed load transport in hydraulic fracturing. I also review the scaling arguments and laboratory results that have been used to argue that viscous drag, not bed load transport, is dominant at the field scale. I compare literature correlations for fluvial sediment transport and for pipeline slurry transport with published laboratory data on proppant transport in slot flow. The comparisons indicate that fluvial transport correlations are suitable for predicting the rate of sediment erosion due...

  9. Pumping propagation and influence of oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Propagacao e influencia de bombeamento no transporte de derivados de petroleo em uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Camila Baldissera de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kluppel, Liege Bauer; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed on a pipeline network that transports oil derivatives. The transport occurs in batches of a specific product, each one having a defined route: the pumping origin, a destination for its receipt and the pipelines which the product is moved through. The network studied has a total of thirty pipelines connected by fourteen possible areas of pumping and/or receiving, this makes it not trivial to obtain the batches order in the pipeline. In order to obtain the passage of batches ordered list in the pipeline network, was developed an algorithm capable of propagating a batches list that only have route, start time and end time of pumping in the origin. This algorithm is part of a larger project whose goal is to obtain a tool to aid the process of operational decision making in a real pipeline network. The developed module can also generate the entry and exit times of each batch for each pipe through which it passes. With this information, analysis and/or validations can be made. At the end of the process, the result is a list of all the pumped batches in all pipes where it must go by. Thus, it is made a small pos-processing where the list is sorted, first by pipeline and then by start time of entry into the duct, which naturally causes the passage of the batches list in the ducts to be obtained. This work is based on the development presented by Czaikowski et al (2008). (author)

  10. The use of the natural-gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport in a changing market structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeseldonckx, Dries; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U. Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-07-15

    In this paper, the transport and distribution aspects of hydrogen during the transition period towards a possible full-blown hydrogen economy are carefully looked at. Firstly, the energetic and material aspects of hydrogen transport through the existing natural-gas (NG) pipeline infrastructure is discussed. Hereby, only the use of centrifugal compressors and the short-term security of supply seem to constitute a problem for the NG to hydrogen transition. Subsequently, the possibility of percentwise mixing of hydrogen into the NG bulk is dealt with. Mixtures containing up to 17 vol% of hydrogen should not cause difficulties. As soon as more hydrogen is injected, replacement of end-use applications and some pipelines will be necessary. Finally, the transition towards full-blown hydrogen transport in (previously carrying) NG pipelines is treated. Some policy guidelines are offered, both in a regulated and a liberalised energy (gas) market. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the use of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures seems well suited for the transition from natural gas to hydrogen on a distribution (low pressure) level. However, getting the hydrogen gas to the distribution grid, by means of the transport grid, remains a major issue. In the end, the structure of the market, regulated or liberalised, turns out not to be important. (author)

  11. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  12. Time-Varying Hydraulic Gradient Model of Paste-Like Tailings in Long-Distance Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paste-like tailings slurry (PTLS is always simplified as a Bingham plastic fluid, leading to excessive computational errors in the calculation of the hydraulic gradient. In the case of paste-like tailings in long-distance pipeline transportation, to explore a high-precision and reliable hydraulic gradient formula, the rheological behavior of paste-like tailings slurry was analyzed, a time-varying hydraulic gradient model was constructed, and a series of laboratory shear tests were conducted. The results indicate that the PTLS shows noticeable shear-thinning characteristics in constant shear tests; the calculated hydraulic gradient declined by about 56%, from 4.44 MPa·km−1 to 1.95 MPa·km−1 within 253 s, and remained constant for the next four hours during the pipeline transportation. Comparing with the balance hydraulic gradient obtained in a semi-industrial loop test, the computational errors of those calculated by using the time-varying hydraulic gradient model, Jinchuan formula, and Shanxi formula are 15%, 78%, and 130%, respectively. Therefore, our model is a feasible and high-precision solution for the calculation of the hydraulic gradient of paste-like tailings in long-distance pipeline transportation.

  13. Legal and regulatory possibility of connection between interstate natural gas distribution networks instead of constructing transport pipelines; Possibilidade juridoco-regulatoria da conexao interestadual entre redes de distribuicao de gas natural como alternativa a construcao de gasodutos de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Gustavo Mano [Andrade, Mano - Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    According to Revista Brasil Energia (2011a), the local natural gas distribution concessionaire in the State of Sao Paulo Gas Brasiliano Distribuidora - GBD, plans to expand its distribution pipeline network in western Sao Paulo up to the border of the State of Minas Gerais, near the region known as Minas Triangle where a connection with the pipeline network of the State of Minas Gerais' natural gas distribution company, Companhia de Gas de Minas Gerais - GASMIG shall be built in order to supply natural gas to an ammonia plant to be built by PETROBRAS in the City of Uberaba. Still according to the publication, the project described above would be an alternative to the construction of a transportation pipeline that, since the enforcement of the Gas Law - Law No. 11.909/09 (Brasil, 2009), should be subject to concession contracts preceded by a complex, and probably delayed, planning and procurement. However, there is a transportation pipeline project, deriving from the Bolivia-Brazil transportation pipeline near the city of Sao Carlos, in Sao Paulo, crossing the Minas Triangle and finishing in the State of Goias. This project is owned by TGBC Company. The existence of two gas pipeline projects with very similar paths to supply virtually the same regions and based on different regulatory frameworks, one consisting of a connection between the distribution networks of different States and another based on the concept of pipeline transportation of gas under the legal and regulatory federal jurisdiction raises the discussion about the possibility of legal and regulatory interstate connections of distribution pipeline networks as an alternative to planning, allocation and construction of a transportation pipelines. This article aims to examine the legal and regulatory foundations of both alternatives and delineate the limits of performance of States and Federal Government on legislation and regulation concerning the movement of natural gas pipeline through the Country

  14. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  15. 78 FR 45850 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Congressman who introduced the bill amending the NGA to include section 1(c). See ANR Pipeline Co. v. Federal... effective firm sales rate for city-gate service on file with the state agency; or (2) to determine the allowance permitted by the state agency to be included in a natural gas distributor's rates for city-gate...

  16. Study on the Effect of Reciprocating Pump Pipeline System Vibration on Oil Transportation Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause a pressure pulsation, and the resulting pipeline vibration may lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of reciprocating pump pipelines based on pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by a fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the unbalanced exciting force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by indoor experiments. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and vibration reduction measures are proposed. The following main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1 unbalanced exciting forces are produced in the elbows or tee joints, and it can also influence the straight pipe to different levels; (2 in actual engineering, it should be possible to prevent the simultaneous settlement of multiple places; (3 the vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85 °C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.

  17. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  18. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-04-02

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  19. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  20. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  1. The Analysis of Pipeline Transportation Process for CO2 Captured From Reference Coal-Fired 900 MW Power Plant to Sequestration Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three commercially available intercooled compression strategies for compressing CO2 were studied. All of the compression concepts required a final delivery pressure of 153 bar at the inlet to the pipeline. Then, simulations were used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature, thickness of the thermal insulation and ground level heat flux conditions. The results show that subcooled liquid transport increases energy efficiency and minimises the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under heat transfer conditions. The study also found that the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipe in atmospheric conditions in Poland. The most important problems from the environmental protection point of view are rigorous and robust hazard identification which indirectly affects CO2 transportation. This paper analyses ways of reducing transport risk by means of safety valves.

  2. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested in...

  4. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  5. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  6. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  7. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  8. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  9. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  10. Oil transport scheduling in a pipeline with a characteristic operation; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados em um poliduto com multiplas sangrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Guilherme; Magatao, Leandro; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos; Silva, Marcos Henrique da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lara, Lucas El Ghoz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This work presents an optimization structure to support the operational decision making of scheduling activities in a multi product pipeline with multiple deliveries. This pipeline connects, in sequence, 6 operational areas: one is the main refinery, and the 5 remaining are distribution centers, each one with specific capacity of storage. Basically, the refinery pumps derivatives, such as diesel and gasoline, in a unidirectional flow to distribution centers, in a way to supply their demands. The solution kernel is underlined in a hybrid structure, using heuristics and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling, executed iteratively. Details of storage curves and flow rate of pipelines are obtained in the proposed approach, expanding the results of Kira et al. (2010). Additionally, the proposed approach is able to deal with discrete demands along the scheduling horizon. Thus, this hybrid structure makes possible to obtain operational scheduling solutions at a low CPU times (few minutes), using real data scenarios, whose horizon length has at least 30 days. (author)

  11. A New Equation of State for CCS Pipeline Transport: Calibration of Mixing Rules for Binary Mixtures of CO2 with N2, O2 and H2

    CERN Document Server

    Demetriades, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    One of the aspects currently holding back commercial scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an accurate understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of carbon dioxide and relevant impurities during the pipeline transport stage. In this article we develop a general framework for deriving pressure-explicit EoS for impure CO2. This flexible framework facilitates ongoing development of custom EoS in response to new data and computational applications. We use our method to generalise a recent EoS for pure CO2 [Demetriades et al. Proc IMechE Part E, 227 (2013) pp. 117] to binary mixtures with N2, O2 and H2, obtaining model parameters by fitting to experiments made under conditions relevant to CCS-pipeline transport. Our model pertains to pressures up to 16MPa and temperatures between 273K and the critical temperature of pure CO2. In this region, we achieve close agreement with experimental data. When compared to the GERG EoS, our EoS has a comparable level of agreement with CO2 -N2 VLE experiments ...

  12. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  13. Study of risk in gasoline and diesel transportation pipelines in Mexico; Estudio del riesgo en ductos de transporte de gasolinas y diesel en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera Villasenor, Ruperto Enrique [Universidad Nacional Autonoma Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Castellanos, Alejandro [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-15

    A methodology of risk operative analysis for damages, which are derived from theft of gasoline in Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) pipelines by third parts (clandestine pipes) is proposed. Originally, the problematic is studied from the global perspective of pipelines accidents happened in the world, in United States of America and in Mexico, and later it approaches specifically the environment that the industry of Pemex-Refinery pipelines. When the results are obtained, it is concluded that the factor of risk with more occurrence probability of pipelines, is due to damages for third parts, in first term, and followed by the damages originated by corrosion in second term. So a diagnostic is made of the physical vulnerability degree on the rights of way of Pemex. [Spanish] Se propone una metodologia de analisis de riesgo operativo en poliductos debido a danos por terceras partes (tomas clandestinas), originados del hurto de gasolinas en ductos de Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). La problematica se aborda desde una perspectiva global de accidentes en los ductos de Pemex-Refinacion. Del analisis y resultados obtenidos, se concluye que el factor de riesgo con mayor probabilidad de ocurrencia en poliductos, es debido a danos por terceras partes, en primer termino, seguido de los danos originados por corrosion. Asimismo se hace un diagnostico del grado de vulnerabilidad fisica de los derechos de via de Pemex.

  14. 49 CFR 195.57 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.57... inspected. (5) Length and date of installation of each exposed pipeline segment, and location; including, if... tract. (6) Length and date of installation of each pipeline segment, if different from a pipeline...

  15. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  16. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  17. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  18. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  19. 77 FR 16052 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... through the submerged lands of the OCS for pipelines ``* * * for the transportation of oil, natural gas... ensure that the pipeline, as constructed, will provide for safe transportation of oil and gas and other... pipeline would not conflict with any State requirements or unduly interfere with other OCS activities. BSEE...

  20. Nitrate dosage system in a reclaimed wastewater pipeline for the inhibition of sulfide build-up; Sistema de dosificacion de nitrato en una conduccion de transporte de agua depurada para evitar la generacion de sulfuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo Perez-Machado, T.; Rodriguez Gomez, L. E.; Alvarez Diaz, M.

    2007-07-01

    During reclaimed wastewater transportation under anaerobic conditions sulfide generation may take place, which should be avoided due to the numerous problems related to it. This is the case of the reclaimed wastewater reuse scheme of Tenerife, one of whose elements is a completely filled 61 km long gravity pipeline, 0,60 m in diameter. In order to avoid the appearance of anaerobic conditions a controlled nitrate dosage system has been designed to be installed at the pipeline inlet, with nitrate dosage to be controlled by the organic matter content of the reclaimed wastewater, using turbidity as an indicator of it. (Author) 26 refs.

  1. Land use planning for pipelines : a guideline for local authorities, developers and pipeline operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S. (ed.) [Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-08-01

    This document is intended for local authorities who deal with issues of land regulation and public safety near pipelines. Input was provided by representatives of the pipeline industry, government agencies, municipalities, planners, developers and academics. The document emphasizes the importance of continual communication by key stakeholders to reduce the potential for conflicts and costs, and to ensure that available access is maintained along the pipeline's right-of-way so that pipelines can be constructed, maintained or operated in an efficient manner. This document also outlines the significance of recognizing land uses adjacent to the pipeline right-of-way. It provides guidelines in the following subject areas: (1) roles and responsibilities for key stakeholders, (2) the pipeline industry, (3) products transported in pipelines, (4) land use planning issues regarding pipelines, and (5) sources of additional information. refs., figs.

  2. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream’s strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  3. The petroleum and its products pipeline network as articulate axle of the social-environmental transformation; A malha dutoviaria de transporte de petroleo e derivados como eixo articulador de transformacao socio-ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Filho, Aluisio Teles [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Dias, Janice; Vieira, Roberto Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The article describes the experience of the area of Social Responsibility in TRANSPETRO, a wholly Brazilian Subsidiary of PETROBRAS, which operates in the field of transport of petroleum, its by-products and gas, by way of oil and gas pipeline networks. Pipeline is the safety option for the transport of these products, but requires monitoring and the permanent management of the use and occupation of the soil and surrounding area. This care does not only depend on the Company as responsibility is much wider. Active participation by the communities affected by the operations is essential, principally in incorporating the rules of occupation and the use of the soil in the land surrounding the strips and the terminals. This participation is justified given that the action of third parties represents a significant proportion (70%) of the irregular situations registered by the Company. Community Relationship Management is one of the principal strategies to increase the safety of the pipelines integrated into the Company's programs of maintenance and operational control. Therefore, a plan of Community Relations has been implanted, focusing on the transformation of values to construct a community culture of co-habitation and co-responsibility for the pipeline land. (author)

  4. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services pursuant...

  5. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  6. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Title: Pipeline System Operator Security Information. Type of Request: New collection. OMB Control...

  7. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks, each...

  8. Quantitative risk analysis in two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Euclides [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador , BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Transportation risk analysis techniques were used to study two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. The Pipeline A is for the simultaneous transportation of diesel, gasoline and LPG and comprises three parts, all of them crossing rural areas. The Pipeline B is for oil transportation and one of its ends is located in an area of a high density population. Both pipelines had their risk studied using the PHAST RISK{sup R} software and the individual risk measures, the only considered measures for license purposes for this type of studies, presented level far below the maximum tolerable levels considered. (author)

  9. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  10. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  11. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  12. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable operating...

  13. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  14. Scheduling optimization of a real-world multi product pipeline network; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschetto, Suelen N.; Felizari, Luiz C.; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lueders, Ricardo; Arruda, Lucia V.R. de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar; Bernardo, Luiz F.J. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work develops an optimization structure to aid the operational decision-making of scheduling activities in a real world pipeline network. The proposed approach is based on a decomposition method to address complex problems with high computational burden. The Pre-analysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) model gets such information and calculates the scheduling. The models are applied to a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The computational burden to determine a short-term scheduling within the considered scenario is a relevant issue. Many insights have been derived from the obtained solutions, which are given in a reduced computational time for oil industrial-size scenarios. (author)

  15. Transport diphasique de gaz et de condensat. Aspects techniques et économiques Technical and Economic Aspects of Two-Phase Pipelining of Gas and Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évacuation diphasique de la production d'un gisement de gaz à condensat présente des avantages importants, en particulier sur le plan économique. Les caractéristiques des écoulements diphasiques sont exposées, avec les conséquences principales sur la définition d'un schéma d'exploitation. Une comparaison économique est ensuite présentée, pour illustrer la réduction des investissements qui peut être apportée par l'évacuation diphasique de la production. Enfin, les recherches françaises sur les écoulements diphasiques dans les conduites pétrolières sont brièvement décrites, ainsi qu'un exemple de calcul sur une conduite de gaz à condensat en exploitation diphasique. The two-phase pipelining of a wet gas field production presents many advantages, especially from an economic point of view. The characteristics of two-phase flow are described, together with their main consequences on the operational scheme. Then an economic comparison is made to illustrate the reduction in investment costs that can by achieved with two-phase pipelining. Research in France on two-phase flow in gas and condensate pipelines is briefly described, and an example is given of the designing of a wet-gas pipeline currently being operated in the two-phase mode.

  16. Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Share, J.

    1997-06-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

  17. Fuzzy logic for pipelines risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alidoosti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines systems are identified to be the safest way of transporting oil and natural gas. One of the most important aspects in developing pipeline systems is determining the potential risks that implementers may encounter. Therefore, risk analysis can determine critical risk items to allocate the limited resources and time. Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP is one of the best methodologies for assessing the security risks. However, the most challenging problem in this method is uncertainty. Therefore, fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainty. Thus, Fuzzy RAMCAP is introduced in order to risk analysis and management for pipeline systems. Finally, a notional example from pipeline systems is provided to demonstrate an application of the proposed methodology.

  18. BPC Trenchless Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Martin

    2011-03-15

    The BPC trenchless system features pipeline installation through directional drilling utilizing horizontal directional boring along with state of the art mapping and product coating integrity surveys after pipe placement. The trenchless system developed by BPC reduces environmental disturbances, with savings in reclaiming pipeline right-of-ways such as re-seeding and contouring. It is felt that with smaller pipelines of less than 1,000 metres, a reduction in environmental footprint is now technically feasible using this technology.

  19. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  20. Fault detection using artificial neural networks in pipelines for transport of oil and gas; Deteccao de falhas utilizando redes neurais artificiais em dutos para transporte de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guia, Jose G.C. da; Araujo, Adevid L. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Irmao, Marcos A. da Silva [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring and diagnostic of structural faults in pipelines are an important problem for the petroleum's industry, being necessary to develop supervisory systems for detection, prediction and evaluation of a fault in the pipelines to avoid environmental and financial damages. In this work, three types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are reviewed and used to detect and locate a fault in a simulated pipe. The simulated pipe was modeled through the Finite Elements Method. In Neural Networks' analysis, the first six natural frequencies of the pipe are used as networks' inputs. The used ANNs were the Multi-Layer Perceptron Network with backpropagation, the Probabilistic Neural Network and the Generalized Regression Neural Network. After the analysis, it was concluded that the ANN are a good computational tool in problems of faults detection on pipelines with a great precision. In the localization of the faults were obtained errors smaller than 5%. (author)

  1. 75 FR 35516 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is publishing this notice of special permit request we have... seeking relief from compliance with certain plastic pipe design requirements in the Federal pipeline...

  2. Analytical modeling of pipeline failure in multiphase flow due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pipeline could be said to be the safest and the most economical means of transportation of hydrocarbon fluids. Pipelines carrying oil and gas may suffer from internal corrosion when water is present. The corrosivity varies due to several factors such as; temperature, total pressure, CO2 and H2S content in the gas, pH of the ...

  3. 78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... on an information collection under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 2137-0047...: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility; U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1200 New... API 1130 ``Computational Pipeline Monitoring for Liquid Pipelines'' (API 1130). API 1130 section 4.2...

  4. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  5. Crack detection in pipelines using multiple electromechanical impedance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chunyuan; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Jing

    2017-10-01

    An extensive network of pipeline systems is used to transport and distribute national energy resources that heavily influence a nation’s economy. Therefore, the structural integrity of these pipeline systems must be monitored and maintained. However, structural damage detection remains a challenge in pipeline engineering. To this end, this study developed a modified electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique for crack detection that involves fusing information from multiple sensors. We derived a new damage-sensitive feature factor based on a pipeline EMI model that considers the influence of the bonding layer between the EMI sensors and pipeline. We experimentally validated the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, we used a damage index—root mean square deviation—to examine the degree and position of crack damage in a pipeline.

  6. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  7. Transient drift flux modelling of severe slugging in pipeline-riser systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Mudde, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pipelines in the petroleum industry simultaneously transport gas and liquid. Transient behaviour of multiphase flow is frequently encountered in these pipelines. A common example is severe slugging that can occur in multiphase flow systems where a pipeline segment with a downward

  8. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline... holder shall comply with applicable laws and regulations and the terms of the grant. (b) The granting of...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged lands...

  9. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  10. Integrated diagnostics of northern gas pipelines; Diagnostic integre des gazoducs septentrionaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volsky, E.; Dedikov, E.; Ananenkov, A.; Salchov, Z.; Yakupov, Z. [Joint-Stock Company, Gazprom (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The main part of gas joint - stock company 'Gazprom' extracts from the northern deposits, which are situated in the permafrost zone. Ensuring of gas transporting pipeline's safety operation is a very complex and priority problem. On the basis of usage of this complex of methods the problem to ensure the safety operation is solved systematically: gas-mine - plant IV - derivation pipelines (condensate pipeline Yamburg Novy Urengoy, gas pipeline IV - GCS with negative temperature of transported products) taking into account 'co-ordination' dynamics of changes in pipeline GTS and technological modes of equipment operation. All researches was executed on the high professional level. (authors)

  11. Research of Heated Oil Pipeline Shutdown and Restart Process Based on VB and MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Changjun Li; Xia Wu; Wenlong Jia

    2010-01-01

    During the operation of a heated oil transportation pipeline, the shutdown was caused by some pipeline accidents and repairing. In order to ensure the safety operation of the pipeline, determine the temperature drop and restart pressure was needed at different shutdown is important. This paper builds the heated oil pipeline temperature drop model after shutdown based on the unsteady heat transfer theory and restart model based on fluid transient flow theory. In order to solve the models, MATL...

  12. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. There...

  13. 76 FR 70217 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...-4566, by email at [email protected]dot.gov , or by mail at U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and... email at [email protected]dot.gov , or by mail at U.S. Department of Transportation, PHMSA, 1200 New Jersey... elements with the degree to which pipelines are subject to part 195. A2. In Step 2, API-AOPL requested...

  14. Pipeline Policy of Kazakhstan in the Caspian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Andreyevna Parkhomchik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers promising development trends for oil and gas infrastructure in the country, as well as defines problem issues of existing pipelines using. At this point, the author notes that the key values for subsequent increase of transport and logistics facilities in Kazakhstan are both implementation of the multi-vector policy in the sphere of pipeline routes diversification and targeted development of cooperation with foreign partners in the oil and gas industry. The article also notes that the geopolitical features of the Caspian region have a direct impact on the formation of country’s strategic course the in the field of pipeline transport.

  15. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the newly replaced main oxygen valve was slowly opened to allow pipeline pressure to build. ... The gas then passes through high-pressure regulators, which regulate the ... 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Sedation & Pain control, UWC.

  16. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  17. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  18. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  19. An analysis of perceptions and awareness of risk associated with energy pipelines in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda Mbara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there has been a rapid growth in the use of pipelines to transport energy products. Due to the strategic nature of energy products that are transported by pipelines, the importance of risk awareness, assessment and management cannot be over-emphasised. With the risk of pipeline disruptions increasing globally, energy pipeline organisations are compelled to incorporate measures that should help to identify and address areas that can lead to energy pipeline disruptions. The incorporation of such measures for any organisation is premised on an understanding and appreciation of the risks involved. Given the strategic importance of energy pipelines, the main purpose of this paper is to establish whether the South African energy pipeline sector and the public at large appreciate the risks associated with energy pipelines. Thus, the paper seeks to ascertain awareness of the risks associated with the energy pipeline's physical environment, not only from the energy pipeline operators, but also from communities who are exposed to such risks. Data for the study was collected from energy pipeline operators and from a selected residential area in Johannesburg using both structured and unstructured questionnaires. The findings show that the corporate energy sector in South Africa is aware of risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains while the general public's awareness is very low.

  20. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1920, except such crude oil which is either exchanged in similar quantity for convenience or... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom. 29.21-9 Section 29.21-9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Estimation of efficiency of hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application in comparison with steel pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Pomeranets, I. B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents analytical calculations of specific pressure loss in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOK iron ore processing tailing slurry. The calculations are based on the results of the experimental studies on specific pressure loss dependence upon hydraulic roughness of pipelines internal surface lined with polyurethane coating. The experiments proved that hydraulic roughness of polyurethane coating is by the factor of four smaller than that of steel pipelines, resulting in a decrease of hydraulic resistance coefficients entered into calculating formula of specific pressure loss - the Darcy-Weisbach formula. Relative and equivalent roughness coefficients are calculated for pipelines with polyurethane coating and without it. Comparative calculations show that hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application is conductive to a specific energy consumption decrease in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOC iron ore processing tailings slurry by the factor of 1.5. The experiments were performed on a laboratory hydraulic test rig with a view to estimate the character and rate of physical roughness change in pipe samples with polyurethane coating. The experiments showed that during the following 484 hours of operation, roughness changed in all pipe samples inappreciably. As a result of processing of the experimental data by the mathematical statistics methods, an empirical formula was obtained for the calculation of operating roughness of polyurethane coating surface, depending on the pipeline operating duration with iron ore processing tailings slurry.

  2. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... practices. (3) Construction Issues, Joining, Horizontal Directional Drill/ Boring, Excavation Damage. (4... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow...

  3. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  4. Energy consumption in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate by lift and gravity, a comparable EI is not definable.

  5. 76 FR 620 - Notice of Receipt of Application for a Presidential Permit To Operate and Maintain Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... permit rights to the Transit and Storage Company on December 28, 1936 and the Transit and Storage Company... sale/purchase of the two pipelines. The existing permit allows these pipelines to transport crude oil... pipelines are not abandoned but are maintained under pressure with an inert gas, and continue to receive...

  6. Development and optimization of an advanced process for non-dig installation of pipelines transporting energy and raw materials; Entwicklung und Optimierung eines neuen Verfahrens zur grabenlosen Verlegung von Rohrleitungen fuer den Energie- und Rohstofftransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, Ruediger

    2008-04-07

    Controllable horizontal drilling is a method established worldwide for laying pipelines under natural or artificial obstacles without trenches. In 2002 an 18'' gas pipeline was laid under the river Rhone under the most difficult topographical and geological conditions for the French energy supplier Gaz de France by means of horizontal drilling technology. In this thesis the Easy pipe procedure has been developed derived from MT (Mircrotunneling) engineering. The procedure is stepwise as a pilot process introduced and furtheron developed and installed for pipeline laying. (orig./GL)

  7. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  8. On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Repair Center; Centro de Reparos Emergenciais de Dutos Terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    After the accidents happened on years 2000 and 2001, in TRANSPETRO's operated pipelines, appeared a common conscientiousness about the necessity for the creation of a basic infrastructure for emergency and contingency pipeline repair that centralize equipment, procedures and technologies applied to pipeline maintenance. Then, it was planned the creation of the On-Shore Pipeline Emergency Center (CRE-DUT), following the model of the Off-Shore Pipelines Repair Group from PETROBRAS/EP, (Exploration and Production) and other similar centers of pipeline transport companies worldwide (Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina). The CRE-DUT has the Mission of offering contingency; emergency and specials on-shore pipelines repair services, with safety, quality and at the less possible time, seeking for the leadership on applying new technologies and the excellency in repair activities. (author)

  9. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Effect of the welding process on the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joint used for oil transportation pipeline; Efeito do processo de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e a microdureza de juntas soldadas de aco API 5L X80 usado em tubulacoes para transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.T.P.; Albuquerque, S.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Maciel, T.M.; Almeida, D.M.; Santos, M.A.

    2008-07-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, used for pipelines to transport oil and gas, using the Shield Metal Arc Welding process with pre- heating temperature of 200 deg C and 400 deg C and the AWS E8010G electrode as filler metal. For this, besides the microhardness of the welded joint, the weld metals percentiles of micro-constituents and of columnar and regenerated grains and the medium size and extension of the heat affected zone were evaluated. The percentage of acicular ferrite in weld metal ranged from 13% to 33% which generated values of microhardness from 114 HV to 309 HV. (author)

  11. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  12. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  14. Pipelined Asynchronous Cache Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nyströem, Mika

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of pipelined asynchronous cache memories. The work is done in the context of the performance characteristics of memories and transistor logic of a late 1990's high-performance asynchronous microprocessor. We describe the general framework of asynchronous memory systems, caching, and those system characteristics that make caching of growing importance and keep it an interesting research topic. Finally, we present the main contribution of this work, whi...

  15. Introducing Library Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: We’re creating a nonprofit, Library Pipeline, that will operate independently from In the Library with the Lead Pipe, but will have similar and complementary aims: increasing and diversifying professional development; improving strategies and collaboration; fostering more innovation and start-ups, and encouraging LIS-related publishing and publications. In the Library with the Lead Pipe is […

  16. Achieving Efficiency in Gas Pipeline Connection: Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kudjo Gborgenu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for the use of natural gas is on the increase as an energy source. Natural gas transportation requires a continuous pipeline network from the source of gas across long distance to the various destinations. The main objective involves extending gas pipelines from Takoradi to all the regional capital towns in Ghana to meet the growing demands of its citizenry in order to provide economy and efficiency with regards to cost and environmental sustainability by developing a straight forward method of locating pipeline facilities and designing pipeline networks. The problem is formulated as a network of distances and the solution is presented based on Prim’s Algorithm for minimum connections. Data on distances are obtained from the Ghana Highways Authority. The total distance covered by the pipe line network if the existing road networks were used from Takoradi to all the regional capitals towns in Ghana is 5,094km. After Prim’s Algorithm was used, the total distance covered decreased to 1,590km which is about 68.8% reduction in the distance covered with regards to cost and the environmental damage caused by construction of pipelines (soil, forest, rivers, wetlands, noise from compressor stations during pipeline discharge and risk of pipeline leakage.

  17. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  18. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  19. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  20. In the Pipeline; Georgia's Oil and Gas Transit Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C Dunn; Andreas Billmeier; Bert van Selm

    2004-01-01

    Starting in 2005, nontax revenue in Georgia is expected to rise significantly, in the form of transit fees for oil transported through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline. Transit fees for gas transported through the South Caucasus Pipeline are expected to start in 2007. This paper discusses (1) how much additional revenue can be expected, (2) prospects for monetizing gas that could be received as in-kind transit fees, in the light of pervasive nonpayment in the domestic gas sector, (3) the ...

  1. Determination of heat losses in the Cerro Prieto, Baja California, geothermal field steam transportation network based on the thermal insulation condition of the steam pipelines; Determinacion de perdidas de calor en la red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Baja California, con base en el estado fisico del aislamiento termico de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Jacobo Galvan, Paul; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    In Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), the steam from producing wells is transported to power plants through a large and complex system of pipes thermally insulated with a 2 inches thick mineral wool or a fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. The insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation and has suffered density and thickness changes. In some cases the insulation has been lost completely, increasing heat transfer from the pipes to the environment. This paper analyzes the impact of the conditions of thermal insulation on heat losses in the CPGF steam-pipeline network. The heat losses are calculated by applying an iterative method to determine the surface temperature based on a heat balance calculated from the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Finally, using length and diameter data corresponding to the condition of the thermal insulation of each pipeline-and field operation data, the overall heat losses are quantified for steam lines throughout the pipeline network in the field. The results allow us to evaluate the magnitude of the heat losses in comparison with the overall energy losses occurring during steam transport from wells to the power plants. [Spanish] En el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), BC, el transporte de vapor desde los pozos hasta las plantas generadoras de electricidad se lleva a cabo mediante un extenso y complejo sistema de tuberias que tipicamente se encuentran aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion mecanica de aluminio o hierro galvanizado. Debido a la exposicion a las condiciones meteorologicas a traves del tiempo de operacion del campo, el aislamiento ha experimentado cambios en su densidad y espesor y en ocasiones se ha perdido por completo, lo cual repercute en una mayor transferencia de calor de las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente

  2. 49 CFR 192.65 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of pipe. 192.65 Section 192.65 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS...

  3. 49 CFR 195.207 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of pipe. 195.207 Section 195.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY...

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  5. Offshore pipelines in cold regions : environmental loadings and geotechnical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulin, M.J.; Caines, J. [IMV Projects Atlantic, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Kenny, S.P. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science; Palmer, A.C. [National Univ. of Singapore, Queenstown, (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Been, K. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-09-15

    As a result of the industry's continued search for oil and gas in frontier offshore locations, several developments have occurred in areas characterized by seasonal ice cover including the United States Beaufort, North Caspian, and Sakhalin Island. Pipeline transportation systems have been utilized as a cost-effective, safe and reliable mode of hydrocarbon transport to shore in these projects. However, ice gouging is a primary design issue that affects engineering considerations with respect to strain based design, target burial depth requirements, cost and safety. This paper discussed environmental loadings and geotechnical considerations with respect to offshore pipelines in cold regions. The paper discussed data collection needs such as ice gouge data specific to the pipeline route, and information on sediment transport to determine burial depths for a given ice gouge environment. Ice gouging was also defined in terms of subgouge soil deformations and gouge depth from gouge survey observations. Last, the paper addressed modeling coupled ice keel/seabed/pipeline interaction, trenching and backfilling, and implications for pipeline design and construction. It was concluded that evaluation of the system demand and system capacity influence engineering design considerations that may impact the construction and operational phases. Important issues include material selection; linepipe qualification; welding procedures; limit state criteria for strain based design; leak detection; condition monitoring systems and in-line inspection tools. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Damage Iinitiation and Development in Bends of Steel Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Gasses and fluids are transported via an extensive infrastructure of steel pipelines. In the design of pipeline systems the use of elbows (pipe bends) is important because their flexibility makes them able to sustain significant deformations. These bends can be subjected to permanent deformations

  7. The influence of risk mitigation measures on the risks, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J; Raben, I. M E; Ramírez, A.; Spruijt, M. P N; Faaij, A. P C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether, and if so, in what way risks would influence the design, costs and routing of CO2 pipelines. This article assesses locational and societal risks of CO2 pipeline transport and analyses whether rerouting or implementing additional risk mitigation measures

  8. Hydrodynamics of ocean pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, S.; Toyoda, S.; Venkataramana, K.; Aiko, Y. (Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-30

    This paper describes the current forces acting on cylindrical models in a steady flow, corresponding to the cases of rigid and large diameter pipelines in real seas. The models were placed in a circulating water channel normal to the direction of flow. The strains in the models were recorded using strain gauges, from which fluid forces in the horizontal and vertical directions were obtained. The drag coefficient, lift coefficient, and Straul number were calculated, and were illustrated against the Reynolds number. Consequently, the drag force was found to increase with flow velocity. In addition, it was shown that the variation of lift force was more complex and was affected by the eddies and other forms of turbulence around the models. For the model which consists of two pipes held together, it was found that the fluid forces were greater on the upstream side. It was provided that the fluid forces were also affected by the orientation of the pipelines. Furthermore, it was clarified that the values of hydrodynamic coefficients and Straul number were similar to the results for vertical cylinders in uniform flows. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Results of sludge slurry pipeline pluggage tests. [Simulation of Radioactive Slurry Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, J.M.

    1987-02-06

    Test results of sludge slurry transport through the Interarea Transfer Line (IAL) Mock-up Facility showed little risk of plugging the interarea pipelines with sludge slurry. Plug-free operation of the pipeline was successfully demonstrated by worst case IAL operating scenarios. Pipeline pressure gradients were measured vs. flow rate for comparison with a computer model over a range of sludge slurry rheological properties. A mathematical computer model developed by L. M. Lee is included in this report which will predict pressure drop for Bingham plastic fluid flow in a pipeline. IAL pluggage situations and pumping requirements may be realized from this model. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VY (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  11. Simulation of pipeline in the area of the underwater crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Chernyavskiy, D.; Burkova, S.; Konan, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    The article studies stress-strain behavior of the main oil-pipeline section Alexandrovskoye-Anzhero-Sudzhensk using software system Ansys. This method of examination and assessment of technical conditions of objects of pipeline transport studies the objects and the processes that affect the technical condition of these facilities, including the research on the basis of computer simulation. Such approach allows to develop the theory, methods of calculations and designing of objects of pipeline transport, units and parts of machines, regardless of their industry and destination with a view to improve the existing constructions and create new structures, machines of high performance, durability and reliability, maintainability, low material capacity and cost, which have competitiveness on the world market.

  12. Transportation statistics annual report 1996 : transportation and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of the state of the nation's transportation systems and the issues and consequences of maintaining such a diverse and complex network. All transportation modes -- air, highway, rail, water, and pipeline -- are examined throug...

  13. Necessary calorific energy during the in-service welding of pipelines for petroleum transport; Energia calorifica necesaria durante la soldadura en servicio de tuberias para el transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Morales, Felix; Scott, Alejandro Duffus; Rodriguez Perez, Manuel; Diza Cedre, Eduardo; Pozo Morejon, Juan A. [Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba). Centro de Investigaciones de Soldadura

    2009-01-15

    The thermal behavior during in service repair welding of oil transportation pipes was studied by finite element analysis in the present paper. Regression equations that relate peak temperature at the inner surface of the pipe and cooling time between 800 and 500 deg C in the heat affected zone to the welding heat input, preheat temperature, and convection heat transfer coefficient were obtained. The former parameters govern, respectively, the possibility of burn through and cold cracking, and the latter parameters define the thermal behavior during welding. The existence of conditions that simultaneously satisfy the obtained equations, for different combinations of related variables, was proved. Graphical representations of relevant practical importance that were developed from the solution of obtained equations are presented. (author)

  14. Beyond Order 636: Making the most of existing pipeline capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, M.

    1995-06-01

    They`re not moving natural gas through the nation`s vast system of gas pipelines like they used to anymore. The process is becoming more efficient and less costly, but observers say there`s still plenty of room for improvement. A variety of new tools and techniques for optimizing pipeline capacity have taken hold under Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, which deregulated and unbundled pipeline transportation and services in 1993. These new techniques allow local gas distribution companies (LDCs) and big end-users to use a variety of mechanisms to guarantee they will have enough capacity on peak-demand days at an economically attractive price. The LDCs and gas users do have to find their own supplies of gas, rather than purchasing it from the nearest pipeline as they did in the past. But market centers and hubs, along with services like backhauls, storage agreements and on-line contracting through electronic bulletin boards (EBBs), have popped up like dandelions since Order 636 enabling LDCs to buy gas from even distant sources and move it with ease from one pipeline to another to their service territories. Under Order 636, LDCs and users who have leased firm transportation capacity on a long-term basis are being allowed to release this capacity during periods when they don`t need it. A user can release, or resell, its excess pipeline capacity directly to another user, or it can ask the pipeline to find a buyer. If the transaction is for greater than a month, the package must be posted on an EBB and resold to the highest bidder.

  15. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    , while contemporary research proposes Information Infrastructures (II) as a new IT artifact to be researched. Correspondingly, this thesis applies the concept of and design theory for II to improve containerized shipping. Activity Theory has guided the analysis of containerized shipping, following......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  19. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  20. Cavitation in horizontal pipelines due to water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.; Kranenburg, C.

    1971-01-01

    When designing a pipeline for the transport of a liquid one of the problems to be considered is the provision of a device to guard against low pressures. These low pressures can be caused, for example, by a sudden pump failure. The failure creates a negative pressure wave which travels in the

  1. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  2. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, Gordon; Huang, Yaping

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  3. Subsea pipeline operational risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Lanan, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    Resources used for inspection, maintenance, and repair of a subsea pipeline must be allocated efficiently in order to operate it in the most cost effective manner. Operational risk management aids in resource allocation through the use of risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses. It identifies those areas where attention must be focused in order to reduce risk. When they are identified, a company`s resources (i.e., personnel, equipment, money, and time) can then be used for inspection, maintenance, and/or repair of the pipeline. The results are cost effective risk reduction and pipeline operation with minimum expenditure.

  4. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  5. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  7. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  8. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  9. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  10. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  11. Special signalizing of the Grande River crossing with the OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Adriano C.; Luz, Marcelo Pedroso da; Castro, Newton C. de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo A. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva Junior, Fernando C. Carneiro da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience acquired by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., TRANSPETRO, signaling the crossing of Sao Paulo - Brasilia Pipeline, OSBRA, with the Grande River, important brazilian river that has in this cross section 400 m in width and 10 m of average depth. In sub aquatic inspections carried through by divers to confirm the pipeline's silting condition, evidences of basin format dredging near the pipeline have been identified and, even though it was not sufficient to expose de pipeline, has reduced its covering significantly. This site is an important area of sand extraction, and although the intense works of awareness of local dredging companies to not operate in the pipeline area, TRANSPETRO was surprised by the evidences. In testimonials, local dredge operators complained about difficulties in identifying the pipeline position in nightly operations. Expecting to improve the operational security in the pipeline crossing, a joint project was developed by TRANSPETRO, Brazilian Navy and the dredging companies, with the intention to signal safe area around the submerged pipeline, avoiding dredge operations with the installation of polyethylene floating buoys equipped with night signaling kits and fixed by concrete anchors. Although it was technically simple, the unprecedented proposal in Brazil increased safety in the pipeline operations and made them much safer for the local population and for the environment, in one of the biggest water resources of the Southeastern region of Brazil. (author)

  12. Pigging the unpiggable: a total integrated maintenance approach of the Progreso Process Pipelines in Yucatan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Graciano, Luis [PEMEX Refinacion, Mexico, MX (Mexico); Gonzalez, Oscar L. [NDT Systems and Services, Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Pemex Refinacion and NDT Systems and Services, executed a Total Integrated Maintenance Program of the Process Pipeline System in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, in order to modernize, enhance and bring the pipeline system up to the best industry standards and ensure the integrity, reliability and safe operation of the system. This approach consisted in using multi-diameter ultrasonic inspection technology to determine the current status of the pipelines, repair every 'integrity diminishing' feature present on the system and establish a Certified Maintenance Program to ensure the future reliability and safety of the pipelines. Due to the complex nature of the pipeline construction, dated from 1984, several special modifications, integrations and solutions were necessary to improve the in line inspection survey as for all traditionally unpiggable systems. The Progreso Pipeline System consists in 3 major pipelines which transport diesel, jet fuel and gasoline respectively. The outside diameter of two pipelines varies along its length between 12 inches - 14 inches - 16 inches, making the inspection survey more difficult and particularly demanding an Inspection Tool solution. It is located on the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, at the Mexican Caribbean, and its main purpose is to transport the product from the docked tanker ships to the Pemex Storage and Distribution Terminal. (author)

  13. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  14. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejowski Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

  15. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  16. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line.

  17. Transformation pipelines for PROJ.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Evers, Kristian

    2017-04-01

    For more than 2 decades, PROJ.4 has been the globally leading map projection library for open source (and probably also closed source) geospatial software. While focusing on mathematically well defined 2D projections from geographical to planar coordinates, PROJ.4 has nevertheless, since its introduction in the 1980s, provided limited support for more general geodetic datum transformations, and has gradually introduced a higher degree of support for 3D coordinate data and reference systems. The support has, however, been implemented over a long period of time, as need became evident and opportunity was found, by a number of different people, with different needs and at different times. Hence, the PROJ.4 3D support has not been the result of neither deep geodetic, nor careful code architectural considerations. This has resulted in a library that supports only a subset of commonly occurring geodetic transformations. To be more specific: It supports any datum shift that can be completed by a combination of two Helmert shifts (to and from a pivot datum) and, potentially, also a non-linear planar correction derived from interpolation in a correction grid. While this is sufficient for most small scale mapping activities, it is not at all sufficient for operational geodetic use, nor for many of the rapidly emerging high accuracy geospatial applications in agriculture, construction, transportation and utilities. To improve this situation, we have introduced a new framework for implementation of geodetic transformations, which will appear in the next release of the PROJ.4 library. Before describing the details, let us first remark that most cases of geodetic transformations can be expressed as a series of elementary operations, the output of one operation being the input of the next. E.g. when going from UTM zone 32, datum ED50, to UTM zone 32, datum ETRS89, one must, in the simplest case, go through 5 steps: Back-project the UTM coordinates to geographic coordinates

  18. Natural gas pipeline system: Feasibility study, final project report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The report documents the results of a feasibility study conducted for the Federal Ministry of Economy, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. The purpose of the study was to develop an optimized plan for the construction of a new pipeline in the Slovak Republic to replace and expand the capacity of the existing Brotherhood Pipeline. The document is broken into 14 sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Base Reference Data; (3) Assessment of Rehabilitation of Existing Secondary Transmission and Distribution Systems; (4) Cost of Customer Conversions to Gas Fired Systems; (5) Assessment of SPP's Technical and Safety Standards; (6) Market Demand Projection; (7) New System Design Parameters; (8) Reliable Capacity of Existing Brotherhood Pipeline; (9) New Pipeline Transportation System Configuration; (10) Project Schedules; (11) Estimated Costs; (12) Pipeline Optimization; (13) Economic Analysis; and (14) Conclusions and Recommendations.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical property performance of commercial grade API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Douglas G. [DGS Metallurgical Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA, (United States); Boggess, Todd [Secat Inc., Lexington, KY, (United States); San Marchi, Chris; Somerday, Brian [Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, (United States); Jansto, Steve [Reference Metals Company, Bridgeville, PA, (United States); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The transportation of hydrogen by pipeline steels raises questions of the degradation of the mechanical properties of the steel. This study investigated the microstructure and mechanical property performance of pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen. The performance of four commercially available pipeline steels have been tested in the presence of pressurized hydrogen gas at different pressures in the range of 5.5 MPa and 20.7 MPa. Microstructural characterizations, tensile testing, fracture testing and fatigue testing have been performed for each alloy. The results showed that the four pipeline steels perform differently in gaseous hydrogen. Yield strength does not seem to have a relevant effect on performance, which highlights the importance of the microstructure in determining the resistance of pipeline steels. Of the four microstructures, the polygonal ferrite/10% coarse acicular ferrite microstructure gave the best performance.

  20. Modelling the pressurization induced by solar radiation on above ground installations of LPG pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporini, M.; Terenzi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giacchetta, G.; Polonara, F.; Corvaro, F.; Cocci Grifoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Pipelining Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a mode of LPG transportation more environmentally-friendly than others due to the lower energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Worldwide, there are over 20000 kilometers of LPG pipelines. There are a number of codes that industry follows for the design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid LPG pipelines. However, no standards exist to modelling particular critical phenomena which can occur on these lines due to external environmental conditions like the solar radiation pressurization. In fact, the solar radiation can expose above ground pipeline sections at pressure values above the maximum Design Pressure with resulting risks and problems. The present work presents an innovative practice suitable for the Oil & Gas industry to modelling the pressurization induced by the solar radiation on above ground LPG pipeline sections with the application to a real case.

  1. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  2. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  3. Wireless sensor network-based improved NPW leakage detection algorithm for real-time application in pipelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of pipelines transporting this resource needs to be reduced. This paper briefly elaborates on work in progress employing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to an improved negative pressure wave method for real-time leakage monitoring of a water pipeline network....

  4. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  5. Operational maneuvers and pipelines activities repairs for the 32 inches scraper tool recovering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, Jose; Salguero, Luis; Villanueva, Pedro [Compania Operadora del Gas Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Transportadora de Gas del Peru and the Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, responsible companies of the transport, operation and maintenance of the pipelines who transport natural gas and natural gas liquids respectively of the Camisea Project - Peru, following the internal policies and the maintenance plan of the pipeline transportation system was planned the activities for the internal pipeline inspection of these activities for 729.3 Km of natural gas pipeline covering diameters of 32 inches, 24 inches and 18 inches. After the first run of the cleaning tool, was scheduled the launch of the dummy scraper (scraper tool) along to the first 210 Km of the 32 inches natural gas pipeline , given changes in elevation along the trace and the low flow of transport. This scraper tool could not reach the final destination. After many series operational maneuvers as venting, creation of differential pressure in valves, the scraper tool only reach the first 75 Km of the trace. After an exhaustive analysis of trending pressure variations, it was concluded that this scraper showed intermittent progress of short durations, concluding that this scraper had not reach the next check point. In this way was decided to conduct operational maneuvers in order to locate, relocated and retrieve the scrapper tool from de 32 inches natural gas pipeline. (author)

  6. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... included excavation damage prevention. The Integrity Management for Gas Distribution, Report of Phase I...) The American Gas Association (AGA) The American Petroleum Institute (API) The American Public Gas... Locating Services, API, AOPL, INGAA, and several pipeline operators commented that PHMSA should develop the...

  7. Thermal calculations of underground oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of oil pipelines in the frozen soil causes heat exchange between the pipeline and the soil and formation of a melt zone which leads to deformation of pipelines. Terms of construction and operation of oil pipelines are greatly related to their temperature conditions. In this regard it is necessary to know the laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines. Thus, elucidation of laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines and determination of optimal conditions for their installation during construction in areas of permafrost in the north of Tyumen region is a very urgent task. The authors developed an algorithm and a computer program for construction of the temperature field of the frozen soil. Some problems have been solved basing on the obtained dependences and graphs of the dependence were constructed. Research and calculations made on the underground oil pipeline construction allowed the authors to give recommendations aimed at increasing the reliability of oil pipelines.

  8. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson,; John, G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  9. Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

  10. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  11. Risks associated with South African energy pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. The demand for products which are distributed through pipelines has increased worldwide over the last decade. These increases in demand have irrevocably impacted upon top management’s perceptions of risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains. Even in South Africa, the increase in demand for products such as diesel, jet fuel and petrol, which are supplied through the energy pipeline supply chains have increased the risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains. This s...

  12. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  13. Pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... X42 pipeline with total external surface area of 226224m2. The computation further showed the current requirement was attainable with connection of 3620 anodes to set up a natural potential between sacrificial anode and pipeline. Keywords: Cathodic protection, corrosion, impressed current, pipeline, sacrificial anodes ...

  14. Processes of Turbulent Liquid Flows in Pipelines and Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for an analysis and calculation of processes pertaining to turbulent liquid flows in pipes and channels. Various modes of liquid motion in pipelines of thermal power devices and equipment have been considered in the paper.The presented dependences can be used while making practical calculations of losses due to friction in case of transportation of various energy carriers.

  15. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhihua Wang; Xueying Yu; Jiaxu Li; Jigang Wang; Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    .... In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines...

  16. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhihua Wang; Xueying Yu; Jiaxu Li; Jigang Wang; Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

      Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products...

  17. Reliability evaluation of oil pipelines operating in aggressive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, R. M.; Paizulaev, M. M.; Gebel, E. S.

    2017-08-01

    In connection with modern increased requirements for ecology and safety, the development of diagnostic services complex is obligatory and necessary enabling to ensure the reliable operation of the gas transportation infrastructure. Estimation of oil pipelines technical condition should be carried out not only to establish the current values of the equipment technological parameters in operation, but also to predict the dynamics of changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, the appearance of defects, etc. to ensure reliable and safe operation. In the paper, existing Russian and foreign methods for evaluation of the oil pipelines reliability are considered, taking into account one of the main factors leading to the appearance of crevice in the pipeline material, i.e. change the shape of its cross-section, - corrosion. Without compromising the generality of the reasoning, the assumption of uniform corrosion wear for the initial rectangular cross section has been made. As a result a formula for calculation the probability of failure-free operation was formulated. The proposed mathematical model makes it possible to predict emergency situations, as well as to determine optimal operating conditions for oil pipelines.

  18. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  19. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  20. Field sludge characterization obtained from inner of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N.; Sosa, E.; Alamilla, J.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Knigth, C. [PEMEX Refinacion, Avenida Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-2, Piso 11, C.P. 11311 (Mexico); Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)], E-mail: acontrer@imp.mx

    2009-11-15

    Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained from refined hydrocarbons transmission pipeline was carried out through Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer and X-ray patterns indicate the presence of corrosion products composed of different iron oxide and sulfide phases. Hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetic and superparamagnetic goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) were identified as corrosion products in samples obtained from pipeline transporting Magna and Premium gasoline. For diesel transmission pipeline, hematite, magnetite, and magnetic goethite were identified. Corrosion products follow a simple reaction mechanism of steel dissolution in aerated aqueous media at a near-neutral pH. Chemical composition of the corrosion products depends on H{sub 2}O and sulfur inherent in fluids (traces). These results can be useful for decision-making with regard to pipeline corrosion control.

  1. Remote monitoring of a natural gas pipeline using fiber optic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchi, Sam; Morison, William Donald [Fiber Optic Systems Technology Inc. (FOX-TEK), Bedford, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The pipeline network referred to herein transports natural gas from the NE part of British Columbia through Western Canada into the US Mid-West. Across over 2000 km of the operator's large diameter transmission pipeline system are numerous river crossings and other geotechnical hazards that are continuously identified and risk ranked using a variety of methods, including in line inspection and geotechnical surveys. One particular section of the operator's mainline near Edmonton, Alberta, where railway tracks have recently been installed overtop this vital natural gas transport pipeline, will be the focus of this paper. In order to protect the pipeline from soil stresses to be imposed by heavy cyclic loading during construction of the railway tracks and when trains begin passing overtop, protective concrete structures were constructed around the pipeline within the vicinity of the tracks. While these structures assist in maintaining the integrity of the pipeline in the presence of heavy loading forces, they simultaneously prevent any subsequent access to the pipeline for general inspection and repair. As a result, prior to the construction of the protective concrete structures, the operator made multiple modifications to the pipeline's integrity system within the area of the proposed tracks. This included the enhancement of the cathodic protection to further prevent external corrosion, and the installation of fiber optic strain gauges at multiple sites to ensure that strain levels remain within tolerable limits under the inaccessible area. Background information on operator's pipeline and the layout of the protective concrete structures and railways will be presented in addition to field data obtained using the fiber optic strain monitoring system. An introduction to fiber optic strain gauges will be given, followed by a discussion on the design and installation of the sensors themselves. The particular method used to analyze the strain data is

  2. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Boothroyd, Ian; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The impact of unconventional natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing methods from shale gas basins has been assessed using life-cycle emissions inventories, covering areas such as pre-production, production and transmission processes. The transmission of natural gas from well pad to processing plants and its transport to domestic sites is an important source of fugitive CH4, yet emissions factors and fluxes from transmission processes are often based upon ver out of date measurements. It is important to determine accurate measurements of natural gas losses when compressed and transported between production and processing facilities so as to accurately determine life-cycle CH4 emissions. This study considers CH4 emissions from the UK National Transmission System (NTS) of high pressure natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions using a Picarro Surveyor cavity-ring-down spectrometer were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high pressure pipelines and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from these joints. When scaled up to the UK's National Transmission System pipeline length of 7600 km gives a fugitive CH4 flux of 4700 ± 2864 kt CH4/yr - this fugitive emission from high pressure pipelines is 0.016% of the annual gas supply.

  3. Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

  4. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  5. Exchanger system for anhydrite pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of roadway behaviour affecting airways, bottom roads and top roads in advancing faces in the HBNPC area. The support work in these zones used to be undertaken manually and involved a lot of man hours. These operations are now mechanized in the form of pneumatic stowing with anhydrite. The latter is delivered by pipeline using compressed air. The 'exchanger' is a sort of branching system in the pipeline enabling the flow to be switched from the top end of the face to the bottom end and vice versa (diagram). The associated operations can be undertaken with ease. The effect the system has on costs will soon be known. (In French)

  6. Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew E.

    The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because

  7. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  8. Pipeline purging principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.E.; Svedeman, S.J.; Kuhl, C.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Gregor, J.G. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States); Lambeth, A.K. [Texas Eastern Transmission Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Gas purging, a process of displacing one gas by another gas, occurs on a routine basis in the natural gas industry when pipelines are purged into and out of service. In a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute and in cooperation with the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) the purging practices as outlined in the A.G.A.`s Purging Principles and Practices manual are being reviewed because many of today`s pipeline purging operations occur under conditions not addressed directly in the manual. The program focus is on the purging procedures outlined in Chapter 8 of the manual entitled Gas Transmission and Distribution pipes. The technical objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the scientific principles upon which safe, practical purging practices can be based. Direct displacement and inert gas slug purging operations are explained in terms of dispersion and mixing parameters and their relationship to the gas velocity. Field data is compared to the results of an analytical mixing model. Computer software for planning safe and cost effective pipeline purges has been developed. Finally, recommendations for revising Chapter 8 of the A.G.A. manual are presented.

  9. Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

  10. Effectiveness of U.S. and international pipeline regulations with regard to land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresnack, R.; Golub, E.; Greenfeld, J.; Pignataro, L.J. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States); Griffis, F.H.

    1996-12-31

    The transmission pipeline incident in Edison, New Jersey in March, 1994 raised public concerns about the safety of siting of transmission pipelines in proximity to populated areas. One of the responses to this incident was the issuance of a contract by the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) to the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) to study this and other issues with regard to pipeline safety. The basic findings were as follows: (1) the US Pipeline regulations are appropriate to minimizing risk while maintaining the viability of the pipeline industry; (2) all the regulations reviewed (i.e., US and international) approach the siting and regulation of pipelines in urban areas in a similar fashion; and (3) analysis of the USDOT incident database indicates that, in general, pipelines are sited in rural or underdeveloped areas, and damage resulting from an incident in highly developed areas is generally less than in rural areas due to the regulations restricting the allowable operating stresses in more densely populated areas.

  11. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG. The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline and other system noises, the resulting bending strain calculations may be incorrect. To improve the measurement precision, a method, based on wavelet neural network, was proposed. To test the proposed method experimentally, a PIG with the proposed method is used to detect a straight pipeline. It can be obtained that the proposed method has a better repeatability and convergence than the original method. Furthermore, the new method is more accurate than the original method and the accuracy of bending strain is raised by about 23% compared to original method. This paper provides a novel method for precisely inspecting bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines and lays a foundation for improving the precision of inspection of bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines.

  12. Asbestos--cement pipeline experience at the Raft River Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.G.; Kunze, J.F.; Sanders, R.D.

    1977-04-01

    The first buried asbestos-cement (Transite) pipeline used in high temperature (approximately 300/sup 0/F) service for transport of geothermal fluids was installed in the fall of 1975, and has seen 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years of service. The line is 4000 ft long, between the deep geothermal wells No. 1 and No. 2, in the Raft River Valley of Idaho. The experience in using this pipeline has been satisfactory, and methods have been developed for minimizing the thermal expansion/thermal shock breakage problems. Recommendations on improved design and construction practices for future pipelines are given. The substantially reduced cost (factor of 2) of an asbestos-cement pipeline compared to the conventional steel pipeline, plus the esthetically desirable effect of a buried pipeline dictate adoption of this type as standard practice for moderate temperature geothermal developments. The Raft River Geothermal Project intends to connect all future wells with pipelines of asbestos-cement, insulated with 1 to 2-inches of urethane, and buried between 2 and 3 ft. Total cost will be approximately $110,000/mile for 10-inch diameter pipe, $125,000/mile for 12-inch diameter.

  13. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.

  14. Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

  15. Pressure loss reduction in hydrogen pipelines by surface restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, Y.; Sagaut, P. [Insitut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UMR CNRS 7190, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu - case 162, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Charron, Y. [IFP- Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison Cedex, 92852 (France)

    2009-11-15

    This paper concerns the reduction of pressure losses during pipeline hydrogen transportation, as the cost of hydrogen compression is a significant obstacle for efficient hydrogen pumping on a large-scale basis. The use of organized micro-structures on pipeline walls is proposed to obtain lower values of pressure losses with respect to smooth walls. Three-dimensional micro-structures of a sinusoidal shape are investigated as potentially more efficient counterparts to conventional two-dimensional structures (riblets) developed in aerospace industry. Aerodynamic performance of three-dimensional structures is investigated computationally in terms of both skin friction and pressure drag, two constituents of the total drag. Three-dimensional structures are shown to provide larger total drag reduction than two-dimensional structures for some range of geometrical parameters (14.5% versus 11%). Parametric dependence of both pressure and skin friction drag on structure geometry is analyzed, and an optimum configuration maximizing the total drag reduction is proposed. (author)

  16. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  17. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  18. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  19. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  20. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ..., depth and location of the pipelines so that the movement of heavy equipment and debris on the right-of... the presence, depth and location of the pipelines so that the movement of heavy equipment on the right... cover permitted by the current Federal and industry pipeline construction standards, it likely would...

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. A discrete event simulation model for evaluating time delays in a pipeline network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spricigo, Deisi; Muggiati, Filipe V.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio [Federal University of Technology of Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Currently in the oil industry the logistic chain stands out as a strong candidate to obtain highest profit, since recent studies have pointed out to a cost reduction by adoption of better policies for distribution of oil derivatives, particularly those where pipelines are used to transport products. Although there are models to represent transfers of oil derivatives in pipelines, they are quite complex and computationally burden. In this paper, we are interested on models that are less detailed in terms of fluid dynamics but provide more information about operational decisions in a pipeline network. We propose a discrete event simulation model in ARENA that allows simulating a pipeline network based on average historical data. Time delays for transferring different products can be evaluated through different routes. It is considered that transport operations follow a historical behavior and average time delays can thus be estimated within certain bounds. Due to its stochastic nature, time quantities are characterized by average and dispersion measures. This allows comparing different operational scenarios for product transportation. Simulation results are compared to data obtained from a real world pipeline network and different scenarios of production and demand are analyzed. (author)

  3. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  4. Anaesthetic machine pipeline inlet pressure gauges do not always measure pipeline pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D B; Longmuir, J

    1980-09-01

    Some anaesthetic gas machines have pipeline inlet pressure gauges which indicate the higher of either pipeline pressure, or machine circuit pressure (the pressure distal to the pressure reducing valve, and proximal to the flowmeter control valve). Failure by the operator to appreciate this feature may in specific circumstances lead to a delayed appreciation of pipeline malfunction or disconnection. The Canadian Standards Association Z168.3-M1980 Anaesthetic Gas Machine Standard requires pipeline inlet gauges which measure only pipeline (hose) pressure. Existing machines should be modified to accommodate this requirement.

  5. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  6. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  7. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  8. pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    total external surface area of 226224m2. The computation further showed the current requirement was attainable with connection of 3620 anodes to set up a natural potential between sacrificial anode and pipeline. Key words: Cathodic protection, corrosion, impressed current, pipeline, sacrificial anodes. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  9. Methodology for determination of pipeline trenching depth in shore approach areas using local environmental data and numerical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Valeria S.; Braga, Vinicius R.; Mansur Barros, Claudio R.; Martinez, Marcio B.; Piaulino, Pedro O.; Teixeira, Marcelo J.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gusmao, Luiz A.B. [Aquamodelo Consultoria e Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Shore-approach engineering design of pipelines, including pipeline trenching specifications, presents great complexity due to comparatively (in relation to deeper waters) harsher environmental conditions and highly dynamic interaction between waves, currents and sediment transport. In general, pipelines should be buried in beach areas, but depending on the sea conditions and the trench depth, the pipeline may become unburied during its operational life. Unburied pipelines at shore-approach areas may suffer the action of unpredicted loads. The uncertainty related to these loads may decrease the structural reliability of the pipeline. the problem to be solved is how deep a pipeline requires to be trenched at the shore approach area, considering that it should be kept in this condition throughout its design life. This should be achieved with a cost-effective solution, assuring the structural reliability of the pipeline during operation, in addition to considering the feasibility of the project. Directional wave, water level, beach profile and sediment grain distribution data in the shore approach area permit determination of typical profiles, median sediment grain size, extreme and frequent wave and water level conditions, which are parameters to be used to simulate beach profile evolution through numerical model SBEACH and estimate the minimum burial depth profile. (author)

  10. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

  11. Pipelines inspection robots; Robos para inspecao de linhas de servico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila Diaz, John Faber; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Robotica

    2008-07-01

    One of the problems existing in the area of maintenance of systems for the transport of mass and / or energy is to examine the integrity of the lines of service in the basic infrastructure of cities and industries. For the development of maintenance, whether predictive, preventive or corrective is necessary to conduct the inspection of these lines. To carry out this task is necessary count on help of appropriate technological tools. The main tools for inspection of service lines come from the area of external inspection of pipelines and are also in development, the problem happens when we need to achieve internal or external failures in places of difficult access, and move the inspection equipment to places where it's going to fail. In these cases it is necessary to the use of mechatronic systems, more specifically robotic systems, which may be developed for inspection. This paper aims to present the main robotic systems used for inspection, especially for internal inspection of pipelines. These systems have been developed by the research groups in Brazil, Japan, and Belgium among others, giving up a classification of robots for inspection of pipelines and the main features necessary for its project. (author)

  12. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  13. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  14. The Hyper Suprime-Cam software pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, James; Armstrong, Robert; Bickerton, Steven; Furusawa, Hisanori; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Koike, Michitaro; Lupton, Robert; Mineo, Sogo; Price, Paul; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yasuda, Naoki; AlSayyad, Yusra; Becker, Andrew C.; Coulton, William; Coupon, Jean; Garmilla, Jose; Huang, Song; Krughoff, K. Simon; Lang, Dustin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lim, Kian-Tat; Lust, Nate B.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Miyatake, Hironao; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Murata, Ryoma; More, Surhud; Okura, Yuki; Owen, Russell; Swinbank, John D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Yamanoi, Hitomi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the optical imaging data processing pipeline developed for the Subaru Telescope's Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) instrument. The HSC Pipeline builds on the prototype pipeline being developed by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's Data Management system, adding customizations for HSC, large-scale processing capabilities, and novel algorithms that have since been reincorporated into the LSST codebase. While designed primarily to reduce HSC Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) data, it is also the recommended pipeline for reducing general-observer HSC data. The HSC pipeline includes high-level processing steps that generate coadded images and science-ready catalogs as well as low-level detrending and image characterizations.

  15. Failure modes for pipelines in landslide areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, R.; Spinazze, M.; Tomassini, D. [Snamprogetti SpA, Fano (Italy); Cuscuna, S.; Venzi, S. [SNAM SpA, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a number of incidences of pipelines affected by slow soil movements have been reported in the relevant literature. Further related issues such as soil-pipe interaction have been studied both theoretically and through experimental surveys, along with the environmental conditions which are responsible for hazard to the pipeline integrity. A suitable design criteria under these circumstances has been discussed by several authors, in particular in relation to a limit state approach and hence a strain based criteria. The scope of this paper is to describe the failure mechanisms which may affect the pipeline in the presence of slow soil movements impacting on the pipeline, both in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Particular attention is paid to environmental, geometric and structural parameters which steer the process towards one or other failure mechanism. Criteria for deciding upon remedial measures required to guarantee the structural integrity of the pipeline, both in the short and in the long term, are discussed.

  16. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  17. A geomorphic approach to the design of pipeline crossings of mountain streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Porter, M.; Savigny, K.W. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Yaremko, E. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of pipelines that cross streams can be severely affected by flow transformations. Flow characterization is particularly important in determining pipeline alignment and designing pipeline crossings that avoid repeated pipeline interruptions resulting from catastrophic discharges. There are 3 basic options for pipelines that cross streams. These include conventional burial, horizontal directional drilling or aerial crossing. In addition to cost, the choice of crossing method depends on the dominant geomorphic processes at the stream crossing and the environmental constraints. In order to design conventional crossings, data is needed for estimates of scour and bank erosion. For aerial crossings, data is needed on peak flood discharge along with estimates of the type of debris that will be transported during floods to ensure that the infrastructure will be located outside of the debris impact zone. Several hydrological methods exist to determine this information. However, although they are appropriate for streams dominated by purely hydrological processes, they fail where other, more hazardous processes occur within the design recurrence interval. Therefore, this paper recommended that a geomorphic approach should be taken in recognizing and quantifying the potential for non-fluvial processes. Several case studies from Bolivia and Canada were presented to illustrate the importance of geomorphic processes in mountain streams on pipeline operation. A systematic method was presented to evaluate watersheds with respect to geomorphic processes that can affect the frequency, peak flow, scour and occurrence of hazardous events associated with stream channels. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Boggess, Todd [Secat; San Marchi, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jansto, Steven [Reference Metals Company; Somerday, Dr. B [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Sofronis, Prof. Petros [University of Illinois

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best

  19. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  20. Prospects for energy conservation in the pipeline industry. Technical report, tasks 4 and 5. [Growth projection to year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    A qualitative projection (the baseline scenario) is made of the pipeline industry growth to the year 2000. This projection is based on the conventional wisdom of the industry. It is concluded that, to achieve significant growth, the industry must develop the capability, called freight pipeline, to move other commodities than oil and gas, i.e., bulk and packaged goods. Technical and economic performance criteria are identified which, if met by the freight pipeline capability, could induce modal shifts resulting in a reduction of total transportation energy consumption, and would offer other benefits, including compatibility with high-speed rail passenger service.

  1. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  2. The Very Large Array Data Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Masters, Joseph S.; Chandler, Claire J.; Davis, Lindsey E.; Kern, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinzel, Frank K.; Medlin, Drew; Muders, Dirk; Williams, Stewart; Geers, Vincent C.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Nakazato, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kanako

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLA Pipeline, software that is part of the larger pipeline processing framework used for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for both interferometric and single dish observations.Through a collection of base code jointly used by the VLA and ALMA, the pipeline builds a hierarchy of classes to execute individual atomic pipeline tasks within the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. Each pipeline task contains heuristics designed by the team to actively decide the best processing path and execution parameters for calibration and imaging. The pipeline code is developed and written in Python and uses a "context" structure for tracking the heuristic decisions and processing results. The pipeline "weblog" acts as the user interface in verifying the quality assurance of each calibration and imaging stage. The majority of VLA scheduling blocks above 1 GHz are now processed with the standard continuum recipe of the pipeline and offer a calibrated measurement set as a basic data product to observatory users. In addition, the pipeline is used for processing data from the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), a seven year community-driven endeavor started in September 2017 to survey the entire sky down to a declination of -40 degrees at S-band (2-4 GHz). This 5500 hour next-generation large radio survey will explore the time and spectral domains, relying on pipeline processing to generate calibrated measurement sets, polarimetry, and imaging data products that are available to the astronomical community with no proprietary period. Here we present an overview of the pipeline design philosophy, heuristics, and calibration and imaging results produced by the pipeline. Future development will include the testing of spectral line recipes, low signal-to-noise heuristics, and serving as a testing platform for science ready data products.The pipeline is developed as part of the CASA software package by an

  3. Transport and Clogging of Particulate Flow in Fracture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplik, Joel [City College of New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The aim of the project is to understand the effects of confinement in narrow rough-walled fractures on the transport behavior of fluids and suspended particles in subsurface hydro- carbon reservoirs. A key motivation for the study is that such fracture systems provide the highest throughput in oil and gas extraction and have been the focus of recent industrial activity. The scientific challenge is to understand how the confined geometry alters transport phenomena, and in particular its influence on (diagnostic) tracer transport and the effects of flow channeling and clogging on fluid motion. An important complicating feature of geological fractures is the self-affine fractal nature of their surface roughness, leading to irregular but correlated fluid and particle motion. The key technique used is computer simulation, augmented by analytical calculations and collaboration with outside experimental colleagues when possible. The principal topics studied were fluid permeability, tracer dispersion, flow channeling and anisotropy, particle transport in narrow channels and particle trapping in tight fractures.

  4. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  5. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  6. Assessing the efficiency of automatically controlled valves (ACV) for pipeline sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Leandro S. da; Silva, Marcos J.M. da; Leite, Joao Paulo de B.; Santos, Renata N.R. dos; Jardim, Rodrigo B.O.; Quinto, Thiago C. do [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to mitigate the effects caused by the rupture of a gas pipeline and following ASME B 31.8 recommendations, block valves are installed in these structures. However, many transportation companies also install devices capable of infer the occurrence of an accident in a gas pipeline. The most common devices are the ones that actuate when pressure in gas pipeline reaches a low value early established (PSL) and those which close valves due to high rate of pressure drop (line-break). Line-break has the function of identifying as fast as possible the occurrence of a rupture in a gas pipeline by high rate of pressure drop in that line. Although PSL presents a later actuation when compared to the line break, it represents redundancy to the line-break system, since it is able to isolate the segment where the accident happened even if other devices or the operator had not done it before. The growing of gas pipelines transport capacity has been generated transients capable of causing an erroneous shut down of the shut down valves (SDV). The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present how the operational limits of SDV can be overcome with remote operation using SCADA System. (author)

  7. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are

  8. 18 CFR 284.12 - Standards for pipeline business operations and communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corrections applied December 13, 2006); and (vii) Internet Electronic Transport Related Standards (Version 1.8...-day nomination submitted on the day prior to gas flow will take effect at the start of the gas day at... and electronic transactions conducted by a pipeline must be provided on the public Internet. A...

  9. Modelling of accidental releases from a high pressure CO2 pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Dam, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the near future large quantities of CO2 will be transported over a large distance from Carbon dioxide Capture plants to onshore and off-shore underground Storage (CCS) sites. The risk assessments for the existing CO2 pipelines show distances to harmful threshold concentrations from 1 to 7.2 km.

  10. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  11. Pipeline Structural Health Monitoring Using Macro-fiber Composite Active Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Andrew B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-01-10

    The United States economy is heavily dependent upon a vast network of pipeline systems to transport and distribute the nation's energy resources. As this network of pipelines continues to age, monitoring and maintaining its structural integrity remains essential to the nation's energy interests. Numerous pipeline accidents over the past several years have resulted in hundreds of fatalities and billions of dollars in property damages. These accidents show that the current monitoring methods are not sufficient and leave a considerable margin for improvement. To avoid such catastrophes, more thorough methods are needed. As a solution, the research of this thesis proposes a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for pipeline networks. By implementing a SHM system with pipelines, their structural integrity can be continuously monitored, reducing the overall risks and costs associated with current methods. The proposed SHM system relies upon the deployment of macro-fiber composite (MFC) patches for the sensor array. Because MFC patches are flexible and resilient, they can be permanently mounted to the curved surface of a pipeline's main body. From this location, the MFC patches are used to monitor the structural integrity of the entire pipeline. Two damage detection techniques, guided wave and impedance methods, were implemented as part of the proposed SHM system. However, both techniques utilize the same MFC patches. This dual use of the MFC patches enables the proposed SHM system to require only a single sensor array. The presented Lamb wave methods demonstrated the ability to correctly identify and locate the presence of damage in the main body of the pipeline system, including simulated cracks and actual corrosion damage. The presented impedance methods demonstrated the ability to correctly identify and locate the presence of damage in the flanged joints of the pipeline system, including the loosening of bolts on the flanges. In addition to damage

  12. Natural gas and CO2price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  13. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  14. A method to assess multi-modal hazmat transport security vulnerabilities: Hazmat transport SVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The suggested Hazmat transport Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) methodology presents a user-friendly approach to determine relative security risk levels of the different modes of hazardous freight transport (i.e., road, railway, inland waterways and pipeline transportation). First, transport

  15. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  16. The study on the results of hydrogen pipeline leakage accident of different factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haonan; Mao, Zhanli

    2017-05-01

    Pipeline is frequently used in long-distance hydrogen transport, while pipes can be disturbed in some conditions, prone to leakage accident, causing severe combustion or explosion. This paper analyzed the influences of different factors on the consequences of hydrogen pipeline leakage through the simulation software ALOHA. The results show that wind speed, ground roughness, tube pressure and gap area have a great impact on the consequences of the accident; wind speed and ground roughness have negative correlation to danger distance; tube pressure and gap area have positive correlation to danger distance. These results are due to the release amount and release rate influenced by the four factors.

  17. Optimization of oil-mixture “hot” pumping in main oil pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibayev, T. T.; Zhapbasbayev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.

    2017-10-01

    The optimal conditions for high pour point and high-viscosity oil transportation through the main oil pipeline sections are determined. The optimization of “hot” pumping is investigated by determining the energy-saving operating conditions of pumps and heating furnaces. The objective function of optimality for the pipeline section with several stations is determined by a minimum costs of energy consumed by pumps and heating furnaces. The problem solving algorithm is constructed by new dynamic programming approach. The problem is divided into many overlapping subtasks with finding the optimal substructure. The object of each subtask is the cost function of pumps and heating furnaces at the stations.

  18. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  19. Pipelines in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1999) [pipelines_la_usgs_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains vector line map information of various pipelines throughout the State of Louisiana. The vector data contain selected base categories of...

  20. GLAST (FERMI) Data-Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flath, Daniel L.; Johnson, Tony S.; Turri, Massimiliano; Heidenreich, Karen A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    The Data Processing Pipeline ('Pipeline') has been developed for the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) which launched June 11, 2008. It generically processes graphs of dependent tasks, maintaining a full record of its state, history and data products. The Pipeline is used to automatically process the data down-linked from the satellite and to deliver science products to the GLAST collaboration and the Science Support Center and has been in continuous use since launch with great success. The pipeline handles up to 2000 concurrent jobs and in reconstructing science data produces approximately 750GB of data products using 1/2 CPU-year of processing time per day.

  1. Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

  2. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-03

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  3. Epoxy Pipelining Composition and Method of Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-14

    ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 "Accesion For NTIS CRA &I DTIC TAB El Unannounced i- Justification .- ---- ----- By ---- ----- Distribution I Availability Codes... corrosion and erosion. The pipelining 10 composition forms a barrier which prevents the leaching of, for example, metals from 11 pipes. This invention...invention, 13 more particularly, relates to an epoxy resin/curing agent corrosion -resistant network 14 pipelining composition suitable for the in

  4. A review of bioinformatic pipeline frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-throughput bioinformatic analyses increasingly rely on pipeline frameworks to process sequence and metadata. Modern implementations of these frameworks differ on three key dimensions: using an implicit or explicit syntax, using a configuration, convention or class-based design paradigm and offering a command line or workbench interface. Here I survey and compare the design philosophies of several current pipeline frameworks. I provide practical recommendations based on analysis requirements and the user base. PMID:27013646

  5. Federation in genomics pipelines: techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaterji, Somali; Koo, Jinkyu; Li, Ninghui; Meyer, Folker; Grama, Ananth; Bagchi, Saurabh

    2017-08-29

    Federation is a popular concept in building distributed cyberinfrastructures, whereby computational resources are provided by multiple organizations through a unified portal, decreasing the complexity of moving data back and forth among multiple organizations. Federation has been used in bioinformatics only to a limited extent, namely, federation of datastores, e.g. SBGrid Consortium for structural biology and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for functional genomics. Here, we posit that it is important to federate both computational resources (CPU, GPU, FPGA, etc.) and datastores to support popular bioinformatics portals, with fast-increasing data volumes and increasing processing requirements. A prime example, and one that we discuss here, is in genomics and metagenomics. It is critical that the processing of the data be done without having to transport the data across large network distances. We exemplify our design and development through our experience with metagenomics-RAST (MG-RAST), the most popular metagenomics analysis pipeline. Currently, it is hosted completely at Argonne National Laboratory. However, through a recently started collaborative National Institutes of Health project, we are taking steps toward federating this infrastructure. Being a widely used resource, we have to move toward federation without disrupting 50 K annual users. In this article, we describe the computational tools that will be useful for federating a bioinformatics infrastructure and the open research challenges that we see in federating such infrastructures. It is hoped that our manuscript can serve to spur greater federation of bioinformatics infrastructures by showing the steps involved, and thus, allow them to scale to support larger user bases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Ruptured Pipeline: Analysis of the Mining Engineering Faculty Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, M.

    2011-12-01

    The booming commodities markets of the past seven years have created an enormous demand for economic geologists, mining engineers, and extractive metallurgists. The mining sector has largely been recession proof due to demand drivers coming from developing rather than developed nations. The strong demand for new hires as well as mid-career hires has exposed the weakness of the U.S. university supply pipeline for these career fields. A survey of mining and metallurgical engineering faculty and graduate students was conducted in 2010 at the request of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The goals of the surveys were to determine the demographics of the U.S. faculty in mining and metallurgical engineering, the expected faculty turn over by 2010 and the potential supply of graduate students as the future professorate. All Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering degrees in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the specific courses required are set by the sponsoring professional society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. There are 13 universities in the U.S. that offer a degree in Mining Engineering accredited as Mining Engineering and 1 university that grants a Mining Engineering degree accredited under general engineering program requirements. Faculty numbers are approximately 87 tenure track positions with a total undergraduate enrollment of slightly over 1,000 in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are approximately 262 graduate students in mining engineering in the U.S. including 87 Ph.D. students. Mining Engineering department heads have identified 14 positions open in 2010 and 18 positions expected to be open in the next 5 years and an additional 21 positions open by 2020. The current survey predicts a 56% turn over in mining faculty ranks over the next 10 years but a retirement of 100% of senior faculty over 10 years. 63% of graduate students say they are interested in

  7. Study of the sensitivity of the Guanabara Bay PE-3 pipeline to geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.C. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Research and Development Center; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Silva, R.C.C.; Loula, A.F.D. [National Laboratory for Scientific Computing, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The sensitivity of the Guanabara Bay PE-3 pipeline to geometric imperfections was investigated. Petrobras-TransPetro transports hot heavy oil from the Reduc refinery to the Ilha d'Agua marine terminal. Since prevention of thermal buckling of a single wall straight line pipe would be nearly impossible using routine trenching methods, the following 3 pipeline configurations were explored: a single wall straight pipe; a pipe-in-pipe; and, a zig-zag option which was chosen because it reduces the potential for thermal buckling and was the least complex in terms of construction and maintenance. Upheaval buckling is inhibited because the displacements of the zig-zag pipeline occur preferentially in the horizontal plane. Lateral buckling is also inhibited because the lateral geometric imperfections in the zig-zag waves are large enough to eliminate the lateral instability of the zig-zag configuration. A general purpose finite element (FE) program ABAQUS was used to perform geometric and material nonlinear analyses of the PE-3 zig-zag pipeline. In all, 24 case studies were carried out, in which the initial configuration of the zig-zag pipeline was modified to incorporate geometric imperfections resulting from construction and seabed topography. The varied parameters were the bend angle, the wave length, the trench depth, the profile of the trench bottom and the shape of the centerline. It was shown that the PE-3 pipeline is geometrically stable when submitted to the maximum pressure loading and maximum temperature loading established in the design. It has sufficient flexibility to absorb both horizontal and vertical trench imperfections without showing signs of stress or instabilities. Von Mises stresses were found to be below the yield strength of the pipe material. The same stable behaviour was noted when the installation condition changed from an almost exposed to a totally buried pipeline. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 38 figs.

  8. STUDY OF DEFECT ADMISSIBILITY IN GAS PIPELINES BASED ON FRACTURE MECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ABDELBAKI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the considerable distances between natural gas fields and consumers’ appliances, transport by gas pipelines remains the most competitive means. These gas pipelines which are generally made of steel pipes may contain however several types of defects of various origins and which are susceptible to initiate cracks which may grow under some circumstances to such extent as to lead to fracture. Failures of gas pipelines may have serious consequences and may lead to catastrophes from ecological and financial viewpoints. It is therefore interesting to study the defect admissibility so as to maximize safety and minimize exploitation costs through a simplified method based on the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD. The latter is used in conjunction with Finite Element Analysis (FEM applied to fracture mechanics to help decision making as to whether a given defect present in a pipe is acceptable or not.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR MONITORING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF THE PIPELINE UNDER TENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Abaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The software and hardware development tendency, providing the automated monitoring and control of basic and auxiliary technological processes of gas transportation via system of main gas pipelines has been revealed. The article discusses the stages of creation of the software of system of monitoring corrosion cracking under tension (SCC. The new useful adequate regression models development determining the risk level of LCC is shown. A ranking sections algorithm of main gas pipeline (MG on the propensity to SCC is presented. Adequate developed regression equation determining the LCC risk level has been developed. To count the main gas pipeline lifetime the variable rank of the danger of SCC (RSCC on the basis of methods of fuzzy logic is proposed to use. Implementation of the fuzzy model was carried out using the graphical tools developed in MATLAB using the expansion pack Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The working algorithm of developed program and the screen forms are presented.

  10. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  11. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Case studies and scenarios for the Nabucco pipeline (report 3.1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Fallstudie und Szenarien zur Nabucco-Pipeline (Teilbericht 3.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The controversial discussion over natural gas supply in Europe has been going on for several years now; it all started with the controversy between Russia, Europe's main supplier country, and Ukraine and Belorus. The wish to reduce the dependence on Russian imports resulted in several European projects. One of them is the so-called Nabucco pipeline, which will transport natural gas from the Caspian region to Western Europe without touching Russian territory. A comprehensive view of the case study and the scenarios derived from it shows that the supply and demand situation in the European Union will be the central element of all developments. The economic efficiency of the Nabucco pipeline will depend on the implementation of efficiency strategies within the EU. In case of peak gas production, it is difficult to see how the Nabucco pipeline will be affected; it will depend largely on the regions in which natural gas production will decline the most. Cooperative regimes may develop along the Nabucco pipeline if the pipeline is viewed not only as an economic project but also as an approach to getting many actors together with maximum benefit to all. For the EU itself, the Nabucco pipeline is an important instrument for reducing dependence on Russian natural gas. However, Nabucco will compete with the NordStream pipeline that is currently being laid through the Baltic Sea. The NordStream pipeline is contraproductive in that it increases dependence on Russian natural gas. At the same time, the existing energy partnership between the EU and Russia is to be deepened. In principle, the Nabucco pipeline is a relevant approach to avoiding possible supply and dependence conflicts on a transnational level. (orig./RHM)

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  13. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  14. Planning for purging and loading of a newly constructed gas pipeline system using a pipeline simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, M.; Kazakoff, J.; Jenkins, A.; Montemurro, D. [TransCanada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A brief review of purging and loading of a gas pipeline was presented with a summary of current industry practices. If purging is done when pipelines are put into service, it involves the displacement of air or nitrogen by high pressure natural gas into one end of the pipeline section. If purging is done when a pipeline goes out of service, it involves the displacement of natural gas by air or other neutral gases. Current practices give no consideration to minimize the emission of methane gas into the atmosphere. This paper described a simplified purging calculation method and a simulation technique using commercially available software for planning purging and loading operations of gas pipeline systems. The hydraulic-based simulation technique made it possible to minimize the gas to air interface and minimize the emission of methane gas. The simulation also helped to predict the timing of purging and loading of the pipeline. An example was presented of the newly constructed Mayakan Pipeline in Mexico to demonstrate how the process was developed. Simulation results were favourably compared with field data collected during the actual purging and loading of the pipeline. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. 76 FR 18750 - Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on March 28, 2011, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of...

  16. Integrated surface management for pipeline construction: The Mid-America Pipeline Company Four Corners Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Sonett

    1999-01-01

    Integrated surface management techniques for pipeline construction through arid and semi-arid rangeland ecosystems are presented in a case history of a 412-mile pipeline construction project in New Mexico. Planning, implementation and monitoring for restoration of surface hydrology, soil stabilization, soil cover, and plant species succession are discussed. Planning...

  17. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  18. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... River in the past few months. While the cause of the accident is still under investigation, ExxonMobil.... Coordinate with other pipeline operators in the flood area and establish emergency response centers to act as... others involved in post-flood restoration activities of the presence of pipelines and the risks posed by...

  19. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... forces sufficient to cause a failure. These forces are increased by the accumulation of debris against... other pipeline operators in the flood area and establish emergency response centers to act as a liaison... involved in post-flood restoration activities of the presence of pipelines and the risks posed by reduced...

  20. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... large pipeline breaks. The line balance processes incorporating SCADA or other technology are geared to...

  1. A novel approach to pipeline tensioner modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Grady, Robert; Ilie, Daniel; Lane, Michael [MCS Software Division, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    As subsea pipeline developments continue to move into deep and ultra-deep water locations, there is an increasing need for the accurate prediction of expected pipeline fatigue life. A significant factor that must be considered as part of this process is the fatigue damage sustained by the pipeline during installation. The magnitude of this installation-related damage is governed by a number of different agents, one of which is the dynamic behavior of the tensioner systems during pipe-laying operations. There are a variety of traditional finite element methods for representing dynamic tensioner behavior. These existing methods, while basic in nature, have been proven to provide adequate forecasts in terms of the dynamic variation in typical installation parameters such as top tension and sagbend/overbend strain. However due to the simplicity of these current approaches, some of them tend to over-estimate the frequency of tensioner pay out/in under dynamic loading. This excessive level of pay out/in motion results in the prediction of additional stress cycles at certain roller beds, which in turn leads to the prediction of unrealistic fatigue damage to the pipeline. This unwarranted fatigue damage then equates to an over-conservative value for the accumulated damage experienced by a pipeline weld during installation, and so leads to a reduction in the estimated fatigue life for the pipeline. This paper describes a novel approach to tensioner modeling which allows for greater control over the velocity of dynamic tensioner pay out/in and so provides a more accurate estimation of fatigue damage experienced by the pipeline during installation. The paper reports on a case study, as outlined in the proceeding section, in which a comparison is made between results from this new tensioner model and from a more conventional approach. The comparison considers typical installation parameters as well as an in-depth look at the predicted fatigue damage for the two methods

  2. Pipeline risk assessment and control: Nigerian National Petroleum Pipeline network experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adubi, F.A.; Egho, P.I. [Pipelines and Products Marketing Company Ltd., Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Lagos (Nigeria)

    1992-12-31

    Third party encroachment and corrosion were identified as major causes of pipeline failure in Nigeria. The multi-faceted approach developed by the Nigerian National Petroleum Pipeline Corporation for effective assessment and control of risks to pipelines was described. In essence, information provided from each activity is used to complement information from other activities. This approach led to a better understanding of pipeline status and reduced risk of failures. Aerial surveillance was intensified in order to detect illegal activities, halt them, and remedy any damage. Efforts were also made to intensify corrosion monitoring and pipeline integrity surveys to avoid premature failures. Cathodic protection equipment was found to be only partially effective. due to vandalism and uncontrolled bush burning. 10 figs., 1 ref.

  3. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  4. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  5. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  6. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  7. Bioinformatic pipelines in Python with Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An incremental, loosely planned development approach is often used in bioinformatic studies when dealing with custom data analysis in a rapidly changing environment. Unfortunately, the lack of a rigorous software structuring can undermine the maintainability, communicability and replicability of the process. To ameliorate this problem we propose the Leaf system, the aim of which is to seamlessly introduce the pipeline formality on top of a dynamical development process with minimum overhead for the programmer, thus providing a simple layer of software structuring. Results Leaf includes a formal language for the definition of pipelines with code that can be transparently inserted into the user’s Python code. Its syntax is designed to visually highlight dependencies in the pipeline structure it defines. While encouraging the developer to think in terms of bioinformatic pipelines, Leaf supports a number of automated features including data and session persistence, consistency checks between steps of the analysis, processing optimization and publication of the analytic protocol in the form of a hypertext. Conclusions Leaf offers a powerful balance between plan-driven and change-driven development environments in the design, management and communication of bioinformatic pipelines. Its unique features make it a valuable alternative to other related tools. PMID:23786315

  8. Underwater pipeline impact localization using piezoceramic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Wang, Ning; Hirsch, Rachel; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-01

    Reports indicated that impact events accounted for 47% of offshore pipeline failures, which calls for impact detection and localization for subsea pipelines. In this paper, an innovative method for rapid localization of impacts on underwater pipelines utilizing a novel determination technique for both arrival-time and group velocity (ATGV) of ultrasonic guided waves with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers is described. PZT transducers mounted on the outer surface of a model pipeline were utilized to measure ultrasonic guided waves generated by impact events. Based on the signals from PZT sensors, the ATGV technique integrates wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistical analysis to pinpoint the arrival-time of the designated ultrasonic guided waves with a specific group velocity. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the localization accuracy for eight impact points along a model underwater pipeline. All estimations errors were small and were comparable with the wavelength of the designated ultrasonic guided waves. Furthermore, the method is robust against the low frequency structural vibration introduced by other external forces.

  9. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  10. Caspian Energy Transportation Routes : Determining Main Export Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Malikov, Khagani

    2006-01-01

    現在、世界を主に左右しているのはペルシャ湾のエネルギー供給であるが、この地方は常に不安定で、治安が悪い、ロシアの石油も、外資系企業に対するロシア政府の姿勢やその他の政治的・経済的問題のため、アクセスしにくい。したがって、安定したビジネスをするために、多くの石油会社はカスピ海に関心をもつようになった。また、このカスピ海はヨーロッパとアジアを結ぶところに位置し、中央アジアのエネルギー資源をヨーロッパに中継する場所としても重要である。本論文では、カスピ海地域の経済発展に役立つ可能性をもつ輸出パイプラインの問題およびこの地域のいくつかの代替的なパイプラインに関する問題を論じた。すなわち、西向きルートとそれの建設や投資の問題である。さらに、カスピ海沿岸諸国の例としてロシアとイランが進めるパイプライン・プロジェクトの問題を検討した。...

  11. Neural-Fuzzy model Based Steel Pipeline Multiple Cracks Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwalwal, Hatem Mostafa; Mahzan, Shahruddin Bin Hj.; Abdalla, Ahmed N.

    2017-10-01

    While pipes are cheaper than other means of transportation, this cost saving comes with a major price: pipes are subject to cracks, corrosion etc., which in turn can cause leakage and environmental damage. In this paper, Neural-Fuzzy model for multiple cracks classification based on Lamb Guide Wave. Simulation results for 42 sample were collected using ANSYS software. The current research object to carry on the numerical simulation and experimental study, aiming at finding an effective way to detection and the localization of cracks and holes defects in the main body of pipeline. Considering the damage form of multiple cracks and holes which may exist in pipeline, to determine the respective position in the steel pipe. In addition, the technique used in this research a guided lamb wave based structural health monitoring method whereas piezoelectric transducers will use as exciting and receiving sensors by Pitch-Catch method. Implementation of simple learning mechanism has been developed specially for the ANN for fuzzy the system represented.

  12. The design of a control system for pipeline compression application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, S.; Shcharansky, L.; Mints, L. [Compressor Controls Corp., Des Moines, IA (United States); Budzulyak, B.V.; Remizov, V.V.; Sedykh, A.D.; Shaykhutdinov, A.Z.; Boyko, A.M. [OAO GAZPROM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    OAO GAZPROM is a company that oversees the largest network of natural gas pipelines in the world. They are used to transport the natural gas from a number of production fields to markets both in Western and Eastern Europe. The network is comprised of 125,000 miles of pipe and approximately 250 pumping stations equipped with aging 3,700 turbine-driven compressor units. Needless to say that the efficiency of compressors is lower than the efficiency found at more modern stations. The company decided to contact Compressor Controls Corporation to retrofit integrated turbomachinery control systems in more than half the stations. The retrofit allows the operation closer to pipe pressure, turbine temperature-pressure limits, and compressor surge. The preliminary results indicated that the fuel savings were in the order of 7 per cent while the payback period for the installations was 1.1 years. The pipeline throughput could be increased by approximately 2.2 per cent. There was also a major reduction of emergency shutdown. It is expected that the algorithms developed to meet the customer's needs will be applicable in other fields. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Urbanization: the pipelines ROW (Right-of-Way) future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Gilberto; Malzone, Vivian de Araujo Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The accelerated process of urbanization that is shifting the aspects of Brazilian cities - most clearly in South East and South region states - is inherently involved with decayed levels of quality of life and little or any concern at all with the sustainability of such urban expansion. Besides the social difficulties generated from this non-planned growth - mainly in the cities' outskirts - there are many questions related to urbanization that should be reconsidered such as water, soil and air pollution; lack of water resources; floods, insufficient public transport and traffic problems; urban infra-structure and lodging privations and inadequate soil installment. This paper aims at showing how this disordered urban growth plays an important role on PETROBRAS' pipeline right of way located at the great cities urban areas, more specifically the Urban Right Of Way that cross the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo. Also, it is an objective to express how such urbanization propitiate the execution of basic infra-structure in a way of integrating habitation, sanitation, environment and geotechnical sectors with the purposes of PETROBRAS of maintaining as priority the integrity of the pipelines located on the ROW as well as the integrity of these ROW themselves. (author)

  14. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  15. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  16. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  17. Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Pipeline Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel E.; Casertano, S.; Lindsay, K.

    2013-01-01

    The HLA maintains a strong commitment to continuing improvement of our Hubble Space Telescope data processing pipelines with the goal of generating better science-ready data products. The HLA image processing pipeline is transitioning from the use of MultiDrizzle to AstroDrizzle for image registration and combination. It is expected that this change will allow for the creation of higher quality science products with improved astrometric solutions. Headerlets, a newly developed tool for AstroDrizzle, will be utilized and made available to simplify access to multiple astrometric solutions for a given data set. The capabilities of AstroDrizzle will allow for functionally simplified data processing, standardizing and streamlining the data reduction process and making it easier for users to reproduce our results. We are beginning with the HLA WFC3 data processing pipeline, and then plan to extend its application to other HST instrument data.

  18. 5. symposium of pipeline technology. Proceedings; 5. Symposium Pipelinetechnik. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Innovations in the technical systems of rules for pipelines. Data and speech transmission at pipelines via light wiring. Dynamic leak detection and localisation. Future integrity as part of the total pipeline integrity. Assessment of pipeline flaws using the European SINTAP procedure. Automatic registration of alternating pressure loads. Rehabilitation of a crude oil pipeline. Online Inspektion von ''Non-piggable pipelines''. New technologies for the inspection of longitudinal welds and longitudinal oriented defects in pipelines. Construction of intelligent pigs with regard to the assessment of defects in pipelines. (orig./GL) [German] Aus dem Inhalt: Neuerungen im technischen Regelwerk fuer Fernleitungen. Daten- und Sprachuebertragung an Fernleitungen ueber Lichtwellenleiter. Dynamische Leckerkennung und -ortung. Future intergrity as part of the total pipeline integrity. Fehlerstellenbewertung an einer Pipeline durch Anwendung des SINTAP-Verfahrens. Automatische Lastwechselerfassung. Sanierung einer Rohoelpipeline. Online Inspektion von ''Non-piggable pipelines''. Neue Technologien im Bereich der Inspektion von Laengsnaehten und laengsorientierten Fehlern in Pipelines. Neubau von intelligenten Molchen unter dem Aspekt der Bewertung von Fehlern in Pipelines. (orig./GL)

  19. Consortium for coal log pipeline research and development. Final technical progress report, August 10, 1993--August 9, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to conduct intensive research and development of the Coal Log Pipeline (CLP). Specifically, the R & D was to concentrate on previously neglected and insufficiently studied aspects of CLP which were deemed significant. With improvements in these areas, CLP could be implemented for commercial use within five years. CLP technology is capable of transporting coal logs for long distances. The many potential advantages of CLP over truck and railroad transportation include: lower freight costs, less energy consumption, less air pollution, decreased environmental problems, increased safety, and improved reliability. Previous studies have shown that CLP is advantageous over slurry pipeline technology. First, CLP uses one-third the water required by a coal slurry pipeline. Second, CLP provides easier coal dewatering. Third, the CLP conveying capacity of coal is twice as much as a slurry transport line of equal diameter. In many situations, the cost for transporting each ton of coal is expected to be less expensive by CLP as compared to other competing modes of transportation such as: truck, unit train and slurry pipeline.

  20. GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM

  1. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Kirsty Argo

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency,...

  2. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  3. QUANTITATIVE RISK MAPPING OF URBAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORKS USING GIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Azari; M. Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas is considered an important source of energy in the world. By increasing growth of urbanization, urban gas pipelines which transmit natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers, will become a dense network...

  4. 75 FR 38799 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC (ETC Tiger), 711 Louisiana Street, Suite 900, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an...

  5. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Optical fibre is deployed widely across the oil and gas industry. As well as being deployed regularly to provide high bandwidth telecommunications and infrastructure for SCADA it is increasingly being used to sense pressure, temperature and strain along buried pipelines, on subsea pipelines and downhole. In this paper we present results from the latest sensing capability using standard optical fibre to detect acoustic signals along the entire length of a pipeline. In Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fibre is used for both sensing and telemetry. In this paper we present results from the OptaSense{sup TM} system which has been used to detect third party intervention (TPI) along buried pipelines. In a typical deployment the system is connected to an existing standard single-mode fibre, up to 50km in length, and was used to independently listen to the acoustic / seismic activity at every 10 meter interval. We will show that through the use of advanced array processing of the independent, simultaneously sampled channels it is possible to detect and locate activity within the vicinity of the pipeline and through sophisticated acoustic signal processing to obtain the acoustic signature to classify the type of activity. By combining spare fibre capacity in existing buried fibre optic cables; processing and display techniques commonly found in sonar; and state-of-the-art in fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing, we will describe the new monitoring capabilities that are available to the pipeline operator. Without the expense of retrofitting sensors to the pipeline, this technology can provide a high performance, rapidly deployable and cost effective method of providing gapless and persistent monitoring of a pipeline. We will show how this approach can be used to detect, classify and locate activity such as; third party interference (including activity indicative of illegal hot tapping); real time tracking of pigs; and leak detection. We will also show how an

  6. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  7. Verification of the integrity of existing pipeline systems for the operating permit renewal; Nachweis der Integritaet bestehender Pipelinesysteme im Zuge der Neuerteilung der Betriebsgenehmigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, M.; Schulze, T. [ILF Beratende Ingenieure GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In the 1970s several pipeline systems for the transport of mineral oil products were established. The erection of these pipeline systems was carried out in accordance with TRbF 301. Permits and approvals for the operation of these pipelines were usually limited to a period of 20 years. The operating permit renewal by the approval authority is based on the verification of the integrity of the whole pipeline system incl. all related pump, block and transfer stations. ILF Consulting Engineers GmbH (ILF) has in the past requested unlimited operating permits for several pipeline systems, so that the pipelines are available for the mineral oil transport also in the future. These pipeline systems serve as an example for all necessary checks and rehabilitations. ILF, partly or totally, performed the preparation of the approval applications incl. the environmental impact assessments, planning of check and rehabilitation measurements as well as the construction supervision. This is also valid for projects still not completed. (orig.)

  8. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 1st Quarterly report for 1995, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1995-08-01

    Work continued on the study of coal log pipeline research. Individual projects described include fast compaction of coal logs; effect of cooling on coal log quality; coal log capping; effectiveness of adding fiber to enhance coal log quality; fabrication using hydrophobic binders; cost estimation of different lubricants; automatic control of coal log pipeline system; CLP design; coal log train transport; economics of coal log pipeline; legal aspects; heating, cooling, and drying of logs; vacuum systems to enhance production; design; and effect of piston modification on capping.

  9. The Relative Cost of Biomass Energy Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  10. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum. SUMMARY: PHMSA is co-sponsoring a one-day Emergency Responder Forum with the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  11. legal and institutional framework for promoting oil pipeline security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    The hacking into pipelines to steal crude oil to refine later and sell abroad is illegal bunkering. Pipeline vandalism is the intentional destruction of pipelines, platforms loading barge and other facilities for selfish .... of funnels, drilling tools and plastic hoses to syphon the products. Also, only a few cases of vandalism occurred.

  12. Legal and instututional framework for promoting oil pipeline security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the security agencies saddled with the overall responsibility for managing as well as safeguarding the pipelines to ensure their productivity; and overhauling the entire security apparatus put in place to protect oil pipelines in Nigeria by having a sustainable and strategic approach to dealing with oil pipeline insecurity.

  13. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... the proposed construction is of major proportions. Pipeline companies are accordingly urged to conduct...

  14. 75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Natural Gas Facilities. OMB Control Number: 2137-0578. Type of Request: Renewal of a currently approved... Safety-Related Conditions on Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural... Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities.'' The Pipeline Safety Laws (49 U.S.C. 60132...

  15. Testing the GONG ring-diagram pipeline with HMI Dopplergrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S C; Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Kholikov, S; Hill, F; Komm, R [GONG, National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719-4933 (United States); Bogart, R [HEPL, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Haber, D, E-mail: kjain@noao.edu [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The GONG ring-diagram pipeline was developed to analyze GONG+ Dopplergrams in order to extract information about solar subsurface flows and has been extensively tested for this purpose. Here we present preliminary results obtained by analyzing the HMI Dopplergrams with the GONG pipeline and compare them with those obtained from the HMI ring-diagram pipeline.

  16. 77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... information collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements for gas transmission pipeline... comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal... activity. PHMSA requests comments on the following information collections: 1. Title: Pipeline Integrity...

  17. Development of a Free-Swimming Acoustic Tool for Liquid Pipeline Leak Detection Including Evaluation for Natural Gas Pipeline Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Significant financial and environmental consequences often result from line leakage of oil product pipelines. Product can escape into the surrounding soil as even the smallest leak can lead to rupture of the pipeline. From a health perspective, water...

  18. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronis, Petros [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Robertson, Ian M [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-08-01

    Fundamental studies of hydrogen embrittlement of materials using both experimental observations and numerical simulations of the hydrogen/deformation interactions have been conducted. Our approach integrates mechanical property testing at the macro-scale, microstructural analyses and TEM observations of the deformation processes at the micro- and nano-scale, first-principles calculations of interfacial cohesion at the atomic scale, and finite element simulation and modeling at the micro- and macro-level. Focused Ion Beam machining in conjunction with Transmission Electron Microscopy were used to identify the salient micro-mechanisms of failure in the presence of hydrogen. Our analysis of low strength ferritic steels led to the discovery that “quasi-cleavage” is a dislocation plasticity controlled failure mode in agreement with the hydrogen enhanced plasticity mechanism. The microstructure underneath the fracture surface of 304 and 316 stainless steels was found to be significantly more complex than would have been predicted by the traditional models of fatigue. The general refinement of the microstructure that occurred near the fracture surface in the presence of hydrogen was such that one may argue that hydrogen stabilizes microstructural configurations to an extent not achievable in its absence. Finite element studies of hydrogen and deformation field similitude for cracks in real-life pipelines and laboratory fracture specimens yielded that the Single Edge Notch Tension specimen can be used to reliably study hydrogen material compatibility for pipeline structures. In addition, simulation of onset of crack propagation in low strength ferritic systems by void growth indicated that hydrogen can reduce the fracture toughness of the material by as much as 30%. Both experimental observations and numerical studies of hydrogen transport on hydrogen accumulations ahead of a crack tip yielded that dislocation transport can markedly enhance hydrogen populations which

  19. Total pipeline integrity management system implemented for KOC pipelines - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M. Robb [NDT Middle East FZE (Kuwait)], email: Robb.Isaac@ndt-global.com; Al-Sulaiman, Saleh; Sharma, Sandeep [Kuwait Oil Company (Kuwait)], email: ssulaima@kockw.com, email: sasharma@kockw.com; Martin, Monty R. [NDT Systems and services Inc. (Canada)], email: Monty.Martin@ndt-global.com

    2010-07-01

    Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and they both own and operate the whole oil and gas pipeline network in Kuwait. KOC transit system consists of hundreds of pipelines, thousands of wellhead flow lines and offshore lines. Since many data were missing, in 2005 KOC implemented a total pipeline integrity management system (TPIMS) to conduct an integrity assessment of its facilities. This study aims at providing the results of TPIMS's implementation at KOC. The project digitalized and centralized information relevant to the integrity of the pipeline network while reducing the effort required in terms of mitigating hazards and threats to the facilities. Results showed that the implementation of the TPIMS at KOC made it possible to manage information in a single environment. This study highlighted the benefits of implementing the TPIMS for efficient planning and utilization of data.

  20. Modeling and monitoring of pipelines and networks advanced tools for automatic monitoring and supervision of pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lizeth

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and design of advanced techniques for on-line automatic computational monitoring of pipelines and pipe networks. It discusses how to improve the systems’ security considering mathematical models of the flow, historical flow rate and pressure data, with the main goal of reducing the number of sensors installed along a pipeline. The techniques presented in the book have been implemented in digital systems to enhance the abilities of the pipeline network’s operators in recognizing anomalies. A real leak scenario in a Mexican water pipeline is used to illustrate the benefits of these techniques in locating the position of a leak. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, the book addresses researchers and professionals in the areas of mechanical, civil and control engineering. It covers topics on fluid mechanics, instrumentation, automatic control, signal processing, computing, construction and diagnostic technologies.

  1. Marine pipeline study for underwater crossing of Georgia and Malaspina straits: twin ten-inch pipeline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for the installation of twin 273.1 mm diameter submarine pipelines across the Straits of Georgia and Malaspina between Powell River and Little River areas in British Columbia...

  2. Lay Pipeline Abandonment Head during Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... computations and analysis do not cover adequately the effect of number of cyclic wave loading on the girth welds on long exposure period, especially as certain degree of weld surface and buried imperfections are often allowed during pipeline fabrication. In a normal practice, stoppage of offshore pipe-lay.

  3. Non-destructive Testing of Pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper shall present different, contemporarily available non-destructive testing (NDT) methods of pipelines and compare them to each other from the technical and economical point of view. An evaluation of their suitability for CERN activities, based on the opinions and experience of various specialists at CERN (LHC, ST, TIS), is also introduced.

  4. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustaffa, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in

  5. Pipeline : Hebrew data from ETCBC to Github

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This pipeline delivers, among other good things, a file bhsa_xx.mql.bz2 which contains all ETCBC data and research additions to it. The form is MQL, compressed, and the size is less than 30 MB. Where ever you have Emdros installed, you can query this data. If you take this file from the continuous

  6. Safe purging of natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, T.K. (Arco Oil and Gas Co. (US)); Euchner, J.A. (Nynex Corp. (US))

    1988-11-01

    When a newly constructed natural gas pipeline is put into service, it can be safely purged of air by injection of a slug of inert gas, such as N/sub 2/. The method of sizing the required slug is based on a model of dispersion in turbulent flow in conjunction with flammability limits.

  7. An integrative bioinformatics pipeline for the genomewide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-06

    Dec 6, 2013 ... [Fang W., Zhou N., Li D., Chen Z., Jiang P. and Zhang D. 2013 An integrative bioinformatics pipeline for the genomewide identification of novel porcine microRNA genes. J. Genet. 92, 587–593]. Introduction. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a pivotal type of noncoding RNA gene in posttranscriptional gene regulation ...

  8. Internal Corrosion Detection in Liquids Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    PHMSA project DTRS56-05-T-0005 "Development of ICDA for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines" led to the development of a Direct Assessment (DA) protocol to prioritize locations of possible internal corrosion. The underlying basis LP-ICDA is simple; corrosion ...

  9. pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The current and voltage requirements were achievable by installing six transformer rectifiers with minimum direct current output of 500amperes and direct voltage output of 200volts. But the sacrificial anode design calculation indicated direct current output of 2262240mA was needed to marginally polarize the X42 pipeline ...

  10. Pipeline or Personal Preference: Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, P. D.; Mannon, S. E.; Rutherford, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of women in the engineering field has increased since the 1960s, those increases have largely stagnated over the last few years. This paper re-examines the pipeline for bringing women into engineering and, based on survey data, examines the attitudes, motivations, and interests of 969 male and female engineering students.…

  11. The Effect of Landslide on Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkovič Vojtech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the calculation of stresses on the pipeline system embedded on a flexible substrate which is burdened by a landslide. As well as taking into account the probability of the influences acting on the pipe as wall thickness, and others.

  12. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  13. The First Steps into a "Leaky Pipeline"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth; Larsen, Britt Østergaard

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that the higher the level of academic positions at universities the lower the percentage of women among employees also applies at Danish universities. This may be due to a historical backlog or merely to a 'Leaky pipeline', as earlier studies have revealed that an increasing propor...

  14. 27 CFR 19.587 - Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.587 Pipelines... used for (a) the conveyance on bonded premises of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, and wines, and (b) the conveyance to and from bonded premises of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, and wines...

  15. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  16. Runtime Modifications of Spark Data Processing Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazovik, E.; Medema, M.; Albers, T.; Langius, E.A.F.; Lazovik, A.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed data processing systems are the standard means for large-scale data analysis in the Big Data field. These systems are based on processing pipelines where the processing is done via a composition of multiple elements or steps. In current distributed data processing systems, the code and

  17. 76 FR 53999 - Safety Notice: Transportation of DOT Special Permit Packages in Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...-party hazardous materials or dangerous goods instructors, consultants, and others, should review their... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Safety Notice: Transportation of DOT Special Permit...

  18. Energy consumption in the pipeline industry. Technical report, Task 1 (partial)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of US pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate by lift and gravity, a comparable EI is not definable.

  19. Project for environmental recovery of the Taquari stream in the surroundings of OSBRA Pipeline; Projeto de recuperacao ambiental do corrego Taquari no entorno do duto OSBRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos A.R.; Maia, Jacob S.; Magalhaes, Milton P.; Nunes, Roberta V. [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camargo, Renato F. [R. Camargo Ambiental, Americana, SP (Brazil); Ruas, Tereza C.B.G. [Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral (CATI)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO the Project of Environmental Recovery of Taquari Stream (which runs close to Osbra pipeline) to the end of reducing the effect of flooding of the areas adjoining the water body. The discussion encompasses the following themes: pipeline interference with water bodies during construction; relationship with stakeholders; impact of agricultural activities on water bodies; conflicts upon establishment of legal reserves and protection of Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  20. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  1. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  2. A mathematical framework for modelling and evaluating natural gas pipeline networks under hydrogen injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabkhi, F.; Azzaro-Pantel, C.; Pibouleau, L.; Domenech, S. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR5503 CNRS/INP/UPS, 5 rue Paulin Talabot F-BP1301, 31106 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    This article presents the framework of a mathematical formulation for modelling and evaluating natural gas pipeline networks under hydrogen injection. The model development is based on gas transport through pipelines and compressors which compensate for the pressure drops by implying mainly the mass and energy balances on the basic elements of the network. The model was initially implemented for natural gas transport and the principle of extension for hydrogen-natural gas mixtures is presented. The objective is the treatment of the classical fuel minimizing problem in compressor stations. The optimization procedure has been formulated by means of a nonlinear technique within the General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) environment. This work deals with the adaptation of the current transmission networks of natural gas to the transport of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures. More precisely, the quantitative amount of hydrogen that can be added to natural gas can be determined. The studied pipeline network, initially proposed in [1] is revisited here for the case of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures. Typical quantitative results are presented, showing that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas decreases significantly the transmitted power: the maximum fraction of hydrogen that can be added to natural gas is around 6 mass% for this example. (author)

  3. The Pipeline, Portal and Archive (PPA) System for the WIYN Partial One Degree Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev

    2013-06-01

    The WIYN telescope has recently commissioned the partial One Degree Imager (pODI), which has already demonstrated very high image quality over a wide field. The PPA system was envisioned as the transport, archiving, reduction and discovery system for the complex and high-volume data from this instrument. The building blocks of the PPA are a high-speed transport conduit from the WIYN Observatory to Indiana where the archive resides, a pipeline data reduction system running on an NSF super computing facility (XSEDE) and a data access and discovery Portal. In many ways, the PPA is a forerunner of data systems for the extremely large data from the mega-surveys envisaged for the future. PPA has been designed and executed jointly by the WIYN partnership and Pervasive Technologies Institute (PTI) at IU. NOAO designed the pipeline algorithms and data transport, and PTI hosts the Archive, handles XSEDE computing and developed the Portal. The PPA was deployed for the first semester (2013A) of pODI shared-risk operation with essential services in place. When complete, the PPA will offer users, in addition to advanced data visualization tools, the option of generating pipeline re-runs and a virtual Desktop for limited custom analysis of reduced data. I will describe the development and report on the current status of the PPA system.

  4. A modelling study of the multiphase leakage flow from pressurised CO2 pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuejin; Li, Kang; Tu, Ran; Yi, Jianxin; Xie, Qiyuan; Jiang, Xi

    2016-04-05

    The accidental leakage is one of the main risks during the pipeline transportation of high pressure CO2. The decompression process of high pressure CO2 involves complex phase transition and large variations of the pressure and temperature fields. A mathematical method based on the homogeneous equilibrium mixture assumption is presented for simulating the leakage flow through a nozzle in a pressurised CO2 pipeline. The decompression process is represented by two sub-models: the flow in the pipe is represented by the blowdown model, while the leakage flow through the nozzle is calculated with the capillary tube assumption. In the simulation, two kinds of real gas equations of state were employed in this model instead of the ideal gas equation of state. Moreover, results of the flow through the nozzle and measurement data obtained from laboratory experiments of pressurised CO2 pipeline leakage were compared for the purpose of validation. The thermodynamic processes of the fluid both in the pipeline and the nozzle were described and analysed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical simulation of wall temperature on gas pipeline due to radiation of natural gas during combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the possible hazardous situations during transportation of gas through the international pipeline. It describes the case when at high-pressure gas pipeline, due to mechanical or chemical effect, cracks and a gas leakage appears and the gas is somehow triggered to burn. As a consequence of heat impingement on the pipe surface, change of material properties (decreasing of strength at high temperatures will occur. In order to avoid greater rapture a reasonable pressure relief rate needs to be applied. Standards in this particular domain of depressurizing procedure are not so exact (DIN EN ISO 23251; API 521. This paper was a part of the project to make initial contribution in defining the appropriate procedure of gas operator behaving during the rare gas leakage and burning situations on pipeline network. The main part of the work consists of two calculations. The first is the numerical simulation of heat radiation of combustible gas, which affects the pipeline, done in the FLUENT software. The second is the implementation of obtained results as a boundary condition in an additional calculation of time resolved wall temperature of the pipe under consideration this temperature depending on the incident flux as well as a number of other heat flow rates, using the Matlab. Simulations were done with the help of the “E.ON Ruhrgas AG” in Essen.

  6. A branch and cut approach to the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito Marques de; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. We address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. The major difficulties faced in these operations are related to the satisfaction of product demands by the various consumer markets, and operational constraints such as the maximum sizes of contiguous pumping packs, and the immiscible products. Several researchers have developed models and techniques for this short-term pipeline scheduling problem. Two different methodologies have been proposed in the literature: heuristic search techniques and exact methods. In this paper, we use a branch-and cut algorithm, performed in Xpress-MP{sup T}M, and compare the solutions obtained with that ones obtained before using the Variable Neighborhood Search metaheuristic. The computational results showed a significant improvement of performance in relation to previous algorithm. (author)

  7. Leak detection in gas pipeline by acoustic and signal processing - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. F.; Ghazali, M. F.; Amin, M. M.; Hamat, A. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The pipeline system is the most important part in media transport in order to deliver fluid to another station. The weak maintenance and poor safety will contribute to financial losses in term of fluid waste and environmental impacts. There are many classifications of techniques to make it easier to show their specific method and application. This paper's discussion about gas leak detection in pipeline system using acoustic method will be presented in this paper. The wave propagation in the pipeline is a key parameter in acoustic method when the leak occurs and the pressure balance of the pipe will generated by the friction between wall in the pipe. The signal processing is used to decompose the raw signal and show in time- frequency. Findings based on the acoustic method can be used for comparative study in the future. Acoustic signal and HHT is the best method to detect leak in gas pipelines. More experiments and simulation need to be carried out to get the fast result of leaking and estimation of their location.

  8. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  9. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis

    2005-05-23

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is in the second year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current

  10. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1994-05-01

    This paper is a progress report on a research project aimed at the development of coal log technology. Efforts have been directed at the development of technology for the fabrication of stable coal logs, as well as the energy efficient transport of these logs, in particular by pipelines. Work has been directed at new types of binders, new fabrication presses, the application of polymers to reduce transport losses, and modeling efforts.

  11. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  12. Perencanaan Dengan Horizontal Directional Drilling (Hdd) Untuk Memasang Pipeline Dibawah Sungai Kalimas

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyono, Sudiyono; Hariyanto, Hariyanto

    2013-01-01

    Supply of aviation fuel to the pile tank in DPPU Juanda still done by bridger/Skid-Truck, where the distance delivery of aviation fuel from ISG Tj. Perak - DPPU Juanda carried through as far as 35 km. Replacement of the transport system of Briger / Skid Truck by transport through the pipeline aims to avoid congestion, the increase losses, and the required for additional facilities so as to anticipate future business competition, especially in terms of the sale of aviation fuel. Truck the deli...

  13. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring. PMID:22346669

  14. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kirsty Argo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS, the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration, and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  15. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  16. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  17. Phage Genome Annotation Using the RAST Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Katelyn; Aziz, Ramy Karam; Pusch, Gordon D; Overbeek, Ross; Dutilh, Bas E; Edwards, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Phages are complex biomolecular machineries that have to survive in a bacterial world. Phage genomes show many adaptations to their lifestyle such as shorter genes, reduced capacity for redundant DNA sequences, and the inclusion of tRNAs in their genomes. In addition, phages are not free-living, they require a host for replication and survival. These unique adaptations provide challenges for the bioinformatics analysis of phage genomes. In particular, ORF calling, genome annotation, noncoding RNA (ncRNA) identification, and the identification of transposons and insertions are all complicated in phage genome analysis. We provide a road map through the phage genome annotation pipeline, and discuss the challenges and solutions for phage genome annotation as we have implemented in the rapid annotation using subsystems (RAST) pipeline.

  18. Acoustic energy transmission in cast iron pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziroglou, Michail E.; Boyle, David E.; Wright, Steven W.; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose acoustic power transfer as a method for the remote powering of pipeline sensor nodes. A theoretical framework of acoustic power propagation in the ceramic transducers and the metal structures is drawn, based on the Mason equivalent circuit. The effect of mounting on the electrical response of piezoelectric transducers is studied experimentally. Using two identical transducer structures, power transmission of 0.33 mW through a 1 m long, 118 mm diameter cast iron pipe, with 8 mm wall thickness is demonstrated, at 1 V received voltage amplitude. A near-linear relationship between input and output voltage is observed. These results show that it is possible to deliver significant power to sensor nodes through acoustic waves in solid structures. The proposed method may enable the implementation of acoustic - powered wireless sensor nodes for structural and operation monitoring of pipeline infrastructure.

  19. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  20. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  1. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...... penetration tools. Our findings indicate that the applied tactics improve the security of the major components (i.e., repository, continuous integration server, main server) of a CDP by controlling access to the components and establishing secure connections....

  2. Optimizing the TESS Planet Finding Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitamitara, Aerbwong; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    2017-10-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a new NASA planet finding all-sky survey that will observe stars within 200 light years and 10-100 times brighter than that of the highly successful Kepler mission. TESS is expected to detect ~1000 planets smaller than Neptune and dozens of Earth size planets. As in the Kepler mission, the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) processing pipeline at NASA Ames Research center is tasked with calibrating the raw pixel data, generating systematic error corrected light curves and then detecting and validating transit signals. The Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the pipeline must be modified and tuned for the new data characteristics in TESS. For example, due to each sector being viewed for as little as 28 days, the pipeline will be identifying transiting planets based on a minimum of two transit signals rather than three, as in the Kepler mission. This may result in a significantly higher false positive rate. The study presented here is to measure the detection efficiency of the TESS pipeline using simulated data. Transiting planets identified by TPS are compared to transiting planets from the simulated transit model using the measured epochs, periods, transit durations and the expected detection statistic of injected transit signals (expected MES). From the comparisons, the recovery and false positive rates of TPS is measured. Measurements of recovery in TPS are then used to adjust TPS configuration parameters to maximize the planet recovery rate and minimize false detections. The improvements in recovery rate between initial TPS conditions and after various adjustments will be presented and discussed.

  3. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Improving bioinformatic pipelines for exome variant calling

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hanlee P.

    2012-01-01

    Exome sequencing analysis is a cost-effective approach for identifying variants in coding regions. However, recognizing the relevant single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions remains a challenge for many researchers and diagnostic laboratories typically do not have access to the bioinformatic analysis pipelines necessary for clinical application. The Atlas2 suite, recently released by Baylor Genome Center, is designed to be widely accessible, runs on desktop computers but is ...

  5. NABUCCO pipeline route selection through Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Volkan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering; Yomralioglu, Tahsin [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Pipelines are one of the most effective methods of transferring energy sources like petroleum and gas. In pipeline projects, decreasing the cost, reducing environmental issues and shortening the construction time are related to determining the right route at the beginning of the project. Route determination is usually carried out manually with the help of traditional methods. However, this technique is not effective in many situations because it does not evaluate the factors that affect the route as a whole. In fact, technique, economy, environmental and sociological issues should be examined as a whole in the route determination process. Evaluation of the factors affecting the route is possible with the analysis of many spatial datasets from the same system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been shown to be an effective way for analyzing these types of intensive datasets. In this study, a suggestion related to the NABUCCO Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline project has been made using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a technique using GIS and multi-criteria decision making. The effectiveness of this method was proven by comparing part of the determined Optimal Route with a length of 557 km with the Proposed Route, which has currently been planned. (orig.)

  6. Fibre optics improving deepwater rov pipeline inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.

    1983-09-01

    Pipeline inspection is a complex test requiring a variety of sensors. The trend in recent times has been to fit, simultaneously, all of the above sensors to a vehicle in order to maximise data collection from the pipeline in a single pass. This data is then processed in real time as the ROV travels the pipeline. Thus, a chart representing all the available data can be made available shortly after completion of a dive. The current generation of ROVs uses umbilicals containing various combinations of power conductors, co-axia and twisted pairs to carry the sensor data. These umbilicals, however, have inherent disadvantages which become apparent as sensor data increase in quantity and complexity. This disadvantage is the incompatibility of required high quality-data being transmitted to the surface and the large amounts of electrical energy demanded by the vehicle. Another disadvantage is the incompatibility between sensor signals in terms of frequency and power. However, to eliminate these problems, and to provide for future developments in ROV technology, the new generation of ROVs utilise fibre-optic conductors, the advantages being that they are immune from electro-magnetic interference, they offer wider band-widths with lower power losses (typically 5 dB or less per km) than conventional copper conductors, and are easier to handle as umbilicals lengthen due to demand for vehicles to reach greater depths. Typically, these new umbilicals will be 1.5 km in length.

  7. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  8. Instruction issue logic in pipelined supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.; Smith, J.E.

    1984-11-01

    Basic principles and design tradeoffs for control of pipelined processors are first discussed. We concentrate on register-register architectures like the CRAY-1 where pipeline control logic is localized to one or two pipeline stages and is referred to as ''instruction issue logic.'' Design tradeoffs are explored by giving designs for a variety of instruction issue methods that represent a range of complexity and sophistication. These vary from the CRAY-1 issue logic to a version of Tomasulo's algorithm, first used in the IBM 360/91 floating point unit. Also studied are Thornton's ''scoreboard'' algorithm used on the CDC 6600 and an algorithm we have devised. To provide a standard for comparison, all the issue methods are used to implement the CRAY-1 scalar architecture. Then, using a simulation model and the Lawrence Livermore Loops compiled with the CRAY Fortran compiler, performance results for the various issue methods are given and discussed.

  9. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. [Quarterly report No. 6, November 26, 1991--February 25, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  10. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  11. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  12. Latest Development and Application of Nb-Bearing High Strength Pipeline Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqing; Shang, Chengjia; Guo, Aimin; Zheng, Lei; Niu, Tao; Han, Xiulin

    In order to solve the pollution problem emerging in China recently, China's central government is making great efforts to raise the percentage of natural gas consumption in the China's primary energy mix, which needs to construct big pipelines to transport natural gas from the nation's resource-rich western regions to the energy-starved east, as well as import from the Central Asia and Russia. With this mainstream trend, high strength, high toughness, heavy gauge, and large diameter pipeline steels are needed to improve the transportation efficiency. This paper describes the latest progresses in Nb-bearing high strength pipeline steels with regard to metallurgical design, development and application, including X80 coil with a thickness up to 22.0mm, X80 plate with a diameter as much as 1422mm, X80 plate with low-temperature requirements and low-Mn sour service X65 for harsh sour service environments. Moreover, based on widely accepted TMCP and HTP practices with low carbon and Nb micro-alloying design, this paper also investigated some new metallurgical phenomena based on powerful rolling mills and heavy ACC equipment.

  13. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  14. Monitoring of pipeline oil spill fire events using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Eckardt, F. D.; Martinez, P.

    2016-12-01

    Nigeria, the largest producer of crude oil in Africa occupies sixth position in the world. Despite such huge oil revenue potentials, its pipeline network system is consistently susceptible to leaks causing oil spills. We investigate ground based spill events which are caused by operational error, equipment failure and most importantly by deliberate attacks along the major pipeline transport system. Sometimes, these spills are accompanied with fire explosion caused by accidental discharge, natural or illegal refineries in the creeds, etc. MODIS satellites fires data corresponding to the times and spill events (i.e. ground based data) of the Area of Interest (AOI) show significant correlation. The open source Quantum Geographical Information System (QGIS) was used to validate the dataset and the spatiotemporal analyses of the oil spill fires were expressed. We demonstrate that through QGIS and Google Earth (using the time sliders), we can identify and monitor oil spills when they are attended with fire events along the pipeline transport system accordingly. This is shown through the spatiotemporal images of the fires. Evidence of such fire cases resulting from bunt vegetation as different from industrial and domestic fire is also presented. Detecting oil spill fires in the study location may not require an enormous terabyte of image processing: we can however rely on a near-real-time (NRT) MODIS data that is readily available twice daily to detect oil spill fire as early warning signal for those hotspots areas where cases of oil seepage is significant in Nigeria.

  15. Early generation pipeline girth welding practices and their implications for integrity management of North American pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amend, Bill [DNV Columbus, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In response to the interest in ensuring the continued safe operation of vintage pipelines and the integrity management challenges related to those pipelines, PRCI sponsored in 2009 a project called {sup V}intage Girth Weld Defect Assessment - Comprehensive Study{sup .} Its objectives focused on girth welds made with the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process, particularly with regard to: review of approaches for evaluating the integrity of these welds; description of the typical characteristics and properties of SMAW vintage welds; determination of gaps in available information and technology that hinder effective integrity assessment and management of vintage girth welds. A very extensive literature review was performed as part of this project. Key findings include the following. The failure rate of early generation girth welds is low, especially when considering the rate of catastrophic failures. Pipeline girth welds are unlikely to fail unless subjected to axial strains that far exceed the strains related to internal pressure alone.

  16. External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

  17. Case Study - internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Estudo de caso - corrosao interna em dutos transportadores de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, A.C.V. da; Barbosa, A.F.F.; Silva, D.R. da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Corrosao]. E-mail: anacecilia@eol.com.br; andreafranciscab@yahoo.com; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; Pimenta, G.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Peixoto, D.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2003-07-01

    One of the aspects what more characterize the gas natural is the possibility of your state physical can be adapted the conditions of transport , since the zone where is producing until the region where it is consumer (distant only one from another), you can stand out this three principal alternatives: gas pipelines; in the form of liquefied, in cryogenic ships; in the form of derive compounds that can be liquids or solid. For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the carbons steels used in the equipment and natural gas pipelines of the production reservoirs until the denominated city gates, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, because, the failures for internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines can carry serious environmental problems, damages to the image of the distributors companies and prejudices related to operational continuity. Some aspects of the processing of the natural gas are argued, as well as your effect regarding the internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines. To leave of this analysis, it tries establishing a monitoring and controlling methodology of the internal corrosion in field for natural gas pipelines. For chemical characterization of the samples of the black powder were used analyses for Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence. (author)

  18. Research on Gas Hydrate Plug Formation under Pipeline-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Stephan Merkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrates of natural gases like methane have become subject of great interest over the last few decades, mainly because of their potential as energy resource. The exploitation of these natural gases from gas hydrates is seen as a promising mean to solve future energetic problems. Furthermore, gas hydrates play an important role in gas transportation and gas storage: in pipelines, particularly in tubes and valves, gas hydrates are formed and obstruct the gas flow. This phenomenon is called “plugging” and causes high operational expenditure as well as precarious safety conditions. In this work, research on the formation of gas hydrates under pipeline-like conditions, with the aim to predict induction times as a mean to evaluate the plugging potential, is described.

  19. The integrated network model of pipeline, sea and road distribution of petroleum product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria ranks high among the community of oil producers both in the world. It is, therefore, paradoxical that Nigeria, with such profile in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC statistics finds it difficult to optimize its supply distribution while spending so much money on transportation and distribution. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country. Thus, we develop a single period, single product deterministic mathematical model to effectively distribute the product to the end user through the most effective channel to the interest of the economy of the country. In our model, we first consider a perfect condition in the petroleum industry irrespective of the production crises and conflicts like pipeline vandalism, communal instability. We then consider different scnearios that presumes several breakdown cases in pipeline connection to anaylze the survivability of the network of petroleum distribution.

  20. Application of four dimensional matrix for thermal analysis of Slovak transit gas pipeline by program FENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széplaky, Dávid; Varga, Augustín

    2016-06-01

    The contribution describes the principle of the FENIX program operation, which was designed to determine the temperature field of the transit pipeline for the transportation of natural gas. The program itself consists of several modules which are reciprocally linked. The basis of the program is the elementary balance method by means of which the unsteady heat transfer is assigned in several layers in different directions. The first step was to assess both the pressure and temperature of the natural gas mode, the second step is to determine the heat transfer through the walls of the pipes, and the last one is to determine the distribution of the temperature field in the surroundings of the pipeline.

  1. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Working group 3: upstream pipelines: inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Jorge; Stephenson, Mark [Talisman Energy, (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The third topic investigated the latest challenges to upstream pipeline operation and the areas for improvement in upstream integrity in the pipeline industry. The first session of talks reported on the pipeline incident analysis conducted by the CAPP on several companies from 2006 to 2010 in order to identify best management practises and to drive improvement in pipeline integrity management. Reviews of primary failure statistics and failure frequency were conducted with respect to the various materials of pipes. A summary of changes to the CSA standard related to non-metallic pipes was also presented to complete this background overview of the upstream industry. The second session provided more information about these non-metallic pipes, focusing on construction and quality issues with large diameter HDPE pipelines. The third session discussed the ERW pipeline in relation to upstream industry. An integrity management panel discussion was carried out to close this third working group.

  4. Leadership Pipeline på rejse i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Dahl, Kristian Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    udbredelse af Leadership Pipeline modellen. Forskningslitteraturen om Leadership Pipeline er imidlertid beskeden. Med teoretisk ammunition fra ”idé på rejse” perspektivet og et multi-level case studie i den danske offentlige sektor belyser artiklen udbredelse og implementering af Leadership Pipeline. Ved...... at anvende skiftende teoretiske begreber og henholdsvis zoome-ind (organisationsniveau) og zoome-ud (feltniveau) viser artiklen, hvordan en række gensidigt forbundne teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter sikrede Leadership Pipeline legitimitet og fremskyndede dens udbredelse samtidig med, at forskellige...... praksisvarianter af Leadership Pipeline udkrystalliserede sig i offentlige organisationer med hver deres kendetegn og problemdefinitioner. Med afsæt i denne empiri argumenterer vi for, at implementering af Leadership Pipeline udspillede sig i overlappende teoretiserings- og translationsaktiviteter, der forstærkede...

  5. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  6. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  7. Computer models of pipeline systems based on electro hydraulic analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudinov, V. A.; Trubitsyn, K. V.; Tkachev, V. K.; Stefanyuk, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the results of the development of mathematical and computer models of complex multi-loop branched pipeline networks for various purposes (water-oil-gas pipelines, heating networks, etc.) based on the electro hydraulic analogy of current spread in conductors and fluids in pipelines described by the same equations. Kirchhoff’s laws used in the calculation of electrical networks are applied in the calculations for pipeline systems. To maximize the approximation of the computer model to the real network concerning its resistance to the process of transferring the medium, the method of automatic identification of the model is applied.

  8. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  9. Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ningileri, Shridas T.; Boggess, Todd A; Stalheim, Douglas

    2013-01-02

    The main objective of the study is as follows: Identify steel compositions/microstructures suitable for construction of new pipeline infrastructure and evaluate the potential use of the existing steel pipeline infrastructure in high pressure gaseous hydrogen applications. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). Based on reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). The basic format for this phase of the study is as follows: Microstructural characterization of volume fraction of phases in each alloy; Tensile testing of all four alloys in He and H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi), and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). RA performance was used to choose the two best performers for further mechanical property evaluation; Fracture testing (ASTM E1820) of two best tensile test performers in H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi); Fatigue testing (ASTM E647) of two best tensile test performers in H2 at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) with frequency =1.0 Hz and R-ratio=0.5 and 0.1.

  10. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...-operated on the outer continental shelf (OCS); breakout tanks that receive and store hazardous liquid, but... the pipeline safety regulations have been inspected with an in-line inspection tool (i.e., a ``smart...? ] E.6 Should PHMSA adopt standards for conducting in-line inspections using ``smart pigs,'' the...

  11. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... pipeline safety and with protecting the environment. The forum allows public, government and industry... sessions to provide introductory, panel, and summary presentations, and concurrent working group sessions...--Advancing Technology into the Market (General Session) Working Group Overview (General Session) Working...

  12. Forties field pipeline major technical project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-05-01

    Laying of the submarine North Sea line to connect the westerly platform in the Forties field to a landfall at Cruden Bay is a critical area in British Petroleum Co. Ltd.'s development program. The length of the route is approx. 106 miles. The pipeline of 32-in. 3/4-in. wall X65 grade will be laid for most of its length in water depths between 300 and 400 ft. The problems center on control of buoyancy and tension in the line while laying, to avoid overstressing and possible buckling. Both contracted lay barges were in position during April and work has begun.

  13. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  14. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  15. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  16. Energía calorífica necesaria, durante la soldadura en servicio de tuberías para el transporte de petróleo Necessary calorific energy, during the in-service welding of pipelines for petroleum transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ramos Morales

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo, empleando el análisis por elementos finitos, se estudió el comportamiento térmico durante la soldadura de reparación, en condiciones de servicio, de un tubo que transporta petróleo. Se obtuvieron ecuaciones de regresión que relacionan a la temperatura máxima en la superficie interna del tubo y al tiempo de enfriamiento desde 800 ºC hasta 500 ºC de un punto situado en la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC, parámetros que gobiernan la ocurrencia de perforaciones en la pared del tubo y agrietamiento en frío respectivamente, con el calor de entrada de la soldadura, la temperatura de precalentamiento y el coeficiente de transferencia de calor por convección, variables que definen el comportamiento térmico durante la ejecución del proceso de soldadura. Se probó la existencia de una zona en que se satisfacen simultáneamente las ecuaciones obtenidas, para diferentes combinaciones de las variables relacionadas. Se presentaron nomogramas con un importante valor práctico, desarrollados a partir de la solución de las ecuaciones obtenidas.The thermal behavior during in service repair welding of oil transportation pipes was studied by finite element analysis in the present paper. Regression equations that relate peak temperature at the inner surface of the pipe and cooling time between 800 and 500ºC in the heat affected zone to the welding heat input, preheat temperature, and convection heat transfer coefficient were obtained. The former parameters govern, respectively, the possibility of burn through and cold cracking, and the latter parameters define the thermal behavior during welding. The existence of conditions that simultaneously satisfy the obtained equations, for different combinations of related variables, was proved. Graphical representations of relevant practical importance that were developed from the solution of obtained equations are presented.

  17. Risk Analysis using Corrosion Rate Parameter on Gas Transmission Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikirono, B.; Kim, S. J.; Haryadi, G. D.; Huda, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the pipeline is a major component in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas. Oil and gas distribution process sometimes performed past the pipeline across the various types of environmental conditions. Therefore, in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas, a pipeline should operate safely so that it does not harm the surrounding environment. Corrosion is still a major cause of failure in some components of the equipment in a production facility. In pipeline systems, corrosion can cause failures in the wall and damage to the pipeline. Therefore it takes care and periodic inspections or checks on the pipeline system. Every production facility in an industry has a level of risk for damage which is a result of the opportunities and consequences of damage caused. The purpose of this research is to analyze the level of risk of 20-inch Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline using Risk-based inspection semi-quantitative based on API 581 associated with the likelihood of failure and the consequences of the failure of a component of the equipment. Then the result is used to determine the next inspection plans. Nine pipeline components were observed, such as a straight pipes inlet, connection tee, and straight pipes outlet. The risk assessment level of the nine pipeline’s components is presented in a risk matrix. The risk level of components is examined at medium risk levels. The failure mechanism that is used in this research is the mechanism of thinning. Based on the results of corrosion rate calculation, remaining pipeline components age can be obtained, so the remaining lifetime of pipeline components are known. The calculation of remaining lifetime obtained and the results vary for each component. Next step is planning the inspection of pipeline components by NDT external methods.

  18. 78 FR 56268 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT... Register a notice announcing a public workshop on ``Integrity Verification Process'' which took place on...

  19. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however, did...

  20. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... This study investigates the presence of SRB in water, in a water pipeline and in ... Key words: Sulphate-reducing bacteria, corrosion, water pipeline, biocide. INTRODUCTION ...... tubercles in distribution pipelines. J. Am. Water ...

  1. Pipeline FFT Architectures Optimized for FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimized implementations of two different pipeline FFT processors on Xilinx Spartan-3 and Virtex-4 FPGAs. Different optimization techniques and rounding schemes were explored. The implementation results achieved better performance with lower resource usage than prior art. The 16-bit 1024-point FFT with the R22SDF architecture had a maximum clock frequency of 95.2 MHz and used 2802 slices on the Spartan-3, a throughput per area ratio of 0.034 Msamples/s/slice. The R4SDC architecture ran at 123.8 MHz and used 4409 slices on the Spartan-3, a throughput per area ratio of 0.028 Msamples/s/slice. On Virtex-4, the 16-bit 1024-point R22SDF architecture ran at 235.6 MHz and used 2256 slice, giving a 0.104 Msamples/s/slice ratio; the 16-bit 1024-point R4SDC architecture ran at 219.2 MHz and used 3064 slices, giving a 0.072 Msamples/s/slice ratio. The R22SDF was more efficient than the R4SDC in terms of throughput per area due to a simpler controller and an easier balanced rounding scheme. This paper also shows that balanced stage rounding is an appropriate rounding scheme for pipeline FFT processors.

  2. A study of processes for welding pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, J. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    A review was made of exisiting and potential processes for welding pipelines: fusion welding (arc, electron beam, laser, thermit) and forge welding (friction, flash, magnetically impelled arc butt, upset butt, explosive, shielded active gas, gas pressure). Consideration of J-lay operations gave indications that were reflections of the status of the processes in terms of normal land and offshore S-lay operation: forge welding processes, although having promise require considerable development; fusion welding processes offer several possibilities (mechanized GMA welding likely to be used in 1991-2); laser welding requires development in all pipeline areas: a production machine for electron beam welding will involve high costs. Nondestructive testing techniques are also reviewed. Demand for faster quality assessment is being addressed by speeding radiographic film processing and through the development of real time radiography and automatic ultrasonic testing. Conclusions on most likely future process developments are: SMAW with cellulosic electrodes is best for tie-ins, short pip runs; SMAW continues to be important for small-diameter lines, although mechanized GMA could be used, along with mechanical joining, MIAB, radial fraction, and flash butt; mechanized GMA welding is likely to predominate for large diameter lines and probably will be used for the first J-lay line (other techniques could be used too); and welding of piping for station facilities involves both shop welding of sub-assemblies and on-site welding of pipe and sub-assemblies to each other (site welding uses both SMAW and GMAW). Figs, tabs.

  3. Designing integrated computational biology pipelines visually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term cost of developing and maintaining a computational pipeline that depends upon data integration and sophisticated workflow logic is too high to even contemplate "what if" or ad hoc type queries. In this paper, we introduce a novel application building interface for computational biology research, called VizBuilder, by leveraging a recent query language called BioFlow for life sciences databases. Using VizBuilder, it is now possible to develop ad hoc complex computational biology applications at throw away costs. The underlying query language supports data integration and workflow construction almost transparently and fully automatically, using a best effort approach. Users express their application by drawing it with VizBuilder icons and connecting them in a meaningful way. Completed applications are compiled and translated as BioFlow queries for execution by the data management system LifeDB, for which VizBuilder serves as a front end. We discuss VizBuilder features and functionalities in the context of a real life application after we briefly introduce BioFlow. The architecture and design principles of VizBuilder are also discussed. Finally, we outline future extensions of VizBuilder. To our knowledge, VizBuilder is a unique system that allows visually designing computational biology pipelines involving distributed and heterogeneous resources in an ad hoc manner.

  4. Visualization Multi-Pipeline for Communicating Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindek, Peter; Kouril, David; Sorger, Johannes; Toloudis, Daniel; Lyons, Blair; Johnson, Graham; Groller, M Eduard; Viola, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    We propose a system to facilitate biology communication by developing a pipeline to support the instructional visualization of heterogeneous biological data on heterogeneous user-devices. Discoveries and concepts in biology are typically summarized with illustrations assembled manually from the interpretation and application of heterogenous data. The creation of such illustrations is time consuming, which makes it incompatible with frequent updates to the measured data as new discoveries are made. Illustrations are typically non-interactive, and when an illustration is updated, it still has to reach the user. Our system is designed to overcome these three obstacles. It supports the integration of heterogeneous datasets, reflecting the knowledge that is gained from different data sources in biology. After pre-processing the datasets, the system transforms them into visual representations as inspired by scientific illustrations. As opposed to traditional scientific illustration these representations are generated in real-time - they are interactive. The code generating the visualizations can be embedded in various software environments. To demonstrate this, we implemented both a desktop application and a remote-rendering server in which the pipeline is embedded. The remote-rendering server supports multi-threaded rendering and it is able to handle multiple users simultaneously. This scalability to different hardware environments, including multi-GPU setups, makes our system useful for efficient public dissemination of biological discoveries.

  5. Equipment orders for pipelines and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    Jiskoot Autocontrol Ltd.'s Dutch subsidiary, Jiskoot Automation N.V., has won two orders from West German firms for the construction of automatic crude oil sampling systems. For Nord-West Kavernenges. m.b.H., Jiskoot will supply a system to sample oil stored in a disused salt mine, i.e., the type 310 sampler which employs Buxton/BASEEFA certified electrical components throughout; for Mannesmann-Export A.G., it will supply a Type 330 PTB sampler, to be installed on a pipeline in Iraq. A second major contract has been won in Czechoslovakia by Serck Controls of Warwickshire, U.K. It totals 340,000 English pounds and covers the supply and installation of a telemtry and remote control system for supervision of the 30 km Litvinov-to-Kralupy gas pipeline. The previous system was commissioned in 1975. More than 260 Rotork Syncropak valve actuators, worth about 250,000 English pounds, have been ordered from this Bath-based firm, for use on a natural gas collection project in Iran.

  6. Risk evaluation on internal corrosion of a gas pipeline cut section based on metal mechanic tests and physiochemical analysis of the solids deposited in the pipes; Determinacion del riesgo por corrosion interna de un tramo cortado de una linea de transporte de gas natural a partir de ensayos metalmecanicos y del analisis fisicoquimico de los solidos depositados en la tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditta Sarmiento, Johanna Milena [PETROBRAS International (BRASPETRO) (Colombia). Ingenieria de Corrosion DPSU

    2003-07-01

    After inspecting a one of the most important pipelines in Colombia, using intelligent tool, the pipe sections were selected that presented losses of thickness which probably they would be risking integrity of the same one and after, these sections were cut and replaced. To one of the cut sections a study with the objective was made him establish the present forms of corrosion and to determine the phenomena that influenced the presence of the damages. For this study were moderate thicknesses of the wall of the tube and was determined the criticality comparing it with its nominal thickness, according to Standard ASME B - 31G. Taking advantage of the presence solids in the surface, one became both, physical and chemical analysis, DRX and elementary analysis, with the objective to determine its origin and to correlate it with the types of corrosion that were in the line. The morphology that determined were Microbiological Influenced Corrosion, Erosion - Corrosion, Pitting and CO2 corrosion. Then, from all this information the analysis becomes of risks by internal corrosion in pipeline, the plan of mitigation and the plans of monitoring and inspection of the line to avoid the presence of anyone of these forms of corrosion in the future immediate. (author)

  7. 75 FR 4550 - Black Marlin Pipeline Company; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Marlin Pipeline Company; Notice of Filing January 21, 2010. Take notice that on November 4, 2009, Black Marlin Pipeline Company submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  8. 76 FR 4892 - Black Marlin Pipeline Company; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Marlin Pipeline Company; Notice of Filing January 20, 2011. Take notice that on January 19, 2010, Black Marlin Pipeline Company submitted a request for a waiver of...

  9. Anti-Thixotropic Analysis of Pipeline Metal Losses in Welded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the causes of metal loss induced by cutting wear within the internal walls of pipelines which could lead to unpredicted and unexpected pipeline failure and the attendant oil spillage in Nigeria. To determine the rate of wear, the flow properties were determined. Flow was found to be turbulent containing ...

  10. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... severe mutilation of the pipeline coatings, substrates due to vandalization and coating failures. The data from cathodic protection control method from Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)/ Pipeline and Product Marketing Company (PPMC) for system 2A line was analyzed and it was deduced that about 10.3km ...

  11. Leadership Pipeline – en neo-weberiansk revitalisering af bureaukratiet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Aagaard; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Leadership Pipeline har vundet indpas i mange private og offentlige organisationer, er den akademiske litteratur om ledelsesmodellen indtil videre forbavsende beskeden. I denne artikel søger vi at indkredse svar på, hvorvidt Leadership Pipeline udgør et (gammeldags) bureaukratisk perspekti...

  12. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (NNPC)/ Pipeline and Product Marketing Company (PPMC) for system 2A line was analyzed and it was deduced that about 10.3km of the pipeline was well protected and possibly fit for use and about 62.7km is experiencing under protection which means corrosion is predicted to take place in that segment in a short time ...

  13. 75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related... personal electronic devices (PEDs) by individuals performing operations and maintenance activities on a... Electronic Devices, 75 FR 9754, May 18, 2010; Limiting the Use of Wireless Communication Devices, 75 FR 16391...

  14. 76 FR 51963 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on August 12, 2011, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  15. 78 FR 13662 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition Take notice that on February 4, 2013, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. (Cobra) filed in Docket No. PR13-32-000 to correct a Tariff Record filed on November...

  16. Investigation of Corrosion of Buried Oil Pipeline by the Electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along an underground oil pipeline in Ubeji,. Delta State, Nigeria was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and the. Spontaneous Potential geophysical method. The resistivity and self potential values of the soil along the pipeline ...

  17. The "Learning Disabilities to Juvenile Detention" Pipeline: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…

  18. Centrifuge modeling of buried continuous pipelines subjected to normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Majid; Rojhani, Mahdi; Galandarzadeh, Abbas; Takada, Shiro

    2013-03-01

    Seismic ground faulting is the greatest hazard for continuous buried pipelines. Over the years, researchers have attempted to understand pipeline behavior mostly via numerical modeling such as the finite element method. The lack of well-documented field case histories of pipeline failure from seismic ground faulting and the cost and complicated facilities needed for full-scale experimental simulation mean that a centrifuge-based method to determine the behavior of pipelines subjected to faulting is best to verify numerical approaches. This paper presents results from three centrifuge tests designed to investigate continuous buried steel pipeline behavior subjected to normal faulting. The experimental setup and procedure are described and the recorded axial and bending strains induced in a pipeline are presented and compared to those obtained via analytical methods. The influence of factors such as faulting offset, burial depth and pipe diameter on the axial and bending strains of pipes and on ground soil failure and pipeline deformation patterns are also investigated. Finally, the tensile rupture of a pipeline due to normal faulting is investigated.

  19. Quantitative Risk Mapping of Urban Gas Pipeline Networks Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, P.; Karimi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Natural gas is considered an important source of energy in the world. By increasing growth of urbanization, urban gas pipelines which transmit natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers, will become a dense network. The increase in the density of urban pipelines will influence probability of occurring bad accidents in urban areas. These accidents have a catastrophic effect on people and their property. Within the next few years, risk mapping will become an important component in urban planning and management of large cities in order to decrease the probability of accident and to control them. Therefore, it is important to assess risk values and determine their location on urban map using an appropriate method. In the history of risk analysis of urban natural gas pipeline networks, the pipelines has always been considered one by one and their density in urban area has not been considered. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of several pipelines on the risk value of a specific grid point. This paper outlines a quantitative risk assessment method for analysing the risk of urban natural gas pipeline networks. It consists of two main parts: failure rate calculation where the EGIG historical data are used and fatal length calculation that involves calculation of gas release and fatality rate of consequences. We consider jet fire, fireball and explosion for investigating the consequences of gas pipeline failure. The outcome of this method is an individual risk and is shown as a risk map.

  20. QUANTITATIVE RISK MAPPING OF URBAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORKS USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered an important source of energy in the world. By increasing growth of urbanization, urban gas pipelines which transmit natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers, will become a dense network. The increase in the density of urban pipelines will influence probability of occurring bad accidents in urban areas. These accidents have a catastrophic effect on people and their property. Within the next few years, risk mapping will become an important component in urban planning and management of large cities in order to decrease the probability of accident and to control them. Therefore, it is important to assess risk values and determine their location on urban map using an appropriate method. In the history of risk analysis of urban natural gas pipeline networks, the pipelines has always been considered one by one and their density in urban area has not been considered. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of several pipelines on the risk value of a specific grid point. This paper outlines a quantitative risk assessment method for analysing the risk of urban natural gas pipeline networks. It consists of two main parts: failure rate calculation where the EGIG historical data are used and fatal length calculation that involves calculation of gas release and fatality rate of consequences. We consider jet fire, fireball and explosion for investigating the consequences of gas pipeline failure. The outcome of this method is an individual risk and is shown as a risk map.

  1. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  2. Assessment of Millennium Pipeline Project Lake Erie Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    linear fit to the Ramberg – Osgood formulation, ε = (σ/E)[1 + α(σ/σy)n–1], where ε is the strain, σ is the applied stress, E is the elastic modulus, α...pipeline are all considered. The finite-element analyses were conducted using ABAQUS /Standard. The soil/pipeline interaction model (Fig. 6.1) was

  3. Common Data Analysis Pipeline | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC supports analyses of the mass spectrometry raw data (mapping of spectra to peptide sequences and protein identification) for the public using a Common Data Analysis Pipeline (CDAP). The data types available on the public portal are described below. A general overview of this pipeline can be downloaded here. Mass Spectrometry Data Formats RAW (Vendor) Format

  4. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  5. 77 FR 74276 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ..., titled ``Integrity Management in High Consequence Areas for Operators of Hazardous Liquid Pipelines....regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. You should know that anyone is able to search..., titled: ``Integrity Management in High Consequence Areas for Operators of Hazardous Liquid Pipelines...

  6. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... (OMB) for renewal. The information collections relate to the pipeline integrity management requirements... without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. You should... on the following information collections: 1. Title: Pipeline Integrity Management in High Consequence...

  7. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  8. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records AGENCY..., verifiable, and complete. If such a document and records search, review, and verification cannot be satisfactorily completed, the operator cannot rely on this method for calculating MAOP or MOP and must instead...

  9. 76 FR 4103 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing January 13, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting...

  10. Evaluating the movement of active faults on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the earthquake, a buried pipeline may be experienced extreme loading that is the result of the relatively large displacement of the Earth along the pipe. Large movements of ground could occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides, and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in ...

  11. Examination of faults active motion on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an earthquake, a buried pipeline may experience a severe loading as the result of the ground relatively large displacement along the pipe. Large ground movements may occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in some areas ...

  12. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  13. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  14. Residual strength evaluation of corroded pipelines with long defects based upon limit load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodo, Mario S.G.; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Arquitetura Naval e Engenharia Oceanica

    2009-07-01

    Accurate evaluation of the residual strength for corroded pipes remains essential in fitness for service analyses, including repair decisions and life-extension programs, of onshore and offshore oil and gas transportation. As the pipeline infrastructure ages, material loss due to corrosion represents one of the main degradation factors of steel pipes which leads to strength reduction and potential catastrophic failures. Current high resolution methods can precisely measure the geometry of corrosion defects. Despite the improvement of those techniques, they are insufficient to ensure high levels of reliability in the burst pressure assessment because the recognized semi-empirical nature of conventional procedures. This work studies the applicability of a stress based criterion based upon plastic instability to predict the burst pressure of pipelines with axial corrosion defects. Verification studies based on experimental burst tests of large diameter pipes made of API X65 and X100 steels with different defect length showed the effectiveness of the proposed criterion based on {sigma}{sup ref} ={eta}{sigma}{sub u} in failure predictions, even though the {eta} factor exhibits a potential strong dependence of the defect geometry and material properties. In general, the results presented here provide an effective support to the ability of the proposed stress based criterion in the integrity assessment of corroded pipelines. (author)

  15. Safety Control on the Chocking Process of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transportation safety of supercritical CO2 pipeline is a key aspect of carbon capture and storage (CCS. For reducing the high pressure in supercritical pipeline when accidental cases arise, man-made release will be applied using chocking process. The downstream parameters of chocking process can be predicted based on the adiabatic process assumption. In the critical chocking process, the critical velocity at outlet is sonic. A chocking pipe can be designed for buffering between different chocking orifices according to the length of turbulence area produced by jetting momentum. For the effect of noise hazard produced by large jetting velocity, a muffler can be applied at the outlet of final stage orifice to atmosphere. For the influence of impurities on the chocking process of anthropogenic CO2 pipeline, the presence of SO2 as an impurity is helpful for increasing the downstream temperatures through the chocking device to prevent the frozen hazard, whereas the presence of N2 as an impurity indicates a lower downstream temperature. The higher initial temperature can prevent the dry ice formation at the outlet of vent pipe when the multistage chocking is applied.

  16. The cotton farming pipeline of Malawi and South Africa: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Grundling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The purpose this paper is to identify and describe the characteristics and influences of the cotton farming pipeline in Malawi and South Africa. Problem investigated: A broad based approach was followed to investigate the cotton farming pipeline to identify the major driving forces of the cotton pipeline in each of the respective countries. Research approach: A qualitative field research approach was followed to compile data on cotton farming in Malawi and South Africa. Data was compiled upstream from input suppliers, downstream from ginners, cotton transport conveyors, cotton marketing managers and agricultural government officials as well as from farmers and agricultural organizations. Findings: In Malawi a family farming model is followed versus an industrial model of production in South Africa. Despite the differences in approach, the farmers in both countries are faced with similar problems. In this regard, an urgent rethinking of the technological conditions of production and the possibilities of technological change is needed. Recommendations: The research proposes that these countries can benefit from establishing institutions like agricultural co-operatives and mechanisms like the development of a free traffic mechanism of seed-cotton. Conclusion: The present research may assist in developing first layer managerial recommendations that could enhance the sustainability and co-existence of cotton farming in the two countries.

  17. Spatial analysis in PGPB's risk administration system for pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.R.C.S.; Mendoza, J.L.M.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics, Huasteca (Mexico); Polanco, R.P. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Huasteca (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics (PGPB) has been using Bass Trigon's Integrity Assessment Program (IAP) for risk administration. The software includes a risk administration system for pipelines (RASP), making it possible to identify and evaluate risks that could affect the transportation capacity of the petrochemical, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas transmission system. The pipeline division of PGPB uses a geographic information system (GIS) called the facilities and assets information system (FAIS) for maintenance of its pipelines, as well as the design, construction and operation of pumping and compression stations. Some specific applications using the integrated FAIS and RASP system were presented to demonstrate risk assessment data analysis and their consequences. In particular, it described how PGPB used FAIS to analyse RASP data to decide if a liquefied petroleum gas terminal should change location. RASP considers over 200 variables that contribute to risk factors for external and internal corrosion, design and materials, third parties, ground movement and system operation. The spatial analysis system proved effective in supporting decision making, preventing accidents, and developing emergency plans. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. Hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of high strength steel gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Ian D.; Norfolk, Mark I. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid Laser/arc welding process (HLAW) can complete 5G welds, assure weld soundness, material properties, and an acceptable geometric profile. Combining new lasers and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) has led to important innovations in the HLAW process, increasing travel speed for successful root pass welding. High power Yb fiber lasers allow a 10 kW laser to be built the size of a refrigerator, allowing portability for use on the pipeline right-of-way. The objective was to develop and apply an innovative HLAW system for mechanized welding of high strength, high integrity, pipelines and develop 5G welding procedures for X80 and X100 pipe, including mechanical testing to API 1104. A cost-matched JIP developed a prototype HLAW head based on a commercially available bug and band system (CRC-Evans P450). Under the US Department of Transportation (DOT) project, the subject of this paper, the system was used to advance pipeline girth welding productivity. External hybrid root pass welding achieved full penetration welds with a 4-mm root at a travel speed of 2.3-m/min. Welds were made 'double down' using laser powers up to 10 kW and travel speeds up to 3-m/min. The final objective of the project was to demonstrate the hybrid LBW/GMAW system under simulated field conditions. (author)

  19. DESIGNING A PIPELINE WITH BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES FOR BORDER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Aydemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology, communication and transportation facilities have led borders to the gradual disappearance. The incidents taking place in different countries go beyond the limits and being felt by large audiences. Solutions to rapidly increasing terrorist attacks and internal turmoil caused security problems in recent years which have become very complicated. Protecting and controlling the borders, finding rapid and comprehensive solutions to illegal border passing problems have become a major problem in many countries. When considering the scope of the border security, it would be understood to examine the data which comes at different times from different sources and types in real time. This can be achieved by a collaboration of different principles. In addition, when large-scale unstructured data analysis also considered for a comprehensive solution, it would be a rational method to develop a pipeline using the Big Data technologies. In this study, we aim to achieve cost-effective, robust, scalable and flexible system to solve the border security problems. The use of Lambda Architecture which provides real time data processing and batch processing capabilities was investigated in border security applications. System development was explained and all information on its principles was provided.

  20. CFD analysis of onshore oil pipelines in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardecchia, Fabio; Gugliermetti, Luca; Gugliermetti, Franco

    2017-07-01

    Underground pipelines are built all over the world and the knowledge of their thermal interaction with the soil is crucial for their design. This paper studies the "thermal influenced zone" produced by a buried pipeline and the parameters that can influence its extension by 2D-steady state CFD simulations with the aim to improve the design of new pipelines in permafrost. In order to represent a real case, the study is referred to the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline at the three stations of Mo'he, Jiagedaqi and Qiqi'har. Different burial depth sand diameters of the pipe are analyzed; the simulation results show that the effect of the oil pipeline diameter on the thermal field increases with the increase of the distance from the starting station.

  1. Correlation between designed wall thickness of gas pipelines and external and internal corrosion processes; Adequacao de espessura de parede projetada em funcao de processos de corrosao externa e interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jose Antonio da Cunha Ponciano [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion control on gas pipelines plays an important role on the assessment of pipeline integrity and reliability. In many countries a great extension of buried pipelines is used on transport and distribution systems. This extension will be certainly increased in a near future due to the increasing consumption of natural gas. Inadequate corrosion control can drive to pipeline failures, bringing up the possibility of accidents in populated or environmental protected areas, bringing together severe economical, legal and environmental consequences. Corrosion is frequently considered as a natural and inevitable phenomenon. Based upon this assumption, some recommendations are included on design standards of gas pipelines in order to compensate its detrimental effect. The aim of this work is to present a review of the correlation between external corrosion process and the guidelines established during the project phase of gas pipelines. It is intended to contribute for a better understanding of the impacts of corrosion on integrity, reliability and readiness of gas transport and distribution systems. Some aspects regarding external corrosion of pipelines extracted from technical papers will be summarised. Information provided will be compared to design criterion prescribed by the NBR 12712 Standard. (author)

  2. Data as a Service: A Seismic Web Service Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Publishing data as a service pipeline provides an improved, dynamic approach over static data archives. A service pipeline is a collection of micro web services that each perform a specific task and expose the results of that task. Structured request/response formats allow micro web services to be chained together into a service pipeline to provide more complex results. The U.S. Geological Survey adopted service pipelines to publish seismic hazard and design data supporting both specific and generalized audiences. The seismic web service pipeline starts at source data and exposes probability and deterministic hazard curves, response spectra, risk-targeted ground motions, and seismic design provision metadata. This pipeline supports public/private organizations and individual engineers/researchers. Publishing data as a service pipeline provides a variety of benefits. Exposing the component services enables advanced users to inspect or use the data at each processing step. Exposing a composite service enables new users quick access to published data with a very low barrier to entry. Advanced users may re-use micro web services by chaining them in new ways or injecting new micros services into the pipeline. This allows the user to test hypothesis and compare their results to published results. Exposing data at each step in the pipeline enables users to review and validate the data and process more quickly and accurately. Making the source code open source, per USGS policy, further enables this transparency. Each micro service may be scaled independent of any other micro service. This ensures data remains available and timely in a cost-effective manner regardless of load. Additionally, if a new or more efficient approach to processing the data is discovered, this new approach may replace the old approach at any time, keeping the pipeline running while not affecting other micro services.

  3. A risk assessment model for pipelines exposed to geohazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esford, F; Porter, M.; Savigny, K.W. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Muhlbauer, W.K. [WKM Consultancy, Swindon (United Kingdom); Dunlop, C. [Transredes (Bolivia)

    2004-07-01

    The challenges facing Trans porte de Hidrocarburos Sociedad Anonima (Transredes) in maintaining and protecting its aging pipeline infrastructure were discussed. Transredes currently operates 2,744 km of liquids pipelines and 2,920 km of gas pipelines in Bolivia, across terrain that is subject to earthquakes, floods and landslides. The 4 to 36 inch inch diameter pipelines are 40 to 50 years old. A quantitative risk assessment procedure was developed to rank the threats to the pipelines and identify locations facing the highest level of risk. The purpose was to prioritize capital and maintenance activities based on risk management principles. The pilot study customized the risk assessment procedures to address the OSSA-1 pipeline's elevated exposure to geohazards. It was shown that the probability of geohazard-related pipeline failure is very site specific and can vary over several orders of magnitude. Twelve sites received high annual probability of failure estimates due to geohazards. These were among the highest ratings along the pipeline due to any hazard type. Although other hazard types also showed high probability of failure scores, many were related to information gaps or uncertainties in the condition of the pipeline. The following 3 initiatives have been identified for the initial OSSA-1 risk mitigation plan: geohazard mitigation; pipe strength uncertainty resolution; and, general uncertainty reduction. Transredes is using the information from this risk assessment to set capital and maintenance budgets and to develop programs to improve the operational safety of the OSSA-1 pipeline. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to pipeline facilities caused by the passage of Hurricanes. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on...-related issues that can result from the passage of hurricanes. That includes the potential for damage to...

  5. Problematizing the STEM Pipeline Metaphor: Is the STEM Pipeline Metaphor Serving Our Students and the STEM Workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Matthew A.; Greenwald, Eric; Harris, Kimberly N.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers often use the metaphor of an ever-narrowing pipeline to describe the trajectory to a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) degree or career. This study interrogates the appropriateness of the STEM pipeline as the dominant frame for understanding and making policies related to STEM career trajectories.…

  6. Development of an automated imaging pipeline for the analysis of the zebrafish larval kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens H Westhoff

    Full Text Available The analysis of kidney malformation caused by environmental influences during nephrogenesis or by hereditary nephropathies requires animal models allowing the in vivo observation of developmental processes. The zebrafish has emerged as a useful model system for the analysis of vertebrate organ development and function, and it is suitable for the identification of organotoxic or disease-modulating compounds on a larger scale. However, to fully exploit its potential in high content screening applications, dedicated protocols are required allowing the consistent visualization of inner organs such as the embryonic kidney. To this end, we developed a high content screening compatible pipeline for the automated imaging of standardized views of the developing pronephros in zebrafish larvae. Using a custom designed tool, cavities were generated in agarose coated microtiter plates allowing for accurate positioning and orientation of zebrafish larvae. This enabled the subsequent automated acquisition of stable and consistent dorsal views of pronephric kidneys. The established pipeline was applied in a pilot screen for the analysis of the impact of potentially nephrotoxic drugs on zebrafish pronephros development in the Tg(wt1b:EGFP transgenic line in which the developing pronephros is highlighted by GFP expression. The consistent image data that was acquired allowed for quantification of gross morphological pronephric phenotypes, revealing concentration dependent effects of several compounds on nephrogenesis. In addition, applicability of the imaging pipeline was further confirmed in a morpholino based model for cilia-associated human genetic disorders associated with different intraflagellar transport genes. The developed tools and pipeline can be used to study various aspects in zebrafish kidney research, and can be readily adapted for the analysis of other organ systems.

  7. New heavy aggregate for offshore petroleum pipeline concrete coating Central West Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abdou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the local materials used in concrete mix are studied in a manner that they can resist the aggressive marine environment and mechanical damage, which can occur at several stages during transportation, construction and installation of the pipelines. In earlier studies we succeeded in finding the Egyptian ilmenite ore adequate for concrete weight coating and already utilized for many pipeline projects in Egypt. According to the presence of about 30% titanium oxides in ilmenite composition which may be extracted to be used in others strategically fields, the object of this paper is to study and evaluate the mechanical, chemical and physical properties of another local hematite high density iron ore to be used in subsea concrete weight coating for offshore petroleum pipelines. The results indicate that the local material of Um Bogma hematite iron ore can substitute both imported iron ore and local ilmenite from Abu Ghalaga in this field to reduce the cost effective and increased economical value of local ores. Laboratory and field tests were conducted for the hematite ore forming a concrete mix, composed of hematite ore, cement and fresh water according to international concrete coating specification requirements, the ore produces a concrete mix with 190–195 pcf minimum dry density and compressive strength, after 28 days of hydration, varying from 40 to 45 N/mm2 (400–450 kg/cm2 which comply with the international standards and specifications of submarine petroleum pipeline coating. In addition, local hematite shows superior results than local ilmenite and achieves 190 pcf instead of 180 pcf in case of using ilmenite.

  8. Development of an automated imaging pipeline for the analysis of the zebrafish larval kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jens H; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Schmidts, Miriam; Schindler, Sebastian; Beales, Philip L; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Liebel, Urban; Gehrig, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of kidney malformation caused by environmental influences during nephrogenesis or by hereditary nephropathies requires animal models allowing the in vivo observation of developmental processes. The zebrafish has emerged as a useful model system for the analysis of vertebrate organ development and function, and it is suitable for the identification of organotoxic or disease-modulating compounds on a larger scale. However, to fully exploit its potential in high content screening applications, dedicated protocols are required allowing the consistent visualization of inner organs such as the embryonic kidney. To this end, we developed a high content screening compatible pipeline for the automated imaging of standardized views of the developing pronephros in zebrafish larvae. Using a custom designed tool, cavities were generated in agarose coated microtiter plates allowing for accurate positioning and orientation of zebrafish larvae. This enabled the subsequent automated acquisition of stable and consistent dorsal views of pronephric kidneys. The established pipeline was applied in a pilot screen for the analysis of the impact of potentially nephrotoxic drugs on zebrafish pronephros development in the Tg(wt1b:EGFP) transgenic line in which the developing pronephros is highlighted by GFP expression. The consistent image data that was acquired allowed for quantification of gross morphological pronephric phenotypes, revealing concentration dependent effects of several compounds on nephrogenesis. In addition, applicability of the imaging pipeline was further confirmed in a morpholino based model for cilia-associated human genetic disorders associated with different intraflagellar transport genes. The developed tools and pipeline can be used to study various aspects in zebrafish kidney research, and can be readily adapted for the analysis of other organ systems.

  9. Overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adarlan M.; Passos, Aline C.; Santos, Daniel; Orban, Eduardo M.; Lisboa, Helder D.; Goncalves, Nilton; Guimaraes, Robson C. [Anglo Ferrous Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil. Anglo Ferrous Brazil is a company of Anglo American plc that is one of the world's largest mining and natural resource company. Minas-Rio is a world class iron ore project which has been developed in Brazil aiming to produce 26.6 million tons per year of concentrate. The mine, concentrator and pump station 1 will be located in Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais state, and the terminal station will be located at Acu Port in Sao Joao da Barra, Rio de Janeiro state. The long distance iron ore slurry pipeline will be one of major differentials of Minas-Rio Project and its useful life was initially estimated in 20 years. The slurry pipeline has a total length of 525 kilometers and will be constructed from predominately 26 inches external diameter API 5L X70 pipes. From kilometer 314 to kilometer 480, 24 inches pipe will be installed to prevent slack flow downstream pump station 2. The pump station 1 is designed to provide the hydraulic head necessary to transport the concentrate iron ore slurry with 8 positive displacement pumps to pump station 2. The pump station 2, located 240 kilometers downstream pump station 1, is designed to operate with 10 positive displacement pumps. The valve station will be located at kilometer 347 and will be used to break the static head between pump station 2 and the terminal station during a slurry pipeline shutdown. (author)

  10. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  11. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  12. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    . The contribution of the paper is to expand previous research with complementary key design properties. The paper starts with a review of existing literature on previous proposed solutions for increased collaboration in the supply chain for international trade, Inter-Organization Systems and Information......This paper reports on the use of key design properties for development of a new approach towards a solution for sharing shipping information in the supply chain for international trade. Information exchange in international supply chain is extremely inefficient, rather uncoordinated, based largely...... on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...

  13. PODPS: HST Pipeline to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A. B.; Parsons, S. B.; Swade, D. A.; Dempsey, R. C.; Giovane, E. A.; Kochte, M. C.; Rosenthal, E.; Scott, J. F.; Slowinski, S. E.

    1994-05-01

    The Post Observation Data Processing System (PODPS) Branch, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD is responsible for processing and quality evaluation of all science observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). PODPS staff maintain the Routine Science Data Processing (RSDP) pipeline and are responsible for submitting to the HST archive the science observations, engineering, astrometry, orbit definition files, and other data files generated by OSS (Observation Support System) and SPSS (Science Planning and Scheduling System). Since the launch of HST in April 1990, over 50,000 readouts have been processed, 97% of these within two days of execution. Each HST science observation (WFPC2, FOC, FOS, GHRS) is received at the Data Capture Facility (DCF), GSFC. DCF performs telemetry bit-error correction and transmits the data to PODPS. RSDP pipeline software sorts the data by observation, inserts fill packets as needed, and examines the data structure for errors. These data are converted into a Generic Edited Information Set (GEIS) and calibrated. The GEIS FITS-like header is stored separate from the data array. About 1-2% of observations require some repair usually with standard procedures to correct erroneous bits or keywords. Science observations are represented in a variety of output products: film, gray scale laser printer image, or laser printer plots. The observers can use STSDAS and updated reference files to recalibrate their data. A PODPS OA (Operations Astronomer) performs the quality evaluation of each observation and files a PODPS Data Quality Report (PDQ file). The PDQ file contains a keyword to indicate the overall quality (OK, UNDEREXP, UNKNOWN, ...), a general quality comment for the HST archive, and comments from OSS. DSOB (Data Systems Operations Branch) staff write observations to FITS tape(s) and mail the tape(s) plus OSS and PODPS comments to the PI.

  14. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  15. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  16. The goldfields gas pipeline: opening a new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ride, B.M. [Goldfields Gas Transmission Joint Venture, West Perth, WA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Gas exploration and development in the northwest Pilbara in Western Australia has increased due to the commitment of the Goldfields Gas Transmission (GGT) Joint Venture to a 1,380 km gas pipeline linking the north west Pilbara to the east Pilbara iron ore region and the northern and central Goldfields. Major new mining prospects in these highly prospective minerals provinces also offer potential for increased gas demand and GGT pipeline throughput. This paper describes the GGT pipeline and the access arrangements for its use. It has provided a new focus for gas exploration and development in the Carnarvon Basin, North West Shelf, Western Australia, with the East Spar and Harriet Joint Ventures increasing efforts to find reserves to satisfy this new market. The commercial arrangement for the GGT Pipeline services are the first in Australia to be offered under the open access arrangements espoused by the Australian Government and Western Australian Government, and have set a benchmark for other pipelines in Australia. The innovative distance related pipeline tariff arrangements offer prospective gas shippers a simple method for evaluating use of the GGT pipeline and securing gas transmission services. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Structural reliability analysis applied to pipeline risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, M. [GL Industrial Services, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F.; Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of pipelines requires two main components to be provided. These are models of the consequences that follow from some loss of containment incident, and models for the likelihood of such incidents occurring. This paper describes how PETROBRAS have used Structural Reliability Analysis for the second of these, to provide pipeline- and location-specific predictions of failure frequency for a number of pipeline assets. This paper presents an approach to estimating failure rates for liquid and gas pipelines, using Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) to analyze the credible basic mechanisms of failure such as corrosion and mechanical damage. SRA is a probabilistic limit state method: for a given failure mechanism it quantifies the uncertainty in parameters to mathematical models of the load-resistance state of a structure and then evaluates the probability of load exceeding resistance. SRA can be used to benefit the pipeline risk management process by optimizing in-line inspection schedules, and as part of the design process for new construction in pipeline rights of way that already contain multiple lines. A case study is presented to show how the SRA approach has recently been used on PETROBRAS pipelines and the benefits obtained from it. (author)

  18. Assessment of Common and Emerging Bioinformatics Pipelines for Targeted Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwald, Léa; Touzet, Hélène; Lemoine, Yves; Hot, David; Audebert, Christophe; Caboche, Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Targeted metagenomics, also known as metagenetics, is a high-throughput sequencing application focusing on a nucleotide target in a microbiome to describe its taxonomic content. A wide range of bioinformatics pipelines are available to analyze sequencing outputs, and the choice of an appropriate tool is crucial and not trivial. No standard evaluation method exists for estimating the accuracy of a pipeline for targeted metagenomics analyses. This article proposes an evaluation protocol containing real and simulated targeted metagenomics datasets, and adequate metrics allowing us to study the impact of different variables on the biological interpretation of results. This protocol was used to compare six different bioinformatics pipelines in the basic user context: Three common ones (mothur, QIIME and BMP) based on a clustering-first approach and three emerging ones (Kraken, CLARK and One Codex) using an assignment-first approach. This study surprisingly reveals that the effect of sequencing errors has a bigger impact on the results that choosing different amplified regions. Moreover, increasing sequencing throughput increases richness overestimation, even more so for microbiota of high complexity. Finally, the choice of the reference database has a bigger impact on richness estimation for clustering-first pipelines, and on correct taxa identification for assignment-first pipelines. Using emerging assignment-first pipelines is a valid approach for targeted metagenomics analyses, with a quality of results comparable to popular clustering-first pipelines, even with an error-prone sequencing technology like Ion Torrent. However, those pipelines are highly sensitive to the quality of databases and their annotations, which makes clustering-first pipelines still the only reliable approach for studying microbiomes that are not well described.

  19. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  20. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...-AE44 Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... associated with the air transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on... they will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference...

  1. 78 FR 1119 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Civil Aviation Organization Technical Instructions on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO... In the spring of 2012, the ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel incorporated into the 2013-2014 Edition of the.... 78, No. 4 / Monday, January 7, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline...

  2. Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANASE, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%. It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with one SPU is about as good as the parallel technique with four SPUs.

  3. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  4. Routing, construction and maintenance of pipelines in landslide terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, M. [Geo-Enginering (M.S.T.) Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Factors influencing the location and routing of pipelines, and the effects of unstable terrain features on construction and maintenance are discussed. Examples from northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia are cited to illustrate the various techniques, such as overhead crossings of valleys and directional drilling to install pipelines below streams, adopted by pipeline construction companies to deal with the challenges presented by sensitive and unstable terrain. The case histories cited also serve to emphasize the importance of terrain analysis and the proper identification of potential problem areas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  6. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  7. Bpipe: a tool for running and managing bioinformatics pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadedin, Simon P; Pope, Bernard; Oshlack, Alicia

    2012-06-01

    Bpipe is a simple, dedicated programming language for defining and executing bioinformatics pipelines. It specializes in enabling users to turn existing pipelines based on shell scripts or command line tools into highly flexible, adaptable and maintainable workflows with a minimum of effort. Bpipe ensures that pipelines execute in a controlled and repeatable fashion and keeps audit trails and logs to ensure that experimental results are reproducible. Requiring only Java as a dependency, Bpipe is fully self-contained and cross-platform, making it very easy to adopt and deploy into existing environments. Bpipe is freely available from http://bpipe.org under a BSD License.

  8. Analysis of Pipeline Steel Corrosion Data From NBS (NIST) Studies Conducted Between 1922-1940 and Relevance to Pipeline Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Between 1911 and 1984, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) conducted a large number of corrosion studies that included the measurement of corrosion damage to samples exposed to real-world environments. One of these studies was an investigation conducted between 1922 and 1940 into the corrosion of bare steel and wrought iron pipes buried underground at 47 different sites representing different soil types across the Unites States. At the start of this study, very little was known about the corrosion of ferrous alloys underground. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if coatings would be required to prevent corrosion, and (ii) if soil properties could be used to predict corrosion and determine when coatings would be required. While this study determined very quickly that coatings would be required for some soils, it found that the results were so divergent that even generalities based on this data must be drawn with care. The investigators concluded that so many diverse factors influence corrosion rates underground that planning of proper tests and interpretation of the results were matters of considerable difficulty and that quantitative interpretations or extrapolations could be done "only in approximate fashion" and attempted only in the "restricted area" of the tests until more complete information is available. Following the passage of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act in 2002 and at the urging of the pipeline industry, the Office of Pipeline Safety of the U.S. Department of Transportation approached the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS became NIST in 1988) and requested that the data from this study be reexamined to determine if the information handling and analysis capabilities of modern computers and software could enable the extraction of more meaningful information from these data. This report is a summary of the resulting investigations. The data from the original NBS studies were analyzed using a variety of

  9. A SWOT Analysis of the Nabucco Pipeline from Romania’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European Union energy sources are supposed to be sufficient to cover expected growth of natural gas demand for the coming decades, but there are not enough opportunities/infrastructure to transport these volumes of gas to European markets. Arbitrary interruptions of Russia gas deliveries towards Europe, the delays in the rehabilitation of its obsolete pipeline network, the interdiction of direct Asian gas exports transit through Russian transport infrastructure, made stringently necessary for European countries to diversify gas suppliers’ portfolio, by avoiding Russian territory. Nabucco pipeline was conceived as an alternative to European Union countries’ high dependence on Russian gas (about 40% of their consumption is provided by Russia, by connecting European Union countries directly to the huge natural gas resources of Central Asia, on the route Turkey – Bulgaria – Romania – Hungary – Austria. The purpose of this paper is to make a SWOT analysis of this project, highlighting its strengths and weakness from Romania’s point of view, as well as the opportunities and threats as external factors. The main idea resulting from the analysis is that strengths are prevailing for Romania. The turning to account of this project will ensure the diversification of gas sources and the development of competitive markets which can entail price reduction. It is supposed to be a fair and advantageous option, economically reliable, that will reduce dependence on deliveries of gas from a single source – Russia, ensuring two undeniable prerequisites: accessibility (to new supply sources and availability (which refers to guarantees of long term sustainability of gas deliveries. The project implementation will allow energy to help to establish new structural links between the EU, Turkey and the Caspian Sea states and will ensure transfrontier cooperation possibilities inside some euro-regions already constituted, by accessing regional development

  10. Proof of pipeline strength based on measurements of inspection pigs; Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Camp, H.J.; Feser, G.; Hofmann, A.; Wolf, B.; Schmidt, H. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Herforth, H.E.; Juengling, K.H.; Schmidt, W. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg

    2002-01-01

    The report is aimed at collecting and documenting the state of the art and the extensive know how of experts and pipeline operators with regard to judging the structural integrity of pipelines. In order to assess the actual mechanical strength of pipelines based on measurement results obtained by inspection pigs, guidance is given for future processing, which eventually can be used as a basis for an industry standard. A literature study of the commercially available types of inspection pigs describes and synoptically lists the respective pros and cons. In essence the report comprises besides check lists of operating data for the pipeline and the pig runs mainly the evaluation of defects and respective calculating procedures. Included are recommendations regarding maintenance planning, verification of defects as well as repetition of pig runs. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Berichtes ist die Erfassung und Dokumentation zum derzeitigen Stand der Technik und des vorhandenen umfangreichen Know-how von Sachverstaendigen und Pipelinebetreibern auf dem Gebiet der sicherheitstechnischen Beurteilung von Pipelines. Fuer den Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen wurde ein Leitfaden als Basis fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise erstellt, der eventuell die Grundlage eines normativen Regelwerkes bilden kann. In einer Literaturstudie wurden die auf dem Markt befindlichen Pruefmolchtypen zusammenfassend beschrieben und ihre Vor- und Nachteile tabellarisch gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Neben der Erstellung von Checklisten fuer notwendige Daten zum Betrieb der Pipeline und der Molchlaeufe bildet die Fehlerbewertung mit entsprechenden Berechnungsverfahren den Hauptteil dieses Berichtes. Hinweise zur Instandhaltungsplanung (Fehlerverifikation und Molchlaufwiederholung) werden gegeben. (orig.)

  11. 77 FR 48112 - Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... process for pipeline enforcement matters to conform to current law, amends other administrative procedures... and Enforcement Process Maximum administrative civil penalties. Section 2 of the Pipeline Safety Act...-AE29 Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  12. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  13. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  14. Outfall Pipeline Lines, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The outfalls extend from coastal points, originating from canneries and sewage treatment plants.Tafuna Outfall: This polyethylene pipeline installed in 1996, is...

  15. Wave-induced fatigue of multi-span pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Xu [Marine Engineers and Consultants, Freemont, CA (United States); Lauridsen, B. [Danish Maritime Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yong Bai [J P Kenny A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1999-02-01

    Free spanning of the multi-span pipeline is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The seabed intervention costs are largely influenced by pipeline spanning design, which includes assessment of trawl pullover response, vortex-induced vibrations and wave-induced fatigue. The objective of this paper is to develop a rational design methodology for the determination of the free span lengths based on the multi-span pipeline in-line fatigue assessment. Following the summary of the procedure, a detailed mathematical model for the free span movement and its analytical closed form solution are developed. The fatigue damage models are detailed both in time domain and frequency domain approaches. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the technical models. (author)

  16. 75 FR 76077 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal offices in Washington, DC, we recommend that persons consider an alternative method (Internet, fax... pipelines in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep as measured from mean low water that are at risk of...

  17. Developing a leadership pipeline: the Cleveland Clinic experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, Caryl A; Barss, Christina; Stoller, James K

    2014-01-01

    .... Because competencies to lead differ from clinical or research skills, there is a compelling need to develop leaders and create a talent pipeline, perhaps especially in physician-led organizations like Cleveland Clinic...

  18. Reference diameter in calculations of creep strain for steam pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łopata Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommended methods of the operational safety assessment of high-pressure steam pipelines include periodic testing that enables determination of creep strain and the creep rate. The accuracy with which the two quantities are determined depends, among others, on the control of the testing conditions and on the assumed reference diameter. The analysis conducted herein concerns the impact of the reference diameter on the results characterizing the creep phenomenon in the pipeline elements (straight sections and bends. In this respect, the initial ovality of the pipeline cross-section is an important parameter. The calculations are made using own results obtained from many years of the steam pipeline creep testing, including tests performed after the expiry of the computational service life.

  19. The Kepler Science Data Processing Pipeline Source Code Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Bill; Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Clarke, Bruce Donald; Middour, Christopher K.; Quintana, Elisa Victoria; Sanderfer, Jesse Thomas; Uddin, Akm Kamal; Sabale, Anima; hide

    2016-01-01

    We give an overview of the operational concepts and architecture of the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. Designed, developed, operated, and maintained by the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center, the Science Processing Pipeline is a central element of the Kepler Ground Data System. The SOC consists of an office at Ames Research Center, software development and operations departments, and a data center which hosts the computers required to perform data analysis. The SOC's charter is to analyze stellar photometric data from the Kepler spacecraft and report results to the Kepler Science Office for further analysis. We describe how this is accomplished via the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline, including, the software algorithms. We present the high-performance, parallel computing software modules of the pipeline that perform transit photometry, pixel-level calibration, systematic error correction, attitude determination, stellar target management, and instrument characterization.

  20. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  1. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A

    2003-01-01

    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  2. Piko: A Design Framework for Programmable Graphics Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Patney, Anjul; Tzeng, Stanley; Seitz Jr., Kerry A.; Owens, John D.

    2014-01-01

    We present Piko, a framework for designing, optimizing, and retargeting implementations of graphics pipelines on multiple architectures. Piko programmers express a graphics pipeline by organizing the computation within each stage into spatial bins and specifying a scheduling preference for these bins. Our compiler, Pikoc, compiles this input into an optimized implementation targeted to a massively-parallel GPU or a multicore CPU. Piko manages work granularity in a programmable and flexible ma...

  3. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  4. Alternative techniques to monitoring the corrosive potential for fluids in submarine pipelines; Tecnicas alternativas para monitorar o potencial corrosivo de fluidos transportados em oleodutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Brito, Rosane Fernandes de; Paiva, Eva M. de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao; Freitas, Nair Domingues de; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    PETROBRAS in search of being a benchmark in safety, environment and health, established in July 2001 a work group to elaborate a standard for Pipeline Integrity Management. This standard set the requirements for Pipeline Integrity Management and establishes, among others criteria, the actions required to detect, monitor and control internal corrosion of pipelines. The first step to evaluate, monitor and control the internal corrosion is to define the corrosive potential of transported fluids. Some oil pipelines located in central and southern areas of the Campos Basin transport high water cut produced fluids (> 30%) and with demulsifiers, which allow oil and water separation and increase internal corrosion risks. Despite of these, it is not possible to check the internal corrosion rates using conventional techniques because the fluids are produced through sub-sea 'manifolds'. In order to investigate the possibility of corrosion inhibition by crude oils, laboratory tests were performed simulating real field conditions in terms of fluid compositions, water cut and temperature. Experiments were conducted to determine the corrosion rate of specimens, the emulsion stability and the initial temperature of wax precipitation. This paper presents the results of the study realized to define the fluids' corrosive potential of four Campos Basin platforms that are transported through sub-sea 'manifolds. (author)

  5. SINFONI Pipeline: Data reduction pipeline for the Very Large Telescope SINFONI spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO

    2017-08-01

    The SINFONI pipeline reduces data from the Very Large Telescope's SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) instrument. It can evaluate the detector linearity and generate a corresponding non linear pixel map, create a master dark and a hot-pixel map, a master flat and a map of pixels which have intensities greater than a given threshold. It can also compute the optical distortions and slitlets distances, and perform wavelength calibration, PSF, telluric standard and other science data reduction, and can coadd bad pixel maps, collapse a cube to an image over a given wavelength range, perform cube arithmetics, among other useful tasks.

  6. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  7. Leadership Succession: Future-proofing Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Saul; Youngs, Howard

    2018-01-01

    The challenges in deaf education illustrate the requirement and importance of leadership in this specialized field. The significant and impending talent depletion unfolding as baby-boomers retire, positions leadership succession planning as a strategic issue. This mixed methods study is the first of its kind in New Zealand. The aim is to understand leadership demographics and assumptions to determine the need for strategic succession planning to identify and address leaky pipelines. The findings from 82% of the deaf education workforce through a questionnaire and interviews with seven senior leaders reveal that senior leaders do not appear aware of four key areas that dissuade and shrink the pool of potential leadership aspirants. The four areas are prioritizing family; safeguarding health; concerns about bureaucracy, paperwork, and workload; and, a reluctance to move away from teaching. Aspirant identification appears informal, as there is no formal succession plan in place, which suggests a leadership crisis is imminent in New Zealand deaf education provision. Recommendations are provided that may help address this situation in New Zealand and other first-world nations if sufficient leaders are in place to deal with the challenges facing deaf education today and in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The VLITE Post-Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Emily E.; Clarke, Tracy; Peters, Wendy; Polisensky, Emil; Kassim, Namir E.

    2018-01-01

    A post-processing pipeline to adaptively extract and catalog point sources is being developed to enhance the scientific value and accessibility of data products generated by the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; http://vlite.nrao.edu/>) on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). In contrast to other radio sky surveys, the commensal observing mode of VLITE results in varying depths, sensitivities, and spatial resolutions across the sky based on the configuration of the VLA, location on the sky, and time on source specified by the primary observer for their independent science objectives. Therefore, previously developed tools and methods for generating source catalogs and survey statistics are not always appropriate for VLITE's diverse and growing set of data. A raw catalog of point sources extracted from every VLITE image will be created from source fit parameters stored in a queryable database. Point sources will be measured using the Python Blob Detector and Source Finder software (PyBDSF; Mohan & Rafferty 2015). Sources in the raw catalog will be associated with previous VLITE detections in a resolution- and sensitivity-dependent manner, and cross-matched to other radio sky surveys to aid in the detection of transient and variable sources. Final data products will include separate, tiered point source catalogs grouped by sensitivity limit and spatial resolution.

  9. New and Pipeline Drugs for Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Robert T; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthropathy in the western world. Affecting millions and accounting for lost wages, increased health care costs, and significant disability, it remains a burden for those afflicted, their families, and the health care system. Despite the availability of a number of effective therapies, gout is often inadequately treated, and its impact on the patients overall health and well-being is underestimated by physicians and patients alike. For many decades, controlling acute flares was the priority in the management of gout. More recently, however, a deeper understanding of gout pathophysiology has resulted in a new appreciation that gout impacts the patient with consequences well beyond the episodes of acute inflammatory arthritis. Reflecting the chronic nature of the disease, gout treatment needs to be chronic as well, and aimed at reducing the underlying cause of gout-hyperuricemia-as well as the symptom of acute attacks. Therapy therefore requires both urate lowering and anti-inflammatory strategies. Unfortunately, the most commonly used urate lowering and anti-inflammatory treatments may be problematic in some gout patients, who often have multiple comorbidities that establish relative contraindications. Novel urate lowering therapies, and new medications to treat and prevent acute gouty flares, can not only improve care of the individual; they can also lead to a better discourse for the edification of those who manage and are managed for this underestimated disease. In this paper, we discuss new and pipeline drugs for acute gout, prophylactic anti-inflammatory therapies as well as urate lowering therapies.

  10. An Overview of New Progresses in Understanding Pipeline Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, M. YJ; Varela, F.; Huo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Abreu, D.; Mahdavi, F.; Hinton, B.; Forsyth, M. [Deakin University, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    An approach to achieving the ambitious goal of cost effectively extending the safe operation life of energy pipeline to 100 years is the application of health monitoring and life prediction tools that are able to provide both long-term remnant pipeline life prediction and in-situ pipeline condition monitoring. A critical step is the enhancement of technological capabilities that are required for understanding and quantifying the effects of key factors influencing buried steel pipeline corrosion and environmentally assisted materials degradation, and the development of condition monitoring technologies that are able to provide in-situ monitoring and site-specific warning of pipeline damage. This paper provides an overview of our current research aimed at developing new sensors and electrochemical cells for monitoring, categorising and quantifying the level and nature of external pipeline and coating damages under the combined effects of various inter-related variables and processes such as localised corrosion, coating cracking and disbondment, cathodic shielding, transit loss of cathodic protection.

  11. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  12. Nondestructive inspection of the condition of oil pipeline cleaning units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdonosov, V.A.; Boiko, D.A.; Lapshin, B.M.; Chakhlov, V.L.

    1989-02-01

    One of the reasons for shutdowns of main oil pipelines is stoppage of the cleaning unit in cleaning of the inner surface of paraffin deposits caused by damage to the cleaning unit. The authors propose a method of searching for and determining the condition of the cleaning unit not requiring dismantling of the pipeline according to which the initial search for the cleaning unit is done with acoustic instruments (the increased acoustic noise at the point of stoppage of its is recorded) and subsequent inspection by a radiographic method. An experimental model of an instrument was developed making it possible to determine the location of a cleaning unit in an oil pipeline in stoppage of it from the acoustic noise. The instrument consists of two blocks, the remote sensor and the indicator block, which are connected to each other with a cable up to 10 m long. The design makes it possible to place the sensor at any accessible point of a linear part of the pipeline (in a pit, on a valve, etc.) while the indicator block may remain on the surface of the ground. The results obtained make it possible to adopt the optimum solutions on elimination of their malfunctioning and to prevent emergency situations without dismantling of the pipeline. With the equipment developed it is possible to inspect oil and gas pipelines with different reasons for a reduction in their throughput.

  13. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  14. Performance of the SDSS-III MARVELS New Data Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ge, J.; Thomas, N. B.; Shi, J.; Petersen, E.; Ouyang, Y.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Sithajan, S.

    2013-01-01

    As one of the four surveys in the SDSS-III program, MARVELS (Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey) had monitored over 3,300 stars during 2008-2012 with each observed about 27 times over a 2-year window. MARVELS has successfully produced over 20 brown dwarf candidates and several hundreds of binaries. However, the early data pipeline has large long term systematic errors and cannot reliably produce giant planet candidates. Our new MARVELS pipeline team, with the assistance of UF Department of Mathematics, has made great progress in dealing with the long-term systematic errors over the past 9 months. We redesigned the entire pre-processing procedure to handle various types of systematic effects caused by the instrument (such as trace, slant and distortion) and observation condition changes (such as illumination profile). We explored several advanced methods to precisely extract the RV signal from the processed spectra. We also developed a new simulation program to model all of these effects and used it to test the performance of our new pipeline. Our goal is to deliver a new pipeline to meet the survey baseline performance 10-35 m/s for the survey stars) by the end of 2012. We will report the fundamental performance of the pipeline and lessons learned from the pipeline development.

  15. China's modern day Great Wall : the 40 inch West to East Gas Pipeline Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.A.B. [Universal Ensco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In order to fuel China's economic growth, PetroChina began construction of the West to East Natural Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP) in 2001 to transport large quantities of natural gas reserves from the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China to markets in eastern China. The WEPP is the first large diameter, cross-country pipeline project ever constructed in China, and was the first to use automatic welding and automatic ultrasonic inspection on pipelines in China. This paper addressed the management, engineering, procurement and construction challenges of the WEPP. Upon completion of the 3,800 km, 1.016 mm mainline pipeline, construction will begin on other major facilities, such 294 km of lateral line, dual fiber optic conduits with the mainline, 1,100 km of access roads, 23 metering stations, 18 pigging stations, 10 compressor stations, 16 mountain tunnels, 16 aerial crossings, 1 crossing of the Yangtze River, 3 crossings of the Yellow River, a gas control center, and SCADA system. Houston-based Universal Ensco Inc. was awarded a contract to perform a feasibility study as well as a construction supervision contract by PetroChina for the WEPP. Universal also designed a gas turbine drive compressor station at Lunnan and an electric drive compressor station at Zhengzhou. This paper demonstrated that business in China for foreign companies in the pipeline industry is evolving and several changes can be expected as the state planned economy is reformed to a free market economy. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  16. Terrorism impact on the security of international pipelines; L'impact du terrorisme sur la securite des pipelines internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, L. [Ministere de la Defense, Dir. des Affaires Juridiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    International pipelines, sometimes several thousands of km long, are today more and more the target of terror attacks. The sabotage of oil pipelines has been a recurrent problem in the history of Middle-East, but this risk has been enhanced after the September 11, 2001 event. From Africa to China, Caucasus and Central Asia, no pipeline can escape this threat. In front of this challenge, with strong consequences for consuming countries and investors, the crossed countries cannot find reliable solutions. Regional initiatives have been proposed to ensure pipelines protections but they remain insufficient to reassure the international community. For this reason, the consuming countries are tempted to ensure themselves this protection through NATO interventions or by interference-like unilateral actions. (J.S.)

  17. 77 FR 17569 - United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)-Transportation-Dangerous Goods Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... (RCC)-- Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group, of the United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC... address the dangerous goods (hazardous materials) transportation opportunities identified in the Joint...

  18. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  19. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    loss from the pipeline, from tankers, or in the oil field. Oil losses from the pipeline could be caused by direct or indirect effects of earthquakes, destructive sea waves, slope failure caused by natural or artificial processes, thaw-plug instability (in permafrost), differential settlement of permafrost terrain, and bed scour and bank erosion at stream crossings. Oil loss from tankers could be caused by accidents during transfer operations at Valdez and at destination ports and by casualties involving tankers and other ships. Comparison of alternative routes and transportation systems and of their environmental impacts provided information which indicates to the author that one corridor containing both oil and gas pipelines would have less environmental impact than would separate corridors. Considering also the threat to the marine environment that any tanker system would impose and the threat that zones of high earthquake frequency and magnitude would impose on pipelines, it is apparent to the author that environmental impact and cost would be least for a single-corridor on-land route that avoided earthquake zones. The alternative trans-Alaska-Canada routes would meet these criteria. The decisions of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the U.S. Congress, and the President of the United States in favor of the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline system indicate the relative weight given by the decision makers in balancing the importance of potential environmental consequences against the advantages to be derived from rapid resource development.

  20. On the batch cut and products quality procedures in multi-product pipelines; Corte de interfaces e integridade de produtos em polidutos e terminais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepedino, A. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baptista, R.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rachid, F.B.Freitas; Araujo, J.H.Carneiro de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The increasing complexity in specifying the quality of petroleum products has a great impact on the way it is transported in pipelines so as to avoid degradation and contamination. This work aims to presenting a global and preliminary approach about the transport of petroleum products in batches in pipelines and in multi-product terminal lines towards its automation. Emphasis is placed on the batch formation and batch cut procedures, as well as on the features associated with the installation and instrumentation required to perform this task. The main factors responsible for increasing the mixing volume in batch transfers and for threatening the integrity of the products are highlighted. Several effective measures are pointed out to minimize the mixing volume generation. Among other benefits, they can promote reduction in the cost of transportation and in the amount of degraded products, simplified operational procedures and a minimum need for stocks to cope with its logistic. (author)