WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydro-alcoholic stem extract

  1. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  2. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  3. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Nematy; Mohsen Mazidi; Atefeh Jafari; Sara Baghban; Hasan Rakhshandeh; Abdolreza Norouzy; Habibollah Esmaily; Leila Etemad; Michael Patterson; Amir Houshang Mohammadpour

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. In this study, the possible orexigenic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. millefolium was investigated by measuring plasma ghrelin level.Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Control group received water. Treatment groups received 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of A. millefolium extract for 7 days via gavage. Before the intervention, daily amount ...

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PLEUROTUS ERYNGII AND LENTINUS EDODES HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Popa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides superior nutritional values mushrooms posed significant medicinal properties. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of several isolates of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms with medicinal importance. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that the 70% ethylic alcohol extracts have significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis var. spizizinii, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the 70% ethanol extracts of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom isolates may have biopharmaceutical potentiality.

  5. Sleep-prolonging effect of Coriandrum sativum hydro-alcoholic extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of C. sativum. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) and its three fractions namely water (WF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and N-butanol (NBF) were prepared from C. sativum aerial parts and administrated to mice. Also, the possible cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested using cultured PC12 cells. The HAE, EAF and NBF significantly prolonged sleep duration. Only the NBF could significantly decrease sleep latency. No decrease in the neuronal surviving was observed either by HAE or by its fractions. The present data indicate that C. sativum exert sleep-prolonging action without major neurotoxic effect.

  6. Comparative effects of balm hydro alcoholic extract and diazepam on reducing anxiety of in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Anxiety is a normal feeling which is experienced in threatening situations and can affect neural system. Wide spread of anxiety forces many people to permanent use of anti-stress drugs especially benzodiazepines. This study was carried out to compare the effects of balm extract and diazepam on anxiety adjustment. Methods: In this experimental study 70 female mice weighing approximately 25 to 30 g were studied in seven treatments groups including control, placebo, anxiety, diazepam, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of balm’s hydro-alcoholic extract. Drug and extract doses were injected IP. After receiving the last dose, anxiety was induced using dark box and was evaluated by an elevated plus-maze. In order to increase the activity, the animals were kept in a box with black walls for 5 minutes. Then, in order to evaluate the response of anxiety in elevated plus maze transferred and count the time spent in the open arms for 5 minutes (as an indicator of anxiety were observed and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The results of tests on the treatment showed that the hydro alcoholic extract in 200 mg/kg dose increased the time of presence in open arms significantly which shows anxiety reduction. Also, movement activities of mice were significantly higher in this dose in proportion to diazepam. Conclusion: According to results, hydro alcoholic extract of balm in 200 mg/kg dose can be a suitable replacement for diazepam in reducing anxiety reflexes.

  7. In vivo and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Pistacia Atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrebar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: The genus Pistacia belonging to the Anacardiaceae family which consists of 15 species only three species of which, namely Pistacia vera, Pistacia Atlantica, ,and Pistacia Khinjuk grow in Iran. The aim of present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Pistacia Atlantica fruit hydroalcoholic extract in Yasuj. Methods: In the present experimental study, the extract was carried out with two, maceration and Soxhlet methods. For in vitro antioxidant assay, (trolex equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH phosphomolybdenum (PMB was conducted. For determination of antioxidant components, total phenolic and flavonoids contents were analyzed in in vitro assay. To evaluate the antioxidant activity by In Vivo method, the hydro alcoholic extract, having the most antioxidant activity, was used. 24 Wistar rats with the weight 250-300 g were examined that were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6. Group 1 (control group used distilled water by oral route with amount of 0.5 ml/kg. Groups 2, 3, and 4 used 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Pistacia Atlantica hydro alcoholic extract by gavages, respectively. After 4 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected by heart puncture. Catalase enzyme activity, Mallon dialdehyde and Ferric reducing antioxidant power were measured in rats’ plasma. ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results: Methanol extract of Pistacia Atlantica contained the maximum amount of phytochemical and antioxidant activities. A significant decrease was observed in serum malondialdehyde (MDA of the treatment group compared to the control group (P<001.There was a significant increase in level of Catalase and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of treatment groups compared to the control group (P<001. Conclusion: Pistacia Atlantica extracts depending on type and system of extraction contains different antioxidant potential. Key words: Antioxidant Activity, Pistacia Atlantica

  8. The Effect of Taraxacum Officinale Hydro Alcoholic Extract on the Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Modaresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Taraxacum officinaleis a herbaceous perennial plant which has many pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant on blood cell counts in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 mature female mice were divided into 5 groups, each group including ten adult female Balb/C mice. The control group did not receive any extract.while the placebo group received 0.5 cc of normal saline, every other day. The three treatment groups intraperitoneally received 50, 100, 200 mg/kg /2day doses of hydro alcoholic extract for 20 days. Normal saline was administered to the control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet and other cells of the animals were counted using full automated cell counter. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of RBC and the rate of Hb in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all three treatment groups as compared with the control group. The number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significant in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with the control group (p<0.05.The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the dose dependent efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and WBC. Keywords: Dandelion, Blood Cell, mice

  9. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Shah, Syed Muhammad-Ali; Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Usmanghani, Khan; Azhar, Iqbal; Akram, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Pyrexia and inflammation are indicatives of various disorders. Modern medicines are available for treatment of pyrexia, but they have few side effects. Several studies are ongoing Worldwide to search natural antipyretic agents with better efficacy and fewer or no side effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the antipyretic activity of Moringa oleifera bark in rabbits against E. coli induced pyrexia. Rectal temperature was recorded with digital thermometer at 0 h and E. coli suspension was injected. After 1 h again rectal temperature of the animals was recorded and hydro-alcoholic extract were administered to the treatment groups and paracetamol hydro-alcoholic 50 mg/kg orally to the positive control group. Then rectal temperature was recorded at the interval of one h for 4 h. After the drug administration (at h 1), the decrease in body temperature with the dose of 25mg/kg(-1) during next four h ranged between 1.9-2.6of as compared to the negative control. At the dose of 50mg/kg(-1) the decrease in temperature was 1.9-3.0 of. The decrease in body temperature at the dose of 100mg/kg(-1) was high, which ranged from 2.3-3.1of as compared to negative control. Paracetamol, a standard drug , also significantly lowered the temperature but Moringa oleifera at the concentration of 100mg/kg(-1) lowered the body temperature significantly as compared to the negative as well as positive control. Moringa oleifera bark has marked antipyretic activity in animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Moringa oleifera bark as an antipyretic plant.

  10. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium on appetite hormone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nematy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. In this study, the possible orexigenic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. millefolium was investigated by measuring plasma ghrelin level.Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Control group received water. Treatment groups received 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of A. millefolium extract for 7 days via gavage. Before the intervention, daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 days. During the investigation, the amount of energy intake of each rat was also estimated 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr after each intake, for 7 days. Later, the orexigenic dose of extract and distilled water was fed to two separate groups of 6 male Wistar rats. Plasma ghrelin level was measured 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hr after extract intake.Results: The change in energy intake after treatment by 50 and 100 mg/kg of the extract was significantly higher than other groups (p

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  12. Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Nunes, Susana; Dandlen, Susana Anahi; Cavaco, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2010-12-01

    Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal. Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol. In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter. Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone. Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  15. Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Commiphora mukul Gum Resin May Improve Cognitive Impairments in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes causes cognitive impairment. Medicinal plants due to different mechanisms, such as antioxidant activities may improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae has a significant antioxidant activity. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of C. mukul on passive-avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: normal, diabetic, normal + extract of C. mukul and diabetic + extract of C. mukul groups with free access to regular rat diet. Diabetes was induced in male rats by single interaperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After the confirmation of diabetes, 300 mg/kg C. mukul extract was orally administered to the extract-treated groups. Control groups received normal saline at the same time. Passive-avoidance memory was tested eight weeks after the STZ treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results In the present study, diabetes decreased learning and memory. Although the administration of C. mukul extract did not affect the step-through latency (STLa and the number of trials of the diabetic groups during the first acquisition trial, a significant decrease was observed in STLr and also a significant increase in time spent in the dark compartment (TDC and number of crossing (NOC in the retention test (after 24 and 48 hours. Although no significant difference was observed in body weight of diabetic + extract of C. mukul (DE and diabetic control (DC groups, the plasma glucose of DE group was significantly lower in comparison to DC group. Conclusions Commiphora mukul extract can improve passive-avoidance learning and memory impairments in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to the antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, anti

  16. The Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Zingiber Officinale on Prevention from Plumbism in Kidney Tissue of Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present research, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on treating lead-poisoned kidney of neonatal rats was studied.Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a laboratory work. The neonatal rats were divided into 7 groups of 10 samples. The first control group received no treatment. The second control group received 0.1 mg of distilled water. As an experimental group, the one received an amount of 0.6 g/l lead. The fourth group received only 2 g/kg body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. Groups 5 to 7 each initially received 0.6 g/l lead and then amounts of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. The injections were administered via oral gavage during 10 consecutive days.Results: According to the obtained results, the body and kidney weights showed a significant reduction in experimental groups that had received amounts of 1 and 2 g/kg in comparison with the group that had received lead. The kidney weight of the group that had received only extract showed no significant difference in comparison with the control group. As for the body weights, however, it showed a significant increase. Moreover, the body and kidney weights of the lead-injected group showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group.Conclusion: Lead can cause damage to kidney tissues. Due to its antioxidant and protective effect, ginger can be a medication to nephrotoxicity of lead and prevent kidney tissues from destruction.

  17. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract ofDesmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upendarrao Golla; Praveen Kumar Gajam; Solomon Sunder Bhimathati

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:In continuation to the growing evidence for therapeutical potential ofDesmostachya bipinnata(Linn)Stapf, the current pharmacological study was carried out to evaluate the diuretic and laxative activity of its hydro-alcoholic extract in rats. METHODS:The hydro-alcoholic extract ofD. bipinnata whole plant was prepared by using Sox-hlet extractor and subjected to analysis by standard preliminary phytochemical tests. Evaluation of both diuretic and laxative activity was carried out using standard methods as reported earlier. Frusemide (20 mg/kg) was served as positive control for diuretic activity and sennosides (10 mg/kg) served as negative control for laxative activity. RESULTS: The hydro-alcoholic extract showed signiifcant diuretic activity and was found to be the most potent in increasing the urinary output at 500 mg/kg when the effect was compared with that of the standard frusemide (P<0.01). Moreover, this extract was found to be most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration (Na+, K+, and Cl-) at both doses tested. Whereas the results for laxative activity showed minimal increase of feces output at the dose of 500 mg/kg and the increase was negligible when compared with that of the standard drug sennosides. CONCLUSION:Altogether, the above signiifcant ifndings validate and support its folkloric diuretic use and lend pharmacological credence to the ethno-medical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, which demands further studies to investigate its active constituents, as well as its use and safety.

  18. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Leaves of Vitex on the Gestation Indices of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ramezanloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are some plant compounds with estrogenic biological effects which are found in many nutritional sources as soybean, flaxseed, and sesame. Vitex agnus-castus, also called Vitex, owns phytoestrogen properties. Studies have shown that phytoestrogens have different impacts on the gestation process and reproduction indices. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vitex extract on the gestation indices in the male rat as well as studying its histological properties in the rat testicles. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg, vehicle (normal saline and the hydro-alcoholic powder of soybean (120 mg/kg were respectively given to understudy, vehicle and positive control groups for 49 days. After weighing the rats in the 1st and 49th days, the blood samples of all groups were taken and tested for estradiol levels, testosterones, FSH and LH.Moreover, such reproductive indices as sperm count, sperm motion, and prostate and testicle weight were studied and samples were collected for histological studies. Results: Prescription of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex (in three doses of 165, 265 and 365 mg/kg did not change the rat’s weight, significantly (P-value= 0.06. Hormonal studies reduced the progesterone, LH, and FSH compared to the vehicle group, significantly (P-value<0.05. In addition, the amount of estradiol was significantly more than the vehicle group and the most effect was observed at a dose of 365 mg/kg (P-value=0.02. Histological studies showed a reduction in existing spermatozoa in the seminiferous ducts. Conclusions: This study had shown that the Vitex extract had inhibiting effects on the gestation indices in male rat and due to its destructive effects on the testicle tissues, more studies were required.

  19. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  20. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  1. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Neamati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50, (Sent - Ext 100 and (Sent - Ext 200 were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01. The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01 while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001. In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V

  2. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  3. Evaluation of DNA damage of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of Echium amoenum and Nardostachys jatamansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Etebari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today most of herbal medicines are marketing without any standard safety profiles. Although common assumption is that these products are nontoxic but this assumption may be incorrect and dangerous, so toxicological studies should be done for herbal drugs. According to the frequent use of Echium amoenum as immunostimulant and useful in conditions including pain, cough, sore throat and arthritis, and Nardostachys jatamansi as tranquilizer and sleep inducer and evidences of some toxicities, we assessed the probable effect of their extracts on DNA of hepG 2 cells using the comet assay. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of above extracts of the plants are incubated with hepG 2 cells for 24 h. A mixture of cell suspension and agarose gel were put on slides, then slides were embedded in a lysing solution and were put in electrophoresis buffer (pH = 13. Then the electrophoresis procedure took place in an alkaline solution and after neutralization stage, colorization was done by ethidium bromide and comets were observed using a fluorescence microscope. At least 100 cells of each sample were evaluated and three parameters including comet length, percent of DNA in tail, and tail moment were assessed. Results: Both Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of E. amoenum were genotoxic in the concentrations of 25 mg/ml and aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of N. jatamansi were genotoxic in the concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: Although E. amoenum and N. jatamansi are highly used in medicine, these herbs have genotoxic effects in determined concentrations and they should be used cautiously.

  4. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  5. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Prangos ferulacea (L. Lindle on histopathology of pancreas and diabetes treatment in STZ- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Soltani band

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The roots´ hydro-alcoholic extract of P.f seems to be capable to regenerate the islets of Langerhans in the treated rats in comparison with the untreated diabetic rats. This property can be due to some components of the plant that can increase insulin secretion.

  6. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  7. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi against scopolamine-induced anxiety in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of Ziziphus spina-christi extract against anxiety related behavior induced by scopolamine. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, each group consists of eight rats. Vehicle group received distilled water, negative control received scopolamine (1 mg/kg and positive control received diazepam (1 mg/mL. Experimental groups received Z. spina-christi extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg IP 30 min after scopolamine injection. Anxiety related behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus maze. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Administration of Z. spina-christi extract (200 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent in the open arm of elevated plus maze. The extract also reduced the percentage of closed arms entries and time spent in the closed arms. Different concentration of Z. spina-christi extract didn’t affect motor coordination and balance. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. spina-christi significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced anxiety.

  8. In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajij Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by addition of 50 μl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg. The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.

  9. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200 and 4 (LPS + NS 400 were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip, respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days, and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001. The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01. In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01 while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001. Furthermore, in the LPS group

  10. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Carum copticum on withdrawal syndrome in adult rats addicted to morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A honarvar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Long-term useofopioidcreates toleranceandphysical and psychologicaldependence. Discontinuation of the drug, creating ashortageofendogenousopioidsandwithdrawal syndromeemerges.Addictiontreatmentin traditional medicine isusing ofherbssuch asCarumcopticumthathas manytherapeutic effects. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluatethe effects of hydro-alcoholic extractof Carumcopticum onwithdrawalsyndromein adult ratsaddictedto morphine. Material & Method: In this study70male Wistarratsdividedinto seven groups of 10, six groups were addicted by morphinesulfateinjection (the first 5days10 mg/kg, the second 5days15 mg/kg andon the dayfrom11 to21, 20mg/kg subcutaneouslyfor 21 days.Groups three, four and five were fed respectively 10%, 20% Carumcopticum extract and methadone (mg/kg 5 after addiction of animals until the end of period. Groups sixandseven were given respectively10%and 20% of Carumcopticumextractfrom the beginning to the end of treatment period orally.Group one(control andGrouptwo (morphine were fed daily 0.5 mL of saline orally to the end of the treatment period (day 21to 35.Datacollected from body weight, jumping, itchingand diarrhea ofanimals wereanalyzedby SPSS software, using Unpaired T test, ANOVA and LSD as post-hoc statistical tests. Finding: Comparing the mean of weight loose ofthe animals in different treatmentgroupson day21with 35showed statistical significant reduction in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%. On the day 21,itchingand jumping, in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%,and the diarrhea, in the group that receivedthe extract ofCarumcopticum20%compared withthe control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05.On day35,Jumping and diarrheain thegroupsreceived theextract ofCarumcopticum10 and 20percent comparedwith the control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, hydro-alcoholic extract of carumcopticum inconcentration of 10and 20

  11. The efficacy of hydro alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on experimental zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic infectious diseases in the world. Since last century, many efforts have been made to control and treat the disease, but appropriate vaccines, pesticides and medicines are not available or even eligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on the lesions of experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: The population study was 60 Ballb/c mice which divided to 6 groups, all infected with Leishmania major [MRHO/75/IR]. Soon after the ulcer started to appear in the early stage, a dose of provided herbal extract with 5, 10 and 15% concentration applied on each lesion. The surface area of the lesions measured during an interval of 10 days. Direct Giemsa stained smears prepared two and four weeks after treatment. Results: Increasing the mean size of the lesions was statistically significant compared to those in control group (p>0.001. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL developed in all of the mice including the control group that received Eucerine alone. Survival rate in group receiving 15% S. rosmarinus extracts showed significantly higher  compared to mice in control group (p

  12. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  13. Effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) over dendritic cell subsets and HLA-DR/CD86 molecules by lipopolysacarides stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Núñez, César; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano.; Álvarez, Yubell; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Biología.; Aguilar, José Luis; Sección Inmunología. Departamento de Microbiología, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico Inmuno-reumatólogo.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of cat´s claw Uncaria tomentosa (uG) over lipopolysaccharides – treated dendritic cells (DC) and HLA-DR and CD86 molecules expression of peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy individuals. Materials and methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy individuals. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by centrifugation over density gradient, pre-treated with and without the addition of ...

  14. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Ravindra D; Jalalpure, Sunil S

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate antiurolithiatic potential of whole plant hydro-alcoholic (30:70) extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. in accordance to its claims made in ancient literature and also being one of the ingredients of cystone, a marketed formulation widely used in the management of urolithiasis. To induce urolithiasis, 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol was administered orally for 14 days. The curative dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. and preventive doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. were administered from 15(th) to 28(th) and 1(st) to 28 days, respectively. Cystone 750 mg/kg b.w. was selected as the reference standard for both curative and preventive doses. On 28(th) day, urinate of 24 h was collected and subjected for estimation of calcium, oxalate, and phosphates. Serum biochemical and kidney homogenate analysis was done for determination of renal oxalate contents. The diseased Group II showed marked increase (P ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis and may have a potential in preventing and curing urolithiasis.

  15. Effect of Rheum Ribes Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Memory Impairments in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Maryam; Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; Fathpour, Hossein; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra; Basim, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Some animal models have been used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Animal studies have shown that there is a relation between decrease in cholinergic functions in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and loss of learning capability and memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rheum ribes extract (RR) on memory deficit in one of the rat models of AD. Plant (1500gr) was collected from Saman (kahkesh) region of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province in Iran. RR hydro-alcoholic extracts were prepared using maceration method. Rat model of Alzheimer was induced by Nucleus Basalis of Meynert lesions (NBML). Animals (n = 32) received extracts for 20 days and then passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks were performed for memory evaluation. FRAP and HPLC methods were used for measurement of the antioxidant and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in blood. In water maze experiment, probe trial results showed that NBML group spent significantly less time in target quadrant, in which the platform was located on the preceding day. In addition, the time spent in target quadrant was significantly increased in NBML + RR groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) compared to the NBML group. In passive avoidance task, mean initial latency time and step-though latency were significantly decreased in NBML group. RR extracts significantly prolonged step-through latency in NBML + RR groups. Results of this study suggest that Rheum ribes extracts can improve memory deficits induced by bilateral NBM lesions in rats. PMID:26664387

  16. Evaluation of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Peganum harmala on Pituitary-thyroid Hormones in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E HOssini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Peganum harmala from the Jigo Phalluses family has compounds such as: alkaloid,saponine steroid and lignin which is used as a traditional medicine witht antibacterial, anti tumor, inhibition of MAO enzyme, and stimulation of the nerve system. It also serves as a modulator to endocrine activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala on plasma levels of pituitary-thyroid’s hormones of adult rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical sciences in 2009, 50 adult Mala rats with the approximate weight of 260+30 grams were divided into 5 groups: the control group, the sham group, and 3 experimental groups. The control group did not take any medicine. The sham group received 1 mL of distilled water daily for 17 consecutive days. The experimental groups took 90 mg/kg, 180mg/kg, or 270 mg/kg of Peganum harmala extract daily respectively for 17 consecutive days. In the 18th day, by collecting the blood samples of the animals, plasma level of TSH, T4, and T3 was measured using radioimmunoassay method. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: This study revealed that the minimum and maximum dose of the Peganum harmala extract reduces the TSH level and average and maximum dose of the extract significantly reduces the level of T4 and T3 in rats. Conclusion: results of this study indicate that by further study the Peganum harmala extract might be used for treatment hyperthyroidism. However further study is needed to explore this concept.

  17. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  18. The Neuroprotective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance in Experimental Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedemadi, Parisa; Rahnema, Mehdi; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Shahrebano; Rafati, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of BBB breakdown and the subsequent vasogenic edema are important parts of the medical management of ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ischemic tolerance effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf hydro-alcoholic extract (RHE). Five groups of animals were designed: sham (underwent surgery without MCAO) and MCAO groups, the MCAO groups were pretreated orally by gavages with RHE (50, 75, and 100 mg/Kg/day), daily for 30 days. Two hours after the last dose, serum lipid levels were determined and then the rats were subjected to 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Subsequently, brain infarct size, brain edema and Evans Blue dye extravasations were measured and neurological deficits were scored. Dietary RHE could significantly reduce cortical and sub-cortical infarct volumes (211.55 ± 24.88 mm3 vs. 40.59 ± 10.04 mm3 vs. 29.96 ± 12.19 mm3vs. 6.58 ± 3.2 mm3), neurologic deficit scores, cerebral edema (82.34 ± 0.42% vs. 79.92 ± 0.49% vs. 79.45 ± 0.26% vs. 79.30 ± 0.19%), blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability (7.73 ± 0.4 μg/g tissue vs. 4.1 ± 0.23 μg/g tissue vs. 3.58 ± 0.3 μg/g tissue vs. 3.38 ± 0.25 μg/g tissue) in doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/Kg/day as compared with the control group in the transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Although pretreatment with RHE plays an important role in the generation of tolerance against cerebral I/R injury, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of the ischemic tolerance. PMID:28243285

  19. Effect of Salvia chorassanica Root Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydro Alcoholic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mehraban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, through the previous researches, it has become clear that Salvia has important health benefits. Salvia chorassanica is one of the valuable native Iranian species which only grows in Khorasan province, Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Salvia chorassanica root aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Methods In this experimental study, maceration method was used to prepare extracts. Study setup was conducted in March 2014.The duration of study setup took for two months. The micro dilution method by ELISA was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts of root of Salvia chorassanica against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect also was evaluated using agar diffusion method. The inhibition zones of growth against the extracts were measured in comparison to standards antibiotics. Chloramphenicol as positive control on Enterococcus faecalis, Tetracycline on Staphylococcus aureus, Gentamicin on Escherichia coli and Neomycin on Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with SPSS version 16. Results The highest inhibition zone in diffusion method was related to ethanolic extract of Salvia chorassanica root against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The calculated MIC in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root for Staphylococcus aureus was 240 and 120 mg/mL, for Enterococcus faecalis was 120 and 60 mg/mL respectively, and for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was equal to 240 mg/mL. The amount in hydro alcoholic extracts for Gram-positive bacteria was 60 mg/mL and for Gram-negative bacteria was 120 mg/mL. The

  20. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. VEDHA HARI, AKHILA SRAVYA DANTU, P. SHANKARGURU, D. RAMYA DEVI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana divaricata is a common shrub found in the tropical regions and is often used for medicinal purposes, particularly the flowers of the plant. The present study is conducted to compare and identify the phytochemical constituents by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Qualitative Phytochemical analysis and to determine the anthelmentic activity of fresh and dried flower extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract is obtained using two different methods like cold maceration and hot solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus, first with petroleum ether followed by hydroalcohol as solvents. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Flavanoids, Steroids, Proteins, Carbohydrates and Tannins. The Rf value of TLC is calculated and compared with standard values and analysis proved the presence of the phytochemical constituents. The anthelmentic activity studies are performed using Indian earth worms. For this, the concentrated extract is diluted to various concentrations, and the effect of each solution is studied by measuring the time taken for paralysis and death of the earth worms. It is found to show significant anthelmentic activity at various concentrations compared with that of the standard drug Metronidazole.

  1. Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, due to the changes in the form of the resistance of pathogenic bacteria, discovering new antimicrobial drugs is under study. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the extract of the myrtle herb on some of pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of myrtle herb was evaluated at 4 concentrations including 10-80 mg/ml on four strains of pathogenic bacteria using penetrative dissemination method together with the measuring diameter of the growth inhibition zone; then the results were compared to four conventional antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were studied using macro dilution method. Results: Treatment by the concentration of 80 mg/ml extract of this herb showed the greatest effect on the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera serotype Ogawa which had a significant difference with all other treatments and standard antibiotics (p> 0.05. The extract showed no effect on the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and just concentration of 80 mg/ml showed a little effect on E. coli and other antibiotics had no significant effect except tetracycline which has little effect on this strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.2 mg/ml for bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the maximum for E.coli by 8 mg/ml.Conclusion: This study showed that under study bacteria were more resistant to the antibiotics and the extract of Myrtus communis leaves showed greatest antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae cerotype Ogawa.

  2. Comparative effects of balm hydro alcoholic extract and diazepam on reducing anxiety of in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background & aim: Anxiety is a normal feeling which is experienced in threatening situations and can affect neural system. Wide spread of anxiety forces many people to permanent use of anti-stress drugs especially benzodiazepines. This study was carried out to compare the effects of balm extract and diazepam on anxiety adjustment. Methods: In this experimental study 70 female mice weighing approximately 25 to 30 g were studied in seven treatments groups including control, placebo, anxiety...

  3. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  4. Study on Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effect of Pomegranate Peel on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Habibipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Microorganisms form biomass as biofilm in response to many factors, in order to adapt to hostile extracellular environments and biocides. Using different herbal compounds are of those strategies to deal with biofilm. It has been proved that plants extracts such as pomegranate, raspberry and chamomile essential oils have anti-biofilm effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of black peel pomegranate ex-tract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research the anti-biofilm effect, reducing the amount of biofilm formation and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different treatments was measured by microtiter and plate colorimetric crystal violet method. Biofilm formation was also examined using a microscope. Statistical analysis of data obtained from the reading of the ELISA was performed using SPSS software, P value 0.05. Results: Findings of this study showed that bacteria cannot form any biofilm in first 6 hours of incubation, in all treatments. The amount of biofilm formation after 12 hours in 0.01 and 0.05 g/ mL treatments were medium. Among treatments, after 18 and 24 hours of incubation 0.001 g/ mL concentration of pomegranate peel extract had medium and strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that biofilm formation and biofilm reduction percent-age is directly related to the duration of exposure of bacteria that could be due to the different phases of growth. Growth kinetics study also revealed that in the majority of treatments the growth was incremental up to about 15 hours and decrement afterwards due to the effective-ness of different treatments. After 18 hours, treatments have greatest influence on biofilm formation. The foregoing has been fully confirmed by the results of microscopic slides. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 195-202

  5. The effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra Rhizome on the Mechanical Activity of the Colon of Male Rats and its Interaction with Adrenergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Back ground & aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice is a native medicinal plant of Iran which its rhizome has been traditionally used for treatment of bowel spasm and diarrhea. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice rhizome on mechanical activity of isolated colon of male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, the colon tissue of 10 adult male rats were dissected and divided into two groups: experimental and control. Each group consisted of 10 strips of tissue. Then, the mechanical activity of tissue strips were recorded by power lab A-D instrument in basal condition, and after administration of phenylephrine and epinephrine and propranolol in the presence and absence of licorice rhizome extract (with effective dose 0.036 mg/ml. Moreover, the mechanical activity of control group strips were recorded at the same condition with extract solvent (ethanol %70. Data were analyzed statistically with using the SPSS software version 19 using Independent-Samples t-test. Result: The mechanical activity of tissue in presence of extract and epinephrine significantly decreased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. While the mechanical activity in the presence of extract and propranolol significantly increased (p≤0.05 compared to the control group. However, no significant modification was observed in the mechanical activity of the tissue  in the presence of phenylephrine and extract compared to the control group.  Conclusion: According to the present study, it could be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract of licorice maybe has modifying effect on colon motility via synergist effect with beta adrenergic receptors and independent of the alpha adrenergic receptors.

  6. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  7. Different effects of feeding pregnant and lactating mice Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts on their serum angiogenic activity and content of selected polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zdanowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological processes, among them the formation of tissues and organs during embryogenesis. A lot of medicinal plants exhibit angiomodulatory properties. This creates the need for a thorough check of whether the plant extracts that we would like to give to pregnant women in order to increase their resistance to bacterial or viral infection will have negative effects on angiogenesis, and consequently on fetal development. This paper seeks to investigate the effect of serum of pregnant and nursing Balb/c mice that received aqueous (RKW or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A R. kirilowii extracts (20 mg/kg, or epigallocatechin (0.2 mg/kg, on the in vitro proliferation and migration of mouse endothelial cell line HECa10. Of the 15 identified polyphenols in the extracts by HPLC, 8 were present in the sera. Chemical analysis revealed higher salidroside, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, bFGF and VEGF concentration in RKW-A sera than in the sera of RKW group of mice. RKW-A and EGC sera did not affect migration of endothelial cells, however we noted some increase of migrating cells after RKW-sera treatment. RKW and EGC sera did not affect proliferation of endothelial cells. Sera of mothers from RKW-A group impaired the proliferation of endothelial cells in comparison to other groups. These data allow us to assume that Rhodiola kirilowii hydro-alcoholic extract (RKW-A is potentially able to modulate pre- and post- natal angiogenesis what might influence the development of organs in progeny. Sera of RKW mothers have not harm the proliferation of endothelial cells, despite they also contain antiangiogenic catechins and salidroside. This suggests the existence in RKW-A extract and in RKW-A sera of some other, as yet unidentified substances influencing endothelial cells proliferation.

  8. Study on effect of Artemisia sieberi hydro-alcoholic extract on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akbari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study, the possibility of probiotic yoghurt production using Artemisia sieberi hydro- alcoholic extract and also the effects of different concentrations of this medicinal herb on the survival of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis, in probiotic yoghurt were investigated. Materials and Methods: In different treatments, the amounts of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 gr/lit of Artemisia sieberi extract together with conventional yoghurt starter, Bif. lactis and lact. acidophilus were added to 1 liter of boiled milk. The samples were incubated at 37˚centigrade, and then, the acidity and pH changes every two hours during the incubation period were examined up to approximately 80˚ of the survival of probiotic bacteria was tested during the storage of the samples in the refrigerator. On the tenth day, after yoghurt production, all the samples were examined for sensory evaluation using a panel test and the obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (V:19. Results: There was no significant difference in the acidity and pH changes during the production process of probiotic yoghurt in different treatments. The probiotic yoghurt containing 0.4 gr/lit  of Artemisia hydro-alcoholic extract had the best quality in terms of organoleptic properties and shelf life of the product. During 21 days storage in the refrigerator none of the treatments showed the number of probiotic bacteria less than 106 bacteria in gram. Conclusion: It was found that appropriate concentrations of Artemisia sieberi extract can be used for the production of probiotic yoghurt, as a new functional food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifodobacterium lactis.

  9. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CVmeasurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from the transfer study with authentic unspiked samples of A. annua. The comparison of these measurement uncertainty estimations showed that they were coherent. It confirmed thus that the estimation of measurement uncertainty from validation experiments predicts well the measurement uncertainty

  10. Identification, determination, and study of antioxidative activities of hesperetin and gallic acid in hydro-alcoholic extract from flowers of Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Esmaeili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Eriobotrya japonica belongs to the Rosaceae. Studies have shown that the flowers of this plant are rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Accorrdingly, the evaluation of antioxidative effects of Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE have been performed in vitro. Material and Methods: In this study, to investigate the influences of components of EJFE on its antioxidative activity, extract was prepared using hydro-alcoholic (25:75 V/V solvent and the antioxidative activity of the extract was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and H2O2 by spectrophotometric method and chelating of ferrous ions by ferrozine reagent. Results: HPLC analysis of the Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE revealed hesperetin and gallic acid as the major antioxidants. When the content of total flavonoid and polyphenolic compounds in the flower extract of this plant was examined, a significantly higher level of total polyphenols was found in Eriobotrya japonica flower extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the high ability to scavenge free radicals, reducing power, and Fe+2chelating activity exerted by the EJFE were due to the high content of hesperetin and gallic acid in the flowers.

  11. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  12. Cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Cucurbita pepo and Solanum nigrum on HepG2 and CT26 cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shokrzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. There are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. Cucurbita pepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. Previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Also, Solanum nigrum has been used as a diuretic and an antipyretic agent and it has also been used to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer. In this investigation, cytotoxicity of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. pepo and S. nigrum was studied on normal [Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO and rat fibroblast] and cancer (HepG2 and CT26 cell lines. The cytotoxic effects and IC 50 of the extracts on the selected cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay method. The results showed that IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly lower than that of the C. pepo extract on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. On the other hand, IC 50 of S. nigrum extract was significantly higher than the extract of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, herbal and chemical control positive anticancer compounds, respectively, on all four cell lines (P < 0.05. As a result, it is concluded that the extract of S. nigrum has almost similar cytotoxicity to the extract of T. baccata on cancer cells.

  13. Cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract ofAnanas comosus against isoproterenol induced myocardial infraction in Wistar Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Saxena; Dharamveer Panjwani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of hydro alcoholic extract ofAnanas comosus (A. comosus)(HEAC), onIsoproterenol(ISO) induced myocardial infarction inAlbinoWistar rats. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced byIsoproterenol(85 mg/kg,s.c.) for two consecutive days at an interval of24 h.Rats were pretreated withHEAC(200-400 mg/kg/day, oral) for a period of30 days andIsoproterenol(ISO) was injected on31st and32nd day and after24 h blood was collected through retro-orbital plexus for the estimation of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies were also performed.Results:In the present study,ISO administration significantly elevated the cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it decreases high density lipoprotein and total protein in plasma and administration ofHEAC decreases the level of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it increases high density lipoprotein and total protein levels.Pretreatment with theHEAC protected the cardiotoxicity induced by Isoproterenol.The histopathological findings of theISO-induced myocardium showed infracted zone with inflammatory cells, lipid droplets, myocardial necrosis and vacuolization of myofibrils which were reduced by the pretreatment ofHEAC.Conclusion:It can be concluded thatHEAC possess cardioprotective activity againstIsoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  14. Rosa canina L. Fruit Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Effects on Some Immunological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research investigates the possible potential of Rosa canina (RC as an immunomodulator in rats and its effects on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this experiment, 45 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into three groups (n = 15. These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg, RC fruit extract (250 mg/kg and RC fruit extract (500 mg/kg as oral gavages every day for a period of four weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week, differential white blood cell (WBC counts, phagocyte activity (number, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphates (ALP albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum were determined only in day 28 of study. The radical scavenger activity (RSA of the RC extract was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: the gamma globulin level, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with the normal saline group. ALT, AST and ALP had not significantly differences in compared to control group. RC extract significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and also decreased GSH levels in comparing to control group in day 28. Conclusion: the data suggest that the RC extract has been used in traditional medicine might have immunomodulatory effects.

  15. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  16. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  17. Anti-anxiety activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn. assessed using different experimental anxiety models In rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasan Elayaraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae is an valuable medicinal herb, had showed antiviral, antimalarial, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-anxiety activity of crude ethanolic extract of S.dulcis L by various behavioural models. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of  phenols and flavonoids. The extract at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg was evaluated for anti anxiety activity by  Open-field test [OFT], Elevated plus-maze test [EPM], Elevated Zero-maze test [EZM],, Social interaction test [SI] And  Novelty induced suppressed feeling latency test [FL]   and the results of behavioral tests indicated the dose dependent anti-anxiety activity of  Scoparia dulcis which is comparable to standard. It was concluded that crude ethanolic extract showed anti anxiety activity.Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s and the phytochemicals responsible for the observed anxiolytic effect  of the hydroalcoholic extract of Scoparia dulcis. 

  18. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.

  19. Studying the Effect of Hydro- alcoholic Extract of Valeriana officinalis on the Number and Size of Raphe Magnus Neurons in Mature Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sadeghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Effective materials from Valerian officinalis L. have too much usage in the pharmacological industry. It is used as a sedative, anticonvulsion, and antidepressant drug. Serotonin has a widespread role in vital function such as sleep, awareness and calmness. In this study we evaluated the effect of hydrochloric extract of valerian on number and size of raphe magnus neurons in adult rat. Materials & Methods:In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009, forty adult Wistar rats, each 170-250 gr, were divided randomly into four groups (one control group and three experimental groups. The animals were injected daily for one month with doses of 300, 400 and 600 mg/kg of the extract. The control group just received distilled water. After transcardial perfusion, the whole brain was separated, then 10 µm sections of the brain stem were prepared, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining were done. Number and size of raphe magna neurons were observed under light microscope. The gathered data were analyzed by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA and LSD. Results: The control group did not statistically show significant changes in number of raphe magna neurons. Comparison of the means of long and short diameter neurons showed significant increases in experimental groups with control group (P<0.05. In experimental groups the neuron nucleuses were more euchromatic than the control group. Conclusion: Hydrochloric extract of valerian has no effect on raphe magnus neurons, but it is effective on neurons' size. It can be concluded that the extract increases both neurons activity and serotonin secretion.

  20. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root's hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:28348972

  2. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Garlic Extract on Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Mature Male Rats under Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzie Mirfard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (with the brand name of Endoxana is an anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy. The side effects of this drug include anoretic, nausea, decrease in genital gland function, creating amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Garlic has been used throughout history as a medicinal drug and a beneficial spice in cooking. The beneficial effects of garlic which have been studied are its anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti- atherosclerosis, anti-blood platelet effects as well as its role in reducing blood glucose and fat. Garlic has many compounds mostly contain a sulfuric content such as Di-alkyl Di-sulfide (Alicin, Di alyl Di sulfide (DAS, that caused antioxidant and protective properties. Materials & Methods: Cyclophosphamide and garlic extract were given to 56 rats for a period of 28 days. The rats were weighted and after anesthesia, their testis was taken out and tissue dissections were obtained, Student t-test was applied for the statistical analysis. Results: The results show that cyclophosphamide alone leads to a reduction in body and testis weight, and spermatogenesis compared to the control group. In the group that used cyclophosphamide along with garlic extract, as the dose of extract increased, the body and testis weight and spermatogenesis increased in the rats. Conclusion: It seems, the existing compounds in garlic extract can control active metabolites caused by cyclophosphamide and the destructive effect of this drug. Prescribing garlic extract along with cyclophosphamide can possibly be beneficial and effective due to the anti-oxidant characteristics of garlic and also its effect on reducing harmful metabolites.

  3. The Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Raspberry Fruit on Ovarian follicles and serum parameters in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Nabiuni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is an endocrine disorder leading to lack of ovulation and has inflammatory aspects. Raspberry extract, with possession of bioactive compounds such as Anthocyanins and polyphenols, have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract on the development process of ovarian follicles and hormones level of pituitary, ovarian, and liver in rats suffering from PCOS were examined. Methods: In the present experimental study, 120 adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, PCOS, and treated with raspberry. The induction of syndrome was done by 2mg Estradiol valerate. After a period of 60 days, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW raspberry extract was injected intraperitoneally. Control group received no injection. Ten days after the last injection, all groups were anesthetized by chloroform and the serum and ovary of all groups were collected in order to investigate the histological and serologic changes. Data obtained were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Raspberry-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hormones rate of testosterone, estradiol, LH, and CRP compared with PCOS (p<0.05, whereas a significant increase was observed in the serum level of Progesterone and FSH (p<0.05. A significant increase was observed in the number of corpus luteum and granulosa layer thickness in the raspberry-treated group compared with PCOS (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of raspberry extract was effective on regulating the hormones, CRPand improving of cysts which led to the initiation of ovulation.

  4. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock, (A. lappa root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ-induced type2 diabetes in mice.Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10 as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated.Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (p

  5. Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight et Arn (Mimosaceae hydro-alcoholic extract action on the contractility of tracheal smooth muscle isolated from guinea-pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datté Jacques Y

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight et Arn. (Mimosaceae is largely used in ethno-medically across Africa, and mainly employed for the treatment of asthma in Ivory Coast and Gabon. The paper analyses the relaxation induced by the methanolic extract of D. cinerea (Edici in the guinea-pig trachea preparations (GPTPs. Purpose: This study aimed to bring out the scientific basis to the use of this plant leading to the validation of this phytomedicine. Method The aorta obtained from guinea-pigs was immediately placed in a Mac Ewen solution. Experiments were performed in preparations suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath containing Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the aorta strips of guinea-pig were recorded by using a strain gauge. The different drugs were directly administered into the organ bath and the magnitude of GPTPs was evaluated. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea (Edici using chemical methods revealed the presence of flavenoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes and polyphenols. Pharmacological studies performed in GPTPs show that of Dichrostachys cinerea (0.1 mg/ml - 2 mg/ml evoked a broncho-constriction in GPTPs. Whereas, at concentration up to 2 mg/ml, Edici induced a significant dose-dependent relaxation in the GPTPs. KCl-, ACh- or histamine-evoked contractions of isolated trachea was significantly inhibited by increasing concentrations of Edici (3.5-10 mg/ml. Edici (10 mg/ml as well as promethazine (0.25 mg/ml significantly inhibited contractions induced by increasing concentrations of histamine (1×10-7-1×10-4mg/ml. In the presence of atropine at a concentration of 10-6mg/ml, contractile response curve (CRC evoked by ACh (1×10-5-1×10-2 mg/ml was significantly abolished in concentration-dependent manner. Edici did not significantly reduced ACh evoked contraction (10-5-10-2mg/ml. Conclusion These observations suggest

  6. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hyperricum PerforatumL. on Some Blood Parameters in Male Rats Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L yaghobi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Cyclophosphamide is an anti cancer drug which causes alkylation of DNA in cells. The side effects of cyclophosphamide are bone marrow damages and anemia. Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant which widely used in traditional medicine. In this study the hemotopoetic effect of Hypericum perforatum leaf extract (HPE on bone marrow function and blood parameters in male rat were treated with cyclophosphamide was investigated. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats with an average body weight of 220±25 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=7: control group taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p ,witness group taking cyclophosphamide (15mg/kg/day, i.p., positive control group taking HPE (200mg/kg, i.p/day,  treated groups 1, 2 and 3 recieved cyclophosphamide ,(15mg/kg/day, i.p. + 100mg/Kg, 200mg/Kg and 400mg/kg  HPE /day for 10 days, i,p. At the end of study blood samples were collected from heart directly. RBC, WBC, Hct, Hb and PL were meseaured. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results indicated that cyclophosphamide caused damage on bone marrow, which in this case significantly reduced the number of blood cells and platelets in the group treated with cyclophosphamide (P<0.001. Blood parameters in the groups treated with HPE increased significantly compared with the group which received cyclophosphamide alone (P<0.001. Conclusion: The Hypericum perforatum hydoethanolic extract contains antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which could protect the bone marrow tissues against cyclophosphamide.       

  7. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  8. Evaluación de la Actividad y el Potencial Antioxidante de Extractos Hidro-Alcohólicos de Cúrcuma (Cúrcuma longa Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Potential Hydro-Alcoholic Extracts of Cúrcuma (Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alvis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se extrajeron los compuestos fenólicos del rizoma de la cúrcuma (Curcuma longa empleando como disolvente etanol al 75%. Los compuestos fenólicos presentaron una concentración de 176B.B mg/L expresados como ácido gálico y se adicionaron a una matriz lipídica. Se determinó la actividad y el potencial antioxidante del producto natural y se comparó con el potencial antioxidante del hidrotolueno butilado (BHT, encontrándose que el extracto de cúrcuma mostró un potencial antioxidante similar al del BHT evaluado a las mismas condiciones. Vl estudio aporta al conocimiento sobre la extracción de compuestos antioxidantes de origen natural mostrando los beneficios que presentan frente a sus análogos de origen sintético.Phenolic compounds from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa were extracted using ethanol at 75% concentration as solvent. The phenolic compounds presented a concentration of 176B.B mg/L expressed as gallic acid and were added to a lipid matrix. The antioxidant and potential activities of the natural product were determined and compared with the antioxidant potential of the synthetic antioxidant (BHT finding that turmeric extracts had antioxidant potential similar to that of BHT, both tested at the same conditions. The study gives new information on the extraction of natural antioxidant compounds showing the benefits that they have over synthetic compounds.

  9. Avaliação do efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira no processo de cicatrização da linea alba de ratos Evaluation of the hydro-alcoholic Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira extract in the healing process of the alba linea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aldemir Teixeira Nunes Jr.

    2006-01-01

    sutura. Notou-se diferença significativa para proliferação fibroblástica (p=0,014 na avaliação intergrupo de três dias, e para inflamação crônica (p=0,023 e reação gigantocelular do tipo corpo estranho (p=0,008 na avaliação intergrupo de sete dias. Na análise intragrupo controle, houve diferença significativa para inflamação crônica no subgrupo três dias, e, finalmente, na análise intragrupo experimento, observou-se diferença significativa para inflamação aguda e proliferação de fibroblastos (p=0,001 e p=0,020 no subgrupo de três dias em relação ao subgrupo de sete. CONCLUSÃO: A injeção intraperitoneal do extrato hidroalcoólico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi em laparotomias medianas de ratos não alterou a cicatrização na análise macroscópica e induziu a aumento da carga máxima de ruptura e deformação máxima da linha alba na análise tensiométrica. Na análise histológica, determinou efeito cicatrizante no subgrupo de animais experimento de três dias.PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing process in the abdominal wall of rats after the intra-peritoneal injection of the hydro-alcoholic Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were used, distributed in two groups of 20 animals, divided into two subgroups, according to the death day, three or seven, after the intra-peritoneal injection of the extract. The experimental group was injected with only one dose of the hydro-alcoholic Aroeira extract (100mg per animal kilogram; the control group was injected with only one dose of isotonic saline solution at 0.9%. After the animal death, an inventory of the peritoneal cavity was carried out in a careful search for any adhesion, followed by the resection of the anterior abdominal wall encompassing the operating incision in order to examine it for evidence of infection. The adhesions were classified according to the Nair criteria. The tensiometric assessment was performed by means of the measurement of the maximum

  10. Extrato hidroalcoolico da casca do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense em ratos submetidos à aplicação de doxorrubicina Hydro alcoholic extract of pequi peel (Caryocar brasiliense in rats submitted to the application of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante do extrato hidroalcoolico da casca do pequi (EHCP em ratos após a administração de doxorrubicina (DOX. Foram utilizados ratos da raça Wistar, distribuídos em quatro grupos, sendo que os animais do G1 (n=6 receberam água e solução salina (grupo controle, G2 (n=7 EHCP e solução salina, G3 (n=7 água e DOX e G4 (n=6 EHCP e DOX. O EHCP foi administrado por gavagem durante 10 dias aos ratos dos grupos G2 e G4 e água aos dos G1 e G3. DOX na dose de 10mg kg-1 e solução salina 0,9% foram administradas por via intravenosa no dia sete após o início do experimento aos animais de G3 e G4 e aos de G1 e G2, respectivamente. Foram avaliados peso e taxa de mortalidade. Dez dias após o início do experimento, foi avaliada a concentração sérica de creatina quinase MB (CK-MB, troponina e mioglobina, e os ratos foram submetidos à eutanásia e à avaliação anatomopatológica. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao peso dos animais (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of pequi peel (HEPP in rats after administration of doxorubicin (DOX. Were used 26 Wistar rats divided into four groups, which G1 (n=6 received water and saline solution (control group, G2 (n=7 HEPP and saline solution, G3 (n=7 water and DOX, and G4 (n=6 HEPP and DOX. The HEPP was administered by gavage for 10 days to G2 and G4 and water to G1 and G3. DOX and saline solution were administered intravenously on day seven after the start of the experiment, with the DOX (10mg kg-1 applied in G3 and G4, and saline solution 0.9% in G1 and G2. Were evaluated weight and mortality rate. Ten days after the start of the experiment were evaluated creatina kinase MB (CK-MB, troponin and myoglobin, and the rats were euthanized and evaluated morphologically. There was no difference between treatments in weight of animals (P>0.05. About the mortality rate an

  11. Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carromberth Carioca Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas, of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin, were determined through analyses of NMR 1D (¹H and 13C and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC. These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae. The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active.

  12. Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae); Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Carromberth Carioca [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Natureza; Cursino, Lorena Mayara de Carvalho; Novaes, Jussival de Abreu Pinheiro; Demetrio, Camilla Avelino; Pereira Junior, Orlando Liborio; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais; Amaral, Ieda Leao do [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Botanica

    2009-07-01

    Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas), of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin), were determined through analyses of NMR 1D ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC). These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae). The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active. (author)

  13. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Ostafe; Codruta Cofan; Manuela Mincea; Florica Manea; Dan Cinghită; Ciprian Radovan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 ...

  14. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  15. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. Methods: In this study, 32 aged and 32 you...

  16. Antifertility potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. leaves: A folklore medicine used by Meena community in Rajasthan state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that hydro alcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leaves possess significant antifertility activity, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine of this plant in fertility regulation.

  17. ANTI-HELMINTHIC POTENTIAL OF SO LVENT EXTRACTS OF INDIGENOUS BOTANICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Jain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethno botanical studies reveal that the indigenous knowledge of a community is a key player in the identification of medicinal plants and such plants have beenoften tested by generations of indigenous people. In the present investigation, the hydro-alcoholic extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neemand Swertia chirayta(Chirayta were assessed for anti-helminthic potential against helminths (earthworms were used as model at 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml. No anti-helminthic potential was observed at 10 mg/ml of dose of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Swertia chirayta. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of both the plants showed significant anti-helminthicactivity on selected worms at higher doses. Hydro-alcoholic leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neemwasfound to be more active as compared tohydro-alcoholic whole plant extracts of Swertia chirayta(Chirayta at concentration of 100 mg/ml. It was observed that with the variation in dose, the death time and paralysis time of the worms’ decreases. The results indicated that extracts possessed dose dependent anti-helminthic activity. The results were compared toPiperazine citrate and Albendazole (15 mg/ml. The hydro-alcoholic extracts demonstrated paralysis as well as death ofworms in a less time in comparison to the standard drugs. The anti-helminthic activity of the extracts indicates the presence of active principle responsible for anti-helminthic activity.

  18. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Ostafe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB, has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE, especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998 and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  19. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghită, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codruta; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-07-25

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an "overall paraben index", the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  20. Renal biochemical and histopathological alterations of diabetic rats under treatment with hydro alcoholic Morus nigra extrac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Naimi, Azar; Heydarian, Esfandiar; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Morus nigra fruit is known to have antioxidant effects and used to control the blood sugar level in traditional medicine. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and histopathological changes in the serum and kidneys of diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic M. nigra extract. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 12 each. After induction of diabetes with alloxan, the diabetic rats were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. nigra at different concentrations. Then, the animals were anesthetized and the serum levels of glucose, creatinine, and urea as well as kidney tissue catalase level measured. The kidney tissue was also histopathologically examined. Results: Milder glomerular damage was seen in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of the M. nigra extract compared with diabetic and positive controls, and no difference in the expansion of mesenchymal tissue into renal glomerular vessels observed between the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract and diabetic and positive controls. Furthermore, creatinine levels were significantly higher and urea levels significantly lower in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract than healthy and positive control groups (Pnigra extract at 800 mg/kg can prevent kidney tissue damage in diabetic rats and this fruit seems to be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  1. Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur in rats pre-exposed to ... African Journal of Biomedical Research ... The Haematocrit and Haemoglobin concentration and Red Blood Cell Count of rats treated with ...

  2. 葫芦素B水-醇凝胶的体外经皮通透性%In vitro transdermal permeability of cucurbitacin B hydro-alcohol gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛秋双; 王绍宁; 李妍妍; 徐晖; 郑俊民; 邓意辉

    2009-01-01

    目的 考察处方因素对葫芦素B水一醇凝胶的体外通透性的影响.方法 建立了HPLC法测定葫芦素B的方法.采用Franz扩散池,以大鼠离体皮肤为通透膜,研究葫芦素B水-醇凝胶体外经皮通透性.结果 选择的3种通透促进剂中,质量分数(w)为1%的油酸溶液具有最佳的促透效果,含葫芦素B质量分数为0.2%的凝胶经大鼠皮肤24h累积通透量Q_t达(410.39±33.75)μg·cm~(-2).结论 水-醇凝胶是葫芦素B经皮给药的有效载体.%Objective To investigate the effect of various factors on the in vitro transdermal penetration of cucurbitacin B hydro-alcohol gels. Methods An HPLC method was established for the assay of cucurbitacin B. The percutaneous permeation of cucurbitacin B from hydro-alcohol gels was investigated using excised rat skin as model membrane with Franz diffusion cells devices. Results Of the three penetration enhancers used in this experiment, 1% OA (oleic acid) showed the optimum enhancement effect,the accumulated amount of drug penetrated through rat skin at 24 h was(410. 39 ±33.75)μg·cm~(-2)(0.2% cucurbitacin B gel). Conclusions Hydro-alcohol gel can be an effective carrier for transdermal delivery of cucurbitacin B.

  3. In Vitro Impact of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on Rat Ileum Contractions and the Mechanisms Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that R. damascena Mill. dose-dependently (100, 500, and 1000 mg/L decreases ileum movements of the rat probably through stimulating the β-adrenergic and opioid receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels, and it may be used to treat digestive disorders.

  4. Behavioural Effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The results suggest central nervous system depressant action of stem bark extract of. Boswellia .... decreased locomotive activity and respiratory depression. ..... Biotech. 3(5), 284-288. Odeghe O.B., Onoriose D.A., Uwakwe A.A., Monago C.C..

  5. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  6. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus.

  7. Ethnopharmacological based evaluation of Anogeissus pendula Edgew extracts for antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anogeissus pendula has various reported ethnomedicinal uses and is reported to contain phenolic compounds which have antioxidant potential. Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo hepatoprotective activity along with the oxidative stress parameters of stem bark and leaves of Anogeissus pendula for the first time. Settings and Design: Albino rats were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Healthy control (Group I and toxic control (Group II received the vehicle. Group III, IV, V, VI and VII were treated with silymarin (100 mg/kg body weight, orally and two hydro-alcoholic extracts i.e., APB (stem bark and APL (leaves at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b. w., orally, respectively. Hepatotoxicity was induced by allyl alcohol. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex between 8-12 weeks old were used. The plant parts were collected from Sawai Madhopur (Rajasthan, India and extracted with hydro-alcoholic solvent to get two extracts i.e., APB (stem bark and APL (leaves which were investigated for the in vitro antioxidant potential through DPPH radical and H2O2scavenging assay along with in vivo hepatoprotective potential through allyl alcohol induced hepatotoxicity. Statistical Analysis: Statistical comparisons between different groups were done by using one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results and Conclusions: APB showed more potent activity than APL in case of in vitro antioxidant potential with IC50of 44.29 μg/ml in DPPH radical scavenging activity and 53.09 μg/ml in hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Both the extracts revealed antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials in a dose dependent manner but more significant results were obtained in case of APB at 400 mg/kg. More amounts of phytoconstituents might be the reason behind the more significant activity of extract of stem bark than that of the leaves.

  8. ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rudra Pratap

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was design to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale hydro-alcoholic extract as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using tail suspension test and forced swim test (FST and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in its actions. The rhizomes of ginger were collected and authenticated. Extraction of dried rhizomes was carried out using soxhlet apparatus to obtain its Hydro alcoholic extract. The extract of Zingiber officinale showed the significant antidepressant activity comparable to the standard drug. The oral administration of Zingiber officinale extract at 150 mg/ kg and 300 mg/kg respectively as compared to the control treated group showed an antidepressant activity comparable to that of standard drug. The antidepressant effects of Zingiber officinale extract seem to be mainly associated with the activation of dopamineergic system and possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from Morus alba L. leaves, stems and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts (leaves, stems and fruits) from Morus alba L., a traditional Chinese medicine, were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts showed higher contents of both total phenolics and flavonoids than aqueous extracts. The total phenolic content was in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts, whereas the total flavonoids was: leaf extracts > stem extracts > fruit extracts. Using DPPH assays, the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of aqueous extracts from leaves, stems and fruits were 7.11 ± 1.45 mg/ml, 86.78 ± 3.21 mg/ml and 14.38 ± 2.83 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC(50) values of ethanolic extracts were 3.11 ± 0.86 mg/ml, 14.62 ± 2.45 mg/ml and 12.42 ± 2.76 mg/ml, respectively. In sum, the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from M. alba L. were stronger than the aqueous extracts, and in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts. The ethanolic extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities, whereas the aqueous extracts showed poor antimicrobial properties in our test system. This study validated the medicinal potential of M. alba L.

  10. Antioxidant activity and detection of (-)epicatechin in the methanolic extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushp, Preshita; Sharma, Neha; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2013-06-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for its various medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this study, the antioxidant profile of the stem extract of T. cordifolia has been determined using various in vitro methods. An attempt was also made to identify phenolic compounds in T. cordifolia stem extract using silica gel column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The detection of (-) epicatechin has been reported for the first time in T. cordifolia stem extract.

  11. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr.; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L.(M. calabura).Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95% ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively.Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans(C. albicans),with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract,triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract.Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  12. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of Juniperus sabina and Zataria multiflora extracts with Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on normal and cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, M.; Azadbakht, M.; Ahangar, N.; Naderi, H.; Saeedi Saravi, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for the determination of anti-tumor effects. In this study, cytotoxic effects and IC50 of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of fruits of Juniperus sabina and leaves of Zataria multiflora were compared with hydro-alcoholic extract of bark of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, well-known anticancer compounds, on normal (CHO and rat fibroblast) and cancer (HepG2 and SKOV3) cell lines. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of the plants were prepared by percolation. The cytotoxic effects and IC50 of the extracts on the cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay after 72 h incubation. The results showed that the extract of Juniperus sabina possesses lower IC50 in comparison with Zataria multiflora extract on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (PJuniperus sabina extract was significantly higher than the Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (P<0.05). As a result, it is concluded that the extract of J. sabina has almost similar cytotoxicity with the extract of Taxus baccata on cancer cells. PMID:20668574

  13. the effect of aqueous stem bark extract of erythrina mildbraedii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... most of leguminoseae, Erythrina species produce ... diseases, oxidative stress and generating free radicals .... used for all the analysis. ... Table 1: Effects of oral administration of aqueous stem bark extract on Erythrina ...

  14. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITIES OF DELONIX ELATA BARK EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murugananthan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata (D. elata, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of arthritis pain. In the present study an attempt was made to study the effect of D. elata barks for its anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect in animal models. Barks were subjected for extraction with pet. ether, chloroform and 40% hydroalcohol successively and evaporated under rotary evaporator to get the concentrated extract. All the extracts were subjected for acute oral toxicity studies in rats and found to be safe up to the dose of 5g/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma method, the hydro alcohol extract of D. elata barks showed significant protection against the inflammation. In Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced arthritis model also the hydro alcohol exhibited significant protection on day 7 onwards.

  15. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and urease inhibiting activities of methanolic extracts from Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).

  16. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-04

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (pCoriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (pCoriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  17. Application of hollow cylindrical wheat stem for electromembrane extraction of thorium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Barkhordar, Afsaneh; Bohlooli, Mousa

    2015-02-25

    In this study, wheat stem was used for electromembrane extraction (EME) for the first time. The EME technique involved the use of a wheat stem whose channel was filled with 3 M HCl, immersed in 10 mL of an aqueous sample solution. Thorium migrated from aqueous samples, through a thin layer of 1-octanol and 5%v/v Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP) immobilized in the pores of a porous stem, and into an acceptor phase solution present inside the lumen of the stem. The pH of donor and acceptor phases, extraction time, voltage, and stirring speed were optimized. At the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor of 50 and a limit of detection of 0.29 ng mL(-1) was obtained for thorium. The developed procedure was then applied to the extraction and determination of thorium in water samples and in reference material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of hollow cylindrical wheat stem for electromembrane extraction of thorium in water samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Barkhordar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wheat stem was used for electromembrane extraction (EME) for the first time. The EME technique involved the use of a wheat stem whose channel was filled with 3 M HCl, immersed in 10 mL of an aqueous sample solution. Thorium migrated from aqueous samples, through a thin layer of 1-o......, an enrichment factor of 50 and a limit of detection of 0.29 ng mL1 was obtained for thorium. The developed procedure was then applied to the extraction and determination of thorium in water samples and in reference material.......In this study, wheat stem was used for electromembrane extraction (EME) for the first time. The EME technique involved the use of a wheat stem whose channel was filled with 3 M HCl, immersed in 10 mL of an aqueous sample solution. Thorium migrated from aqueous samples, through a thin layer of 1...

  19. Modulatory Effect of Morinda lucida Aqueous Stem Bark Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    analyses of the aqueous stem bark of Morinda lucida were conducted using standard procedures. Results showed that the ... disease and stroke, neuropathy, nephropathy, cataracts, .... β-cells destruction (Gupta et al., 1984). Fasting blood ...

  20. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the ... and stem of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared using cold extraction method. ... (MTS) and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide ...

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of alcbholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Moringa olifera Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Kavitha, R

    2012-04-01

    Effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of M. olifera were studied on various immune paradigms like delayed type hypersensitivity reaction using SRBC as an antigen, determination of antibody titer, neutrophil adhesion test as an indicator for neutrophil index, total leucocyte count in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed animals and carbon clearance assay as a measure of phagocytic activity. Hydro-alcoholic extract of M. olifera substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index and phagoctic activity in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was efficient in improving immune response. The results suggest that M. olifera has a significant role to play as an immune stimulator.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  4. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  5. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on the Body Weight, Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats Undergoing Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sharifi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is used as an anti cancer medicine in chemotherapy. This is an alkalizing medicine and causes the binding of DNA strands, breaking of DNA and control of protein synthesis and RNA. The side effects of this medicine include lack of appetite, nausea, reduction in activity of sexual lymph nodes, causing amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Ginger includes many compounds, some of which are shogaols, gingerols, pyrogallols and sesquiterpenes. Ginger has anti nauseating, anti cancer, anti oxidant effects and eliminates free radicals. This medicine is used along with cyclophosphamide to reduce its destructive side effects in the body. Methods: For 21 days, the rats were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and rendered unconscious. Their testes were removed and tissue samples were provided from their testes. Results: The results showed that cyclophosphamide alone reduces body weight, testes weight and spermatogenesis as compared to the control group. In other experimental groups that were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide, increased dosage of ginger increased the body weight, the testes weight and spermatogenesis in comparison to the other experimental groups. Conclusion: It seems that compounds present in ginger are anti tumoral and control the production of active metabolites. Therefore, if administered together with Cyclophosphamide, it can be useful and effective in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  6. Chemical Composition and Nutraceutical Potential of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Stem Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem of Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus was found to be an antioxidant rich fraction as evaluated by in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and total antioxidant capacity. The extract also exhibited antiplatelet aggregation ability, antibacterial activity, and antiproliferative effect against cancer cell lines: Caco-2, HCT-15, and MCF-7. Phytochemical evaluation of the extract revealed the occurrence of total phenolics (49.91 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoids (26.6 mg RE/g extract, and condensed tannins (0.7 mg TAE/g extract. Among the major phenolics, rosmarinic acid (6.160 mg/g extract was predominant, followed by caffeic acid (0.770 mg/g extract, rutin (0.324 mg/g extract, gallic acid (0.260 mg/g extract, quercetin (0.15 mg/g extract, and p-coumaric acid (0.104 mg/g extract. The appreciable biological activity and presence of biomolecules in the methanolic extract of stem indicate its potential application as functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals.

  7. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Asparagus laricinus leaf and stem extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polo-Ma-Abiele Hildah Ntsoelinyane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activities, antibacterial activities and a phytochemical constituent of Asparagus laricinus stem and leaf extracts. Determination of antibacterial activity of extracts was assessed by agar dilution method and antioxidant properties by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the leaf was at a concentration of 0.125 mg/mL against S. saprophyticus and E. cloacae, and at a concentration of 1 mg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtilis. There was no MIC of the stem extract at any concentration. The leaf extract showed effective free radical scavenging activity (72.1%, while stem extract had low activity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phlobatannins. The leaf extract further confirmed the presence of glycosides, steroids, ternoids and carbohydrates. Our results indicate that, A. laricinus leaf extracts have potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  8. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Tahiya Hilal Ali Alabri; Amira Hamood Salim Al Musalami; Md. Sohail Akhtar; Sadri Said

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum.Methods:Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.Results:The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane.Conclusions:The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  9. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The percentage of extraction yield by Soxhlet method is higher compared to maceration method. The antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by Soxhlet extractor method was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in hexane crude extracts and found in the order of ethyl acetate>butanol>water>chloroform>methanol>hexane. However, the antioxidant potential for methanol and its derived fractions by maceration method was highest in butanol and lowest in hexane followed in the order of butanol>methanol>chloroform>water>ethyl acetate>hexane. Conclusions: The results showed that isolate antioxidant compounds effected on the extraction method and condition of extraction.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PARINARI CURATELLIFOLIA (STEM ON DENTAL CARIES CAUSING MICROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Oshomoh and M. Idu*

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Parinari curatellifolia (stem were tested against five dental carries causing bacteria and three fungi strains by agar diffusion method. The crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting the five strains of bacteria and the three fungi. The extracts were most effective against Aspergilusflavus, followed by Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. S. mutans and S. aureus were the only microorganisms that showed zone of inhibition in all the various concentrations of the ethanol extract of P. curatelifolia. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, anthraquinones, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, phlobotanins and carbohydrates.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  12. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evalu...

  13. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V. S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results: All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  14. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Ganga; Rao; P.Umamaheswara; Rao; E.Sambasiva; Rao; T.Mallikarjuna; Rao; V.S.Praneeth.D

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the in-vitro antihacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts(Hydro-alcoholic,methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane)of Rauvolfia tetraphylla(R.tetraphylla)root bark in Carrageetiaii induced acute inflammation in rats.Methods:In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay.Hydro-alcoholic extract(70%v/v ethanol)at 200,400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100,200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs.Results:All extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains.In Carrageenan induced inflammation model,hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R.tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant(P<0.00l)reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane,ethyl acetate extracts.Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  15. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of Inula cuspidata C.B. Clarke stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal

    2017-06-01

    All the extracts showed significant antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 187.5 to 750 µg/mL and moderate to weak inhibition against Gram negative bacteria with MIC values ranging from 750 to 3000 µg/mL. The present study proves the in vitro anti-oxidant and antibacterial activities of different extracts of I. cuspidata stem.

  17. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpazidou, Despina; Geromichalos, George D; Stagos, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Anna; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Tzanakakis, George N; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-15

    A major part of the wineries' wastes is composed of grape stems which are discarded mainly in open fields and cause environmental problems due mainly to their high polyphenolic content. The grape stem extracts' use as a source of high added value polyphenols presents great interest because this combines a profitable venture with environmental protection close to wine-producing zones. In the present study, at first, the Total Polyphenolic Content (TPC) and the polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts from four different Greek Vitis vinifera varieties were determined by HPLC methods. Afterwards, the grape stem extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit growth of colon (HT29), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-23), renal (786-0 and Caki-1) and thyroid (K1) cancer cells. The cancer cells were exposed to the extracts for 72 h and the effects on cell growth were evaluated using the SRB assay. The results indicated that all extracts inhibited cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of 121-230 μg/ml (MCF-7), 121-184 μg/ml (MDA-MD-23), 175-309 μg/ml (HT29), 159-314 μg/ml (K1), 180-225 μg/ml (786-0) and 134->400 μg/ml (Caki-1). This is the first study presenting the inhibitory activity of grape stem extracts against growth of colon, breast, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid was isolated from hexane extract of the stem bark of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (Meliaceae. This structure had been established based on spectroscopic data (UV, IR, and NMR and by comparison with spectroscopic data of related compound that had been reported.   Keywords: Meliaceae, Oleane, Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Triterpenoid

  19. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (10), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... histopathological examination did not show any significant (P<0.05) damage as a result of the extract ... that the fruits contain hydrocyanic acid which is toxic. .... lesions in the organs could suggest the level of safety of.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of the extract of Homalium letestui stem against paracetamol-induced liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Simeon, Joseph Oyepata; Umoh, Emem Ekpo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: H omalium letestui Pellegr (Flacourtiaceae) has been traditionally used by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria to treat stomach ulcer, malaria and other inflammatory diseases and Yorubas of western Nigeria as an antidote. This study evaluates the hepatoprotective properties of the ethanol extract of the plant stem. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the extract of the stem of the plant (200-600 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Also, GCMS analysis of n-butanol fraction of the extract was carried out. Results: Administration of the extract of the stem of the plant caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections from extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the extract of H. letestui stem. GCMS analysis of n-butanol fraction revealed the presence of 16 bioactive compounds. Conclusion: The results show that the extract of H. letestui has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to the antioxidant activity of its phytoconstituents. PMID:28265544

  1. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA MEDICINAL PLANT: SIDA CORDATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Phyto chemicals are the secondary metabolites produ ce by the plant for its adaptation, which has medicinal value. The plant Sida cordata is a prostrate herb with medicinal value which is found throughout India .The whole pla nt Sidda cordata is used by the tribal people of Madekeri district to treat various aliment like hepatic disorder, dysentery, cholera etc, it is also one of the component in herbal preparation in Tamilnadu used on cut wounds, to relive pain etc. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or bioactive component for the treatment of different health probl ems at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity o f plant. Hence, the present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical evaluation of leaf & st em of Sida cordata, the study includes the preparation of different extracts leaf &stem by succe ssive solvent extraction method ,fluorescence analysis of successive extracts & the ir powder are noted under visible &UV light, which showed the visibility of varying colors. Furt her Phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem extracts of Sida cordata was carried out which conf irms the presence of primary metabolites like carbohydrates , amino acids, proteins etc and s econdary metabolites like the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin etc. Present study is designed t o explore the preliminary phyto-profile and phytochemical analysis of leaf & stem of Sida cordat a, which are responsible for its pharmacological properties

  3. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  4. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; Pvariegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v, and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v. Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems.

  6. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrán, María de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy.

  7. Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S; Mudgade, S C

    2010-03-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.

  8. The antisnake venom activities of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuzu, I U; Harvey, A L

    2003-12-01

    Snake bites in rural Nigeria are commonly treated with plant extracts. We have studied the ability of one such traditionally used plant (Parkia biglobosa; [Jacq.] Benth., Mimosaceae) to reduce the effects of two snake venoms (Naja nigricollis, and Echis ocellatus) in several experimental models. A water-methanol extract of P. biglobosa stem bark significantly (pbiglobosa extract (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) significantly (pbiglobosa extract (400 mg/kg) did not protect mice injected i.p. with 5 and 2.5 mg/kg of E. ocellatus and N. nigricollis venoms, respectively. It, however, protected 40% of the mice from death caused by E. ocellatus venom after the extract and venom were pre-incubated for 30 min before injecting the mixture.

  9. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  10. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  11. Sub-chronic hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae inner stem bark extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo T. J. N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins, 2.50 % (oxalates, 2.00 % (saponins, 0.25 % (phytate and 0.03 % (cyanide. The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD 50 of 2.154 g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05. Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05 depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  12. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  13. Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (cham, sandrine petit stem bark in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham, Sandrine Petit (family: Bignoniaceae is used in traditional medicine to treat bronchitis, pneumonia and coughs, gastritis, wounds, rheumatic arthritis, ulcers, dysentery, leprosy and venereal diseases in humans. The antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark was investigated with experimental animal models using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema, leucocytes migration and granuloma air pouch tests in rats. The extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg at 3 h post-treatment caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the paw oedema in rats. The effect of the extract was most pronounced at the dose of 400 mg/kg and was higher than that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. The extract (400 mg/kg caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the number of recruited leucocytes and it′s inhibition of peritoneal exudate formation was comparable to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The exudate formation inhibited by 400 mg/kg of the extract in the granuloma air pouch test was comparatively less to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The findings of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark possesses antiinflammatory activity which is probably related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This is a possible rationale for its folkloric use as an antiinflammatory agent.

  14. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2008-04-10

    Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark. The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations.

  15. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  16. Effects of blue-green algae extracts on the proliferation of human adult stem cells in vitro: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shytle, Douglas R; Tan, Jun; Ehrhart, Jared; Smith, Adam J; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Anderson, Jerry; Bickford, Paula C

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a reduced restorative capacity as we age and are more vulnerable to oxidative stress resulting in a reduced ability of the body to heal itself. We have previously reported that a proprietary nutraceutical formulation, NT-020, promotes proliferation of human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro and protects stem cells from oxidative stress when given chronically to mice in vivo. Because previous reports suggest that the blue green algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) can modulate immune function in animals, we sought to investigate the effects of AFA on human stem cells in cultures. Two AFA products were used for extraction: AFA whole (AFA-W) and AFA cellular concentrate (AFA-C). Water and ethanol extractions were performed to isolate active compounds for cell culture experiments. For cell proliferation analysis, human bone marrow cells or human CD34+ cells were cultured in 96 well plates and treated for 72 hours with various extracts. An MTT assay was used to estimate cell proliferation. We report here that the addition of an ethanol extract of AFA-cellular concentrate further enhances the stem cell proliferative action of NT-020 when incubated with human adult bone marrow cells or human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors in culture. Algae extracts alone had only moderate activity in these stem cell proliferation assays. This preliminary study suggests that NT-020 plus the ethanol extract of AFA cellular concentrate may act to promote proliferation of human stem cell populations.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of the extract of Homalium letestui stem against paracetamol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Efiom Okokon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Homalium letestui Pellegr (Flacourtiaceae is used traditionally by the Ibibios of Southern Nigeria to treat stomach ulcer, malaria and other inflammatory diseases and Yorubas of western Nigeria as an antidote. The hepatoprotective effect of the stem extract (200-600 mg/kg was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH and histopathological study of the liver. GCMS analysis of n-butanol fraction was carried out. Administration of the stem extract caused a significant (p

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie K. Obey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1±0.6 mm and 16.0±1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6±1.0 mm. The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4±0.7–22.1±0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  20. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G; Dhake, Avinash S

    2011-04-01

    Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV) is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA) and ethanol (BVE) extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  2. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  3. Effects of Aqueous Stem Extract of Massularia Acuminata on Some Liver Function Indices of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massularia acuminata has been claimed to be used in managingseveral ailments in folk medicine and in some instances substantiated withscientific data. This however has been without recourse to its safety. Therefore,aqueous stem extract of M. acuminata was evaluated for its effects on somefunction indices of the liver of male rats.Methods: Sixty, male rats were grouped into 4 (A, B, C and D such that Group A(control was orally administered 1cm3 of distilled water while those in groups B, Cand D received orally 1 cm3 of extract corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgbody weight respectively. Some biochemical parameters of liver function wereevaluated in the animals after 1, 7 and 21 daily doses.Results: The extract significantly decreased (P<0.05 the activity of alkalinephosphatase in the liver of rats throughout the experimental period. This decreasewas accompanied by corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. In contrast, allthe doses of the extract increased the activities of both the AST and ALT in the liverand serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well asthe concentrations of serum total bilirubin, protein and albumin.Conclusion: This study has revealed that the aqueous stem extract of Massulariaacuminata at the doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight hampered the normalfunctioning of the liver of male rats and is therefore not safe for oral consumption atthe doses investigated.

  4. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  5. Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z A; Singh, P; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S

    2011-07-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results

  6. In vivo antiplasmodial and in vitro antioxidant property of stem bark extracts of Haematostaphis barteri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johnson; Nyarko; Boampong; Akua; Afryie; Karikari; Elvis; Ofori; Ameyaw

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimalarial and antioxidant properties of stem bark extracts of Haematostaphis barteri(H. barteri).Methods: The prophylactic activity of the plant was performed by dosing mice with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine(1.2 mg/kg), aqueous extract(30, 100, 300 mg/kg) and dichloromethane/methanol(D/M)(30, 100, 300 mg/kg) extracts of H. barteri for 3 days. On the 4th day, the mice were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei. The parasite density was estimated for each mouse 72 h post-parasite inoculation. The curative activity of the plant was also performed by inoculating mice with Plasmodium berghei. Three days later, they were treated with artemether-lumefantrine(4 mg/kg), aqueous and D/M extracts of H. barteri stem bark for 5 days. The in vitro antioxidant property of the aqueous extract was determined by using the reducing power, nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity assays. Results: The aqueous extract exerted significant(P < 0.05) curative and prophylactic antimalarial activities. The D/M extract exhibited significant curative(P < 0.05) but not prophylactic antiplasmodial ef ect. The aqueous extract exhibited in vitro antioxidant property with IC50’s of(0.930 ± 0.021) mg/mL,(0.800 ± 0.001) mg/mL and(0.22 ± 0.05) mg/mL in the total antioxidant capacity, reducing power and nitric oxide assays. Histological assessment of the liver of aqueous and D/M treated animals did not reveal any sign of toxicity.Conclusions: H. barteri is not toxic which exerted significant curative antiplasmodial ef ects but the prophylactic property was however fraction dependent. The mechanism of the antiplasmodial activity of H. barteri may partly be mediated by its antioxidant property.

  7. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaisas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn, to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. The effect of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata (EBV on the primary and secondary antibody responses was evaluated by the humoral antibody response for a specific immune response. The effect of EBV on the phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance test and neutrophil activation was evaluated by the neutrophil adhesion test for a nonspecific immune response. The data was analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramar multiple comparison tests. On oral administration, EBV showed a significant increase in the primary and secondary humoral antibody responses, by increasing the hemagglutinating antibody titre at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. There was a significant increase in the phagocytic index and percentage neutrophil adhesion at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. The present study reveals that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn holds a promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts probably by stimulating both the specific and nonspecific arms of immunity.

  9. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  10. Antioxidant activity and detection of (−)epicatechin in the methanolic extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Pushp, Preshita; Sharma, Neha; Joseph, G. S.; Singh, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for its various medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this study, the antioxidant profile of the stem extract of T. cordifolia has been determined using various in vitro methods. An attempt was also made to identify phenolic compounds in T. cordifolia stem extract using silica gel column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The detection of (−) epicatechin has been reported for the first time in T. cordi...

  11. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Anokwuru; O. Ajibaye; A. Adesuyi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but ...

  12. Antifungal Activity of Volatile Components Extracted from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Four Plants Growing in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boughalleb

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components extracted from the leaves, stems and flowers of Lantana camara, Malvaviscus arboreus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. red flowers and white flowers were tested against the fungi Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae, F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was found with volatile components extracted from the stems and the flowers. Complete inhibition was achieved against V. dahliae. The weakest effect was against P. ultimum. Volatile components extracted from the leaves were not effective.

  13. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from Bridelia grandis stem bark using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusotti, Gloria; Ngueyem, Tatiana Adrienne; Biesuz, Raffaela; Caccialanza, Gabriele

    2010-06-01

    Euphorbiaceae barks are known to contain an appreciable amount of polyphenolic compounds responsible for several biological activities. Preliminary extraction from Bridelia grandis stem bark afforded high content of polyphenols, determined by spectrophotometric methods such as Folin-Ciocalteu (for total phenols, TP) and n-butanol-HCl (for condensed tannins, CT). A preliminary Plackett-Burman screening design was used to identify the key factors that influence the TP and CT extraction. Between all the variables known to influence the extraction from vegetable matrixes, six were selected; maceration was chosen as traditional extraction methodology. To investigate the effect of solvents and extraction method, methanol, acetone 70% (v/v in water), centrifugation and ultrasound were chosen. A full factorial design 2(3) was applied to optimize the extraction procedure. The responses were obtained analyzing the extracts for their TP and CT contents determined by the above-mentioned spectrophotometric methods. The results confirm that, within the explored domain, the optimum solvent is methanol and the optimum method is one-cycle centrifugation. Finally, it was also compared with the effect of maceration on the considered responses. It has never given results better than centrifugation, whereas in the case of CT it represents an advantage to employ a three-cycle centrifugation instead of one.

  14. Methanolic Extracts of Bitter Melon Inhibit Colon Cancer Stem Cells by Affecting Energy Homeostasis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Kwatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW and skin (BMSk extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  15. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (linn. whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya R Pani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.. Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w. to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001 and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001 associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001 and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05 as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w. exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  16. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETAE EXTRACT OF CRATAEVA MAGNA BUNCH HAM STEM BARK ON RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu*, T.A. Divya, N.K. Shalima, T. Divya and C.R. Biju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Crataeva magna (CM in CCl4 induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Stem bark of CM were collected, and subjected to continuous hot extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, for 72 h with solvents like chloroform, ethyl acetate and distilled water separately. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering CCl4 subcutaneously (s. c. in the lower abdomen in a suspension of liquid paraffin (LP in the ratio 1: 2 v/v at the dose of 1 ml CCl4/kg b. wt. of each animal. CCl4 was administered twice a week, on every first and fourth day of all 14 days. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b. wt. was evaluated by inducing hepatotoxicity with CCl4 and using silymarin (100 mg/kg as the reference standard. Biochemical parameters like, SGOT, SGPT, SALP and serum bilirubin level were analysed. A section of liver was subjected to histopathological studies. Based on the above studies, it is reported that the ethyl acetate extract of Crataeva magna possess significant hepatoprotection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  17. Preliminary toxicity study of dichloromethane extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obici, Simoni; Otobone, Fernanda Jacques; da Silva Sela, Vânia Ramos; Ishida, Kelly; da Silva, José Carlos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2008-01-01

    Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), known as "Pau Santo" or "Saco de Boi" in the central Brazilian plateau region, is used to treat several tropical diseases. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of dichloromethane (DcM) extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, administered to rodents. In the acute toxicity tests, mice receiving doses of this extract by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, showed reversible effects, with LD50 values of 1503.0 and 538.8 mg/kg, respectively. In the repeated-dose oral (90 days) toxicity tests, male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with different doses of DcM extract (5, 25 or 125 mg/kg). In biochemical and haematological evaluations, the results varied widely in respect to dose and sex, with no linear profile, and did not show clinical correlations. In the histopathological examinations, the groups exhibited some changes, but there were no significant differences between the groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these investigations appeared to indicate the safety of acute and repeated oral administration of the DcM extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, which can therefore be continuously used with safety.

  18. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Human Adipose Stem Cell-Derived Extract in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gye Sun; Im, Wooseok; Shim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Mijung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Seong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Manho; Sung, Jung-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of the disease remain uncertain, and as of yet, there is no effective cure. Human adipose stem cells (hASC) can be easily obtained during operative procedures. hASC have a clinically feasible potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders, since cytosolic extract of hASC contain a number of essential neurotrophic factors. In this study, we investigated effects of hASC extract on the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS and in vitro test. Administration of hASC extract improved motor function and prolonged the time until symptom onset, rotarod failure, and death in ALS mice. In the hASC extracts group, choline acetyltransferase immunostaining in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord showed a large number of motor neurons, suggesting normal morphology. The neuroprotective effect of hASC extract in ALS mice was also suggested by western blot analysis of spinal cord extract from ALS mice and in vitro test. hASC extract treatment significantly increased expression of p-Akt, p-CREB, and PGC-1α in SOD1 G93A mouse model and in vitro test. Our results indicated that hASC extract reduced apoptotic cell death and recovered mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, hASC extract reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that hASC extract exert a potential therapeutic action in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS and in vitro test. These findings suggest that hASC hold promise as a novel therapeutic strategy for treating ALS.

  20. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma'il Shittu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

  1. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  3. A ginkgo biloba extract promotes proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in vascular dementia rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwei Wang; Wen Chen; Yuliang Wang

    2013-01-01

    The ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 improves memory loss and cognitive impairments in patients with senile dementia. It also promotes proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone in Parkinson's disease model mice and in the hippocampal zone of young epileptic rats. However, it remains unclear whether EGb761 enhances proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in the brain of rats with vascular dementia. In this study, a vascular dementia model was established by repeatedly clipping and reperfusing the bilateral common carotid arteries of rats in combination with an intraperitoneal injection of a sodium nitroprusside solution. Seven days after establishing the model, rats were intragastrically given EGb761 at 50 mg/kg per day. Learning and memory abilities were assessed using the Morris water maze and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence in all rats at 15 days, and 1, 2, and 4 months after model establishment. The escape latencies in Morris water maze tests of rats with vascular dementia after EGb761 treatment were significantly shorter than the model group. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the number and proliferation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of the EGb761-treated group were significantly higher than in the model group. These experimental findings suggest that EGb761 enhances proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and significantly improves learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia.

  4. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih El-Merahbi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS. Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  5. TLC profiles and antibacterial activity of Glinus oppositifolius L. Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae leaf and stem extracts against bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial activities and the thin-layer chromatography (TLC fingerprint profiles of leaf and stem extracts of Glinus oppositifolius L. Aug. DC (G. oppositifolius. Methods: The leaves and stems were extracted using chloroform, ethanol and methanol as solvents. The antibacterial activity of the extracts were evaluated through disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and bactericidal concentration assays against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii. The TLC separation was carried out on leaf and stem ethanol extracts in ethyl acetate: n-hexane solvent system. Distinct spots were examined under visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 nm and after spraying with vanillin-sulfuric acid. Results: The leaf extracts revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of the nonresistant and multidrug-resistant strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumanii. The TLC fingerprint profiles demonstrated the presence of various phytochemicals in leaf and stem extracts. Leaf extracts exhibited more diverse constituents compared to stem extracts, but some constituents were similar in both plant parts. Conclusions: G. oppositifolius leaf extracts can be used as new, alternative sources of antimicrobials against non-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumanii. The TLC profiles represent the chemical integrity of G. oppositifolius leaf and stem extracts which form an important and powerful tool for standardization, authentication, quality control and determination of bioactive components of G. oppositifolius in any formulation and in powder form.

  6. Genotoxic potential of Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae stem extract in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention was to evaluate the possible in vivo genotoxic potential in different cell-types, of a methanol extract obtained from the plant stem of Cotinus coggygria Scop., using the sex-linked recessive lethal (or SLRL test and alkaline comet assay. The SLRL test, revealed the genotoxic effect of this extract in postmeiotic and premeiotic germ-cell lines. The comet assay was carried out on rat liver and bone marrow at 24 and 72 h after intraperitoneal administration. For genotoxic evaluation, three concentrations of the extract were tested, viz., 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw, based on the solubility limit of the extract in saline. Comet tail moment and total scores in the group treated with 500 mg/kg bw, 24 and 72 h after treatment, were not significantly different from the control group, whereas in the groups of animals, under the same conditions, but with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw of the extract, scores were statistically so. A slight decrease in the comet score and tail moment observed in all the doses in the 72 h treatment, gave to understand that DNA damage induced by Cotinus coggygria extract decreased with time. The results of both tests revealed the genotoxic effect of Cotinus coggygria under our experimental conditions.

  7. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Analysis of traumatic ulcer healing time under the treatment of the Mauli banana (Musa acuminata 25% stem extract gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspitasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Traumatic ulcer is one of oral disorders that often occur. The prevalence is quite high, between 3-24% of population. Therapy of traumatic ulcer is symptomatic. People usually use Aloe vera extract gel. Previous research showed that the Aloe vera gel is equivalent with ethanol extract of 25% Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem in accelerating wound healing based on the number of macrophages and neovascular. The objective of the study is to find out the time difference of traumatic ulcer healing using 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel compared to a gel containing Aloe vera extract. Methods: The research was post test design. Subjects were patients of Oral Medicine Installation in Gusti Hasan Aman Dental Hospital Banjarmasin with diagnosis of traumatic ulcer using completely random sampling method. Eight patients as samples were determined by the formula of Lemeshow. Results: there was no significant difference with p=0,724 (p>0,05 between healing time using Aloe vera gel and 25% Musa acuminata stem extract. Conclusion: At the concentration of 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel concentration has the same healing time with Aloe vera gel, therefore can be recommended as a topical use for traumatic ulcer healing. Keywords: Musa acuminata stem, Healing time, Traumatic ulcer

  9. Neurogenic Effects of Cell-Free Extracts of Adipose Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Jun Ban

    Full Text Available Stem-cell-based therapies are regarded as promising treatments for neurological disorders, and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a feasible source of clinical application of stem cell. Recent studies have shown that stem cells have a therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of various illnesses through paracrine action. To examine the effects of cell components of ASCs on neural stem cells (NSCs, we treated cell-free extracts of ASCs (CFE-ASCs containing various components with brain-derived NSCs. To elucidate the effects of CFE-ASCs in NSC proliferation, we treated mouse subventricular zone-derived cultured NSCs with various doses of CFE-ASCs. As a result, CFE-ASCs were found to induce the proliferation of NSCs under conditions of growth factor deprivation in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. CFE-ASCs increase the expression of neuron and astrocyte differentiation markers including Tuj-1 (p<0.05 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (p<0.01 without altering the cell's fate in differentiating NSCs. In addition, treatment with CFE-ASCs induces an increase in neurite numbers (p<0.01 and lengths of NSCs (p<0.05. Furthermore, CFE-ASCs rescue the hydrogen peroxide-induced reduction of NSCs' viability (p<0.05 and neurite branching (p<0.01. Findings from our study indicate that CFE-ASCs support the survival, proliferation and differentiation of NSCs accompanied with neurite outgrowth, suggesting that CFE-ASCs can modulate neurogenesis in the central nervous system.

  10. Xeno-Free Extraction, Culture, and Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carlos Hugo; Chaparro, Orlando

    2016-03-01

    Molecules of animal or bacterial origin, which pose a risk for zoonoses or immune rejection, are commonly used for extraction, culture, and cryopreservation of mesenchymal stem cells. There is no sequential and orderly protocol for producing human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) under xeno-free conditions. After standardizing a human platelet lysate (hPL) production protocol, four human adipose tissue samples were processed through explants with fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented or hPL-supplemented media for extracting the adipose-derived stem cells. The cells were cultivated in cell culture medium + hPL (5%) or FBS (10%). The cellular replication rate, immunophenotype, and differentiation potential were evaluated at fourth passage. Cellular viability was evaluated before and after cryopreservation of the cells, with an hPL-based solution compared with an FBS-based solution. The explants cultured in hPL-supplemented media showed earlier and faster hASC proliferation than did those supplemented with FBS. Likewise, cells grown in hPL-supplemented media showed a greater proliferation rate, without losing the immunophenotype. Osteogenic differentiation of xeno-free hASC was higher than the hASC produced in standard conditions. However, adipogenic differentiation was reduced in xeno-free hASC. Finally, the cells cryopreserved in an hPL-based solution showed a higher cellular viability than the cells cryopreserved in an FBS-based. In conclusion, we have developed a complete xeno-free protocol for extracting, culturing, and cryopreserving hASCs that can be safely implemented in clinical studies.

  11. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of the methanol stem extracts of Cissus quadrangularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naina Raghavjibhai Ghadiya; Nilesh Jethalal Faldu; Parthika Ashvinbhai nadpara; Ketan Parsottambhai Dadhania

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potentials of the stem of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis in the control of anxiety and related motor coordination effects in mice using experimental) models. Methods: The methanol extract of the stem of C. quadrangularis was studied in mice using ealneavlaytseids wpelures amlsaoz ec,a hrroileed b oouatr.d , open field and stair case tests. Acute toxicity and phytochemical Results: The methanol extract (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant anxiolytic emffge/cktgs ,d aoss ee avnidde nntu mbyb esrig onfi friecaarnint g(P astem extracts of C. quadrangularis is anxiolytic in nature, which contribute to its use in traditional medicine as anxiolytic.

  12. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  13. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  14. Wound healing promoting activity of stem bark extract of Semecarpus anacardium using rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, G M; Krishna, V; Joy Hoskeri, H; Pradeepa, K; Venkatesh; Babu, P Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The wound healing promoting property of stem bark methanol extract of Semecarpus anacardium was evaluated at three different dosages by excision, incision and dead space wound models using Wistar albino rats. Framycetin skin ointment was used as standard. LD(50) of methanol extract was determined to be 500 mg kg(-1). In methanol extract (20% ointment) treated group, epithelialisation of the incision wound was faster with a high rate of wound contraction. The tensile strength of the incision wound was significantly increased when compared to other treated groups. The histological examination of the dead space wound model granulation tissue of the methanol extract (100 mg kg(-1)) treated group showed increased cross-linking of collagen fibres and absence of monocytes as compared to control. Methanol extract at 100 mg kg(-1) exhibited significant wound healing activity but was lesser than standard; whereas, in animals treated with 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) showed moderate activity. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium.

  15. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Laurel Mokale Kognou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae is used in Cameroon and West Africa folk medicine for the treatment of various microbial infections (measles, chickenpox, and sexually transmitted diseases. The antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract and fractions from stem bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria and eight Gram-negative bacteria using Agar-well diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The methanolic extract and some fractions exhibited antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (ID = 0.00–25.00 mm; MIC = 781–12500 μg/mL and 0.24–1000 μg/mL. The activity of the crude extract is, however, very weak compared to the reference antibiotics (MIC = 0.125–128 μg/mL. Two fractions (FE and FF showed significant activity (MIC = 0.97 μg/mL while S. aureus ATCC 25922 was almost resistant to all the tested fractions. In addition, the crude extract and some fractions showed good antioxidant potential with inhibition values ranging from 17.53 to 98.79%. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of infectious diseases and oxidative stress.

  16. Taraxacum officinale dandelion extract efficiently inhibited the breast cancer stem cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngu Van Trinh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs play an important role in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Therefore, targeting BCSCs is an essential strategy to suppress cancer growth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dandelion Taraxacum officinale extracts on BCSC proliferation in vitro in 2D and 3D cell culture platforms. Materials and Methods: The BCSCs were maintained under standard conditions, verified for expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers, and transfected with GFP before use in experiments. In the 2D model, the BCSCs were cultured as adherent cells in standard culture plates; in the 3D model, the BCSCs were cultured on low-adherent plates to form spheroids. The effect of Dandelion extracts on proliferation of BCSC was assessed by evaluating induction of cell death, expression of genes of death receptor signaling pathways, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by BCSCs. Results: BCSCs formed spheroids as microtumors in vitro and exhibited some in vivo characteristics of tumors, such as increased expression of N-cadherin and Slug, decreased expression of E-cadherin, capacity to invade into the extracellular matrix (ECM, and presence of a hypoxic environment at the core of tumor spheroids. The dandelion extracts significantly inhibited BCSC proliferation in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D models of BCSCs. However, the IC50 value of dandelion extracts in BCSCs in the 3D model was much higher than that in the 2D model. The results also demonstrated that BCSCs treated with Dandelion extracts showed increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAILR2; i.e. death receptor 5; DR5. Moreover, treatment induced expression of DR4. Treatment with methanol dandelion extract enhanced production of ROS in BCSCs. Conclusion: Dandelion extracts are promising extracts for the treatment of breast tumors. The

  17. Effect of Salvia officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Vincristine-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Namvaran Abbas Abad; Mir Hadi Khayate Nouri; Farzaneh Tavakkoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM:Vincristine is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to treat a variety of malignant diseases,including leukemia and lymphoma.Studies have shown that vincristine cause painful effects,whereas Salvia ofcinalis(SO)showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the SO hydro-alcoholic extract on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice in comparison with morphine.METHODS:Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighing 25-30g divided into six groups.The individual groups received normal saline,SO hydro-alcoholic extract,vincristine,SO hydro-alcoholic extract and vincristine(12 days before formalin test),morphine,and vincristine and morphine,respectively.The injected hind paw biting and licking was measured in a 5-minute interval for one hour.RESULTS:The results showed that formalin induce significant(P<0.05)pain responses(the fast phase:0-5 min and the second phase:15-40 min after injection).Administration of SO extract before formalin testshowed significant(P<0.05)decrease of pain response in the second phase.Administration of vincristine caused significant(P<0.05)increase in the second phase of pain response.Injections of SO extract and vincristine showed that SO significantly(P<0.05)decrease the second phase of vincristine-induced pain.Morphine decreased vincristine-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison,morphine showed analgesig effects in the first phase and SO extract showed significant(P<0.05)anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test.CONCLUSION:Both SO and vincristine showed analgesic and painful neuropathic effects,suggesting that SO extract could be useful in the treatment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.

  18. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra G Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA and ethanol (BVE extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  20. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  1. C-Glucoside xanthone from the stem bark extract of Bersama engleriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre C Djemgou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Bersama belongs to the Melianthaceae family and comprises of four species (B. swinnyi, B. yangambiensis, B. abyssinica, and B. engleriana all of which are very high trees; the latter two detected species are found in Cameroon. Previous phytochemical investigation on B. yangambiensis, B. swinnyi, and B. abyssinica led to the isolation of triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, and xanthones. Method: The stem bark of B. engleriana were collected in the village, Baham near Bafoussam city, Cameroon in August 2003 and identifi ed by Dr. Onana National Herbaruim, Yaoundι, Cameroon. The air dried and powdered stem bark of B. engleriana (1 kg was extracted at room temperature with CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 5 L for 48 hours. The mixture of the solvent was removed by evaporation to yield 200 g of crude extract. The latter was then dissolved in CH2Cl2 to give the CH2Cl2 soluble fraction of 5 g and a remaining gum of 195 g. Part of the remaining gum (22 g was dissolved in water and extracted four times with butanol to give 12 g of red oil; which was then separated by paper chromatography, with butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5, to give 3 g of orange gum; purification was carried out on HPLC with MeOH (100% to yield 2 g of mangiferin (1 as red oil. The CH2Cl2 soluble extract was eluted on silica gel n-hexane-CH2Cl2 gradient ratio and Sephadex LH-20 (n-hexane -CH2Cl2 -MeOH, (7:4:0.5 to afford compounds swinniol (2, Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3, 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3b-ol(4. Results: Herein, we carried out a phytochemical study of the stem bark of B. engleriana, and we report herein the isolation and structural elucidation of mangiferin, in addition to three triterpenes, previously reported from other species of the genus. [3],[5] The assignment of the signals of mangiferin was determined using 1H, 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectral data (HMQC, COSY, HMBC. The terpenoids were identifi ed by comparison of their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra with the literature

  2. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  3. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  4. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  5. Anti-influenza virus activity of extracts from the stems of Jatropha multifida Linn. collected in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masaki; Woo, So-Yeun; Masuda, Aki; Win, Nwet Nwet; Ngwe, Hla; Takahashi, Etsuhisa; Kido, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takuya; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2017-02-07

    To contribute to the development of novel anti-influenza drugs, we investigated the anti-influenza activity of crude extracts from 118 medicinal plants collected in Myanmar. We discovered that extract from the stems of Jatropha multifida Linn. showed anti-influenza activity. J. multifida has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, and the stem has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antimalarial, and antitumor activities. However, the anti-influenza activity of this extract has not yet been investigated. We prepared water (H2O), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-hexane (Hex), and chloroform (CHCl3) extracts from the stems of J. multifida collected in Myanmar, and examined the survival of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus, and the inhibitory effects of these crude extracts on influenza A viral infection and growth in MDCK cells. The H2O extracts from the stems of J. multifida promoted the survival of MDCK cells infected with the influenza A H1N1 virus. The EtOAc and CHCl3 extracts resulted in similar, but weaker, effects. The H2O, EtOAc, and CHCl3 extracts from the stems of J. multifida inhibited influenza A virus H1N1 infection; the H2O extract possessed the strongest inhibitory effect on influenza infection in MDCK cells. The EtOAc, Hex, and CHCl3 extracts all inhibited the growth of influenza A H1N1 virus, and the CHCl3 extract demonstrated the strongest activity in MDCK cells. The H2O or CHCl3 extracts from the stems of J. multifida collected in Myanmar demonstrated the strongest inhibition of influenza A H1N1 viral infection or growth in MDCK cells, respectively. These results indicated that the stems of J. multifida could be regarded as an anti-influenza herbal medicine as well as a potential crude drug source for the development of anti-influenza compounds.

  6. The influence of scan mode and circle fitting on tree stem detection, stem diameter and volume extraction from terrestrial laser scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Pyare; Newnham, Glenn; Rock, Gilles; Udelhoven, Thomas; Werner, Willy; Hill, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been used to estimate a number of biophysical and structural vegetation parameters. Of these stem diameter is a primary input to traditional forest inventory. While many experimental studies have confirmed the potential for TLS to successfully extract stem diameter, the estimation accuracies differ strongly for these studies - due to differences in experimental design, data processing and test plot characteristics. In order to provide consistency and maximize estimation accuracy, a systematic study into the impact of these variables is required. To contribute to such an approach, 12 scans were acquired with a FARO photon 120 at two test plots (Beech, Douglas fir) to assess the effects of scan mode and circle fitting on the extraction of stem diameter and volume. An automated tree stem detection algorithm based on the range images of single scans was developed and applied to the data. Extraction of stem diameter was achieved by slicing the point cloud and fitting circles to the slices using three different algorithms (Lemen, Pratt and Taubin), resulting in diameter profiles for each detected tree. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was determined using both the single value for the diameter fitted at the nominal breast height and by a linear fit of the stem diameter vertical profile. The latter is intended to reduce the influence of outliers and errors in the ground level determination. TLS-extracted DBH was compared to tape-measured DBH. Results show that tree stems with an unobstructed view to the scanner can be successfully extracted automatically from range images of the TLS data with detection rates of 94% for Beech and 96% for Douglas fir. If occlusion of trees is accounted for stem detection rates decrease to 85% (Beech) and 84% (Douglas fir). As far as the DBH estimation is concerned, both DBH extraction methods yield estimates which agree with reference measurements, however, the linear fit based approach proved to be more

  7. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Ogbadoyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  8. Neuropharmacological effects of standardized aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijani Adeniyi Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parkia biglobossa stem bark decoction is a popular medicinal plant preparation used as calming agent for tensed patients in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa (AEPB and its active fraction AEPBF3 on anxiety, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotor activity. The open field apparatus was used to evaluate effects of AEPB and AEPBF3 on locomotion.The APBE and the  active fraction AEPBF3 were standardized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography to establish finger print to ascertain identity and stability of the extracts over time. Materials and Methods: The oral median lethal doses (LD50 of AEPB and AEPBF3 were evaluated using modified Lorke’s method in rats. The  effect of APBE (50-200 mg/kg p.o., APBEF3 (25 and 50 mg/kg p.o., diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., and 10 ml normal saline/kg on anxiety-like behavior, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotion activity were evaluated in rats on elevated plus maze (EPM, Zero-maze, Y-maze, and open field apparatus, respectively. The oral LD50 values of AEPB and AEPBF3 were estimated to be 5000 mg/kg and 3800 mg/kg body weight in rats, respectively. Results: AEPB and AEPBF3 significantly (F6, 41=2342, p

  9. Evaluation of Anxiolytic-Like Effect of Aqueous Extract of Asparagus Stem in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Pan, Guo-feng; Sun, Xiao-bo; Huang, Yun-xiang; Peng, You-shun; Zhou, Lin-yan

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies on the neuropharmacological properties of asparagus, which was applied in Chinese traditional medicine as a tonic and heat-clearing agent. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of the aqueous extract of asparagus stem (AEAS) using elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict tests (VCT) in mice. AEAS significantly increased the percentage of time spent in open arms in EPM, when compared with control group. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, the numbers of punished licks increased to 177% and 174% by the treatment of AEAS at the doses of 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg (250 and 500 mg sarsasapogenin per kilogram of body weight), compared with control group. The serum cortisol level decreased significantly, at the same time. In conclusion, these findings indicated that the aqueous extract of asparagus stem exhibited a strong anxiolytic-like effect at dose of 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg (250 and 500 mg sarsasapogenin per kilogram of body weight) in experimental models of anxiety and may be considered an alternative approach for the management of anxiety disorder. PMID:24348707

  10. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  11. ANTIHYPERGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE STEM OF ADENIA LOBATA ENGL (PASSIFLORACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Sarkodie*, T.C. Fleischer , D.A. Edoh , R.A. Dickson , M.L.K. Mensah , K. Annan , E. Woode , G.A. Koffour , A.A. Appiah and H. Brew-Daniels

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae is a woody climber which grows in most African countries mainly the coastal belt. It is an important medicinal plant used to treat hemorrhoids, malaria, fever, diabetes and gonorrhea. In our attempt to find out the constituents of this medicinal plant, the dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1w/w % and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w % extracts. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight. The ethanol extract was most active and was subjected to chromatographic separation to isolate its chemical constituents. The isolated compounds were identified using NMR spectroscopic namely 1H, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC Spectroscopy with reference to literature. Two compounds isolated from the extract were found to be, palmitic acid and -hydroxy--valerolactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds are reported from this medicinal plant.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and stems from Tabebuia hypoleuca (C. Wright Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada I. Regalado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are reports in the literature of species belonging to the genus Tabebuia with pharmacological potential as anti-inflammatory: Tabebuia avellanedae, Tabebuia chrysanta, Tabebuia rosea, Tabebuia ochracea, among others; however, about of the species Tabebuia hypoleuca no studies demonstrating this activity so far. Aims: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity in the acute phase of the methanolic extracts of T. hypoleuca. Methods: Leaves and stems of T. hypoleuca were collected. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenin-induced paw edema models and the croton oil induced auricular edema in mice. The qualitative identification of secondary metabolites present in the methanolic extracts was performed by a preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity assessments showed that methanol extract of the leaves do not have anti-inflammatory activity at doses tested, while the methanol extract of the stems at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of croton oil induced auricular edema the methanol extract of the stems administered orally and intraperitoneally showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity at all doses tested. The anti-inflammatory activity found could be due to the presence of metabolites such as tannins, phenols and alkaloids. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of the stems of Tabebuia hypoleuca, and constitute the first report about this species as anti-inflammatory.

  13. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  14. Effect of intake of aqueous stem extract of Anisopus mannii on haematological parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: These studies were conducted to investigate changes in haematological parameters of rats fed with prolong graded doses of Anisopus mannii. The limit dose test of Up and Down procedure as revised by Dixon was employed to determine the acute oral toxicity of the plant.  The result revealed that the Median lethal dose of the plant is greater than 3000mg/kg body weight. The repeated administration of graded doses of  the extract showed a  significant (P<0.05 dose dependent increase in the packed cell volume (PCV and red blood cells count on 21st and 28th day post extract treatment. However, there were no significant (P>0.05 difference in the total white blood cells and differential leukocyte count in all the treated groups of rats compared to there respective day zero and control group. These results show that the aqueous stem extract of Anisopus mannii is relatively safe following oral administration and have possible stimulatory effect on red blood cell production.   Industrial relevance: Blood is a good indicator to determine the physiological and pathological status of man and animal. The parameters measured include packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cell count and platelets count. The normal ranges of these parameters can be altered by the ingestion of some toxic plants. The plant Anisopus mannii (Family Asclepiadaceae, is known as ‘Sakayau’ or ‘Kashe zaki’( meaning sweet killer among the Hausas of the northern Nigeria, where a cold decoction of the stem is traditionally used as remedy for hyperglycaemia. Despite the widespread use of this plant in this environment, there is little literature on the scientific evaluation of its haematological effect thus screening of plants for toxicity aiming at ascertaining their safety seems to be promising, as toxicity following overdose or the active principles present in the plant could pose as limitation to their potential usefulness and may even lead to death. This present

  15. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam. leaves and stem bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Jince Mary Joseph; Dharmar Rajendrakumaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of leaves and stem bark of Erythrina indica. Methods: Folin-ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results:The methanol extract of stem bark of E. indica contains higher level of total phenolic content (412.8 mg GAE/g extract) and also exhibited higher xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (IC50 52.75μg/mL) than the leaves. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the stem bark of E. indica was highly effective in xanthine oxidase inhibition and might be used for the gout related disorders.

  16. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  17. Chromatographic fingerprinting and free-radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: M. calabura exhibited very high antioxidant activity in its leaves and stems ethanol extracts, both of which are used in traditional medicine. The TLC results demonstrated the presence of diverse secondary metabolites in the leaf and stem ethanol extracts, indicating that the antioxidant activity, including other bioactivities may be attributed to these phytochemical constituents. This paper has reported for the first time the TLC fingerprinting of M. calabura using visible light, UV 254 nm, UV 366 and post-derivatization with vanillin-spray to visualize separate spots on TLC plates.

  18. Inhibitory effect on key enzymes relevant to acute type-2 diabetes and antioxidative activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye; Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo; Oluwatosin Adeyonu; Oluwatosin Imiere; Isreal Olayide; Adewale Fadaka; Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Arto-carpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) stem bark and its inhibitory effect on a-amylase and a-glucosidase. Methods: The A. heterophyllus stem bark was extracted using methanol and tested for antioxidative activity. Results: The results revealed that the ethanolic extract has polyphenolics and free radical scavenging compounds which were significantly higher (P Conclusions: Therefore, it can be inferred from this study that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus probably due to bioactive compounds observed in the extract.

  19. Vochysia rufa Stem Bark Extract Protects Endothelial Cells against High Glucose Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neire Moura de Gouveia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum. Then; it is isolated by capillary electrophoresis–tandem mass spectrometry. Cell viability is evaluated on EA cells treated with 0.5–100 µg/mL of the Vr extract for 24 h. The extract is diluted at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25 µg/mL and maintained for 24 h along with 30 mM of glucose to evaluate its protective effect on reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase (GR and protein carbonyl groups. Results: V. rufa stem bark is composed mainly of sugars; such as inositol; galactose; glucose; mannose; sacarose; arabinose and ribose. Treatment with Vr up to 100 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect cell viability. Treatment of EA cells with 30 mM of glucose for 24 h significantly increased the cell damage. EA cells treated with 30 mM of glucose showed a decrease of GSH concentration and increased Radical Oxygen Species (ROS and activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein carbonyl levels; compared to control. Co-treatment of EA with 30 mM glucose plus 1–10 μg/mL Vr significantly reduced cell damage while 5–25 μg/mL Vr evoked a significant protection against the glucose insult; recovering ROS; GSH; antioxidant enzymes and carbonyls to baseline levels. Conclusion: V. rufa extract protects endothelial cells against oxidative damage by modulating ROS; GSH concentration; antioxidant enzyme activity and protein carbonyl levels.

  20. Red Ginseng Extract Facilitates the Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Mesendoderm Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have capacities to self-renew and differentiate into all cell types in vitro. Red ginseng (RG is known to have a wide range of pharmacological effects in vivo; however, the reports on its effects on hESCs are few. In this paper, we tried to demonstrate the effects of RG on the proliferation and differentiation of hESCs. Undifferentiated hESCs, embryoid bodies (EBs, and hESC-derived cardiac progenitors (CPs were treated with RG extract at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL. After treatment of undifferentiated hESCs from day 2 to day 6 of culture, BrdU labeling showed that RG treatment increased the proliferation of hESCs, and the expression of Oct4 and Nanog was increased in RG-treated group. To find out the effects of RG on early differentiation stage cells, EBs were treated with RG extract for 10 days and attached for further differentiation. Immunostaining for three germ layer markers showed that RG treatment increased the expressions of Brachyury and HNF3β on EBs. Also, RG treatment increased the expression of Brachyury in early-stage and of Nkx2.5 in late-stage hESC-derived CPs. These results demonstrate facilitating effects of RG extract on the proliferation and early differentiation of hESC.

  1. Extraction and purification of beta-amylase from stems of Abrus precatorius by three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Sorel Tchewonpi; Nso, Emmanuel Jong; Homann, Thomas; Kapseu, César; Rawel, Harshadrai M

    2015-09-15

    The stems of Abrus precatorius were used to extract a beta-amylase enriched fraction. A three phase partitioning method and a Doehlert design with 3 variables (ratio of crude extract/t-butanol, the ammonium sulphate saturation and pH) were used. The data was fitted in a second-order polynomial model and the parameters were optimized to enrich beta-amylase. Experimental responses for the modulation were recovery of activity and the purification factor. The optimal conditions were: a ratio of crude extract/t-butanol of 0.87 (v/v), saturation in ammonium sulphate of 49.46% (w/v) and a pH of 5.2. An activity recovery of 156.2% and a purification factor of 10.17 were found. The enriched enzyme was identified as a beta-amylase and its molecular weight was 60.1kDa. Km and Vmax values were 79.37mg/ml and 5.13U/ml, respectively and the highest activity was registered at a temperature of 70°C and a pH between 6 and 6.5. A significant stabilization of the beta-amylase was observed up to 65°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polysaccharides from the stem of Trapa quadrispinosa using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Li, Feng; Xu, Xiuquan; Tang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidant crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Trapa quadrispinosa stems. Antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides was determined by Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (FRAC) assay with the method of 1, 10-phenanthroline. The maximum yield of polysaccharides (2.78±0.16%) was obtained under optimal extraction conditions of extraction time, 41min; ratio of water to material, 31.5mL/g; and extraction temperature, 58°C. The maximum antioxidant capacity (19.02±0.24μmol Fe(2+)/g) was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions of extraction time, 38min; ratio of water to material, 32mL/g; and extraction temperature, 56°C. These two values were agreed well with predicted yield (2.75%) and antioxidant capacity (18.77μmol Fe(2+)/g). Antioxidant activities of CPS were investigated by various assays. The results showed that CPSUAE obtained by UAE showed higher 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and stronger reducing power, total antioxidant capacity compared with CPSHWE obtained by hot water extraction (HWE).The results indicated that UAE is an advisable method for extraction of antioxidant polysaccharides from the stem of T. quadrispinosa and polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant to use in medicine or functional food.

  3. Mechanisms of Edible Bird's Nest Extract-Induced Proliferation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Baeg Roh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although edible bird's nest (EBN has been shown to potentiate mitogenic responses, scientific evidence of its efficacy is still limited. In addition, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs are increasingly accepted as a source for stem cell therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the EBN extract (EBNE on the proliferation of hADSCs and its action mechanisms. We found that EBNE strongly promoted the proliferation of hADSCs. In addition, EBNE-induced proliferation was found to be mediated through the production of IL-6 and VEGF, which was induced by activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Specially, we found that production of IL-6 and VEGF was induced by EBNE. In addition, EBNE-induced production of IL-6 and VEGF was inhibited by PD98059 (a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor, and PDTC (a NF-κB inhibitor, but not SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor. Similarly, EBNE-induced proliferation of hADSCs was also attenuated by PD98059, SB203580, and PDTC but not SP600125. Taken together, these findings suggest that the EBNE-induced proliferation of hADSCs primarily occurs through increased expression of IL-6 and VEGF genes, which is mediated by the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 through p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK.

  4. Development of iPS (induced pluripotent stem cells) using natural product from extract of fish oocyte to provide stem cell for regenerative therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilany, Sofy; Firdausiyah, Qonitha S.; Naroeni, Aroem

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed a method to induce pluripotency of adult cells (fibroblast) into stem cells using a natural product, extract of fish oocyte, by comparing the extract concentration, 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. The analyses were done by measuring the Nanog gene expression in cells using qPCR and detecting fibroblast marker anti H2-KK. The results revealed existence of a colony of stem cells in the cell that was induced with 2mg/ml concentration of oocytes. Nanoggene expression was analyzed by qPCR and the results showed expression of Nanog gene compared to the control. Analysis of result of fibroblast using Tali Cytometer and anti H2KK antibody showed loss of expression of Anti H2KK meaning there was transformation from fibroblast type cell to pluripotent cell type.

  5. A LONG CHAIN ALCOHOL AND TWO STEROL COMPOUNDS FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A long chain alcohol, 1-eicosanol together with two sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol had been isolated from hexane extract of stem bark of pacar cina (Aglaia odorata Lour (Meliaceae. These structures had been established based on spectroscopic data (IR and NMR and by comparison to those of standard compounds.   Keywords: Aglaia odorata Lour, Alcohol, Meliaceae, Sterol

  6. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bokshi , S.M. Abdur Rahman*, S. K. Sadhu , Ashif Muhammad and Hemayet Hossain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The different fractions of crude methanolic extract of stem of Stephania japonica (Thunb. Miers was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. The various fractions of S. japonica Stem i.e. Ethyl Acetate (EAJS, CHCl3 (CFJS, CCl4 (CTJS and Petroleum ether (PEJS were subjected to free radical scavenging activity. In this investigation, CFJS showed the most significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 119.0µg/ml for S. japonica stem. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The LC50 value of sample CTJS (Carbon Tetrachloride fraction of S. japonica Stem, was 3.0µg/ml is highly most significant. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The Carbon Tetrachloride soluble fraction showed good antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria at different doses. The Ethyl Acetate soluble fraction shows good activity only against E. coli at different doses.

  8. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  9. Assessment of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masika Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buddleja saligna Willd (Loganiaceae is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree; trunk short, often gnarled and crooked; crown dense, rounded or domed-shaped; foliage greyish green. The wild olives are traditionally used to lower blood pressures in many parts of the world. In southern Africa, bark and leaf decoctions are used to treat colic, coughs, colds, sore eyes, urinary problems and as purgatives. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Buddleja saligna were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Buddleja saligna were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The antioxidant activities of the leaves as determined by the ABTS and DPPH were similar to that of the stem. The flavonoids and the flavonols contents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem but the total phenols, proanthocyanidins and FRAP activities were higher in the methanol extracts of the stem. The extracts did show activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. For instance, while the methanol extract of the leaves showed good activities on all the organisms except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at MICs of between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, the extract of the stem only showed activities on Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentration. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of

  10. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG.

  11. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity.

  12. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  13. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extracts obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAILO S. RISTIC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparison of the chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the ethanol extracts from the flower, leaf and stem of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, originating from the southeast region of Serbia was carried out. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Manool has the highest level of all the components (9.0–11.1 %. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the diffusion and dilution method, whereby the latter one was modified by use of cellulose discs, and it was applied for the determination of the minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC. The leaf extract has a stronger antimicrobial activity than those of the flower and stem.

  14. In vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of Calotropis procera stem extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson I.F. Magalhães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic potential of stem organic extracts from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae was firstly evaluated against cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Subsequently, samples considered cytotoxic were tested for antimitotic activity on sea urchin egg development and for in vivo antiproliferative activity in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 tumor. Among the five extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts displayed higher cytotoxic potential against tumor cells, with IC50 ranging from 0.8 to 4.4 μg/mL, while methanolic extract was weakly cytotoxic. Cytotoxic extracts also exhibited cell division inhibition capacity by antimitotic assay, revealing IC50 values lower than 5 μg/mL. In the in vivo antitumor assessments, ethyl acetate- and acetone-treated animals showed tumor growth inhibition ratios of 64.3 and 53.1%, respectively, with reversible toxic effects on liver and kidneys. Further studies are in progress in order to identify C. procera cytotoxic compound(s and to understand the mechanism of action responsible for this tumor-decreasing potential.O potencial citotóxico de extratos orgânicos do caule de Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae foi primeiramente avaliado frente a linhagens de células tumorais através do ensaio de MTT. Aquelas amostras consideradas citotóxicas foram sub-sequentemente testadas para atividade antimitótica sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos de ouriço-do-mar e para atividade antiproliferativa in vivo em camundongos transplantados com tumor Sarcoma 180. Dentre os cinco extratos estudados (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila, acetona e metanol, os extratos acetato de etila e acetona mostraram maior potencial citotóxico contra células tumorais, com CI50 variando de 0,8 to 4,4 μg/mL, enquanto o extrato metanólico revelou ser fracamente citotóxico. s extratos citotóxicos também exibiram capacidade de inibição da divisão celular com valores de CI50 menores

  15. In vitro phytochemical, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Hussain, Muhammad Medrar; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Ali, Ghadir; Khattak, Mahrukh; Ahmad, Sohail; Shakirullah

    2014-01-01

    Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains.

  16. In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains.

  17. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  18. The Evaluation of Testes Extracts on Spermatogonial Stem Cells’ Self-Renewal Property Compared to Their Specific Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Boozarpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spermatogonial stem cells are regarded as the continual generator of sperms in males. They possess the potential to regenerate themselves, provided by the niche, which is necessary for substituting the old sperms with the new ones and their population’s maintenance. There are demanding efforts conducted often on spermatogonial stem cells, and some special growth factors with the capability of reestablishment of this niche under experimental circumstances, but there have been few studies on poultries in this respect. Methods: In the present study, the impact of adult mice and roosters testes extracts on colony-formation potential of chicken spermatogonial stem cells in the course of four days, as compared to those of three conventional growth factors (LIF, bFGF and GDNF was investigated. After determination of the optimum concentrations of growth factors, OCT4 gene expression was measured as one of spermatogonial stem cell activities’ signature via Real-time RT-PCR technique during two weeks treatment. Results: The results of colony forming activity show that in vitro treatment by the mice and roosters testes extracts and the three mentioned growth factors (GDNF,bFGF and LIF had a considerably discrepancies in terms of the number of created colonies compared to the control group (without adding any factor after four days. Moreover, the OCT4 over-expressed extremely by these biological impulses after two weeks. Conclusion: The results indicated that the testes extract would be a valuable substitute for non-economical industrial growth factors.

  19. Residual aqueous fraction of stem bark extract of Xeromphis nilotica and behavioral effects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Danjuma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Xeromphis nilotica is a lowland shrub widespread in Northern Nigeria where it is used for treatment of mental disorders. This study aimed at evaluating the behavioral effects of the residual aqueous fraction of the stem bark extract of X. nilotica which is of relevance to its application in folklore medicine. The tests conducted were diazepam induced sleep in mice, beam walk assay in mice, hole-board test as well as acute toxicity test and Phytochemical analysis. The results revealed a high yield of the extract (3.02%. The LD50 was calculated to be 471.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Phytochemical analysis revealed tannins. The extract also showed a dose dependent prolongation of diazepam induced sleep which was significant (p≤ 0.05 at 40 mg/kg (from 75±4.0 min in normal saline to 130.2±10.2 min. No significant effect on onset of sleep was however observed. In the hole-board test, an overall increase in exploratory activity was observed (22.0±1.2 mean number of head dips at 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam 2 mg/kg (8.6±1.4 mean number of head dips. The extract had no effect on time spent on beam in the beam walk assay in mice but a significant (p≤ 0.05 difference was observed in the number of foot slips compared to diazepam 1 mg/kg, used as a standard reference drug. The extract showed 0.8±0.2, 1.0±0.4 and 1.2±0.2 mean number of slips at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam with 7.2±2.0 mean number of slips. The overall results of this study revealed sedative effect of this fraction which might have contributed to the application of the stem bark of Xeromphis nilotica in ethno-medicine for treatment of mental disorders.   Industrial relevance: According to the World Health Organization (WHO about 450 million people suffer from a mental or behavioral disorder. Only a few of this population receives basic treatment. Many of them in the developing countries still rely on traditional healing practices and medicinal plants for

  20. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  1. Effect of apricot tree resin hydroethanolic extract on skin wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Javadabadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Impairment of wound healing in chronic diseases is a therapeutic challenge. In terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of apricot gum tree this extract used on skin wound healing in rats. Materials and Methods: 28 Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: group I, normal without surgery, group II, control group without treatment, group III, a wound treatment with Vaseline, and group I˅, wound care therapy apricot tree resin extract. In the treated and placebo groups after anesthesia applied induction circular wound area of 280 square millimeters behind rats, but treated groups continued treatment for 21 days. Daily treatment was done with hydro-alcoholic extract of apricot tree gum. Wound size is measured every day by analyzing digital images for 21 days and then rats killed and samples were fixed in formalin. Slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Tissue sections were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, to check regeneration of cells, the collagen fibers, angiogenesis, and distribution of inflammatory cells. Normal data analyzed using Tukey test and data with non-normal distribution were compared between groups by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Use of apricot tree resin, reduces the blood vessels from the second week onwards, reduction of inflammatory cells and increased collagen fibers and tissue epithelialization. Conclusion: Apricot tree resin extract can promote wound healing faster made substantial improvements.

  2. Postprandial Antihyperglycemic And Antioxidant Activities of Acalypha indica Linn Stem Extract: An In-vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Charles Lekhya; Bhaskara Rao, K V

    2016-01-01

    Background: α-glucosidase inhibitors controls postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by lowering sharp rise in blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrate rich meal in type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. Acalypha indica commonly known as Indian copper leaf is used in traditional medicinal system to treat various diseases. In our previous in-vitro investigation, methanolic extract of A. indica stems (AIS) proved to be an effective a-glucosidase inhibitor, antioxidant, and well tolerated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats Objective: In this perspective, this study was designed to evaluate postprandial antihyperglycemic potential of AIS in maltose, sucrose, and glucose loaded streptozotocin (STZ)-induced normal and diabetic rats. As, the acute hyperglycemia at postprandial period has more triggering effect on oxidative stress, study was also aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of AIS on STZ-induced Albino–Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with AIS (300–600 mg/kg b.w.) to investigate effect of AIS in controling PPHG after carbohydrate loading. Hepatoprotective activity of AIS is evaluated in diabetic rats by treating them at the dosages 300–600 mg/kg b.w. Results: Studies revealed 69.10 and 80.35% blood glucose-lowering effect of AIS in maltose and sucrose loaded diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group. AIS recovered the liver damage caused by streptozotocin Conclusion: The present study confirmed high potential of AIS in controling PPHG by inhibiting a-glucosidase enzyme in maltose and sucrose loaded diabetic rats. AIS also exhibited hepatoprotective activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, AIS could be used as a nutraceutical supplement to treat T2D effectively. SUMMARY AIS extract is effective in suppressing maltose and sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic spikes in ratsAIS treat ment showed a 69.10 and80.35% blood glucose-lowering effect in maltose and sucrose loaded

  3. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2012-11-01

    Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts' scolicidal effects were examined. Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  4. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  5. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Mhamdi, Baya; Sriti, Jazia; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Marzouk, Brahim

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica L. leaf, stem and flower. Myrtle leaf and flower were the valuable organs for the essential oil production representing a yield of 0.61% and 0.30% (w/w), respectively. The essential oil composition of myrtle leaf and flower was characterized by high proportions of alpha-pinene, the main compound of monoterpene hydrocarbon class, with 58.05% for leaf and 17.53% for flower. Stem was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes, largely due to 1,8-cineole with 32.84%. The total phenol contents varied between different myrtle parts; leaf extract had higher total phenol content (33.67 mg GAE/g) than flower (15.70 mg GAE/g) and stem (11.11 mg GAE/g) extracts. Significant differences were also found in total tannin contents among different myrtle parts, representing 26.55 mg GAE/g in leaf, 11.95 mg GAE/g in flower, 3.33 mg GAE/g in stem. The highest contents of total flavonoids and condensed tannins were observed in stem (5.17 and 1.99 mg CE/g, respectively) and leaf (3 and 1.22 mg CE/g, respectively) extracts. The HPLC analysis indicated that the main phenolic class was hydrolysable tannins (gallotannins) in leaf (79.39%, 8.90 mg/g) and flower (60.00%, 3.50mg/g) while the stem was characterized by the predominance of flavonoid class (61.38%, 1.86 mg/g) due to the high presence of catechin (36.91%, 1.12 mg/g). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the methanolic extract from different myrtle parts were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In all tests, methanolic extracts of different myrtle parts showed better antioxidant activity than essential oils.

  6. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF MILLINGTONEA HORTENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V C Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of Millingtonea hortensis stem bark was studied for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using acute model viz. Carrageenan induced rat?s paw edema using two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Millingtonea hortensis and Indomethacin (10 mg/kg as standard drug and paw volume and % inhibition was measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals; In this methanolic extract of Millingtonea hortensis showed significant reduction in paw volume and increase in % inhibition in paw volume in dose dependent manner. The analgesic activity was studied using tail-flick method using 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of methanolic extract of Millingtonea hortensis and Diclofenac sodium (1.0 mg/Kg Body weight intraperitoneally as standard drug. The extract significantly increased the reaction time in tailflick response test. Results conclude that methanolic extract of stem bark of Millingtonea hortensis possess significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.

  8. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana Lm; da Silva, Kathryn Abs; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania Mb; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Banga N′Guessan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC 50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea.

  10. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%.

  11. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  12. Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Eun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to solar UV (sUV is associated with numerous human skin disorders, such as carcinogenesis, skin photoaging and skin inflammation. Silkworm Thorn (Cudraniatricuspidata, SW is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and widely present throughout Korea, China, and Japan. Most parts of the tree (including the fruit, leaf, stem, root, and bark is consumable as a functional food or tea. In this study, we found that SW extract (SWE inhibited the elevated expression of sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 levels in both HaCaT and JB6 cells. Levels of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, two crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were elevated by sUV treatment. Treatment with SWE abolished this activation. SWE also inhibited sUV-induced histone H3 phosphorylation. However, sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase remained unchanged in the presence of SWE. SWE inhibited RSK2 activity, and pull-down assays using SWE-Sepharose beads revealed that SWE binds directly with RSK2 in an ATP-competitive manner. These results suggest a potential for SWE to be developed as a cosmeceutical material and functional food constituent for the promotion of skin health.

  13. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Kamyar; Bin Ahmad, Mansor; Jaffar Al-Mulla, Emad A; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Bagheri, Samira; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Usman, Muhammad Sani; Zidan, Mohammed

    2012-07-16

    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extract has been reported. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF) spectrometry, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 456 nm. The TEM study showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles were 12.40 ± 3.27 nm. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value added products from Callicarpa maingayi for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  14. Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callicarpa maingayi Stem Bark Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zidan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extract has been reported. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF spectrometry, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 456 nm. The TEM study showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles were 12.40 ± 3.27 nm. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value added products from Callicarpa maingayi for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  15. Effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts on HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hua Wang; Min Long; Bao-Yi Zhu; Shu-Hui Yang; Ji-Hong Ren; Hui-Zhong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts (SSE) on the hepatoma cell line HepG-2 in vitro and in vivo and determine its mechanisms of action.METHODS: Cultured HepG-2 cells treated with SSE were analysed by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide and clone formation assay.The cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were conducted by flow cytometric, TdT-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods,and protein expression was examined by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.The pathological changes of the tumor cells were observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Tumor growth inhibition and side effects were determined in a xenograft mouse model.RESULTS: SSE treatment could not only inhibit HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner but also induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The number of colonies formed by SSEtreated tumor cells was fewer than that of the controls (P 0.05). Systemic administration of SSE could inhibit the HepG-2 xenograft tumor growth with no obvious toxic side effects on normal tissues.CONCLUSION: SSE can induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo through decreasing expression of Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and increasing expression of Bax.

  16. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Anna; Stagos, Dimitrios; Galitsiou, Elissavet; Spyrou, Argiris; Haroutounian, Serko; Portesis, Nikolaos; Trizoglou, Ioanna; Wallace Hayes, A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Grape extracts and wine have been studied widely due to their beneficial effects on human health. However, there are only few studies from grape stems extracts. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was the assessment in stem extracts from Greek Vitis vinifera varieties of the total polyphenolic content (TPC), the identification of the polyphenols present in them, and the evaluation of their antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and inhibition of liver (HepG2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell growth. The range of the TPC in grape stem extracts was from 345 to 584 mg GAE/g dry weight. Moreover, stem extracts contained different classes of polyphenols as flavonols, flavanols, procyanidins, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In DPPH and ABTS assays, the IC50 values of the stem extracts had an average of 7.8 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.6 μg/mL respectively. Also, all stem extracts inhibited OH- and ROO-induced DNA damage dose dependent with average IC50 values of 478 ± 217 and 1.15 ± 0.85 μg/mL respectively. Furthermore, stem extracts inhibited at low concentrations the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells with average IC50 values of 50 ± 12 and 32 ± 16 μg/mL respectively. The above activities of grape stem extracts were comparable to those of seed extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp nut and garlic (Allium sativum extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Eskandarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts′ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  18. Minimizing Nitrate Reduction during Kjeldahl Digestion of Plant Tissue Extracts and Stem Exudates : APPLICATION TO N STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, G M; Mackown, C T; Volk, R J

    1982-01-01

    From 10 to 60% of the nitrate present in plant tissue extracts and stem exudates of corn (Zea mays L.) was found to be reduced during Kjeldahl digestion, even in the absence of added reducing agents. This reduction is of particular concern in [(15)N]nitrate assimilation studies, because it results in an overestimate of nitrate reduction. To overcome this problem, a method was developed for removing nitrate prior to Kjeldahl digestion, thereby preventing nitrate reduction. The procedure utilizes hydrogen peroxide for partial oxidation of organic matter in order to minimize the nitration of organic compounds. The free nitrates are then volatilized as nitric acid from concentrated sulfuric acid at 95 degrees C. When the proposed method was used as a pretreatment to Kjeldahl digestion, less than 0.5% of the applied nitrate was recovered in the reduced nitrogen fraction of plant tissue extracts and stem exudates.

  19. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction ofZanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fidle Ntchapda; Maguirgue Kakesse; Michel Archange Tagne Fokam; Olivier Mbouemboue Pancha; DjedoubouMAbakar; Thophile Dimo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Zanthoxylum heitzi is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especialy cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. METHODS:The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction ofZ. heitzi were investigated in Wistar rats (250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction ofZ. heitzi at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using lfame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded lfuid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P 0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. CONCLUSION:The signiifcant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment folowed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  20. In vitro evaluation and comparison of antioxidant activities of various extracts of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bhatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The present research was carried out to evaluate the total phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant potentials by five different assay method of various (benzene, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol extracts of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum as the plant is an ingredient of various traditional preparations used in the treatment of various diseases. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity was determined by using five different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, ferric reducing antioxidant power and phosphomolybdenum assays. In the present investigation, quantitative estimation of flavonoid content and phenolic content was carried out by colorimetric methods using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methods respectively to establish relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results and Conclusions: The plant powder (100 mg yielded 0.49, 0.64, 0.99, 1.17 %w/w total phenolic content in leaves and 0.18, 0.27, 0.48, 0.62 %w/w total phenolic content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of stems respectively using gallic acid as standard and plant contains about 0.24, 0.37, 0.56, 0.75 %w/w of total flavonoids content in leaves and 0.15, 0.22, 0.42, 0.54 %w/w of total flavonoids content in the benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol extracts of stems respectively using quercetin as standard. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in dose dependent manner in all the assays. The result obtained in the present study indicated that leaves and stems of K. pinnatum could be a potential source of natural antioxidant and justified the traditional use of herb in preventing disease induced by oxidative stress.

  1. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  2. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  3. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  4. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.

  5. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumaia Parvin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight to young Swiss-albino mice. Both doses of the extract significantly inhibited writhing response induced by acetic acid in a dose dependent manner which is comparable to the positive control drug Diclofenac Na. These two different doses were found to exhibit 13.22% and 28.94% writhing inhibitory response respectively where the Diclofenac Na inhibited about 42.15% of writhes at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight. The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of these crude extract in the treatment of pain.

  6. PHENOL-2-(1-METHYL ETHOXY-METHYL CARBAMATE COUMPOUND IN ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Aglaia angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofnie M. Chairul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of carbamate coumpound from ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Aglaia angustifolia (Meliaceae, was carried out. The dried stem bark of A. angustifolia was extracted with ethanol (polar solvent, ethyl acetate (medium of polar and water. From there extract solvent was biological activity test to Crocidolomia binotallis. Ethyl acetate extract solvent more active than another solvent, so that this extract was fractioned and clean up using chromatograpgy column, use SiO2 as stationary phase, mixture of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (10:1 ~ 1:1, ethyl acetate, and ethanol respectively as elution solution. The result of Biological activity test to C. binotallis showed that fraction of ethyl acetate inhibited growth on LC50 3.57 ppm. The compound of isolation result using HPLC, GCMS, FTIR and NMR was identified as phenol-2(1-methyl ethoxy methyl carbamate coumpound, active as botanical insecticide.   Keywords: Meliaceae, A. angustifolia, carbamate, phenol-2 (1-methyl ethoxy methyl carbamate

  7. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolayan Anthony J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acokanthera oppositifolia Lam (family: Apocynaceae is a shrub or small tree with white latex, and the leaves of this plant are used in the form of a snuff to treat headaches and in infusions for abdominal pains and convulsions and septicaemia. Adenia gummifera Harv of the family Passifloraceae is a distinctive woody climber whose infusions are used as emetics and are said to help with some forms of depression. Lipid peroxidation has gained more importance today because of its involvement in pathogenesis of many diseases. Free radicals are the main agents in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants thus play an important role of protecting the human body against damage by the free radicals. Plants containing phenolic compounds have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera were evaluated using in vitro standard procedures. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Acokanthera oppositifolia were determined by the 2,2'-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Acokanthera oppositifolia as determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods, were higher than that of Adenia gummifera. The levels of total phenols and flavonols for A. oppositifolia were also higher. On the other hand, the stem extract of Adenia gummifera had higher level of total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins than that of Acokanthera oppositifolia

  8. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties of green-synthesised silver nanoparticles from stem bark extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Haribabu, Reddla; Savithramma, Nataru

    2015-12-01

    Today green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from plants is an utmost emerging filed in nanotechnology. In the present study, we have reported a green method for synthesis of SNPs from aqueous stem bark extract of Syzygium alternifolium, an endemic medicinal plant of South Eastern Ghats. These green-synthesised nanoparticles are characterised by colour change pattern, and the broad peak obtained at 448 nm with UV-Vis surface plasmon resonance studies confirm that the synthesised nanoparticles are SNPs. FT-IR spectroscopic studies confirm that phenols and proteins of stem bark extract is mainly responsible for capping and stabilisation of synthesised SNPs. Crystallographic studies from XRD indicates, the SNPs are crystalline in nature owing to 44 nm size. EDAX analysis shows 19.28 weight percentage of Ag metal in the sample indicates the purity of sample. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic studies reveal that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with sizes ranging from 4 to 48 nm. Antimicrobial studies of the synthesised SNPs on clinically isolated microbes showed very toxic effects. It indicates that stem bark extract of S. alternifolium is suitable for synthesising stable silver nanoparticles which act as excellent antimicrobial agents.

  9. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2011-06-01

    Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers.

  10. Screening of extracts of leaves and stems of Psychotria spp. (Rubiaceae) against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for maize protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Grazziotti, Geisel Hudson; de Souza Júnior, Amauri Alves; de Sousa Freitas, Silvia; Consolaro, Hélder Nagai; Ribeiro, Paulo Eduardo de Aquino; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-11-01

    Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are important economic pests of corn, Zea mays (Poaceae). Psychotria spp. (Rubiaceae) plants are rich in secondary metabolites that could be toxic against such pests. We have screened extracts from four species of Psychotria abundant in the Cerrado (Savannah-type) biome of Brazil for the toxicity to two insects. We found that extracts from leaves and stems had significant effects on the hatching rate, parameters of caterpillar body (weight and length and width of head capsule), repellency, and mortality of these two pests, although the effects varied according to the Psychotria species and plant source (stem or leaf). Extracts of the stems of Psychotria hoffmannseggiana and of Psychotria capitata were more toxic to S. zeamais and the stems of Psychotria goyazensis to S. frugiperda; therefore, such extracts could have the potential for use in integrated pest management schemes.

  11. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Fitriati Noora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  12. Effects of Drying Temperature on Flavonoids Extraction Rate from Young Stems and Leaves of Two Cassava Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ding-mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve flavonoids resources utilization level of young cassava stems and leaves, using cassava varieties SC09 and SC205 as ob jects, investigated the effect of different drying temperatures(40~120℃on the flavonoids extraction rate(FERand their stability in 120 d storage period after drying, explored a right drying storage method for postharvest young cassava stems and leaves. The research showed that total FER rised first, and then fell and rised again with the increase of drying temperature. During 40~80℃, the total FER was obviously in fluenced by variety and temperature, but only temperature was main factor affecting total FER during 90~120℃. Extract degree of flavonoids include rutin, amentoflavone or catechin, kaempferol, hesperidin, quercetin minished in order; the effect of cassava variety on the extraction rate of catechin and hesperidin was greater than that of drying temperature, but that contrary to other 4 flavonoids. Variety and temperature had a maximum impact respectively on catechin and rutin extraction rates. Whereas both of variety and temperature had a minimum impact on kaempferol extraction rate. FER reached higher levels of 1.42%and 1.53% respectively in SC09 after 120℃drying and SC205 after 110℃drying, and had best stability during 120 d storage period. The extraction rate of hesperidin increased after drying storage, and that of other 5 ingredients were changing with different varieties and temperatures; the coefficient variation(CV=1.03%~6.86%of kaempferol was minimum and its stability was best; extraction rates of rutin and kaempferol in SC205 after 110℃drying were maximum, whose increasing rates were 44.89%and 7.27%respectively with a small separate degree(CV were 6.94%, 4.59%and good extraction stability. Maximum in creasing rates of catechin, amentoflavone, quercetin and hesperidin were 211.60%,17.60%,186.39% and 538.08% respectively. However,their stabilities of extraction efficiency were poor

  13. Inhibitor y effect on key enzymes relevant to acute type-2 diabetes and antioxidative activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus stem bark and its inhibitory effect on a-amylase and a-glucosidase. Methods: The A. heterophyllus stem bark was extracted using methanol and tested for antioxidative activity. Results: The results revealed that the ethanolic extract has polyphenolics and free radical scavenging compounds which were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than their respective standard, at concentration dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark was observed to show inhibitory activities on a-amylase and a-glucosidase with IC50 of (4.18 ± 0.01 and (3.53 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark exhibited non-competitive inhibition for a-amylase and uncompetitive inhibition for a-glucosidase activities. Also, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed the presence of different bioactive compounds in extract. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be inferred from this study that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus probably due to bioactive compounds observed in the extract.

  14. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p. dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU, and micronucleus (MN expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p. produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01, and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01. Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01, non-toxic mitotic index (MI (65.9% and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%. NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity.

  15. Effect of Musa sapientum stem extract on animal models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg, fluoxetine (25 mg/kg, and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM], decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE, 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE, and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM, decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE, 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE, and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P < 0.05 respectively, when compared with the control group in both the tests. Conclusion: A significant antidepressant-like activity was found in MSSE, which could be a potential natural compound for use in depression.

  16. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Edson Santos; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Paulino, Emanuel Tenório; Ribeiro, Eurica Adélia Nogueira; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1-750 microg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10(-5) M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10(-6)-3 x 10(-2) M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 microg/mL. Likewise, on S-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10(-7) M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 microg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10(-9) - 10(-5) M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10(-5) M) in a Ca(2+)-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CavL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects.

  17. Effect of Musa sapientum Stem Extract on Animal Models of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aditya J.; Handu, Shailendra S.; Dubey, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Shukla, Rimi; Ahmed, Qazi Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Musa sapientum, the banana plant, has shown to possess antioxidant activity in previous studies. Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) with evidence of increased serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in MDD patients. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of M. sapientum stem extract (MSSE) in experimental models in mice. Materials and Methods: Forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in five different groups (n = 6/group) of mice. The vehicle, standard drug, and the three test groups were orally administered distilled water (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg), and incremental doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MSSE, respectively, 45 min prior to the experiment. Results: On FST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 161.5 ± 6.78 (in seconds, mean ± standard error of mean [SEM]), decreased to 149.33 ± 2.70 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 120.17 ± 8.35 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 45.17 ± 4.11 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. On TST, the duration of immobility in control group, which was 173.83 ± 12.65 (mean ± SEM), decreased to 163.17 ± 6.91 (25 mg/kg MSSE), 139.0 ± 5.9 (50 mg/kg MSSE), and 124.0 ± 4.42 (100 mg/kg MSSE) in the treated groups. The difference in the duration of immobility was statistically significant at middle and higher doses, i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg MSSE (P Forced swim test; TST: Tail suspension test; GSH: Glutathione, MDA: Malondialdehyde; SOD: Superoxide dismutase PMID:27695263

  18. Central activities of hydroalcoholic extract from Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablinny Moreira Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. can be found from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul states, and also in Paraguay and Bolivia. It is popularly known as pacari or mangava-brava and is used to promote weight loss, as an anti-thermal or tonic, to treat gastritis, ulcers, scarring, itching, discouragement, and cancer. In the open field tests, the hydroalcoholic extract from L. pacari stem bark (HEP decreased the number of rearings, number of invaded squares, and increased immobility time compared to control animals. In the pentobarbital-induced sleep time test, HEP decreased latency time to sleep and increased sleeping time. In the rota-rod test, no changes in the studied parameters were observed. In the elevated plus maze, HEP increased the percentage time and percentage entries in the open arms, indicating that this extract exerts an anxiolytic-like activity.Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., uma espécie vegetal presente no Brasil, do Amapá ao Rio Grande do Sul, no Paraguai e na Bolívia, é popularmente conhecida como pacari ou mangava-brava e é utilizada como emagrecedor, cicatrizante, antitérmico, tônico e para tratar gastrite, úlcera, coceira, desânimo e câncer. No teste do campo aberto, o tratamento com o extrato hidro-alcoólico de pacari (HEP reduziu o número de rearings e o número de quadrados invadidos além de aumentar o tempo de imobilidade dos animais em relação ao controle. No sono induzido por pentobarbital sódico o tratamento com HEP causou redução na latência e aumento na duração do sono. No rota-rod, o tratamento com HEP não alterou os parâmetros observados. No teste de labirinto em cruz elevado, com o tratamento com HEP foi observado aumento do percentual do tempo de permanência e de entradas nos braços abertos, caracterizando uma atividade tipo ansiolítica.

  19. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  20. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  1. Alcohol- and water-based extracts obtained from Rhodiola rosea affect differently the number and metabolic activity of circulating granulocytes in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Buchwald, Waldemar; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław Michał; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea (RR) rhizomes with roots extracts are traditional natural drugs originated from Asia and now commonly used as adaptogens and antidepressants. The aim of this work was to study the in vivo effect of aqueous (RRW) and 50% hydro-alcoholic (RRA) extracts on the number and metabolic activity of blood granulocytes in mice. Mice were fed for 7 days RR extract in daily doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg. The metabolic activity of blood granulocytes was determined by measuring of their luminol-dependent chemiluminescent activity in scintillation counter, after zymosan stimulation. Number of blood granulocytes was diminished and their chemiluminescence was enhanced in all groups of mice fed R.rosea hydro-alcoholic extract. Aqueous extract (RRW) was ineffective in all doses applied. This study revealed difference in the number and metabolic activity of granulocytes mice fed RRA or RRW extracts. Immune characteristics of some individual compounds from RRA and RRW extracts, selected by HPLC analysis, should be carried out in the next experiments.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ETHANOL STEM BARK EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN. (EUPHORBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Wakirwa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis of the ethanol stem bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linn. The results obtained indicates the presence of some secondary metabolites; saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, flavonoids and terpenoids. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial activities which were dose-dependent with zones of inhibition ranging from 10-15mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 11-17mm for E. coli, 10-18mm for Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 14-26mm for Candida albicans. The MIC of the extract on the clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia was 25mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml, respectively. While the MBC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 50mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml, respectively. The results obtained indicate that ethanol stem bark extract of Jatropha curcas has antibacterial and antifungal activity which can be attributed to the presence of some of the essential secondary metabolites.

  3. Stem Wood and Bark Extracts of Delonix regia (Boj. Ex. Hook: Chemical Analysis and Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid components of the wood, bark, and essential oil of wood from Delonix regia as well as its antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties were investigated for the potential ability to control plant and human pathogens. Myristic acid was found to be a major fatty acid in the wood and bark of Delonix regia, comprising 10.77% of wood and 9.63% of bark. According to the GC-MS results, naphthalene derivatives were detected in the essential oils from the wood samples. Heptadecane and acyclic hydrocarbons were found in a high percentage (14.05%. Methanol: chloroform (1:1 v/v wood extract showed effective activity against Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, and Staphylococcus aureus, where the bark extract was most active against Escherichia coli. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against Pectobacterium carotovorum. The bark extract showed the maximum percentage inhibition of fungal mycelial growth against Penicillium selerotigenum (70.37% and Paecilomyces variotii (77.78%, and the essential oil showed moderate inhibition against Aspergillus nigra (44.44%. The total antioxidant activity of essential oil, stem wood, and stem bark extract was 84.34%, 80.33%, and 70.21%, respectively.

  4. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  5. Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Investigations of Sesbania rostrata Dc (Fabaceae Extracts form Leaves, Stems, Granulates, Pods and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Ouattara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and the phytochemical analysis of Sesbania rostrata used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso were investigated. Aqueous, methanolic and hydro-acetone extracts from leaves, stems, granules, pods and roots organs have demonstrated a good polyphenolic, tannin and flavonoids with variable anti-DPPH, Iron III reduction and antibacterial capacities. Particularly methanol extract form leaves possessed 46.33 mgEGA/100 mg and 25.98 mgETA/100 mg in polyphenolic and tannin content respectively. Beside TLC analysis of this extract demonstrated the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, caffeic and gallic acids. It was presented a good possibility to inhibit bacteria growth, radical DPPH and to reduce Iron III. These biological activities could support the traditional uses of this plant.

  6. Phytochemical composition andin vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract ofAerva lanata(L.) Juss. ex Schult. Stem (Amaranthaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaurav Kumar; Loganathan Karthik; Kokati Vankata Bhaskara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the phytochemical composition andin vitro antioxidant properties of aqueous extract ofAerva lanata(A. lanata) stem.Methods:During the preliminary phytochemical analysis, the aqueous extract ofA. lanata was screened for the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, oil and fats, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phytosterols.Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, reducing power activity andDNA damage inhibition activity.Analysis of phenolic compounds was performed byFolin-Ciocalteau reagent method and gradient high performance liquid chromatography technique. Results:Preliminary phytochemical analysis exhibited the presence of phenolic compounds, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phytosterols as major phytochemical groups.The extract exhibited high2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity(IC50=110.74 μg/mL), metal chelating activity(IC50=758.17 μg/mL), reducing power activity andDNA damage inhibition efficiency.The extract was reported to possess a high amount of total phenolic content and some of them were identified as gallic acid(3,4,5-OH), apigenin-7-O-glucoside(apigetrin), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside(rutin) and myricetin(3,5,7,3,4,5-OH) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis.The extract was found non toxic towards human erythrocytes in the hemolytic assay(IC50=24.89 mg/mL).Conclusions:These results conclud thatA. lanata stem possesses high antioxidant activity and can be used for the development of natural and safe antioxidant compounds.

  7. Feeding Pregnant and Lactating Mice Rhodiola kirilowii Extracts helps to Preserve Thymus Function of their Adult Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, K; Lewicki, S; Zdanowski, R; Skopinska-Różewska, E; Krzyżowska, M

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to Rhodiola kirilowii species, members of Rhodiola genus and Crassulaceae family, grow wildly in Tibet, Mongolia and China mountains and are traditionally used as adaptogens, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory remedies. Nowadays, R. kirilowii is cultivated in some countries, also in Poland. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in non-pregnant and pregnant mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding pregnant and further lactating mice these extracts on selected thymus function parameters in adult progeny. The counts of M-30+ apoptotic cells, in the thymuses obtained from progeny of mice fed during pregnancy and lactation water or 50% water-alcoholic extract of Rhodiola kirilowii, were significantly lower (p<0.05) than apoptotic cells counts observed in the control mice. No significant differences in the counts of IL-7-positive cells in the thymuses obtained from progeny of the control mice and mothers treated with water or hydro-alcohol extracts of Rhodiola kirilowii were observed.

  8. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  9. Response to: Dittrich et al.: Non-Embryo-Destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells - Overlooked Legal Prohibitions, Professional Legal Consequences and Inconsistencies in Patent Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, T; Storz, U

    2016-12-01

    The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany. German patent DE 10 2004 062 184 on the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells referred to by Dittrich et al. contravenes the higher-ranking case-law of the European Court of Justice. Ultimately, the non-embryo-destructive harvesting of embryonic stem cells with the aim of storing these cells for use in potential therapies as proposed by Dittrich et al. is prohibited in Germany and could lead to criminal prosecution.

  10. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

  11. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial on the antileishmanial activity of a Morinda citrifolia (Noni) stem extract and its major constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmed, Fayaz; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sattar, Samina A; Malghani, Muhammad A K; Choudhary, Muhammad I

    2012-02-01

    A controlled study was conducted to determine the efficiency of a topical ointment prepared from the stem extract of Morinda citrifolia against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Similarly, the in vitro antileishmanial activity of morindicone and morinthone isolated from the extract were investigated against Leishmania major. These compounds displayed good activity. Out of 40 patients, 50% showed an excellent response and 30% exhibited good improvement.

  12. Antifungal effect of Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract and its cytotoxicity on gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristanti Parisihni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumber had been acknowledged to have some medical properties Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra are species of sea cucumber which has been known to have antifungal properties thus potentially explored as therapeutic agent in oral candidiasis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antifungal property Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract against Candida albicans and its cytotoxicity to human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratories research with post test only control group design. Methanolic extract of Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra in concentrations of 1%, 0.5%; 0.25%; 0.13%, 0.07%; 0.03%, 0.02% and 0.01%; were tested its cytotoxicity on gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell. Cell viability were measured by MTT assay. The antifungal property against Candida albicans was tested by disk diffusion method. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by LSD. Results: Extract of Sticophus hermanii showed no cytotoxicity in all concentrations (p>0.05, while Holothuria atra showed toxicity in the concentration of 1% and not cytotoxic in the concentrations below (p<0.05. Both sea cucumber extract could inhibit the growth Candida albicans, in vitro, proved by the clear zone around the disc in all concentrations (p<0.05. Conclusion: Stichopus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract had the antifungal effect against Candida albicans. Sea cucumber extract were not cytotoxic togingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell in the concentration of Sticophus hermanii ≤ 1% and Holothuria atra ≤ 0.5%.Latar belakang: Teripang telah diketahui mempunyai berbagai khasiat medis. Sticophus hermanii dan Holothuria atra adalah spesies teripang yang telah diketahui mempunyai sifat anti jamur sehingga santat potensial untuk diekplorasi sebagai agen terapeutik pada infeksi di rongga mulut. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti sifat anti jamur ekstrak Sticophus hermanii

  13. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of a methanol extract from Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harquin Simplice Foyet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a traditional medicinal plant of Cameroon. Several studies on this plant have focused on the cosmetic profile of its fruits. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory potency of stem barks extract of this plant. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of V. paradoxa (VPME stem barks on inflammatory response in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effects of VPME were evaluated in acute and chronic (28 days inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. The effects on hyperalgesia and locomotors activity were also quantified. The relative weight of lymphoid organs was obtained as well as some hematological parameters. Results: In the carrageenan-induced inflammation, VPME (75 mg/kg exhibited a significant (66.67% inhibition after 1 h. On the complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, VPME showed a significant protective effect with 8.12% inflammation against 25.00% for the control group after 2 days of the treatment. The extract (75 and 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the score of arthritis with a maximum obtained on day 19 th of the experimentation. There was a significant increase in the reaction time of rats on the hot plate as well as the exploratory activities of the animals in the open field. This extract significantly prevented weight, hemoglobin and red blood cells losses, and spleen hypertrophy. A protective action against skin destruction and cartilage erosion was evident. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract revealed the presence of catechins. Conclusions: These findings suggested that V. paradoxa may contribute to the reduction of the inflammatory response.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of a methanol extract from Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Tsala, David Emery; Zogo Essono Bodo, J.C; Carine, Azanfack Name; Heroyne, Lissia Toussoumna; Oben, Eyong Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a traditional medicinal plant of Cameroon. Several studies on this plant have focused on the cosmetic profile of its fruits. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory potency of stem barks extract of this plant. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of V. paradoxa (VPME) stem barks on inflammatory response in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effects of VPME were evaluated in acute and chronic (28 days) inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. The effects on hyperalgesia and locomotors activity were also quantified. The relative weight of lymphoid organs was obtained as well as some hematological parameters. Results: In the carrageenan-induced inflammation, VPME (75 mg/kg) exhibited a significant (66.67%) inhibition after 1 h. On the complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, VPME showed a significant protective effect with 8.12% inflammation against 25.00% for the control group after 2 days of the treatment. The extract (75 and 150 mg/kg) significantly reduced the score of arthritis with a maximum obtained on day 19th of the experimentation. There was a significant increase in the reaction time of rats on the hot plate as well as the exploratory activities of the animals in the open field. This extract significantly prevented weight, hemoglobin and red blood cells losses, and spleen hypertrophy. A protective action against skin destruction and cartilage erosion was evident. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract revealed the presence of catechins. Conclusions: These findings suggested that V. paradoxa may contribute to the reduction of the inflammatory response. PMID:26692752

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  18. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extract from the Stem and Leaf of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae at Different Harvest Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Hwan Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from stems (S and leaves (L of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae, which were harvested in Korea on March 10, 2011 (S1 and L1, May 14, 2011 (S2 and L2, and July 5, 2011 (S3 and L3, respectively. Our results revealed that the total phenolic (79.55–103.94 mg CE/g extract and flavonoid (57.43–104.28 mg QE/g extract contents of leaf extract were higher (p < 0.01 than those of stem extract. Leaf extracts (L1, L2, and L3 exhibited stronger (p < 0.01 free radical scavenging activity (66.06, 63.71, and 72.19%, respectively than that of the positive control. In terms of antimicrobial activity, leaf extracts showed higher inhibitory effects against microorganisms than those of stem extracts (S1, S2, and S3. Among the leaf extracts at different harvest times, L3 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive strains. From these results, the leaf extract from I. balsamina L. might be a valuable bioactive resource, and would seem to be applicable as a natural antioxidant in food preservation.

  19. Effects of root and stem extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis on biochemical indicators related to aging in the brain and liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dasheng; Yu, Long-Xi; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Chunqiu; Xiong, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating lung and spleen-related diseases. In this study, we compared the medicinal effects of A. cochinchinensis root and stem extracts on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein content in the brain, liver and plasma of mice. Polysaccharides and aqueous extracts of the roots significantly increased the spleen index and the SOD activity but reduced the MDA content and slowed down the aging process. In contrast, feeding with the stem extracts significantly reduced the SOD activity and increased the MDA accumulation in the brain and liver of mice, suggesting that the stem extracts may not be appropriate for treating aging-related diseases.

  20. A traditional Chinese medicine formula extracts stimulate proliferation and inhibit mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Feng, Wenzhou; Cao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula extract, named as ZD-I, on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: When hMSCs cultivated in the basal medium with ZD-I, cell...... viability was assessed by MTT assay and cellular proliferation was assessed by SYBR green I assay. The effects of ZD-I on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs were assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization assay and real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: ZD-I (0.78-100 microg/ml) was non...

  1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark extract of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex Dc growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A bioactivity-guided investigation of the ethanolic extract (70% of the stem bark of Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb. ex DC revealed that the butanol fraction possessed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt. compared to metformin (150 mg/kg b.wt. and indomethacin (20 mg/kg b.wt. respectively. Two phenolic acids viz: gentisic (1 and gallic (3 acids and isoflavone genistin (2 were isolated for the first time from the studied plant adopting a bioactivity-guided fractionation. Identification of the isolated compounds was achieved using physical, chemical and spectroscopic data.

  2. Analgesic activity and acute toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium stem bark extracts using mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, G M; Hoskeri, H Joy; Krishna, V; Babu, P Suresh

    2011-01-01

    The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Semecarpus anacardium was investigated by tail flicking and writhing method using acetyl salicylic acid as the standard reference. The staircase method was adopted for the determination of the acute toxicity. LD(50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 700 mg/kg; however, the LD(50) for the methanol extract was 500 mg/kg. After 1 h of oral administration of the extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally and the analgesic activity was evaluated. The number of writhing observed in the control group was 73.33 writhes. The methanol extract showed a significant analgesic activity, with 28.33 writhes, than the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract. But, all the extracts showed proved to be less potent than the standard drug which showed 2.33 writhes. Animals pretreated with saline did not show a signify cant effect on the latent period of tail-flick response. The analgesic effect of the petroleum ether extract was comparatively less evident. The maximum possible analgesia (MPA) increased up to 9.1% which remained elevated above the basal levels throughout the observation period. The MPA calculated for the chloroform extract increased to 14.03%. However, the analgesic effect of the methanol extract was also observed at 0.5 h following oral administration and the effect remained significant throughout the 3 h observation period, and was increased to 20.43%. Consistent analgesic activity of all the three S. anacardium extracts was observed by both the methods. The methanol extract was more potent than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts but was less effective than the standard drug. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium.

  3. Alcohol- and water-based extracts obtained from [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] affect differently the number and metabolic activity of circulating granulocytes in Balb/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zdanowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] (RR rhizomes with roots extracts are traditional natural drugs originated from Asia and now commonly used as adaptogens and antidepressants. The aim of this work was to study the in vivo effect of aqueous (RRW and 50% hydro-alcoholic (RRA extracts on the number and metabolic activity of blood granulocytes in mice. Material and methods: Mice were fed for 7 days RR extract in daily doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg. The metabolic activity of blood granulocytes was determined by measuring of their luminol-dependent chemiluminescent activity in scintillation counter, after zymosan stimulation. Results: Number of blood granulocytes was diminished and their chemiluminescence was enhanced in all groups of mice fed[i] R.rosea[/i] hydro-alcoholic extract. Aqueous extract (RRW was ineffective in all doses applied. Conclusion: This study revealed difference in the number and metabolic activity of granulocytes mice fed RRA or RRW extracts. Immune characteristics of some individual compounds from RRA and RRW extracts, selected by HPLC analysis, should be carried out in the next experiments.

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids compounds from Chenopodium hybridum L. stem with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hu, H. B.; Wang, C. L.; Ma, S. R.; Zhang, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from the stem of Chenopodium hybridum L.(C.hybridum L.) was investigated in this paper. Significant technological parameters were screened and optimized by using Plackett-Burman (PB) design, Steepest ascent method and Box-Behnken (BB) design, respectively. A mathematical model with high correlation coefficient (R2=0.9896) was developed and showed good consistency between the experimental and predicted values. The optimum conditions for UAE were obtained by res- ponse surface methodology (RSM) as follows: volumn fraction of ethanol 76.62 %, extractive temperature 78.69°C, and liquid to solid ratio 58.43 for 30 min. Under these conditions, total flavo- noid content (TFC) of 9.4701 mg RE/100g were gained and it was closely related with predi- cted value (9.4640 mg RE/100g) and indicated the suitability of the developed model.

  5. Gills and skin histopathological evaluation in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Eneojo Abalaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological effects of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark was investigated in the gills and skin of African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus over a 96-h exposure period as an endpoint of toxicity. There was a significant (p  0.05 differences between gills DTC of the exposed and unexposed fish. However, lesions in the skin did not affect the normal functioning of the tissue but significant (p < 0.05 differences were recorded in the DTC between the skin of the exposed and the unexposed fish. The extract was toxic to the exposed fish and therefore, A. obesum can be used as a potent organic piscicide for effective fish pond management.

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio O Adefuye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50 using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW. Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (R f values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42 on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC 50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3, 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7, and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials.

  7. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  8. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo Elvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods : Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results : M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions : The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  9. Decitabine enhances stem cell antigen-1 expression in cigarette smoke extract-induced emphysema in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; He, Sheng-Dong; Ye, Ji-Ru; Liu, Da

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a mouse glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and a cell surface marker found on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Despite decades of study, its biological functions remain little known. Sca-1 is a typical marker of bone marrow-derived HSCs, it is also expressed by a mixture of tissue-resident stem, progenitor cells in nonhematopoietic organs. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) is a subtype of HSC and contributes to endothelial repair by homing in on locations of injury. Abnormal genetic methylation has been detected in smoking-related diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the lung function and histomorphology, the expression of Sca-1 gene in lung tissues, and bone marrow-derived EPCs in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysema mice, and to further determine whether Decitabine (Dec), the most widely used inhibitor of DNA methylation, could protect against the damages caused by CSE. The results of the present study demonstrated that Dec could partly protect against CSE-induced emphysema in mice, enhance Sca-1 expression in lung tissue, and bone marrow-derived EPCs. The results suggested that the depletion of the progenitor cell pool and DNA methylation of Sca-1 gene may be involved in the progression of emphysema in mice. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Phytochemical screening and study of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Dipak Raj; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Saru, Dil Bahadur; Yadav, Uday Narayan; Khanal, Dharma Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and to study the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium. Ethanol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:1) extracts of stem wood of P. marsupium were subjected to phytochemical screening and analysis of biological activities from August 2015 to January 2016. The antioxidant assay was carried out using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, antimicrobial activity testing by cup diffusion method, antidiabetic test evaluation by oral glucose tolerance test in mice, anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by hind paw edema method in mice and analgesic test evaluation by a chemical writhing method in mice. The results of the study revealed that P. marsupium is a source of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Both the acetone and IPA extract as well as the ethanol extract of stem wood of P. marsupium exhibited a dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Acetone and IPA extract showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, while the ethanolic extract was found to possess antidiabetic activity. The antidiabetic activity of the extract was found to be time and dose-dependent. Similarly, the acetone and IPA extract was found to have anti-inflammatory activity, which was also time and dose-dependent. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract showed analgesic activity, which was dose-dependent. The ethanolic extract was found to be nontoxic. Thus, this study laid sufficient background for the further research on extracts from stem wood of P. marsupium for identification, subsequent purification and isolation of compounds having antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities.

  11. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongi Saoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p. daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage.

  12. Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

    2001-09-01

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Krishna, T. Giridhara; David, E.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using biological systems is an expanding research area in nanotechnology. Moreover, search for new nanoscale antimicrobials is been always attractive as they find numerous avenues for application in medicine. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to those of conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis. Herein, we present the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the stem bark extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata, and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy. Stable ZnO nanoparticles were formed by treating 90 ml of 1 mM zinc nitrate aqueous solution with 10 ml of 10 % bark extract. The formation of B. ovalifoliolata bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (BZnNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and recorded the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 230 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed that primary and secondary amine groups in combination with the proteins present in the bark extract are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the BZnNPs. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanocrystals were determined by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter (20.3 nm) and a positive zeta potential (4.8 mV) were measured using the dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of BZnNPs was evaluated (in vitro) against fungi, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria using disk diffusion method which were isolated from the scales formed in drinking water PVC pipelines.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Naemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.   Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.  

  15. Anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Ocimum sanctum have been traditionally used for various ethno-veterinary practices as well as medicinal purpose. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal potential of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the bulb of O. sanctum was investigated. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and tannins were identified in phytochemical analyses. The various blood parameters coupled marker enzymes and antioxidant status were also evaluated during in vivo trial. Aqueous extract showed better EC50 and EC99 values in comparison with methanolic extract in egg hatch assay and larval development test, respectively. However, in the larval paralysis test, both aqueous and methanolic extracts showed almost similar efficacy. A 77.64% reduction in fecal egg output was observed on day 14. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the hematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  17. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract from the stem and leaf of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae) at different harvest times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Goo, Young-Min; Yang, Mi-Ra; Ibrahim, Rashid Ismael Hag; Cho, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Il-Suk; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-05-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from stems (S) and leaves (L) of Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), which were harvested in Korea on March 10, 2011 (S1 and L1), May 14, 2011 (S2 and L2), and July 5, 2011 (S3 and L3), respectively. Our results revealed that the total phenolic (79.55-103.94 mg CE/g extract) and flavonoid (57.43-104.28 mg QE/g extract) contents of leaf extract were higher (p extract. Leaf extracts (L1, L2, and L3) exhibited stronger (p activity (66.06, 63.71, and 72.19%, respectively) than that of the positive control. In terms of antimicrobial activity, leaf extracts showed higher inhibitory effects against microorganisms than those of stem extracts (S1, S2, and S3). Among the leaf extracts at different harvest times, L3 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive strains. From these results, the leaf extract from I. balsamina L. might be a valuable bioactive resource, and would seem to be applicable as a natural antioxidant in food preservation.

  19. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  20. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica (stems against anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalatha Reddy Dugasani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Mussaenda philippica against isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Six groups of six rat were selected for the study. Methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicaat a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg as well as silymarin (50 mg/kg were administered orally once daily for 14 d in isoniazid and rifampicin group. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were estimated along with total protein. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. The altered biochemical parameters were significantly reverting back by the methanolic extract treatment. Histopathology also supported the biochemical variation. From this study it has been concluded that the methanolic extract of Mussaendaphilippicashows significant hepatoprotective activity.

  2. Green corrosion inhibition of mild steel to aqueous sulfuric acid by the extract of Corchorus olitorius stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobara, Mohamed; Zaghloul, Basem; Baraka, Ahmad; Elsayed, Mohamed; Zorainy, Mahmoud; Mokhtar Kotb, Mohamed; Elnabarawy, Hany

    2017-04-01

    Extract of Corchorus olitorius stems (ECS) was used as a green inhibitor for the inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. GC/MS was used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the extract. The corrosion performance of the extract was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss. The results showed that ECS is a mixed-type inhibitor which reduces both anodic and cathodic reactions and the inhibition efficiency was reached up to 93%. Adsorption isotherm data was recorded at different temperatures and analyzed by selected adsorption isotherm models to reveal characteristics of inhibition. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, and decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of ECS on the mild steel surface was found to be spontaneous and exothermic. Adsorption is suggested to be physisorption according to El-Awady isotherm model. Also, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology to confirm the corrosion results.

  3. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sanchez-Botero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2 nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1 reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2 a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  4. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  5. Acellular bone marrow extracts significantly enhance engraftment levels of human hematopoietic stem cells in mouse xeno-transplantation models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Zibara

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC derived from cord blood (CB, bone marrow (BM, or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34(+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG. These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells.

  6. Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Olarewaju, Olaide Ibiwumi

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (prats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (prats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  8. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ru Zhang; Ka Ka; Ge-chen Zhang; Hui Zhang; Yan Shang; Guo-qiang Zhao; Wen-hua Huang

    2015-01-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic fac-tor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neuro-trophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve ifbers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when al-lografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cili-ary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury.

  9. The effect of 25% Mauli banana stem extract gel to increase the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mauli banana is a special plant of South Borneo that can be used as alternatif medicine for wound healing wound healing. Recent studies showed that Mauli banana stem contained some compound such as flavonoid, saponin, and tannin that had antibacterial and antiinflamation effect, and can accelerate the wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know the effect of 25% Mauli banana extract gel to the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa. Method: It was the real experimental with post test only control group design. It used 36 Sprague dawley rats that divided into 3 groups: the negative control group by giving aquadest, the positive control group by giving drug contain Aloe vera, and the treatment group by giving 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. Biopsy was done on day 3, 5, 7 and the preparat was made to measure the thickness of oral mucosa epithel by Image J software. Result: The result showed that 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem can increased the thickness of oral mucosa epithel on third day (51.26 µm, fifth days (108.49 µm, and seventh day (170.66 µm. The top thickness of mucosa epithel was on the seventh day. Two-ways Anova and Post Hoc LSD (p<0.05 showed the significant different between aquadest and 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem and drug contains Aloe vera are the aqual of meaningfull. Conclusion: 25%ethanol extract of Mauli banana can increase the epithelial thickness of wound healing procces in oral mucosa.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mbaebie BO; Edeoga HO; Afolayan AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods:The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results:The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  11. Effect of standardized extract ofCosinium fenestratum stem bark on liver and kidney function parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu; Adolph William Ndyeabura; Chiam Nyet Chiang; Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of standardized dichloromethane(DCM) extract ofCosinium fenestratum(C. fenestratum) stem bark on liver and kidney function parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Standardization of the extract was performed through high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) using berberine(BE) as marker compound.The standardizedC. fenestratum stem bark extract(SCFE) was administered orally at a dose of100 mg/kg toSTZ-induced diabetic rats for15 d.Results:The quantity ofBE in the extract was2.09% w/w.Blood glucose levels, blood urea nitrogen(BUN), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and creatinine were significantly(P<0.05) elevated inSTZ-induced diabetic rats as compared to normal control groups.Treatment of diabetic rats with the extract significantly(P<0.05) reduced,ALP, creatinine, andBUN levels as compared to the diabetic control group.The total white blood cells(WBC) count was reduced in diabetic rats.Treatment of diabetic rats withSCFE significantly(P<0.05) increased the totalWBC count as compared to the values of diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The observations of the present study show that extract of C. fenestratum stem bark has hepato-renal protective effect inSTZ-induced diabetic rats.

  12. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  13. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevine Kamga Silihe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg and methanol (50 mg/kg extracts significantly (p < 0.001 reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%, total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively, average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  14. Antioxidant, Iron Chelating and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Extracts from Talinum triangulare Leach Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Amorim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1, resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract.The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1. The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform.

  15. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic stem bark extract ofSchotia latifolia Jacq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Oyewole Oyedemi; Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract ofSchotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark commonly used in South Africa traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments.Methods: The antibacterial test andMIC was determined by using agar well diffusion and dilution methods respectively against eight strains of bacteria. The total phenol, proanthocyanidin and flavonoid contents ofS. latifolia were assessed using standard methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid(ABTS), nitric oxide(NO), hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)and lipid oxidation(LO).Results:The antibacterial activity demonstrated an appreciable effect against all the gram positive bacteria atMIC between0.016 and10 mg/mL while that of gram negative bacteria was above10 mg/mL. The plant extract exhibited high concentration of proanthocyanidin [(300.00±0.10) mgCE/g], followed by flavonoid [(12.46±0.04 mg) TE/g] and phenol [(11.06±0.03) mgQE/g] contents. Similarly, the extract at0.5 mg/mL scavenges DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LO andNO by87.55%, 89.47%, 77.15%, 86.48% and77.75% of the radicals respectively. The reducing power was also found to be concentration dependent.Conclusions:Our data suggest thatS. latifolia extract has antibacterial and antioxidants activity and thus could be used as alternative therapy against antibiotic resistance bacteria and to prevent many radical related diseases.

  16. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília P. Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  17. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora crispa has been used in folkloric medicine for the control of blood pressure. We previously found that an extract of Tinospora crispa and its constituents effect the heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim...... was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Tinospora crispa extract and bioactive components on the rat isolated left atria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-dried stems of Tinospora crispa were extracted with water, followed by partitioning with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and finally by n-butanol. The n......-butanol soluble material was concentrated and dried under reduced pressure and lyophilized to obtain a crude powder (Tinospora crispa extract). The active components of Tinospora crispa extract were separated by column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The effects and mechanisms of the n-butanol extract...

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  19. Intravenous Administration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Protein Extracts Improves Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Rui; Gu, Changcong; Liu, Long; Jia, Yulong; Guo, Xize; Zhang, Wanping; Pei, Chunying; Tian, Linlu; Li, Bo; Jia, Jianrong; Cheng, Huakun

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) substantially improves the neurological deficits during stroke by reducing neuronal injury, limiting proinflammatory immune responses, and promoting neuronal repair, which makes ADSC-based therapy an attractive approach for treating stroke. However, the potential risk of tumorigenicity and low survival rate of the implanted cells limit the clinical use of ADSC. Cell-free extracts from ADSC (ADSC-E) may be a feasible approach that could overcome these limitations. Here, we aim to explore the potential usage of ADSC-E in treating rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). We demonstrated that intravenous (IV) injection of ADSC-E remarkably reduces the ischemic lesion and number of apoptotic neurons as compared to other control groups. Although ADSC and ADSC-E treatment results in a similar degree of a long-term clinical beneficial outcome, the dynamics between two ADSC-based therapies are different. While the injection of ADSC leads to a relatively mild but prolonged therapeutic effect, the administration of ADSC-E results in a fast and pronounced clinical improvement which was associated with a unique change in the molecular signature suggesting that potential mechanisms underlying different therapeutic approach may be different. Together these data provide translational evidence for using protein extracts from ADSC for treating stroke.

  20. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-09-01

    Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 μg/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 μg/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity.

  1. Intravenous Administration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Protein Extracts Improves Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC substantially improves the neurological deficits during stroke by reducing neuronal injury, limiting proinflammatory immune responses, and promoting neuronal repair, which makes ADSC-based therapy an attractive approach for treating stroke. However, the potential risk of tumorigenicity and low survival rate of the implanted cells limit the clinical use of ADSC. Cell-free extracts from ADSC (ADSC-E may be a feasible approach that could overcome these limitations. Here, we aim to explore the potential usage of ADSC-E in treating rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. We demonstrated that intravenous (IV injection of ADSC-E remarkably reduces the ischemic lesion and number of apoptotic neurons as compared to other control groups. Although ADSC and ADSC-E treatment results in a similar degree of a long-term clinical beneficial outcome, the dynamics between two ADSC-based therapies are different. While the injection of ADSC leads to a relatively mild but prolonged therapeutic effect, the administration of ADSC-E results in a fast and pronounced clinical improvement which was associated with a unique change in the molecular signature suggesting that potential mechanisms underlying different therapeutic approach may be different. Together these data provide translational evidence for using protein extracts from ADSC for treating stroke.

  2. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  3. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapur, V P; Prabhakar, K R; Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Kandadi, Machendar Reddy; Ramakrishana, S; Mishra, B; Satish Rao, B S; Srinivasan, K K; Priyadarsini, K I; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol extract (FRE) and water extract (FRW) of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae) were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS(*-), hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79). Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy gamma-radiation resulted in a significant (P FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P FRE (20 mug/ml) 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy gamma-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  4. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veerapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract (FRE and water extract (FRW of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•-, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79. Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01 when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  5. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  6. Stem bark and flower extracts of Vismia cauliflora are highly effective antioxidants to human blood cells by preventing oxidative burst in neutrophils and oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Berto, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Chisté, Renan Campos; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2015-01-01

    Vismia cauliflora A.C.Sm. [Hypericaceae (Clusiaceae)] is an Amazonian plant traditionally used by indigenous population to treat dermatosis and inflammatory processes of the skin. Previous research on V. cauliflora extracts suggests its potential to neutralize cellular oxidative damages related to the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. To determine the activity of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora on the modulation of oxidative burst in human neutrophils, as well as its potential to inhibit oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. The modulation of neutrophil's oxidative burst by the ethanolic extracts (0.3-1000 µg/mL) was determined by the oxidation of specific probes by reactive species. Additionally, the potential of these extracts to inhibit oxidative damage in human erythrocytes was evaluated by monitoring its biomarkers of oxidative stress. Vismia cauliflora extracts presented remarkable capacity to prevent the oxidative burst in activated human neutrophils (IC50 < 15 µg/mL). However, the maximum percentage of inhibition achieved against hydrogen peroxide was 45%. Concerning the oxidative damage in human erythrocytes, the extracts were able to minimize the tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hemoglobin oxidation and lipid peroxidation in a very low concentration range (2.7-18 μg/mL). Furthermore, only stem bark extract (100 µg/mL) was able to inhibit the depletion of glutathione (13%). These results reinforce the therapeutic potential of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora to heal topical skin disease, namely in the treatment of neutrophil-related dermatosis and skin conditions related to oxidative stress, including skin aging.

  7. Polysaccharide extract of Mimosa tenuiflora stem barks stimulates acute inflammatory response via nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaira Emanuella Sales da Silva-Leite

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Mimosaceae or “jurema-preta” is well distributed in the northeast Brazil, being popularly used to treat skin lesions, burns and inflammation. The healing effect of the alcoholic extract prepared with its barks corroborates the popular use. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response of polysaccharides extracted from M. tenuiflora barks (EP-Mt by methanol/NaOH and ethanol precipitation. Inflammatory activity was assessed in rat models of acute inflammation (paw edema and peritonitis, by the following parameters: edema, vascular permeability, leukocyte migration, myeloperoxidase activity and pharmacological modulation of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. EP-Mt presented 3.8% yield, 41% carbohydrate and 0.34% protein. EP-Mt (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg kg-1 injected by subcutaneous route elicited paw edema that lasted from 30-420 min, with maximal effect at 1 mg kg-1 (40x vs. saline, and was inhibited by L-NAME (52% and dexamethasone (26%. EP-Mt (1 mg kg-1, via intraperitoneal stimulated leukocytes migration (2.2x, mainly neutrophils (6.5x and MPO activity (96%. The leukocyte migration elicited by EP-Mt was inhibited by dexamethasone (39% and L-NAME (38%. EP-Mt containing high carbohydrate content induces acute inflammation via nitric oxide, which open perspectives of application in pathological conditions of immunosuppression.

  8. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (−)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model. PMID

  9. Neuronal-like differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by striatal extracts from a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Qin; Wang Han; Zhigang Yu

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of Parkinson's disease was established by 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated from the femur and tibia, and were co-cultured with 10% and 60% lesioned or intact striatal extracts. The results showed that when exposed to lesioned striatal extracts, BMSCs developed bipolar or multi-polar morphologies, and there was an increase in the percentage of cells that expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Moreover, the percentage of NSE-positive cells increased with increasing concentrations of lesioned striatal extracts. However, intact striatal extracts only increased the percentage of GFAP-positive cells. The findings suggest that striatal extracts from Parkinson's disease rats induce BMSCs to differentiate into neuronal-like cells in vitro.

  10. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.

  11. Study on extraction condition of total flavones from marigold stem%接骨木茎总黄酮的提取条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 赵杰

    2012-01-01

    用乙醇回流提取接骨木茎总黄酮,用分光光度法进行含量测定.考察了料液比、乙醇浓度、提取时间、提取温度对接骨木茎总黄酮提取率的影响.结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:料液比1∶40(g/mL),乙醇浓度50%,提取时间1.5h,提取温度70℃,提取次数1次,提取率为0.566%.%The total flavones from marigold stem was extracted by alcohol refluxing. The spectrophotomet-ric method was used to determine the content. The effect of material/liquid ratio, alcohol concentration, extraction time,temperature on extraction rate of total flavones from marigold stem were studied. The results indicated that the optimum conditions were as follows: materal/liquid ratio 1:40 (g/mL), alcohol concentration 50% , extraction time 1. 5 h, extration tempertare 70℃, extraction times 1. The extraction rate was 0.566%.

  12. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  13. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC. A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI with a correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  14. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE and its bioactive compounds, including (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  15. Cudrania tricuspidata Stem Extract Induces Apoptosis via the Extrinsic Pathway in SiHa Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sae-Bom; Kim, Min-Je; Yang, Jin Mo; Lee, Hee-Pom; Hong, Jin Tae; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Kim, Eun Suk; Yoon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study is the anti-cancer effects of Cudrania tricuspidata stem (CTS) extract on cervical cancer cells. The effect of CTS on cell viability was investigated in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells and HaCaT human normal keratinocytes. CTS showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in cervical cancer cells. However, there was no cytotoxic effect of CTS on HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations of 0.125-0.5 mg/mL. Based on this cytotoxic effect, we demonstrated that CTS induced apoptosis by down-regulating the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes. Apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining, annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell cycle analysis, western blotting, RT-PCR, and JC-1 staining in SiHa cervical cancer cells. The mRNA expression levels of extrinsic pathway molecules such as Fas, death receptor 5 (DR5), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were increased by CTS. Furthermore, CTS treatment activated caspase-3/caspase-8 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). However, the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression levels of intrinsic pathway molecules such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, and cytochrome C were not modulated by CTS. Taken together, these results indicate that CTS induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway, but not the intrinsic pathway, in SiHa cervical cancer cells. These results suggest that CTS can be used as a modulating agent in cervical cancer.

  16. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisoo; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, JaeHwan; Heo, Seung Chul; Lee, Kook Lae; Choi, Sang-Woon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-07-21

    Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133⁺CD44⁺ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133⁺CD44⁺ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  17. Role of the water extract from Coccinia indica stem on the stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaweewan Jansakul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effect of Coccinia indica used for treatment of diabetes in traditional remedies has known to relate with increased transport of glucose into peripheral tissues. However, the cellular mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. This present study reports that the water extract (WE of C. indica stem exhibited a dose-dependent induction of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG uptake in rat L8 myotubes. Maximal uptake was observed with approximately 3-fold increase in 2-DG transport in 16 h treatment compared with the control. Effect of WE was stronger than that of 1 mM metformin. The effects of insulin and WE were additive. WE-induced glucose uptake was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide and partially reversed by SB203580. GLUT1 protein was markedly increased in response to WE. Conversely, WE had no effect on GLUT4 protein level. Redistribution of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was demonstrated. Triterpenoids and carbohydrates were detected in WE. In conclusion, new GLUT1 protein synthesis is necessary for WEstimulated glucose transport while p38-MAPK-dependent activation of transporter intrinsic activity partly contributes to WE action. These results may explain and support the use of C. indica for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  18. Cryptomphalus aspersa Mollusc Egg Extract Promotes Regenerative Effects in Human Dermal Papilla Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alameda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs and play a role on tissue repair and regeneration. We have tested HHDPCs proliferation by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay; cell migration by using a wound healing assay, as well as the modulation of the expression of cytoskeletal (F-actin and vimentin and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM (vinculin and P-FAK proteins. We also explored whether e-CAF could lead HHDPCs to keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts by evaluating the expression of specific markers. We have compared these e-CAF effects with those induced by TGFβ1, implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and migration. e-CAF promotes proliferation and migration of HDDPCs cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it also increases the migratory behavior and the expression of adhesion molecules. These results support the fact that e-CAF could play a role on skin regeneration and be used for the prevention or repair of damaged tissue, either due to external causes or as a result of cutaneous aging.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocephalus cadamba (ReboxMiq. (Rubiaceae is widely distributed throughout the greater part of India, especially at low levels in wet place. Traditionally the bark is used as tonic, febrifuge and to reduce the pain and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract obtained from  Anthocephalus cadamba  aerial parts, MEAC, were investigated in this study. Design and methods: The effects of MEAC on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin induced paw edema and cotton pallet-induced granuloma, respectively. The anti-edema effect of MEAC was compared with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally. Results: The results suggested that MEAC possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. The acute inflammatory model showed that all the doses of MEAC effectively suppressed the edema produced by histamine, so it may be suggested that its anti-inflammatory activity is possibly backed by its antihistaminic activity. In chronic inflammatory model the effect may be due to the cellular migration to injured sites and accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharide. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that  Anthocephalus cadamba  is an anti-inflammatory agent and the results are in agreement with its traditional use.

  20. TOTAL PHENOLICS, TOTAL TANNINS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA FISTULA L. EXTRACTS OF BARK, STEM, LEAF AND ROOT UNDER DIFFERENT AGE CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI TZEKIAT, LIEW KANG CHIANG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L. bark, stem, leaf and root under different age classes namely Class A (2-3years, Class B (5-10 years and Class C (10-15 years were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC,total tannin content (TTC and antioxidant activity (AA. Both total phenolic content (TPC and total tannincontent (TTC were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assays and antioxidant activity (AA was carried out byFree Radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. From the study, higher TPC, TTC and AA wereobserved in Cassia fistula bark extracts compare to otherportion extracts (stem, leaf and root. Bark extractsfrom three different age classes, showed total means of 16.67 % TPC and 3.12% TTC. In addition, bark extractsfrom three different age classes also showed high antioxidant activity (AA with mean IC50 values of 0.04g/ml.

  1. Phytochemical study bioguided by the myorelaxant activity of the crude extract from stem bark of Hymenaea courbaril L (JatobÃ).

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrieli da Penha Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae), popularly known as "Jatoba", is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma. This study evaluated the effect of H. courbaril on the contractile of rat isolated trachea, as well as its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, through an interdisciplinary study bioguided by myorelaxant activity of the ethanol extract from stem bark (EEHC). Chromatoghrafic fractionation of EEHC resulted in fractions of increasing polarit...

  2. GC/MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIETHYL ETHER FRACTION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM THE STEM BARK OF ANNONA SENEGALENSIS PERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Awa*, S. Ibrahim and D. A. Ameh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Diethyl ether fraction of the Methanolic extract of Annona senegalensis (Pers stem bark was prepared in yield of (0.16%. Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of two spots with antimicrobial activity. Subsequent GC/MS analysis of these spots resulted in the identification of ten components (spot one and fourteen components (spot two. The fraction showed significant antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli, S. enteriditis and S. dysenteriae.

  3. The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Modaresi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C mice weighing 30 ± 5 g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased (<0.05. As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(<0.05. The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (<0.01. 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and in 200 mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance.

  4. The Effect of Taraxacum officinale Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, Mehrdad; Resalatpour, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae and has medicinal and culinary uses. Dandelion has been used as a remedy for anemia, purifing the blood, and providing immune modulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro alcoholic extract on blood cells in mice. Methods. Five groups each including ten adult female (Balb/C) mice weighing 30 ± 5 g were chosen. Normal saline was administered as placebo for group, and dandelion hydro alcoholic extract in doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to test groups and the last group was control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet, and other cells were measured with automated cell counter. Main Results. The number of RBC and the rate of HB in three doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05). As compared with control group, the number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significantly in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with control group(P < 0.05). The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with control group (P < 0.01). 3 doses of dandelion increased lymphocyte numbers significantly compared with controls. Conclusion. The study indicates efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and HB in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg and in 200 mg/kg on WBC to achieve normal body balance.

  5. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  6. Evaluation of the larvicidal activity of extracts obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lúcia da Cunha e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the public health problems affecting the human population, at the national and world levels, dengue fever stands out, whose primary vector of the virus is Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. For reducing the population density of this vector, an integrated control is recommended and, as an element of this control, the use of insecticides. However, this practice has led to the selection of resistant insect populations. Thus, there is a need to seek alternative insecticides that can contribute to control this vector. This study aimed to evaluate the larvicidal potential of an extract obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius against larvae of A. aegypti, as well as conduct a phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract and the hexane, dichloromethanic, and hydroalcoholic fractions, besides ethyl acetate, were tested on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. The biological assays revealed the larvicidal effectiveness of the extract of the stem of C. linearifolius against A. aegypti, especially the dichloromethanic and hexane fractions. Phytochemical screening showed the presence in the ethanolic extract of strong fixed acids, alkaloids, catechins, free steroids, flavonoids, flavones, resins, condensed tannins, and xanthones.

  7. Evaluation of in vivo anti-inflmmatory and analgesic activity of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. and Shorea robusta stem bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Amol Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of stem bark extract of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. (D. indica f. elongata and its comparison with Shorea robusta Gaertn. (S. robusta and respective standard drugs in experimental animals. Methods: Analgesic models (hot plate, tail flick and formalin induced paw licking along with acute (carrageenan-induced and chronic (formalin-induced models of inflammation were evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant extracts. Results: The results of the study showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg possessed good central as well as peripheral analgesic activity as compared with pentazocine and indomethacin (10 mg/kg respectively. The extracts showed significant (P < 0.01 activity in carrageenan- and formalininduced chronic inflammation models by using indomethacin (8 mg/kg and diclofenac (13.5 mg/kg as standard drugs respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the presence of major constituents like flavonoids, tannins and phenols in the ethyl acetate extracts of stem bark of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg may be responsible for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity.

  8. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-04-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. ( Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125-500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125-500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated group

  9. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santiago Dimech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE, hydroalcoholic (HE, and aqueous fraction (AF showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  10. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  11. Cudrania tricuspidata Stem Extract Induces Apoptosis via the Extrinsic Pathway in SiHa Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Bom Kwon

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the anti-cancer effects of Cudrania tricuspidata stem (CTS extract on cervical cancer cells. The effect of CTS on cell viability was investigated in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells and HaCaT human normal keratinocytes. CTS showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in cervical cancer cells. However, there was no cytotoxic effect of CTS on HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations of 0.125-0.5 mg/mL. Based on this cytotoxic effect, we demonstrated that CTS induced apoptosis by down-regulating the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes. Apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining, annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell cycle analysis, western blotting, RT-PCR, and JC-1 staining in SiHa cervical cancer cells. The mRNA expression levels of extrinsic pathway molecules such as Fas, death receptor 5 (DR5, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL were increased by CTS. Furthermore, CTS treatment activated caspase-3/caspase-8 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. However, the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression levels of intrinsic pathway molecules such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, and cytochrome C were not modulated by CTS. Taken together, these results indicate that CTS induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway, but not the intrinsic pathway, in SiHa cervical cancer cells. These results suggest that CTS can be used as a modulating agent in cervical cancer.

  12. Cytotoxicity study of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis (Garcinia cowa Roxb.) on T47D breast cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elidahanum; Husni; Faras; Nahari; Yan; Wirasti; Fatma; Sri; Wahyuni; Dachriyanus

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis[Garcinia cowa Roxb.(G.cowa)]on T47 D breast cancer cell line.Methods:The cytotoxicity of ethanol extract was carried out against human breast cancer cell line(T47D) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay.The extract was added at various concentrations(0.1.1,10 and 100 μg/mL).The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50,that was based on the percentage of the cell death after 24 h treatment with the extract.Cell morphological changes were observed by using inverted microscope.Results:The 3-(4.5-dimelhylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltelrazolium bromide assay showed that ethanol extract of G.cowa exhibited significant cytotoxic effect on T47 D with IC50 value of(5.10+1.68) μg/mL.Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure to ethanol extract of G.cowa was observed under phase contrast microscope in a dosc-dependent manner.ConclusionsThe results suggest the possible use of ethanol extract of asam kandis for preparing herbal medicine for cancer-related ailments.

  13. Study on extraction technology of marigold stem polysaccharides%接骨木茎多糖的提取条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 赵杰

    2011-01-01

    以接骨木茎为原料,采用水浸提法提取,用苯酚-硫酸法测定多糖含量.探讨了浸提温度、pH值、料液比和浸提时间等因素对多糖提取率的影响.结果表明,最优提取条件为:料液比为1∶20(g∶ mL),温度为85℃,提取时间为3h,提取液的pH值为6.0和1次浸提,其提取率为10.21%.%With the marigold stems as raw material,this experiment adopted the method of immersion ex traction to extract polysaccharides, and used the method of phenol-sulfuric acid to determine the content of polysaccharides. The effect of immersion extraction temperature, pH value, ratio of material to liquid and extraction time on the extraction rate of polysaccharide was studied. The optimal condition was as follows; ratio of materials to liquid was 1:20,temperature was 85℃ .extraction time was 3 h,the pH was 6.0 and extracting one times,the extraction rate was 10.21%.

  14. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  15. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Muell. stem in rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rakib Hasan; Nizam Uddin; Md. Monir Hossain; Md. Mahadi Hasan; Md. Emtiaz Yousuf; Swagata Sarker Lopa; Tasmina Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus stem in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus stem was tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats.Results:Presence of different types of phytochemicals was identified in the extract. The extract has moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50=(2.038±0.033) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. The does 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced (P<0.0100) fasting blood glucose level in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, both 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses showed good hypoglycemic activity (P<0.0001) like glibenclamide in each specific hour after administration. Overall time effect in oral glucose tolerance test was found extremely significant (P<0.0001) with F (3, 48) value=202.4.Conclusions:These findings suggest that this plant may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  16. In vitro anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the stem barks of Berlinia confusa (C. Hoyle and identification of its active constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Lasisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of EtOAc extract from the stem bark of Berlinia confusa yielded a new and two known polysaturated monoacylglycerides characterised as 1-O-docosanoyl-sn-glyceride (3, 1-O-(13-methyltetradecanoyl-sn-glycerol (4 and 1-O-pentadecacanoyl-sn-glycerol (5; along with the known compounds betulinic acid (1 and sitosteryl-β-d-glucoside (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using analytical methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR together with MS spectroscopy. The extracts and isolated compounds demonstrated concentration-dependent anthelmintic activities against Fusciola gigantica (liver flukes and Taenia solium (tapeworm at 10–100 mg/ml. The extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a small panel of three human tumour cell lines.

  17. Development and validation of an HPLC-method for the determination of alkaloids in the stem bark extract of Nauclea pobeguinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooghe, L; Mesia, K; Kohtala, E; Tona, L; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Apers, S

    2008-07-15

    A new method was developed and validated for the quantification of strictosamide in the extract of the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii. This plant belongs to the Rubiaceae family and is widely used in the African traditional medicine against malaria and malaria-like symptoms. Alkaloids are suspected to be responsible for the antimalarial activity. One of these alkaloids is strictosamide, already reported to be the major constituent in the root bark of this plant. Because strictosamide was not commercially available another alkaloid, ajmalicine HCl, with comparable properties was used as a secondary standard. The samples of the dried 80% ethanol extract from the stem bark of N. pobeguinii were purified on C(18) solid phase extraction cartridges and analysed using HPLC-UV. The strictosamide used for the validation of the correction factor for response was isolated and purified by means of preparative HPLC and TLC. Although the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 2.6% was still acceptable, the response factor was determined for every analysis based on the ratio of the peak area of strictosamide compared to the peak area of ajmalicine HCl in a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml. The precision of the method according to the time and the concentration, had a R.S.D. value of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The recovery of the method was 92.2% (R.S.D. of 9.4%) which was acceptable. The method has been proven to be suitable for the determination of alkaloids in the extract of the stem bark of N. pobeguinii, according to the ICH guidelines on the validation of analytical methods.

  18. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketsuwan N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitinet Ketsuwan,1 Jirakrit Leelarungrayub,1 Suchart Kothan,2 Supawatchara Singhatong3 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Radiologic Technology, 3Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Abstract: Vernonia cinerea (VC Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs, from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (--epigallocatechin [EGC], flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC, the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl, with a dose

  19. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  20. Immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn in a contaminated soil using eggshell and banana stem amendments: metal leachability and a sequential extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mehrnaz; Mohamad, Sharifah; Yusoff, Ismail; Shahul Hamid, Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-metal-contaminated soil is one of the major environmental pollution issues all over the world. In this study, two low-cost amendments, inorganic eggshell and organic banana stem, were applied to slightly alkaline soil for the purpose of in situ immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn. The artificially metal-contaminated soil was treated with 5% eggshell or 10% banana stem. To simulate the rainfall conditions, a metal leaching experiment for a period of 12 weeks was designed, and the total concentrations of the metals in the leachates were determined every 2 weeks. The results from the metal leaching analysis revealed that eggshell amendment generally reduced the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the leachates, whereas banana stem amendment was effective only on the reduction of Cd concentration in the leachates. A sequential extraction analysis was carried out at the end of the experiment to find out the speciation of the heavy metals in the amended soils. Eggshell amendment notably decreased mobility of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the soil by transforming their readily available forms to less accessible fractions. Banana stem amendment also reduced exchangeable form of Cd and increased its residual form in the soil.

  1. Studies on the antibacterial activity of Khaya senegalensis [(Desr.) A. Juss)] stem bark extract on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi [(ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvanus Chukwudi Ugoh; Oluwabunmi Olaitan Agarry; Samuel Alimi Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the stem bark extracts ofKhaya senegalensis (K. senegalensis) against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. Methods: The plant components were extracted using methanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the stem bark extracts were carried out using a standard method. The antibacterial assay of the stem bark extracts against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) using the agar well diffusion method with different concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/mL and the corresponding concentrations of the control was carried out and the result compared with a standard antibiotic, amoxicillin as the control.Results:The results obtained from the phytochemical screening of the three plant bark extracts of K. senegalensis showed 10 plant secondary metabolites including saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, aldehyde, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and anthroquinones. The ethanol and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi at concentration of 50 mg/mL with the zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) of 14 mm and 15 mm respectively. The ethanol and aqueous extracts also showed zone diameter of inhibition of 23 mm and 25 mm respectively at 250 mg/mL and 27 mm each at 500 mg/mL. The ethanol and aqueous stem bark extracts gave the highest ZDI at 500 mg/mL while 100 mg/mL gave the least ZDI for ethanol extract and 50 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. This was followed by 400 mg/mL that gave 24 mm ZDI of the aqueous extract and 27 mm of the ethanol extract. The methanol extract showed intermediate susceptibility evidenced by ZDI of 10 mm at 100 mg/mL concentration. The methanol extract also showed antibacterial activity of 24 mm ZDI against the test organism at a higher concentration of 250 mg/mL and 26 mm at 500 mg/mL concentration. The methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi with

  2. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oyedemi SO; Adewusi EA; Aiyegoro OA; Akinpelu DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzeliaafricana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results: The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage.

  3. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHADRAPURA LAKKAPPA DHANANJAYA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2 activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml, it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, S O; Adewusi, E A; Aiyegoro, O A; Akinpelu, D A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage.

  6. Antioxidant and Prophylactic Effects of Delonix elata L., Stem Bark Extracts, and Flavonoid Isolated Quercetin against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae, is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST. These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims.

  7. GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-01-15

    Volatiles in Rabdosia serra were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE). The HS-SPME technique was previously evaluated to optimise sampling conditions. A total of 56 and 48 compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acid, ester, and aromatics were identified in leaf and stem by optimised HS-SPME method (CAR/PDMS fibre; incubation time, 10 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 40 min), respectively. 1-Octen-3-ol and (2E)-hexenal had significant contribution to R. serra aroma. Cluster analysis indicated that leaf and stem exhibited different volatile diversity. Air drying was favourable for the retention of the volatiles, while freeze- and sun-drying led to the loss of volatiles. SDE method preferred to the analysis of compounds with low volatility including fatty acids and esters. HS-SPME was a useful technique for the analysis of readily volatile components for the characteristics of R. serra aroma.

  8. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis(Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined and histological changes evaluated. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of F. agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  9. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  10. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P Sodium chloride; K3Fe(CN)6: Potassium ferricyanide; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; H: Hour; BW: Body weight, W1 and W2: Weeks 1 and 2; CHOD: Cholesterol oxidase; GPO: Glycerol-3 Phosphate oxidase; PAP: Phenol + Aminophenazone

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  12. Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

    2012-07-01

    Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna.

  13. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula foetida stems on blood pressure and oxidative stress in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Leila; Ghannadi, Alireza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Vahidian, Mohammad Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. is one of the most widespread and important Ferula species with nutritional and medicinal applications. Some phytochemicals with helpful cardiovascular effects have been isolated from Ferula species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the stems of F. foetida in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of Dex (30 µg/kg) for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral F. foetida extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) for 4 days prior to Dex administration and during the test period (Days 1-18). In a treatment study, F. foetida extract was administered from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail-cuff method. The thymus weight was measured as an indicator of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples. Dex-induced hypertensive rats showed significant increases in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and decreases in the body and thymus weights and in FRAP value (P<0.001). Administration of F. foetida extract significantly prevented and reversed hypertension at all doses. It also increased plasma FRAP value (P<0.001) but failed to decrease plasma H2O2 concentration. These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of F. foetida stem extract in Dex-induced hypertension. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of antihypertensive effect of this traditional phytomedicine.

  14. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Stem Bark of Adansonnia digitata Extract on Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tanko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of methanolic stem bark extract of Adansonnia digitata in Wistar rats has been  investigated. Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extract at the doses of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally administered on Streptozocin diabetes Wistar rats. Treatment of streptozocin diabetic Wistar rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.05 reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control. The dose of 100mg/kg shown a significant decreased (p<0.05 after 1, 3 5 and 7 hours of extract administration when compared to control normal saline. Also the dose of 200 mg/kg shown a significant decreased (p<0.05 after 3, 5 and 7 hours of extract administration. The dose of 400 mg/kg also shown a significant decreased( p<0.05 after 5 and 7 hours of extract administration when compared to control normal saline. The highest activity resides at the dose of 100 mg/kg with percentage glycemic change of 51 % after 7 hours of extract administration while the other two doses 200 and 400 mg/kg have glycemic change of 39% and 31% respectively after 7 hours of extract administration. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, carbohydrate, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The median lethal dose ( LD50 in mice was calculated to be 1264.9 mg/kg bodyweight. This result suggests that the methanolic stem bark of Adansonnia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on streptozocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.   Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes and others ailments because of the hazardous adverse effect of the current therapy used to treat those ailments using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic hypoglycemic agents. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the

  15. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  16. Single-Step RNA Extraction from Different Hydrogel-Embedded Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Natascha; Schmiermund, Alexandra; Grubelnig, Stefan; Leber, Jasmin; Ehlicke, Franziska; Czermak, Peter; Salzig, Denise

    2016-06-01

    For many tissue engineering applications, cells such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) must be embedded in hydrogels. The analysis of embedded hMSCs requires RNA extraction, but common extraction procedures often produce low yields and/or poor quality RNA. We systematically investigated four homogenization methods combined with eight RNA extraction protocols for hMSCs embedded in three common hydrogel types (alginate, agarose, and gelatin). We found for all three hydrogel types that using liquid nitrogen or a rotor-stator produced low RNA yields, whereas using a microhomogenizer or enzymatic/chemical hydrogel digestion achieved better yields regardless of which extraction protocol was subsequently applied. The hot phenol extraction protocol generally achieved the highest A260 values (representing up to 40.8 μg RNA per 10(6) cells), but the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method produced RNA of better quality, with A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and UV spectra similar to the pure RNA control. The RNA produced by this method was also suitable as a template for endpoint and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), achieving low Ct values of ∼20. The prudent choice of hydrogel homogenization and RNA extraction methods can ensure the preparation of high-quality RNA that generates reliable endpoint and quantitative RT-PCR data. We therefore propose a universal method that is suitable for the extraction of RNA from cells embedded in all three hydrogel types commonly used for tissue engineering.

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  18. Antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Cyathula prostrata (L Blume against some human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of aqueous (cold and hot and ethanolic extracts of leaf stem bark and root of Cyathula prostrata were investigated against some human clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans using the Agar well diffusion method at extract concentration of 25mg/ml. Ciprofloxacin(5 and #956;g/ml and Fluconazole (20 and #956;g/ml drugs was used as positive reference standards to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Results obtained showed that all the test isolates were inhibited by various fractions of the leaf, root and stem bark extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the different plant parts were not significantly different (P<0.05, though the greatest activities were observed with the ethanolic fractions (14.0-25.5 mm, followed by the hot water (12.0-24.2 mm and cold extracts (13.0-18.5 mm. An inhibition range of 24.0-25.5mm and 28.5mm were observed from ciprofloxacin and fluconazole drugs respectively. The percentage susceptibility of the most sensitive bacterial isolate (E. coli, was 95.9% while the least (K. pneumoniae had 40.0% sensitivity. Candida albicans had a percentage susceptibility of 57.5%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranged between 400 and 800 and #956;g/ml. The observed phytochemical compounds were saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. This study has justified the applications of Cyathula prostrata in the traditional herbal medicines and therefore holds a promise as a potential source of novel broad spectrum drug for treating infectious diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 35-43

  19. In vivo antioxidant effect of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana in CCl4 induced liver damage rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; James Dorcas Bolanle; Sallau Balarebe Abdullahi; Ozigi Abdulrahaman Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The antioxidant effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. Methods: A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (148 mg·ml-1·kg-1 body weight) as a 1:1 (v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of V. doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weighy per showed that the induction with CCl4, significantly (P0.05) difference between TBARS, SOD and CAT in the liver of the induced treated groups and normal control group. In the kidney, TBARS showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the normal and the induced groups, SOD was significantly CAT compared with the normal control except in the kidney of animals treated with stem extract animals, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in the liver and kidney level of TBARS, SOD and not treated group. The studies also showed that when the extracts were administered to normal was significantly (P<0.05) increased in root and vitamin E groups when compared to induced (P<0.05) reduced in the CCl4 group compared to standard drug and normal control groups, CAT where TBARS was significantly (P<0.05) lowered compared to control group. Conclusion: The result of the present study suggests that application of V. doniana plant would play an important role in increasing the antioxidant effect and reducing the oxidative damage that formed both in liver and in kidney tissues. However stem bark has potential to improve renal function in normal rats.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle and silver based chitosan bionanocomposite using stem extract of Saccharum officinarum and assessment of its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Pavunraj, Manickam; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2017-09-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles and nanocomposites using green route is a major focus of modern nanotechnology. Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of silver nanoparticle and silver based chitosan bionanocomposite using the stem extract of Saccharum officinarum. The absorbance peak at 460 nm in the UV-Vis spectrum reveals the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the stem extract of Saccharum officinarum. The size of the synthesized silver nanoparticle was in the range of 10-60 nm obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The presence of silver nanoparticles on the chitosan suspension was identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The presence of possible functional group involved in the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized silver based chitosan bionanocomposite was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 3053), Klebsiella planticola (MTCC 2277), Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 8043), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). The antibacterial activity of silver based chitosan bionanocomposite has remarkable scope in medicine, food packaging, textile and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  2. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana(A. Rich.) Engl.(Burseraceae) and Loeseneriella africana(Willd.)(Celastraceae) stem leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Compaoré; Roland Ng-Tiéro Meda; Sahabi Bakasso; Laurian Vlase; Martin Kiendrebeogo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as to determine the flavonoids and phenolic acids content of active fractions.Methods: Two medicinal plant samples were extracted successively in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol and n-butanol. Five methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was done through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes(COX-1 and COX-2).Polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by using a spectrophotometrical and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS) methods.Results: The data showed that the stem leaves extracts of Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana possessed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polar extracts had radical scavenging effects and they reduced iron(III). The prostaglandin production was significantly stopped by acetonitrile and methanol extracts.These biological activities were supported by some bioactive compounds quantified by using the HPLC-MS. p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin,rutin, kaempferol and apigenin were the most metabolites quantified.Conclusions: The present study may explain the effectiveness of plants in traditional medicine of Burkina Faso, singularly Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana.The next investigation was to sub-fractionate the methanol fraction in order to isolate new antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.

  3. Comparative study of in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical composition of Sida cuneifolia fruits, leaves, and stem bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalubega

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The study provides scientific evidence for ethno-veterinary use of S. cuneifolia leaves, fruits and stem bark, and this can be exploited in the transformative development of ethno-medicine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 781-788

  4. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, M C; Dzeufiet, P D D; Nana, P; Kouambou Nouga, C C; Ngueguim Tsofack, F; Allard, J; Blaes, N; Siagat, R; Zapfack, L; Girolami, J P; Tack, I; Kamtchouing, P; Dimo, T

    2011-01-27

    Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) is used in Cameroonian traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia to treat hypertension, diabetes, gastrointestinal parasitizes and cutaneous diseases. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous stem bark extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii by determining toxicity after acute and sub-chronic oral administration in male and female rodents. The acute toxicity test was conducted in mice. An aqueous extract of barks was administrated by gavage in single doses of 2.5-12.5 g/kg. General behaviour and mortality were examined for up to 7 days. The sub-chronic toxicity test was performed in rats. The plant extract was administered by daily gavage of 150-600 mg/kg for 42 days. Body weight, food and water intakes were followed weekly. Haematological, biochemical and organ parameters were determined at the end of the 42-day administration. In the acute study in mice, oral administration of the aqueous extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii caused dose-dependent general behaviour adverse effects and mortality. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the extract was 5.0 g/kg. The lowest-observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 7.5 mg/kg. Mortality increased with the dose, LD(50) was>10.75 g/kg for the mouse. In the sub-chronic study in rats, daily oral administration of the aqueous extract of Pterocarpus soyauxii did not result in death or significant changes in haematological or biochemical parameters, excepted increased hepatic catalase activity (PPterocarpus soyauxii Taub had very low toxicity in oral acute high dose administration and no toxicity in oral sub-chronic low dose administration and indicate that the plant could be considered safe for oral medication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  6. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38-300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub have potent (compared to Glibenclamide) antidiabetic effects in STZ-diabetic rats, with specific kinetics and dose-responses.Moderate hypoglycemia effects upon acute P. soyauxii administration.Potent anti-hyperglycemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Potent anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Improved hepatic and renal serum parameters after sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.P. soyauxii extracts may be useful for oral treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Abbreviations Used: CH2Cl2/CH3OH: Dichloromethane/Methanol; STZ: Streptozotocin; GB: Glibenclamide; AE: Aqueous extract; OE: Organic extract; FeCl3: Iron (III) chloride; NaCl: Sodium chloride; K3Fe(CN)6: Potassium ferricyanide; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; H: Hour; BW: Body weight, W1 and W2: Weeks 1 and 2; CHOD: Cholesterol oxidase; GPO: Glycerol-3 Phosphate oxidase; PAP: Phenol + Aminophenazone.

  7. Comparative Study of Sedative and Anxiolytic Effects of Herbal Extracts of Hypericum perforatum with Nardostachys jatamansi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nardostachys and hypericum due to the effects of sedation, anticonvulsant, analgesic and anti-depressants has especial place in traditional medicine. Principal component and the alkaloid extract of valerian and isovalerate, valeric acid and the extract of hypericum is hypersin and hyperforin. Materials and Methods: We conducted this study, valerian rhizome by chloroform: methanol (70:30 was extracted in order to obtain total extract produced the N-hexane and studied chemically have been took by Gc-Ms. Hydro-alcoholic extract of aerial valerian tea was prepared for study. In order to study the comparative effects of soothing extracts of valerian and hypericum in different groups of female rat extract of valerian with doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and extracts of hypericum with a dose of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and DMSO (control with the same volume of 15 minutes prior to the assessment of sedative and sleep (sleep duration induced with ketamine dose and 40 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally. Results: The results indicate a significant increase in sleep time induced by ketamine in the treatment groups with high and low doses of valerian extracts and the hypericum is significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusion: The results show that the extract of valerian in the dose of 200 mg/kg in compress of dose of hypericum 500 mg/kg contains the significant anesthetic effects.

  8. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Schmitz, H-J; Baumgart, A; Guédon, D; Netsch, M I; Kreuter, M-H; Schmidlin, C B; Schrenk, D

    2005-02-01

    Recent reports on sporadic cases of liver disorders (acute hepatitis, icterus, hepatocellular necrosis) after ingestion of dietary supplements based on hydro-alcoholic extracts from green tea leaves led to restrictions of the marketing of such products in certain countries of the EU. Since green tea is considered to exert a number of beneficial health effects, and, therefore, green tea products are widely used as dietary supplements, we were interested in the possible mechanism of hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts and in the components involved in such effects. Seven hours after seeding on collagen, rat hepatocytes in primary culture were treated with various hydro-alcoholic green tea extracts (two different native 80% ethanolic dry extracts and an 80% ethanolic dry extract cleared from lipophilic compounds). Cells were washed, and reduction of resazurin, used as a viability parameter monitoring intact mitochondrial function, was determined. It was found that all seven green tea extracts examined enhanced resazurin reduction significantly at a concentration range of 100-500 microg/ml medium, while a significant decrease was observed at 1-3mg/ml medium. Decreased levels were concomitant with abundant necrosis as observed by microscopic inspection of the cultures and with increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase activity from the cells. In a separate series of experiments, the green tea constituents (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, caffeine and theanine were tested at concentrations reflecting their levels in a typical green tea extract. Synthetic (+)-epigallocatechin (200 microM) was used for comparison. Cytotoxicity was found with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate only. The concomitant addition of 0.25 mM ascorbate/0.05 mM alpha-tocopherol had no influence on cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results suggest that high concentrations of green tea extract can exert acute toxicity in rat liver cells. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate seems to be a key

  9. EVALUATION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF ABUTILON INDICUM FOR ITS ANALGESIC AND SEDATIVE PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Paul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydro alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon Indicum was tried for its efficacy as analgesic and sedative property. Several pain models namely Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test, tail clip test and hot water immersion test were tried and for sedative property actophotometer test was performed. As the extract has shown very significant (P˂0.01 result in Eddy’s hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing test and hot water immersion test hence it is believed that the extract has certain central and peripheral analgesic property which may be mediated either by closing Na+ or/and Ca2+ channels or by facilitating chloride Cl- influx by acting on GABAA receptor. As the extract has significantly reduced loco motor activity hence the mechanism of action of the extract is believed to be mediated by opening of Cl- channel, indicating that the extract may have GABA mimetic or facilitating effect. As following the administration of the extract no straub reaction was observed hence may be in future it will gain more popularity to be used as a substitute for narcotics to treat pain and also as a good sedative.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  11. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in EPG counts

  12. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Stevia rebaudiana stem waste to inhibit fish oil oxidation and identification of its phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Yang, Gangqiang; Sato, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Toshiyasu; Nakano, Toshiki; Xi, Yinci

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the potential for exploiting Stevia rebaudiana stem (SRS) waste as a source of edible plant-based antioxidants finding for the first time that the hot water extract of SRS had significantly higher antioxidant activity against fish oil oxidation than that of the leaf, despite SRS extract having lower total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ORAC values. To locate the major antioxidant ingredients, SRS extract was fractionated using liquid chromatography. Five phenolic compounds (primary antioxidant components in activity-containing fractions) were identified by NMR and HR-ESI-MS: vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), protocatechuic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), chlorogenic acid (4) and cryptochlorogenic acid (5). Further analysis showed that, among compounds 2-5, protocatechuic acid had the highest capacity to inhibit peroxides formation, but exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities in DPPH and ORAC assays. These results indicate that SRS waste can be used as strong natural antioxidant materials in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemicals analysis and medicinal potentials of hydroalcoholic extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC(50) value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC(50) values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H(2)O(2), LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases.

  14. Supercritical CO2 extraction on tobacco stem and application of stem extract in e-cigarette liquids%烟梗的超临界CO2流体萃取工艺及萃取物在电子烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 沈晓洁; 张怡春; 蔡振波; 陆诚玮; 郑赛晶

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of tobacco stems and develop a new e-cigarette flavor, supercritical fluid CO2 extraction technology was employed to extract aroma components in tobacco stems. The chemical components in the extract were analyzed by GC/MS, and the flavoring effect of the e-cigarette liquid was evaluated by sensory evaluation of the aerosol produced. The results showed that: 1) The optimal extraction parameters were: extraction pressure 20 MPa, extraction CO2 flow 5 L/min, extracting for 30 min at 120 ℃, and the yield was 9.9% of the stem by weight under such condition. 2) GC/MS identified 32 aroma components in tobacco stem; among them, the content of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methy-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) was higher, which was believed to mainly contribute to the roasted and tobacco-like aroma of the e-cigarette aerosol. 3) The obtained tobacco stem extract was shown to impart sweet, roasted and tobacco-like aroma to e-cigarette, and thus had the potential to aid the development of e-cigarettes of tobacco characteristic styles.%为开发新型电子烟烟液提取手段并实现烟梗的资源化利用,以超临界CO2流体萃取(SFE)工艺萃取烟梗末的香味物质,采用GC/MS法对萃取物的成分进行分析,并进行了电子烟加香效果评价。结果表明:①最佳萃取工艺条件为:萃取温度120℃,萃取流量5 L/min,萃取时间30 min,萃取压力20 MPa;此条件下烟梗末萃取物的产率为9.9%。②烟梗末样品萃取物经GC/MS分析共鉴定出32种主要成分,其中质量分数较高的2,3-二氢-3,5-二羟基-6-甲基-4H-吡喃-4-酮(DDMP)对电子烟烟气表现出的烘烤香和烟草本香具有重要贡献。③该法所制备的烟梗末萃取物为电子烟烟气赋予了甜的、烘烤的烟草香味,为特征风格电子烟产品的开发提供了潜在的应用价值。

  15. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Vakili-Zarch, Behzad; Shafiee, Mohammad; Mirjalili, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and hazardous drugs could worsen it. In this study, the effect of treatment with fenugreek seed extract on the function of sciatic nerves of neuropathic mice was evaluated. Neuropathy was induced in male mice by pyridoxine intoxication. After that, animals were treated with 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds for 10 days, tail flick, electrophysiological and histological assays were performed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract on function of the peripheral nerves. Our data showed that fenugreek has anti neuropathic effect and restores the function of nerve fibers. Results of electrophysiological recordings stated that the highest rate of healing was occurred in 20 mg/kg fenugreek extract treated animals. In conclusion, findings of the present study demonstrate that treatment with fenugreek seed extract can potentially facilitate healing from pyridoxine induced peripheral neuropathy in mice.

  16. Inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain by dietary inclusion of red dye extracts from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiya; Akomolafe, Toyin L; Adetuyi, Abayomi O

    2010-10-01

    The stem of sorghum is used as color additives in cooking meals and taken as beverages when steeped or boiled in water as folklore for the management of anemia and some other diseases. This study sought to assess the antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials of red dye extract from sorghum stem on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Wistar strain albino rats were fed diet supplemented with the red dye (0.5% and 1.0% inclusion) for 14 days. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in average feed intake and weight gain of rats fed the basal diet and the red dye-supplemented diet. However, intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg of body weight) 24 hours prior the termination of the experiment caused a significant (P brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in those rats fed diet without the dye supplement, whereas there was a significant decrease (P brain MDA content and serum enzyme activities in rats fed diet with the dye in a concentration-dependent manner. The protective effect of the red dye against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress could be attributed to the high phenolic content (56.2%) and antioxidant activities of the red dye as typified by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging ability, reducing properties, and Fe(2+) chelating ability. Therefore, dietary inclusion of the red dye from sorghum stem could be harnessed in the management of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  17. GALLIC ACID: A PHENOLIC ACID AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM STEM BARK OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM LITORALE (BLUME AMSHOFF (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic acid had been isolated from chloroform soluble fractions of a methanol extract of stem bark of Syzygium litorale, Fam. Myrtaceae. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated and established as gallic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies (UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR and by comparison with literature data and authentic sample. This is the first report of the isolation of compound from this plant, although it has previously been found in Myrtaceae family such as S. aromaticum, S. cumini, S. polyanthum, S. cordatum, etc. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed very strong antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH with IC50 value of 23.2, 7.5, and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively.

  18. Isolinderanolide B, a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, inhibits proliferation of T24 human bladder cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Lin, En-Shyh; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chen, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Isolinderanolide B (IOB), a butanolide extracted from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in T24 human bladder cancer cells. To identity the anticancer mechanism of IOB, its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor, and Fas ligand was assayed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest is because of increase in the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by IOB. This study reports the novel finding that the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and activity of the Fas/mFas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the antiproliferative activity of IOB in T24 cells.

  19. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  20. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae Stem Bark against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida M. L. Maranhão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group. Groups I (vehicle—corn oil, II (control-CCl4, III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of crude stem bark extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Emmanuel O; Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Adegboye, Mobolaji F; Oni, Matthew O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-07-18

    A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  3. Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanjit Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent.

  4. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  5. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16 are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012 cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate (EA fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM. Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

  6. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  7. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  8. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against bromobenzene-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Mahdavinia, Masood; Salimi, Abobakr; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract was investigated in mice. Animals were divided into six groups receiving normal saline (1), bromobenzene (460 mg/kg) alone (2) and together with increasing doses (200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg) of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula fruit (3-6, respectively). All administrations were carried out orally, daily, for 10 days. On the 11th day, animals were sacrificed. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT) were determined; serum levels of direct and total bilirubin were measured; furthermore, livers were prepared for histological examination. Our results showed that bromobenzene treatment alone elicited a significant increase in activities of AST, ALT, ALP (but not γGT), and it significantly elevated the levels of direct and total bilirubin. Co-treatment with Cassia fistula fruit extract, however, significantly and dose-dependently decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities (with exception of γGT) and bilirubin levels, producing a recovery to the naive state. The protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract against liver injury evoked by bromobenzene was confirmed by histological examination as well. In conclusion, the Cassia fistula fruit extract has significant hepatoprotective effect in our murine model.

  9. Assessment of acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Lychnophora pinaster (Brazilian arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Lychnophora genus are plants native to Brazil, popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" and used in folk medicine as alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic preparations for the treatment of bruises, inflammation, pain, rheumatism and insect bites. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety of the use of Lychnophora pinaster Mart., Asteraceae. Acute toxicity of the crude ethanolic extract was evaluated by administration of the extract by oral route to male and female Swiss mice. A single extract dose of 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg was administered and the effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, muscle strength, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, histology, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The three doses administered to the animals did not cause muscle tone alterations, but doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg induced a significant inhibition of the spontaneous locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of the animals in open-field test. There was no alteration to hematological parameters and consumption of water and food, body weight variation and organs relative weight. Changes were observed in AST and ALT during assessment of biochemical parameters. The histopathological evaluation showed that the extract provoked cellular alterations, such as vacuolar degeneration and inflammation in kidneys and liver at all doses. Liver morphometric analyses of male and female mice showed that the extract did not have dose-dependent effects. Although females showed a significant increase in inflammatory cells, the effect was not dose-dependent.

  10. Study of epithelial differentiation and protein expression of keratinocyte-mesenchyme stem cell co-cultivation on electrospun nylon/B. vulgaris extract composite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Soleimani, Masoud; Vossoughi, Manuchehr; Ranjbarvan, Parviz; Hamedi, Shokoh; Zamanlui, Soheila; Mahmoudifard, Matin

    2017-06-01

    Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage. In vitro biocompatibility was examined through MTT assay and epithelial differentiation checked by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay after co-culturing of MSCs and H-keratino on proposed scaffold. Significant enhancement in cell proliferation was detected after cell culturing on the composite type of electrospun scaffold containing B. vulgaris. Moreover, after 14days of co-culturing process, gene expression results revealed that both composite and non-composite nylon66 electrospun scaffold promote epithelial differentiation compared to mono-cell culturing of H-keratino in terms of several markers as Cytokeratin 10, Cytokeratin 14 and Involucrin and ICC of some dermal proteins like Cytokeratin 14 and Loricrin. To the best of our knowledge, findings of this study will introduce new way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of Crude Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango Stem Bark on the Liver in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Izunya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Mangifera indica L. (mango stem bark crude Aqueous Extract (AE on the morphology and biochemical functions of the liver in wistar rats. Adult wistar rats used in the study were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 rats were untreated and served as control and Group 2 experimental rats were orally given 1 mL (100 mg daily of aqueous extract for a period of 14 days. The body weight changes and the weight of the liver were measured and the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Total Bilirubin (TB and Conjugated Bilirubin (CB levels were determined. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in body weight gain between the two groups at the end of the experiment. The treated group had a significant decrease in liver weight (p<0.05 when compared with control. The treated group also had a significant increase in AST when compared with control. There were no significant increases in ALT, ALP and total bilirubin when compared with the control. The study suggests derangement of liver function and possible damage to the hepatocytes by the crude AE at this dose and duration.

  12. Stem bark extraction of Ficus bengalensis Linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Vishnu N; Suralkar, Anupama A; Deshpande, Avinash D; Naik, Suresh R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis (AEFB) and methanolic extract of F. bengalensis (MEFB) was evaluated in animal models. Preliminary results indicated that MEFB treatment possesses significant anti-inflammatory potential as compared to AEFB. The anti-inflammatory activity of MEFB exhibited in both acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and acetic acid induced vascular permeability) and subchronic (cotton pellet-induced granuloma) models of inflammation was found to be significant. In addition, the extract also showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing. Pretreatment with MEFB during inflammatory condition (both acute and sub-chronic) prevented increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and myeloperoxidase activity in edematous as well as granulomatous tissue. Further, serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) increased in inflammatory conditions were also inhibited with MEFB treatment. Hence, the anti-inflammatory activity observed in the present study with MEFB could be attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

  13. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  14. Corrosion inhibition by leaves and stem extracts of Sida acuta for mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 solutions investigated by chemical and spectroscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Umoren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 by leaves and stem extracts of Sida acuta was studied using chemical (weight loss and hydrogen evolution and spectroscopic (AAS, FTIR and UV-V techniques at 30–60 °C. It was found that the leaves and stem extracts of S. acuta inhibited the acid induced corrosion of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of the extracts but decrease with rise in temperature. Inhibitive effect was afforded by adsorption of the extracts’ components which was approximated by Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency and also from spectroscopic results.

  15. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  16. Antiradical activities of Salvia officinalis and Viscum album L. extracts concentrated by ultrafiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucian Radu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. In the present study the antioxidant properties were investigated of the medicinal plants Salvia officinalis L. (Labiaceae family and Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, both of them known for a long time as a remedy in the traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to prove the efficiency of ultrafiltration process for the concentration of herbs extracts and to evaluate the concentrate’s antioxidant activity. Material and methods. The extracts were prepared by maceration, using different solvents. After filtering the extract through Isolab quantitative filter paper “medium”, each of the filtrates was processed by microfiltration (MF; Millipore filters with 45 μm, followed by ultrafiltration (UF. The regenerated cellulose (Millipore, polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membranes were used in the experiment. The initial extracts and samples of permeate and retentate after ultrafiltration of extracts have been characterized by determination of the protein total and total phenolic content. Standard methods like ABTS and DPPH assay are used to measure the antioxidant activity. Results. For the three types of tested membranes: Millipore, PSF and PAN, PAN membrane proves to have the greatest efficiency since it shows the highest permeate flux and the greatest retention degree for bioactive compounds. The concentrated extracts obtained after ultrafiltration with polyacrylonitrile membrane had the strongest scavenging activity for all extracts. Conclusions. The results of this study has revealed that the concentrated extracts have a very high radical scavenging activity (TEAC values for sage hydro-alcoholic concentrated extracts in range 351.87-479.04 μmol Trolox/mL extract and for mistletoe concentrated extract E2 in range 345.14-426.18 μmol Trolox/mL extract; the DPPH inhibition values was over 85% for S. officinalis concentrated extracts and ranges between 66.2% and 88.2% DPPH inhibition for V. album

  17. Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2012-09-01

    Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 μg/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 μg/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 μg/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes.

  18. Protective effect of Cassia fistula fruit extract on bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Jalali, Mohammadtaha; Jalali, Amir; Salimi, Abobakr; Alhalvachi, Foad; Varga, Balazs; Juhasz, Bela; Jakab, Anita; Kemeny-Beke, Adam; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Tosaki, Arpad; Zsuga, Judit

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of a crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula (golden shower tree) fruit to protect the kidney against bromobenzene-induced toxicity was studied. Negative control mice received normal saline; positive control mice were given 460 mg/kg of bromobenzene; Cassia fistula treated mice received 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of Cassia fistula fruit extract followed by 460 mg/kg bromobenzene (daily by oral gavage for 10 days). On the 11th day, the mice were sacrificed, blood samples were obtained to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and kidneys were removed for histological examination. We found that bromobenzene induced significant nephrotoxicity reflected by an increase in levels of BUN and creatinine that was dose dependently prevented by the Cassia fistula fruit extract. The nephroprotective effect of the Cassia fistula fruit extract was confirmed by the histological examination of the kidneys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of Cassia fistula in nephrotoxicity.

  19. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract against isoniazid-induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ against isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The successive petroleum ether (60-80°C and methanol extracts of C. quadrangularis were used. Hepatic damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 30 days. Simultaneously, CQ (500 mg/kg p.o was administered 1 h prior to the administration of isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o was used as a reference drug. Results: Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase, and bilirubin following isoniazid administration were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with CQ. Isoniazid administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased antioxidant activities such as reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with CQ significantly decreased LPO and increased the antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of CQ might be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  20. Extraction and identification of human adipose-derived stem cells%人脂肪干细胞的提取和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尉; 梁芳; 宋小琴; 胡平安; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Adipose-derived stem cel s are totipotent stem cel s in the adipose tissue, and have the function of self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation. Human adipose-derived stem cel s are ideal seed cel s with stable genetic milieu and few rejections. OBJECTIVE:To extract human adipose-derived stem cel s from human omental adipose tissue and to identify the cel s by adipogenic and osteogenic induction. METHODS:Omental adipose tissues were col ected from surgical patients to isolate and culture adipose-derived stem cel s using type I col agenase digestion, filtration and centrifugation. Cel growth was observed and proliferative curve of human adipose-derived stem cel s were drawn by cel counting method to calculate the doubling time at logarithmic growth phase. After adipogenic and osteogenic induction, induced cel s were identified using oil red O and alizarin red staining, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Human adipose-derived stem cel s were successful y isolated from the omentum tissues of surgical patients. Adherent cel s were fusiform-shaped and like fibroblasts. The growth curve of passage 3 cel s was in S shape, and the doubling time was 45.90 hours. After adipogenic and osteogenic induction for 2 and 3 hours, respectively, oil red O staining showed unequal-sized orange fat droplets, and alizarin red staining showed typical calcified nodules that were in orange. These findings indicate that adipose-derived stem cel s have the adipogenic and osteogenic capacity.%背景:脂肪干细胞是存在于脂肪中的全能干细胞,具备自我更新能力与多向分化潜能,遗传背景相当稳定,体内植入后免疫排斥少,是一种比较理想的种子细胞。目的:提取人大网膜脂肪干细胞,并进行成脂和成骨分化能力鉴定。  方法:收集手术患者大网膜的脂肪组织,经Ⅰ型胶原酶消化、过滤、离心后进行原代培养,观察细胞生长状态;用细胞计

  1. Mobilization of human CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae--related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Zaske, Lue A M; Drapeau, Christian; Gupta, Niraj; Schaeffer, David J; Cruickshank, J Alex

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate effects on human stem cells in vitro and in vivo of an extract from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) enriched for a novel ligand for human CD62L (L-selectin). Ligands for CD62L provide a mechanism for stem cell mobilization in conjunction with down-regulation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor for stromal derived factor 1. Affinity immunoprecipitation was used to identify a novel ligand for CD62L from a water extract from AFA. The effects of AFA water extract on CD62L binding and CXCR4 expression was tested in vitro using human bone marrow CD34+ cells and the two progenitor cell lines, KG1a and K562. A double-blind randomized crossover study involving 12 healthy subjects evaluated the effects of consumption on stem cell mobilization in vivo. An AFA extract rich in the CD62L ligand reduced the fucoidan-mediated externalization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor on bone marrow CD34+ cells by 30% and the CD62L+ CD34+ cell line KG1A by 50% but did not alter the CXCR4 expression levels on the CD34(-) cell line K562. A transient, 18% increase in numbers of circulating CD34+ stem cells maximized 1 hour after consumption (P<.0003). When 3 noncompliant volunteers were removed from analysis, the increase in CD34+ cells was 25% (P<.0001). AFA water extract contains a novel ligand for CD62L. It modulates CXCR4 expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells in vitro and triggers the mobilization of CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) cells in vivo.

  2. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2016-02-26

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer.

  3. Functional modification of adipocytes by grape seed extract impairs their pro-tumorigenic signaling on colon cancer stem cells and the daughter cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Dileep; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-10-30

    With global rise in obesity, it is imperative that we identify obesity-driven factors that increase growth and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), and also discover and develop agents with anti-CRC efficacy under obese conditions. Here in, we investigated grape seed extract (GSE), a well-defined agent with both preventive and anti-CRC efficacy, for its potential to impair pro-tumorigenic signaling of adipocytes on CRC/colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and associated molecular mechanisms, to control CRC under obese conditions. GSE treatment significantly decreased the growth and invasion promoting effects of both mouse and human adipocytes on CRC cells. Moreover, GSE exerted a direct inhibitory effect, as well as it strongly reduced the growth promoting signals of adipocytes, on colon CSCs. These GSE effects were associated with a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of various CSC-associated molecules. Notably, GSE effects on adipocytes were not due to changes in lipid content, but by inducing the 'browning' of adipocytes as evidenced by an increase in UCP-1 mRNA level and mitochondriogenesis. Together, these findings, for the first time, suggest the ability of GSE to induce 'brown remodeling' of white adipocytes, which causes functional modification of adipocytes thus impairing their pro-tumorigenic signals on colon CSCs/CRC cells.

  4. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  5. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  6. Effect of different polarities leaves crude extracts ofOmanijuniperus excels on antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and their biochemical screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AfafM. Weli; JamilaR. K. AL-Hinai; JawaherM. A. Al-Mjrafi; JawaherR. S. Alnaaimi; Mohammad A. Hossain; SadriSaeed; Md.S. Aktar

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To prepare different polarities leave crude extracts of Juniperus excels(J. excels) and to determine their phytochemical screening, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Methods:The phytochemical screening of different crude extracts was determined by well-established methods.The antioxidant activity was determined by free radical scavenging(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl,DPPH) method.The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method and cytotoxic activity was determined through brine shrimp lethality assay.Results:The phytochemical tests showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroide, triterpenoids and tannins are present in all leave crude extracts except chloroform crude extract do not contain tannins.The antioxidant results of crude extracts were found to be in the order of hydro alcoholic > chloroform> ethyl acetate >hexane.All leave crude extracts showed moderate antibacterial against gram positive and gram negative food borne pathogen bacteria. The cytotoxicity results revealed that hexane and chloroform extracts have killed all the shrimp larvae at the concentration of500 μg/mL. Conclusion:Morein-vivo andin-vitro studies along with detailed phytochemical investigations are needed in order to potentially use this plant in the prevention and therapies of some oxidative damage related diseases.

  7. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  8. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%-5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%-37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%-77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%-42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%-0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem methanol

  9. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus...

  10. Efficacy of garlic extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash in reduction of oral salivary microorganisms, an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H T Ajay Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the antimicrobial effect of garlic extract and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash solution against oral salivary microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Thirty six salivary samples were obtained in dry plastic vials. Collected saliva samples were centrifuged. Each vial was mixed completely on a shaker after which 1 ml of saliva was added to 9 ml of ethanol by a sterile pipette and mixed. A volume of 1 ml of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract and 1 ml of mouthwash was added to 1 ml each case specimen and was transferred to culture medium of Trypticase Soy Agar. Agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h to allow for microbial growth. Microbial colonies were counted by independent interpreter to evaluate the result. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered statistically significant. Result: Result of the study shows that mean colony count of salivary microbial population was (1984 ± 400 1127 in saline group (negative control, (50 ± 4 27 in (0.12% CHX group (positive control, (700 ± 200 469 in garlic extract (5% group (case control. Conclusion: Mouthwash containing garlic extract can be used as an alternative to CHX mouthwash.

  11. Antifertility potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. leaves:A folklore medicine used by Meena community in Rajasthan state in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pallavi Sharma; Manjusha; Sudesh Rani; Hitesh Malhotra; Nitesh; Sandeep Deswal; Surender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. (C. dichotoma) leaves, which are traditionally used to produce sterility among the tribal women through its abortificient activity. Methods: Acute toxicity study was carried out in adult albino rats. The antifertility activity of extract at two dose level (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. anti-implantation and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female rats by observing number of implants, vaginal cornification, body weight, uterus weight and biochemical investigation. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good anti-implantation (81.22%) activity in female rats was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.01) increase in uterine weight and significant change in biochemical parameters in immature rats. Simultaneous administration of extract along with ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that hydro alcoholic extract of C. dichotoma leaves possess significant antifertility activity, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine of this plant in fertility regulation.

  12. 生姜杆叶提取物香味成分分析及在卷烟中的应用%Analysis of flavor components in extracting oil of Zingiber officinale rosc stem leaf and its application in cigarettes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程向红; 刘玉叶; 李禄成; 魏明杰

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the best use of Zingiber officinale rosc stem leaf and to find a new way of manufacturing the natural cigarettes flavor,the oil in Zingiber officinale rose stem leaf was extracted with supercritical fluid extraction and analyzed with chromatography-mass speetrometry, then the oil was added into cigarettes. The results showed that 38 volatile components were identified in the extracting oil,most of which were tobacco aroma substances such as terpenes and alcohols. The extraction oil had remarkable effect on cigarettes, it could improve smoking quality, reduce offensive odor and improve aftertaste of cigarettes. The extracting oil from Zingiber officinale rose stem leaf can be used as a new type of natural flavor to add into cigarettes.%为寻找一种新的生姜杆叶利用和烟草香料制备途径,采用超临界CO2萃取法提取生姜杆叶精油,用气相色谱-质谱法分析了精油中的挥发性成分,并将提取物精油进行了卷烟加香应用实验.结果表明,生姜杆叶精油中共鉴定出38种成分,主要为萜烯类、醇类等重要的烟草香味物质;生姜杆叶精油应用于卷烟加香,具有改善卷烟香气、丰富烟香、去除杂气、改善口感的作用.生姜杆叶精油可作为一种新型天然香料应用于卷烟加香.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE.

  14. In vivo antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extracts of stem bark and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Dhanam, T

    2017-12-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Clusiaceae) (CI) is traditionally used to treat pain, inflammation, eye disorders and rheumatism. The present study evaluates the antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extract of the stem bark (ESBCI) and seeds (ESCI) of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic Wistar albino rat model. ESBCI and ESCI were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by proteinase inhibition and membrane stabilization assays. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted according to OECD-425 guidelines. Antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI at the dose of 250 mg/kg/p.o. was evaluated by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model. ESBCI and ESCI have shown maximum inhibition at 250 μg/mL in proteinase inhibition and haemolysis assays. The LD50 of ESBCI and ESCI was found to be greater than 5000 and 2000 mg/kg/p.o., respectively. In Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model ESBCI, ESCI and Diclofenac treatment have shown 28.57, 36.36, and 43.51% as maximum reduction in rat paw oedema volume respectively when compared with the arthritic control rats. ESBCI and ESCI treatment at the dose level of 250 mg/kg/p.o. normalized the altered haematological and biochemical parameters of arthritic control rats. Histological and radiological evaluation confirmed the antiarthritic effect of ESBCI and ESCI. ESBCI and ESCI were found to show significant antiarthritic activity evidenced with clinical, biochemical, histological and radiological evaluations. The present study indicates the antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI, however its mechanism of action has to be studied in the future.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heibatollah Sadeghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4, R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p. were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine amino transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB, total protein (TP and malondialdehyde (MDA. Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining of liver section.Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p

  16. [Efficacy of extracts of plants in engorged females of Boophilus microplus from the mesoregion West of Maranhão, Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; Vasconcelos, Pádua Suely Da S; Silva, Ana Maria M; Brandão, Vivian M; Da Silva, Iran A; Teixeira, Whaubtyfran C; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of nim and citronela at 20% and eucalipto at 10% in Boophilus microplus engorged females collected in cattle naturally infected from the mesoregion West of Maranhão. At the laboratory the females were separated, weighted and distributed in six groups of 10, in duplicate. Each group was immersed in 10mL of the solution of the extracts, for two minutes. In the nim and citronela extracts there was 32% e 17%, respectively, while larval emergence the eucalipto extracts demonstrated 96% of efficacy. In the groups treated by Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronetal and Deltametrina (positive controls) the mortality occurred after 48h of treatment, while the groups immersed in distilled water (negative control) showed 100% of eggs mass and larval emergence. According to the results, it can be concluded that the extract of eucalipto could be used as acaricide in the control of B. microplus females since it was efficient in vitro, however to nim and citronela showed not efficacy. B. microplus females were not resistant to the chemical compounds used in this experiment.

  17. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent.

  18. Spleen content of selected polyphenols, splenocytes morphology and function in mice fed Rhodiola kirilowii extracts during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, S; Stankiewicz, W; Skopińska-Różewska, E; Wilczak, J; Leśniak, M; Suska, M; Siwicki, A K; Skopiński, P; Zdanowski, R

    2015-01-01

    The genus Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) consists of many species, growing mainly in Asia and traditionally used as adaptogens and anti-inflammatory drugs. In order to elaborate herbal immunostimulator which could be safely given to pregnant women, we performed a study on immunotropic effects of feeding pregnant and lactating mice Rhodiola kirilowii extracts. This paper presents the results of the first part of our study - spleen content of selected polyphenols, spleen cellularity, splenocytes phenotype and their response to mitogens. Experiments were performed on adult inbred females of Balb/c strain, mated with adult males. Females, since copulatory plug was noted, up to the 28-th day after delivery were fed daily with 20 mg/kg b.m. water (RKW) or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A) extracts of Rhodiola kirilowii. 1. Significantly lower proportion of pregnant mice in experimental groups than in the control. 2. Cellularity of spleen and flavonol quercetin spleen concentration were significantly lower in experimental groups in comparison to the controls. 3. Flavanols ((+)-catechin and epicatechin) levels were significantly higher in the spleens of experimental mice than in the controls. 4. Positive correlation between spleen cellularity and quercetin, and negative correlation between spleen cellularity and epicatechin content were observed. 5. Spleen mass and spleen lymphocytes phenotype and proliferation in RKW and RKW-A fed mice did not differ from the control. These results, together with suspicion of some embryo-toxicity, are worrying and eliminate the possibility of use Rhodiola kirilowii extracts for long-term treatment in pregnant females.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON THE HYPOGLYCEMIANT EFFECT OF SOME VEGETAL EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTAL INTOXICATIONS AT CD-1 MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bucă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plants in treating some diseases has become a tradition, ‘the nature’s pharmacy’ being an important source of therapy. At present, the medicinal plants properties are being re-assessed due to progress made in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical research of plants and due to forms obtained from vegetal products, but especially due to the advantages they offer. In the context of more frequent use of natural products with pharmaceutical and therapeutical aims, both at a national and at an international level, our research hints at highlighting and giving details about a series of effects produced by vegetal extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum on certain physiological, biochemical and histopathological processes at CD1 mice. In this study, 2 hydro-alcoholic extracts obtained from 2 species of medicinal plants (Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum, were tested in order to analyse the hypoglycemiant activity. The data accumulated in the specialty literature reveal that the phytotherapeutic use of extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum is based only on the major pharmacologic effect while the intimate action mechanism of the two vegetal products, al cellular and subcellular level, is not known. Starting from these premises, we considered useful the initiation of a comparative study regarding the antidiabetic influence of fluid extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum upon mice experimentally intoxicated with alloxan monohydrate solution. CDI mice were used as an experimental model in order to induce diabetes: alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneal with concentration of 130 mg/kg body (Ahmed Saber Abu – zaiton, 2013, dissolved in physiological serum, during two weeks, at an interval of 3 days. Both extracts acted positively by lowering blood sugar and by returning to normal body weight in diabetic mice. Aronia extract has a pronounced effect compared to milk thistle extract for both

  20. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4–induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dorcas Bolanle

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  1. Bacteriostasis of Different Extracts from Impatiens Balsamina L.Stem on Bacteria%凤仙花茎不同提取物对细菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红梅; 张耀辉; 陈小兰

    2012-01-01

    To observe the inhibition of different extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria,Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger, bacte-riostatic effects of extracts of 75% ethanol,75% acetone nd the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria were tested by gradient dilution coating,and the number of colony and antibacterial ratio were investigated. The results showed the antibacterial activity of the three different extracts from Impatiens balsamina stem to Bacillus subtilis var. Niger and Staphylococcus aurehs was stronger than Escherichia coli, with the higher concentration of the extraction and the higher antimicrobial activity. Effects of extracts of the aqueous extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina stem on three bacteria of Escherichia coli ,Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. Niger were 99. 95%, 99. 99% and 99. 98% , respectively, with concentration of 0. 2 g/mL; those of 75% acetone extracts were 99. 94% ,100% and 99. 99% ,respectively. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of 75% acetone extracts from pink Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on three bacteria were 0. 05 g/mL. In conclusion,the antimicrobial activity of different concentration of the same extract from Impatiens balsamina L. Stem on the same bacteria was significantly different,and showed almost same effects on three bacteria. Antimicrobial activi-ties of three kinds of Impatiens balsamina L. Stem extracts with different solvents were; the 75% acetone extracts >the 75% ethanol extracts >the aqueous extracts.%为研究粉红色凤仙花茎的3种不同提取物对大肠埃希氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌黑色变种3种细菌的抑制作用,用水、75%乙醇和75%丙酮分别提取凤仙花鲜花茎,获得凤仙花茎的粗提物.采用平板稀释涂布法检测粗提物对大肠埃希氏杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌黑色变种3种细菌的抑菌效果,记录观

  2. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, K L; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended.

  3. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, KL; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended. PMID:26634072

  4. Variations of surface microstructure and extract composition of tobacco stems and scraps extracted by different solvents%不同溶剂提取后烟梗和碎烟片表面结构及提取物成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯轶; 胡亚成; 李友明; 周小松; 胡松青

    2016-01-01

    为考察烟梗和碎烟片经不同溶剂提取后表面结构及提取物成分的变化,分别以水、乙醇水溶液和碳酸钾溶液为溶剂,对比不同溶剂提取后烟梗和碎烟片的表面结构及对提取物香味成分组成变化的影响。结果表明:①水与乙醇水溶液的提取率没有显著差异,且提取后在外观形态上与原烟梗和碎烟片无明显区别;而碳酸钾溶液的提取率较低,且提取后的烟梗和碎烟片呈暗黑色,试样变形聚团。②烟梗经水提取后组织结构膨松,孔隙明显;经乙醇水溶液提取后厚角组织膨松,导管结构部分脱落变形;经碳酸钾溶液提取后导管被破坏得较多,体积缩小。碎烟片经水和乙醇水溶液提取后表面褶皱小但数量多,微观变化较明显;经碳酸钾溶液提取后表面变化小,有少量隆起,填充物的减少量小,与原碎烟片差距不明显。③烟梗和碎烟片不同溶剂提取液中的主要提取物均为烟碱;乙醇水溶液有助于提取烟梗和碎烟片中的醇类和酮类致香成分;而碳酸钾溶液能与木质素发生反应,致使原料变色变味,不适合直接用于提取阶段,但可促进去氢新烟碱大量溶出。%In order to investigate the variations of surface microstructure and extract composition of tobacco stems and scraps extracted by different solvents, the influence of solvent types on the leaf surface properties and extract aroma components were compared by taking water, ethanol water solution and potassium carbonate solution as the extraction media. The results showed that: 1) The extraction ratios of water and ethanol water solution did not differ significantly, and the appearance of extracted stems and scraps did not change significantly. However, the extraction ratio of potassium carbonate solution was lower, the extracted stems and scraps became dark black, deformed and stuck together. 2) After water extraction, the tissue

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients or placebo (21 patients. Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.