WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydride storage device

  1. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  2. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  3. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  4. Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A. R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in mobile and stationary applications. A relevant role of the fuel cell powered vehicles on the market of the transportation systems will be achieved only if the research and development of on-board vehicular hydrogen storage are able to allow a driving range of at least 500 km. The on-board hydrogen storage systems are more challenging due to the space, weight and cost limitations. This range of autonomy between refueling requires materials able to store at least 6.5% weight hydrogen, available at moderate pressures, at the working temperature of the fuel cells and with acceptable cycling stability. The intensive research on the hydrogen storage in alloys and intermetallic of the LaNi 5 , FeTi or Laves phase type compounds, which started more than three decades ago did not resulted in materials of more than about 3% H storage capacities. The 7.5% H content of the Mg hydride is still of attracting interest but though the absorption has been achieved at lower temperatures by ball milling magnesium with various amounts of nickel, the desorption can not be attained at 1 bar H 2 below 280 deg. C and the kinetics of the process is too slow. In the last decade, the attention is focused on another class of compounds, the complex hydrides of aluminum with alkali metals (alanates), due to their high hydrogen content. It was found that doping with Ti-based catalysts improve the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation conditions of NaAlH 4 . Later on, it was shown that ball milling with solid state catalysts greatly improve the hydrogen desorption kinetics of NaAlH 4 , and this also helps to the rehydriding process. The hydrogen desorption from NaAlH 4 occurs in three steps, it shows a reversible storage capacity of 5.5% H and this led to further research work for a better knowledge of its application relating properties. In this work, ball milling experiments on Na

  5. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  6. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  7. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering

  8. Hydrogen metal hydride storage with integrated catalytic recombiner for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinescu-Pasoi, L.; Behrens, U.; Langer, G.; Gramatte, W.; Rastogi, A.K.; Schmitt, R.E. (Battelle-Institut e.V., Frankfurt am Main (DE). Dept. of Energy Technology)

    1991-01-01

    A novel, thermodynamically efficient device is under development at Battelle in Frankfurt, by which the range of hydrogen-driven cars with a metal hydride tank might be roughly doubled. The device makes use of the properties of metal hydrides, combined with catalytic combustion. Its development is funded by the Hessian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Technology; it is to be completed by the end of 1990. High-temperature hydrides (HTH) have about three times the storage capacity of low temperature hydrides (LTH), but require relatively large amounts of heat at high temperatures to release the hydrogen. The exhaust heat from combustion-engine-driven vehicles is insufficient for this, and vehicles with electric (fuel cell) drive produce practically no exhaust heat at all. The Battelle-developed device is a combination of an HTH storage cell, an LTH storage cell and a catalyst. (author).

  9. Hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, M. G.; Santana, C. C.; Santos, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Reversible reactions between hydrogen and such materials as iron/titanium and magnesium/ nickel alloy may provide a means for storing hydrogen fuel. A demonstration model of an iron/titanium hydride storage bed is described. Hydrogen from the hydride storage bed powers a converted gasoline electric generator.

  10. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  11. LiH thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  12. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  13. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  14. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  15. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  16. Use of reversible hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, B.; Pezat, M.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of metals or alloys whose hydrides have a high dissociation pressure allows a considerable increase in the hydrogenation rate of magnesium. The influence of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the reaction rate were studied. Results concerning the hydriding of magnesium rich alloys such as Mg2Ca, La2Mg17 and CeMg12 are presented. The hydriding mechanism of La2Mg17 and CeMg12 alloys is given.

  17. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new...

  18. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...

  19. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.P. da.

    1981-01-01

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  20. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  1. Hydrogen storage alloys for nickel/metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Tetsuo; Myamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Uehara, Itsuki [Osaka National Research Inst. (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to improve performance of metal hydride electrodes such as substitution of alloy components, heat treatment, and surface treatment intended to change surface and bulk structure of hydrogen storage alloys, mainly LaNi{sub 5} based alloys, are reviewed. The importance of control of morphology is emphasized. (author)

  2. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented Electrochemical Kinetic Model (EKM), describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, has been extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e. the charge transfer kinetics and electrical double layer charging. A complete set of

  3. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented electrochemical kinetic model, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, was extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e., the charge-transfer kinetics and electrical double-layer charging. A complete set of equations

  4. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Porous Materials and Magnesium Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzech, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis representatives of two different types of materials for potential hydrogen storage application are presented. Usage of either nanoporous materials or metal hydrides has both operational advantages and disadvantages. A main objective of this thesis is to characterize the hydrogen

  6. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  7. Hydrogen storage as a hydride. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature concern the storage of hydrogen in various metal hydrides. Binary and intermetallic hydrides are considered. Specific alloys discussed are iron titanium, lanthanium nickel, magnesium copper and magnesium nickel among others.

  8. Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)

  9. Stress analysis of hydride bed vessels used for tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillip, S.T.; Bannister, C.E.; Clark, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype hydride storage bed, using LaNi 4.25 Al 0.75 as the storage material, was fitted with strain gages to measure strains occurring in the stainless steel bed vessel caused by expansion of the storage powder upon uptake of hydrogen. The strain remained low in the bed as hydrogen was added, up to a bed loading of about 0.5 hydrogen to metal atom ratio (H/M). The strain then increased with increasing hydrogen loading (∼ 0.8 H/M). Different locations exhibited greatly different levels of maximum strain. In no case was the design stress of the vessel exceeded

  10. Hydrogen storage in metal hydrides and complex hydrides; Wasserstoffspeicherung in Metall- und komplexen Hydriden - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielmann, M.; Zuettel, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA on the storage of hydrogen in metal hydrides and complex hydrides. In particular, the use of tetrahydroborates is noted. The potential of this class of materials is stressed. The structures at room-temperature were examined using neutron and X-ray diffraction methods. Thermodynamic methods helped determine the thermodynamic stability of the materials. Also, a complete energy diagram for the materials was developed. The use of silicon oxide to reduce activation energy and its catalytic effects are discussed. The challenges placed by desorption mechanisms are noted. The authors note that reversibility is basically proven.

  11. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  12. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  13. Magnesium Hydride for Load Levelling Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.

    Some of the magnesium properties essential to the applicability of the reaction Mg+H2⇆MgH2 as a hydrogen storage system have been investigated. Three magnesium powders with particle size smaller than 50 μm average diameter were cycled, over 31, 71 and 151 cycles respectively, at 675K (400°C...

  14. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  15. Hydrogen storage and evolution catalysed by metal hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-07

    The storage and evolution of hydrogen are catalysed by appropriate metal hydride complexes. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hydrogen is catalysed by a [C,N] cyclometalated organoiridium complex, [Ir(III)(Cp*)(4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))benzoic acid-κC(3))(OH(2))](2)SO(4) [Ir-OH(2)](2)SO(4), under atmospheric pressure of H(2) and CO(2) in weakly basic water (pH 7.5) at room temperature. The reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from formate, is also catalysed by [Ir-OH(2)](+) in acidic water (pH 2.8) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between hydrogen and formic acid in water at ambient temperature and pressure has been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst in both directions depending on pH. The Ir complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses regioselective hydrogenation of the oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to produce the 1,4-reduced form (NADH) under atmospheric pressure of H(2) at room temperature in weakly basic water. In weakly acidic water, the complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses the reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from NADH to produce NAD(+) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between NADH (and H(+)) and NAD(+) (and H(2)) has also been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst and by changing pH. The iridium hydride complex formed by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) by H(2) and NADH is responsible for the hydrogen evolution. Photoirradiation (λ > 330 nm) of an aqueous solution of the Ir-hydride complex produced by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) with alcohols resulted in the quantitative conversion to a unique [C,C] cyclometalated Ir-hydride complex, which can catalyse hydrogen evolution from alcohols in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.9). The catalytic mechanisms of the hydrogen storage and evolution are discussed by focusing on the reactivity of Ir-hydride complexes.

  16. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371685117

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  17. Theoretical study of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alyson C M; Pavão, A C

    2018-05-04

    Adsorption, absorption and desorption energies and other properties of hydrogen storage in palladium and in the metal hydrides AlH 3 , MgH 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , Mg(BH 4 )(NH 2 ) and LiNH 2 were analyzed. The DFT calculations on cluster models show that, at a low concentration, the hydrogen atom remains adsorbed in a stable state near the palladium surface. By increasing the hydrogen concentration, the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites are sequentially occupied. In the α phase the tetrahedral site releases hydrogen more easily than at the octahedral sites, but the opposite occurs in the β phase. Among the hydrides, Mg(BH 4 ) 2 shows the highest values for both absorption and desorption energies. The absorption energy of LiNH 2 is higher than that of the palladium, but its desorption energy is too high, a recurrent problem of the materials that have been considered for hydrogen storage. The release of hydrogen, however, can be favored by using transition metals in the material structure, as demonstrated here by doping MgH 2 with 3d and 4d-transition metals to reduce the hydrogen atomic charge and the desorption energy.

  18. Develop improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.

    1998-12-04

    The overall objective was to develop commercially viable metal hydrides capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen for use with PEM fuel cells and hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (HICE) applications. Such alloys are expected to result in system capacities of greater than 2 wt.%, making metal hydride storage systems (MHSS`s) a practical means of supplying hydrogen for many consumer applications. ECD`s (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.) past work on sputtered thin films of transition metal-based alloys led to the commercialization of it`s nickel/metal hydride batteries, and similar work on thin film Mg-based alloys demonstrated potential to achieve very high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities approaching 2,500 Wh/Kg and 2,500 Wh/M{sup 3} respectively. Under this 2-year cost shared project with the DOE, the authors have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up the Mg-based hydrides from thin film to bulk production without substantial loss of storage capacity. ECD made progress in alloy development by means of compositional and process modification. Processes used include Mechanical Alloying, Melt spinning and novel Gas Phase Condensation. It was showed that the same composition when prepared by melt-spinning resulted in a more homogeneous material having a higher PCT plateau pressure as compared to mechanical alloying. It was also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg-Al-Zn results in much higher plateau pressures, which is an important step towards reducing the desorption temperature. While significant progress has been made during the past two years in alloy development and understanding the relationship between composition, structure, morphology, and processing parameters, additional R and D needs to be performed to achieve the goals of this work.

  19. Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development

  20. Novel hydrogen storage materials: A review of lightweight complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, Pragya; Jain, Ankur

    2010-01-01

    The world is facing energy shortage and has become increasingly depending on new methods to store and convert energy for new, environmentally friendly methods of transportation and electrical energy generation as well as for portable electronics. Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. Non-renewable fossil fuels are projected to decline sharply after 20-30 years. CO 2 emission from burning such fuels is the main cause for global warming. Currently whole world is seeking international commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050. Hydrogen which can be produced with little or no harmful emissions has been projected as a long term solution for a secure energy future. Increasing application of hydrogen energy is the only way forward to meet the objectives of Department of Energy (DOE), USA, i.e. reducing green house gases, increasing energy security and strengthening the developing countries economy. Any transition from a carbon-based/fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen based economy involves overcoming significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers before ultimate implementation of hydrogen as the clean energy source of the future. Lot of research is going on in the world to find commercially viable solutions for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization, but hydrogen storage is very challenging, as application part of hydrogen energy totally depend on this. During early nineties and now also hydrogen storage as gas, liquid and metal hydride has been undertaken to solve the problem of hydrogen storage and transportation for the utilization as hydrogen energy, but none of these roots could became commercially viable along with the safety aspects for gas and liquid. With the result many new novel materials appeared involving different principles resulting in a fairly complex situation with no correlation between any two materials. In the present

  1. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery- Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H(2)) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used.

  2. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery– Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B. K.; Wainright, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used. PMID:22711974

  3. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  4. Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  5. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  6. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  7. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To easily and reliably detect the consumption of a sputtered cathode in a radioactive gas storage device using ion injection method. Constitution: Inert gases are sealed to the inside of a cathode. As the device is operated, the cathode is consumed and, if it is scraped to some extent, inert gases in the cathode gases are blown out to increase the inner pressure of the device. The pressure elevation is detected by a pressure detector connected with a gas introduction pipe or discharge pipe. Further, since the discharge current in the inside is increased along with the elevation of the pressure, it is possible to detect the increase of the electrical current. In this way, the consumption of the cathode can be recognized by detecting the elevation in the pressure or increase in the current. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  9. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  10. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  11. Hydrogen transmission/storage with a metal hydride/organic slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.; McClaine, A. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has developed a new approach for the production, transmission, and storage of hydrogen. In this approach, a chemical hydride slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. The slurry protects the hydride from unanticipated contact with moisture in the air and makes the hydride pumpable. At the point of storage and use, a chemical hydride/water reaction is used to produce high-purity hydrogen. An essential feature of this approach is the recovery and recycle of the spent hydride at centralized processing plants, resulting in an overall low cost for hydrogen. This approach has two clear benefits: it greatly improves energy transmission and storage characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel, and it produces the hydrogen carrier efficiently and economically from a low cost carbon source. The preliminary economic analysis of the process indicates that hydrogen can be produced for $3.85 per million Btu based on a carbon cost of $1.42 per million Btu and a plant sized to serve a million cars per day. This compares to current costs of approximately $9.00 per million Btu to produce hydrogen from $3.00 per million Btu natural gas, and $25 per million Btu to produce hydrogen by electrolysis from $0.05 per Kwh electricity. The present standard for production of hydrogen from renewable energy is photovoltaic-electrolysis at $100 to $150 per million Btu.

  12. Complex Metal Hydrides for hydrogen storage and solid-state ion conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein

    and electricity in batteries. However, both hydrogen and electricity must be stored in a very dense way to be useful, e.g. for mobile applications. Complex metal hydrides have high hydrogen density and have been studied during the past twenty years in hydrogen storage systems. Moreover, they have shown high ionic...... conductivities which promote their application as solid electrolytes in batteries. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of a variety of complex metal hydrides and explores their hydrogen storage properties and ionic conductivity. Five halide free rare earth borohydrides RE(BH4)3, (RE...... = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Er) have been synthesized, which pave the way for studying the polymorphic transition in these compounds, obtaining new bimetallic borohydrides and designing new reactive hydride composites with improved hydrogen storage capacities. Two novel polymorphs of Pr(BH4)3 are identified...

  13. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2014), s. 2313-2333 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metal-hydrid phase transformation * hydrogen diffusion * swelling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2014 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=10195&mode=full

  14. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review presents recent developments for effective heat management systems to be integrated in metal hydride storage tanks, and investigates the performance improvements and limitations of each particular solution. High pressures and high temperatures metal hydrides can lead to different design...... given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems...

  15. Modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials : statistical thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Rey, W.J.J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new lattice gas model has been developed, describing the hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials. This model is based on the mean-field theory and Bragg-Williams approximation. To describe first-order phase transitions and two-phase coexistence regions, a binary alloy approach has been

  16. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  17. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Behavior of Complex Hydrides via Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C. Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pristine complex quaternary hydride (LiBH4/2LiNH2 and its destabilized counterpart (LiBH4/2LiNH2/nanoMgH2 have recently shown promising reversible hydrogen storage capacity under moderate operating conditions. The destabilization of complex hydride via nanocrystalline MgH2 apparently lowers the thermodynamic heat values and thus enhances the reversible hydrogen storage behavior at moderate temperatures. However, the kinetics of these materials is rather low and needs to be improved for on-board vehicular applications. Nanocatalyst additives such as nano Ni, nano Fe, nano Co, nano Mn and nano Cu at low concentrations on the complex hydride host structures have demonstrated a reduction in the decomposition temperature and overall increase in the hydrogen desorption reaction rates. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts such as the combination of nano Fe and nano Ni have shown further pronounced kinetics enhancement in comparison to their individual counterparts. Additionally, the vital advantage of using bi-metallic nanocatalysts is to enable the synergistic effects and characteristics of the two transitional nanometal species on the host hydride matrix for the optimized hydrogen storage behavior.

  18. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; Paraskevoulakos, C; Banos, A; Rennie, S; Jowsey, J; Scott, T B

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed.

  19. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Stitt

    Full Text Available Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed.

  20. Tailoring Thermodynamics and Kinetics for Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides towards Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Yaxiong; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state hydrogen storage using various materials is expected to provide the ultimate solution for safe and efficient on-board storage. Complex hydrides have attracted increasing attention over the past two decades due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. In this account, we review studies from our lab on tailoring the thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage in complex hydrides, including metal alanates, borohydrides and amides. By changing the material composition and structure, developing feasible preparation methods, doping high-performance catalysts, optimizing multifunctional additives, creating nanostructures and understanding the interaction mechanisms with hydrogen, the operating temperatures for hydrogen storage in metal amides, alanates and borohydrides are remarkably reduced. This temperature reduction is associated with enhanced reaction kinetics and improved reversibility. The examples discussed in this review are expected to provide new inspiration for the development of complex hydrides with high hydrogen capacity and appropriate thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Performance of a full-scale ITER metal hydride storage bed in comparison with requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Fanghaenel, E.; Perevezentsev, A.; Wagner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydride is the technique chosen for the ITER Tritium Plant Storage and Delivery System (SDS). A prototype storage bed of a full-scale has been designed, manufactured and intensively tested at the Tritium Laboratory, addressing main performance parameters specified for the ITER application. The main requirements for the hydrogen storage bed are a strict physical limitation of the tritium storage capacity (currently 70 g T 2 ), a high supply flow rate of hydrogen isotopes, in-situ calorimetry capabilities with an accuracy of 1 g and a fully tritium compatible design. The pressure composition isotherm of the ZrCo hydrogen system, as a reference material for ITER, is characterised by significant slope. As a result technical implementation of the ZrCo hydride bed in the SDS system requires further considerations. The paper presents the experience from the operation of ZrCo getter bed including loading/de-loading operation, calorimetric loop performance, and active gas cooling of the bed for fast absorption operation. The implications of hydride material characteristics on the SDS system configuration and design are discussed. (authors)

  2. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  3. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  4. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An ''in-bed accountability'' (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the ''cold'' test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from ± 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to ± 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds

  5. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  6. The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuochih

    The development of hydrogen storage electrode alloys in the 1980s resulted in the birth and growth of the rechargeable nickel hydride (Ni/MH) battery. In this paper we describe briefly a semi-empirical electrochemical/thermodynamic approach to develop/screen a hydrogen storage alloy for electrochemical application. More specifically we will discuss the AB x Ti/Zr-based alloys. Finally, the current state of the Ni/MH batteries including commercial manufacture processes, cell performance and applications is given.

  7. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  9. Aluminum hydride as a hydrogen and energy storage material: Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, J., E-mail: graetz@bnl.gov [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Reilly, J.J. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Yartys, V.A.; Maehlen, J.P. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Bulychev, B.M. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonov, V.E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Tarasov, B.P. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Gabis, I.E. [Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Aluminum hydride (AlH{sub 3}) and its associated compounds make up a fascinating class of materials that have motivated considerable scientific and technological research over the past 50 years. Due primarily to its high energy density, AlH{sub 3} has become a promising hydrogen and energy storage material that has been used (or proposed for use) as a rocket fuel, explosive, reducing agent and as a hydrogen source for portable fuel cells. This review covers the past, present and future research on aluminum hydride and includes the latest research developments on the synthesis of {alpha}-AlH{sub 3} and the other polymorphs (e.g., microcrystallization reaction, batch and continuous methods), crystallographic structures, thermodynamics and kinetics (e.g., as a function of crystallite size, catalysts and surface coatings), high-pressure hydrogenation experiments and possible regeneration routes.

  10. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  11. Hybrid functional calculations of potential hydrogen storage material: Complex dimagnesium iron hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-06-01

    By employing the state of art first principles approaches, comprehensive investigations of a very promising hydrogen storage material, Mg 2FeH6 hydride, is presented. To expose its hydrogen storage capabilities, detailed structural, elastic, electronic, optical and dielectric aspects have been deeply analysed. The electronic band structure calculations demonstrate that Mg2FeH6 is semiconducting material. The obtained results of the optical bandgap (4.19 eV) also indicate that it is a transparent material for ultraviolet light, thus demonstrating its potential for optoelectronics application. The calculated elastic properties reveal that Mg2FeH6 is highly stiff and stable hydride. Finally, the calculated hydrogen (H2) storage capacity (5.47 wt.%) within a reasonable formation energy of -78 kJ mol-1, at room temperature, can be easily achievable, thus making Mg2FeH6 as potential material for practical H2 storage applications. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening of metal hydride pairs for closed thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswin, N.; Dutta, Pradip; Murthy, S. Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems based on metal/hydrides usually are closed systems composed of two beds of metal/alloy – one meant for energy storage and the other for hydrogen storage. It can be shown that a feasible operating cycle for such a system using a pair of metals/alloys operating between specified temperature values can be ensured if the equilibrium hydrogen intake characteristics satisfy certain criteria. In addition, application of first law of thermodynamics to an idealized operating cycle can provide the upper bounds of selected performance indices, namely volumetric energy storage density, energy storage efficiency and peak discharge temperature. This is demonstrated for a representative system composed of LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 –LaNi 5 operating between 353 K and 303 K which gave values of about 56 kW h m −3 for volumetric storage density, about 85% for energy storage efficiency and 343 K for peak discharge temperature. A system level heat and mass transfer study considering the reaction kinetics, hydrogen flow between the beds and heat exchanger models is presented which gave second level estimates of about 40 kW h m −3 for volumetric energy storage density, 73% for energy storage efficiency and 334 K for peak temperature for the representative system. The results from such studies lead to identifying metal/alloy pairs which can be shortlisted for detailed studies.

  13. Minimum Entropy Generation Theorem Investigation and Optimization of Metal Hydride Alloy Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to carry out numerical simulation of the hydrogen storage on exothermic reaction of metal hydride LaNi5 alloy container. In addition to accelerating the reaction speed of the internal metal hydride by internal control tube water-cooled mode, analyze via the application of second law of thermodynamics the principle of entropy generation. Use COMSOL Mutilphysics 4.3 a to engage in finite element method value simulation on two-dimensional axisymmetric model. Also on the premise that the internal control tube parameters the radius ri, the flow rate U meet the metal hydride saturation time, observe the reaction process of two parameters on the tank, entropy distribution and the results of the accumulated entropy. And try to find the internal tube parameter values of the minimum entropy, whose purpose is to be able to identify the reaction process and the reaction results of internal tank’s optimum energy conservation.

  14. Hydrogen storage properties of Na-Li-Mg-Al-H complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Laube, Bruce L.; Wu Fengjung; Strickler, Jamie R.; Anton, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Lightweight complex hydrides have attracted attention for their high storage hydrogen capacity. NaAlH 4 has been widely studied as a hydrogen storage material for its favorable reversible operating temperature and pressure range for automotive fuel cell applications. The increased understanding of NaAlH 4 has led to an expanded search for high capacity materials in mixed alkali and akali/alkaline earth alanates. In this study, promising candidates in the Na-Li-Mg-Al-H system were evaluated using a combination of experimental chemistry, atomic modeling, and thermodynamic modeling. New materials were synthesized using solid state and solution based processing methods. Their hydrogen storage properties were measured experimentally, and the test results were compared with theoretical modeling assessments

  15. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  16. Storage device of reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns storage of spent fuels and provides a storage device capable of securing container-cells in shielding water by remote handling and moving and securing the container-cells easily. Namely, a horizontal support plate has a plurality of openings formed in a lattice like form and is disposed in a pit filled with water. The container-cell has a rectangular cross section, and is inserted and disposed vertically in the openings. Securing members are put between the container-cells above the horizontal support plate, and constituted so as to be expandable from above by remote handling. The securing member is preferably comprised of a vertical screw member and an expandable urging member. Since securing members for securing the container-cells for incorporating reactor fuels are disposed to the horizontal support plate controllable from above by the remote handling, fuel storage device can be disposed without entering into a radiation atmosphere. The container-cells can be settled and exchanged easily after starting of the use of a fuel pit. (I.S.)

  17. Hydrogen storage properties of Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy prepared via hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquan Li; Yunfeng Zhu; Xiaofeng Liu

    2006-01-01

    A Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy was prepared by the process of hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling (HCS+MM). The product showed a high hydriding rate at 373 K and the dehydrogenation started at temperature as low as 423 K. Several reasons contributing to the improvement in hydrogen storage properties were presented. The result of this study will provide attractive information for mobile applications of magnesium hydrogen storage materials, and the process of HCS+MM developed in this study showed its potential for synthesizing magnesium based hydrogen storage materials with novel hydriding/de-hydriding properties. (authors)

  18. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  19. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  20. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  1. Tin and tin-titanium as catalyst components for reversible hydrogen storage of sodium aluminium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jia Fu; Shik Chi Tsang [University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). Surface and Catalysis Research Centre, School of Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the effects of adding tin and/or titanium dopant to sodium aluminium hydride for both dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation reactions during their reversible storage of molecular hydrogen. Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) measurements show that the dehydrogenation kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4} are significantly enhanced upon doping the material with 2 mol% of tributyltin hydride, Sn(Bu)3H but the tin catalyst dopant is shown to be inferior than titanium. On the other hand, in this preliminary work, a significant synergetic catalytic effect is clearly revealed in material co-doped with both titanium and tin catalysts which shows the highest reversible rates of dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation (after their hydrogen depletion). The re-hydrogenation rates of depleted Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} evaluated at both 9.5 and 140 bars hydrogen are also found to be favourable compared to the Ti/NaAlH{sub 4}, which clearly suggest the importance of the catalyst choice. Basing on these results some mechanistic insights for the catalytic reversible dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation processes of Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} are therefore made. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and carbon containing alloys

  3. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  4. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  5. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don; Harmon, Laurel

    2011-02-14

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 LiAlH4Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the

  6. Hydride observations using the neutrography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Baruj, A.; Borzone, E.M.; Cardenas, R.; Szames, E.; Somoza, J.; Rivas, S.; Sanchez, F.A.; Marin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron radiography observations were performed at the RA-6 experimental nuclear facility in Bariloche. Images from a prototype of a hydride-based hydrogen storage device have been obtained. The technique allows visualizing the inner hydride space distribution. The hydride appeared compacted at the lower part of the prototype after several cycles of hydrogen charge and discharge. The technique has also been applied to the study of Zr/ZrH 2 samples. There is a linear relation between the sample width/hydrogen concentration and the photograph grey scale. This information could be useful for the study of nuclear engineering materials and to determine their possible degradation by hydrogen pick up (author)

  7. Metal Hydride Nanoparticles with Ultrahigh Structural Stability and Hydrogen Storage Activity Derived from Microencapsulated Nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Lin, Huaijun; Liu, Yana; Zhang, Yao; Li, Shenyang; Ma, Zhongliang; Li, Liquan

    2017-06-01

    Metal hydrides (MHs) have recently been designed for hydrogen sensors, switchable mirrors, rechargeable batteries, and other energy-storage and conversion-related applications. The demands of MHs, particular fast hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics, have brought their sizes to nanoscale. However, the nanostructured MHs generally suffer from surface passivation and low aggregation-resisting structural stability upon absorption/desorption. This study reports a novel strategy named microencapsulated nanoconfinement to realize local synthesis of nano-MHs, which possess ultrahigh structural stability and superior desorption kinetics. Monodispersed Mg 2 NiH 4 single crystal nanoparticles (NPs) are in situ encapsulated on the surface of graphene sheets (GS) through facile gas-solid reactions. This well-defined MgO coating layer with a thickness of ≈3 nm efficiently separates the NPs from each other to prevent aggregation during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles, leading to excellent thermal and mechanical stability. More interestingly, the MgO layer shows superior gas-selective permeability to prevent further oxidation of Mg 2 NiH 4 meanwhile accessible for hydrogen absorption/desorption. As a result, an extremely low activation energy (31.2 kJ mol -1 ) for the dehydrogenation reaction is achieved. This study provides alternative insights into designing nanosized MHs with both excellent hydrogen storage activity and thermal/mechanical stability exempting surface modification by agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of metal hydride based hydrogen storage systems using in-situ Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bellosta von Colbe, J. M.; Bücherl, T.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-10-01

    For the storage of hydrogen, complex metal hydrides are considered as highly promising with respect to capacity, reversibility and safety. The optimization of corresponding storage tanks demands a precise and time-resolved investigation of the hydrogen distribution in scaled-up metal hydride beds. In this study it is shown that in situ fission Neutron Radiography provides unique insights into the spatial distribution of hydrogen even for scaled-up compacts and therewith enables a direct study of hydrogen storage tanks. A technique is introduced for the precise quantification of both time-resolved data and a priori material distribution, allowing inter alia for an optimization of compacts manufacturing process. For the first time, several macroscopic fields are combined which elucidates the great potential of Neutron Imaging for investigations of metal hydrides by going further than solely 'imaging' the system: A combination of in-situ Neutron Radiography, IR-Thermography and thermodynamic quantities can reveal the interdependency of different driving forces for a scaled-up sodium alanate pellet by means of a multi-correlation analysis. A decisive and time-resolved, complex influence of material packing density is derived. The results of this study enable a variety of new investigation possibilities that provide essential information on the optimization of future hydrogen storage tanks.

  9. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hardy, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Corgnale, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ward, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Motyka, Ted [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate a metal hydride-based TES system for use with a CSP system. A unique approach has been applied to this project that combines our modeling experience with the extensive material knowledge and expertise at both SRNL and Curtin University (CU). Because of their high energy capacity and reasonable kinetics many metal hydride systems can be charged rapidly. Metal hydrides for vehicle applications have demonstrated charging rates in minutes and tens of minutes as opposed to hours. This coupled with high heat of reaction allows metal hydride TES systems to produce very high thermal power rates (approx. 1kW per 6-8 kg of material). A major objective of this work is to evaluate some of the new metal hydride materials that have recently become available. A problem with metal hydride TES systems in the past has been selecting a suitable high capacity low temperature metal hydride material to pair with the high temperature material. A unique aspect of metal hydride TES systems is that many of these systems can be located on or near dish/engine collectors due to their high thermal capacity and small size. The primary objective of this work is to develop a high enthalpy metal hydride that is capable of reversibly storing hydrogen at high temperatures (> 650 °C) and that can be paired with a suitable low enthalpy metal hydride with low cost materials. Furthermore, a demonstration of hydrogen cycling between the two hydride beds is desired.

  10. Impacts of external convection on release rates in metal hydride storage tanks. Paper no. IGEC-1-080

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, B.; Rowe, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Ho, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible metal hydrides can be used to store hydrogen at relatively low pressures, with very high volumetric density. The rate hydrogen can be drawn from a given tank is strongly influenced by the rate heat can be transferred to the reaction zone. Because of this, enhancing and controlling heat transfer is a key area of research in the development of metal hydride storage tanks. In this work, the impacts of external convection resistance on hydrogen release rates are examined. A one-dimensional resistive analysis determines the thermal resistances in the system based on one case where no external heat transfer enhancements are used, and a second case where external fins are used. A two-dimensional, transient model, developed in FEMLAB, is used to determine the impact of the external fins on the mass flow rate of hydrogen in more detail. For the particular metal hydride alloy (LaNi 4.8 Sn 0.2 ) and tank geometry studied, it was found that the fins have a large impact on the hydrogen flow rate during the initial stages of desorption. The flow rate with no fins is only 20% of the flow rate with fins for a full tank, 57% when the tank is 33% full, and 74% when the tank is 5% full. As the reaction proceeds, the resistance of the metal hydride alloy within the tank increases and becomes dominant. Therefore, the impact of the fins becomes less significant as the tank empties. (author)

  11. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. M.; Yang, C. C.; Wang, C. C.; Wen, Z.; Zhu, Y. F.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials—hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g-1, which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  12. Exceptional Lithium Storage in a Co(OH) 2 Anode: Hydride Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Choi, Woon Ih [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Jang, Yoonjung; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lee, Wontae; Park, Gwi Ok; Park, Su Bin; Yoo, Jaeseung; Hong, Jin Seok [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Choi, Youn-Suk [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Lee, Hyo Sug [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130 Samsung-ro, Suwon 16678, South Korea; Bae, In Tae; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2018-02-26

    Current lithium ion battery technology is tied in with conventional reaction mechanisms such as insertion, conversion, and alloying reactions even though most future applications like EVs demand much higher energy densities than current ones. Exploring the exceptional reaction mechanism and related electrode materials can be critical for pushing current battery technology to a next level. Here, we introduce an exceptional reaction with a Co(OH)(2) material which exhibits an initial charge capacity of 1112 mAh g(-1), about twice its theoretical value based on known conventional conversion reaction, and retains its first cycle capacity after 30 cycles. The combined results of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that nanosized Co metal particles and LiOH are generated by conversion reaction at high voltages, and CoxHy, Li2O, and LiH are subsequently formed by hydride reaction between Co metal, LiOH, and other lithium species at low voltages, resulting in a anomalously high capacity beyond the theoretical capacity of Co(OH)(2). This is further corroborated by AIMD simulations, localized STEM, and XPS. These findings will provide not only further understanding of exceptional lithium storage of recent nanostructured materials but also valuable guidance to develop advanced electrode materials with high energy density for next-generation batteries.

  13. Metal-doped sodium aluminium hydrides as potential new hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanovic, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Brand, R.A. [Department of Physics, Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet GH Duisburg, D-47048, Duisburg (Germany); Marjanovic, A.; Schwickardi, M.; Toelle, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, D-45470, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2000-04-28

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of the reversible dissociation of metal-doped NaAlH{sub 4} as a hydrogen (or heat) storage system have been investigated in some detail. The experimentally determined enthalpies for the first (3.7 wt% of H) and the second dissociation step of Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4} (3.0 wt% H) of 37 and 47 kJ/mol are in accordance with low and medium temperature reversible metal hydride systems, respectively. Through variation of NaAlH{sub 4} particle sizes, catalysts (dopants) and doping procedures, kinetics as well as the cyclization stability within cycle tests have been substantially improved with respect to the previous status [B. Bogdanovic, M. Schwickardi (1997)]. In particular, using combinations of Ti and Fe compounds as dopants, a cooperative (synergistic) catalytic effect of the metals Ti and Fe in enhancing rates of both de- and rehydrogenation of Ti/Fe-doped NaAlH{sub 4} within cycle tests, reaching a constant storage capacity of {proportional_to}4 wt% H{sub 2}, has been demonstrated. By means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy of the Ti/Fe-doped NaAlH{sub 4} before and throughout a cycle test, it has been ascertained that (1) during the doping procedure, nanosize metallic Fe particles are formed from the doping agent Fe(OEt){sub 2} and (2) already after the first dehydrogenation, the nanosize Fe particles with NaAlH{sub 4} present are probably transformed into an Fe-Al-alloy which throughout the cycle test remains practically unchanged. (orig.)

  14. Self-assembled air-stable magnesium hydride embedded in 3-D activated carbon for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S S; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Yu, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH 2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance. The resulting MHCH-5 exhibited outstanding hydrogen storage performance, better than that of most reported Mg-based hydrides, with a high storage density of 6.63 wt% H 2 , a rapid kinetics loading in hydrogenation compared to that of commercial MgH 2 . The origin of the intrinsic hydrogen thermodynamics was elucidated via solid state 1 H NMR. This work presents a readily scaled-up strategy towards the design of realistic catalysts with superior functionality and stability for applications in reversible hydrogen storage, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

  15. Gas storage and processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the gas solidification processing performance in a gas storing and processing device for solidifying treatment of radioactive gaseous wastes (krypton 85) by ion injection method. Constitution: The device according to the present invention is constituted by disposing a coil connected with a magnetic field power source to the outer circumference of an outer cathode vessel, so that axial magnetic fields are formed to the inside of the outer cathode vessel. With such a device, thermoelectrons released from the thermocathode downwardly collide against gaseous radioactive wastes at high probability while moving spirally by the magnetic fields. The thus formed gas ions are solidified by sputtering in the cathode in the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Stitt , C. A.; Harker , N. J.; Hallam , K. R.; Paraskevoulakos , C.; Banos , A.; Rennie , S.; Jowsey , J.; Scott , T. B.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reacta...

  17. First-principles studies of complex hydrides for lithium-ion battery and hydrogen storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Timothy Hudson

    We employ density functional theory in a computational study of two energy storage systems. In the first, we explore the thermodynamic viability of light metal hydrides as a high capacity Li-ion battery negative electrode. Given a set of solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble as a function of lithium electrochemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with predicted capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAhg-1 that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li4BN3H10 and compare with our theoretical prediction. The maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si, whose 400% expansion hinders its cyclability. In the second study, we attempt to gain understanding of recent experimental results of lithium borohydride nanoconfined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon. The carbon environment is modeled as a single sheet of graphene, and adsorption energies are calculated for nanoparticles of the constituent phases of LiBH 4 desorption processes (LiBH4, LiH, lithium and boron). We find good agreement with previous studies of a single lithium atom adsorbed onto graphene. We predict that infiltrated LiBH4 will decompose such that boron is trapped in carbon vacancies, and that the resulting boron doping is required to achieve negative wetting energies for the remaining LiBH4. Desorption enthalpies are found to increase with shrinking cluster sizes, suggesting that the observed lowering of desorption temperatures is a kinetic effect although interactions with the carbon surface itself are predicted to have an overall effect of decreasing the desorption enthalpy .

  18. An introduction to direct access storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, Hugh M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an exposition of the technology, design, organization, and structure of direct access storage devices (disk drives). It includes a discussion of the evolution of the technology (magnetic recording) and an assessment of other storage technologies, including optical recording. Examples of codes used in past implementations of disk drives as well as an application of disk drive usage dictated by reliability considerations are also included. The presentation assumes a minimum knowledge of magnetic recording, servomechanism design, and coding.

  19. The Effect of Peak Temperatures and Hoop Stresses on Hydride Reorientations of Zirconium Alloy Cladding Tubes under Interim Dry Storage Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyun Jin; Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on hydride reorientation in cladding was investigated. It was shown that the 250ppm-H specimens generated larger radial hydride fractions and longer radial hydrides than the 500ppm-H ones. The precipitated hydride in radial direction severely degrades mechanical properties of spent fuel rod. Hydride reorientation is related to cladding material, cladding temperature, hydrogen contents, thermal cycling, hoop stress and cooling rate. US NRC established the regulation on cladding temperature during the dry storage, which is the maximum fuel cladding temperature should not exceed 400 .deg. C for all fuel burnups under normal conditions of storage. However, if it is proved that the best estimate cladding hoop stress is equal to or less than 90MPa for the temperature limit proposed, a higher short-term temperature limit is allowed for low burnup fuel. In this study, 250ppm and 500ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes were selected to evaluate the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on the hydride reorientation during the dry storage. In order to evaluate threshold stresses in relation to various peak temperatures, four peak temperatures of 250, 300, 350, and 400 .deg. C and three tensile hoop stresses of 80, 100, 120MPa were selected.

  20. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  1. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  3. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Morten B.; Meggouh, Mariem; Moury, Romain; Peinecke, Kateryna; Felderhoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability. PMID:28793541

  4. Structure requirements for magnetic energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Huang, X.

    1993-01-01

    Large variety of large and small magnetic energy storage systems have been designed and analyzed in the last 20 years. Cryoresistive and superconductive energy storage (SMES) magnets have been considered for applications such as load leveling for electric utilities, pulsed storage for electromagnetic launchers and accelerator devices, and space borne superconductive energy storage systems. Large SMES are supported by a combination of cold and warm structure while small SMES are supported only by cold structure. In this article we provide analytical and numerical tools to estimate the structure requirements as function of the stored energy and configuration. Large and small solenoidal and toroidal geometries are used. Considerations for both warm and cold structure are discussed. Latest design concepts for both large and small units are included. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkaline storage battery its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu aruakri chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, it is proposed to employ the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means of rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. So that the utilization of the hydrogen storage alloy is limited. This invention solves the problem. The rare earth-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 20 micrometers on open surface side. The above said alloy is ground to average particle size of 25 - 70 micrometers to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Alloys for hydrogen storage in nickel/hydrogen and nickel/metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, Anaba; Visintin, Arnaldo; Petrov, Konstantin; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Reilly, James J.; Johnson, John R.; Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Desch, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors in the three laboratories to (1) prepare alloys of the AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) types, using arc-melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques; (2) examine their physico-chemical characteristics (morphology, composition); (3) determine the hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior (pressure-composition isotherms as a function of temperature); and (4) evaluate their performance characteristics as hydride electrodes (charge/discharge, capacity retention, cycle life, high rate capability). The work carried out on representative AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) type modified alloys (by partial substitution or with small additives of other elements) is presented. The purpose of the modification was to optimize the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions and enhance the stabilities of the alloys for the desired battery applications. The results of our collaboration, to date, demonstrate that (1) alloys prepared by arc melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques exhibit similar morphology, composition and hydriding/dehydriding characteristics; (2) alloys with the appropriate small amounts of substituent or additive elements: (1) retain the single phase structure, (2) improve the hydriding/dehydriding reactions for the battery applications, and (3) enhance the stability in the battery environment; and (3) the AB(sub 2) type alloys exhibit higher energy densities than the AB(sub 5) type alloys but the state-of-the-art, commercialized batteries are predominantly manufactured using Ab(sub 5) type alloys.

  7. Boron-nitrogen based hydrides and reactive composites for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lars H.; Ley, Morten B.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen forms chemical compounds with most other elements and forms a variety of different chemical bonds. This fascinating chemistry of hydrogen has continuously provided new materials and composites with new prospects for rational design and the tailoring of properties. This review highlights...... a range of new boron and nitrogen based hydrides and illustrates how hydrogen release and uptake properties can be improved. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  8. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode of metal hydride alkaline storage battery and its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, a proposal was made of employing the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means f rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. This invention solves the problem. The Mm{center_dot}Ni{center_dot}Co{center_dot}Al{center_dot}Mn alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 18 micrometers on open surface side. The alloy is ground to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. The general formula of this alloy is MmR(x) (Mm = mischmetal, R = Ni, Co, Al, Mn). In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  10. Arsine and selenium hydride trapping in a novel quartz device for atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratzer, Jan; Dědina, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 388, č. 4 (2007), s. 793-800 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : HG-AAS * quartz surface * hydride trapping Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  11. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. High H⁻ ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  13. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  14. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2018-05-01

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Organic chemical hydrides as storage medium of hydrogen on the basis of superheated liquid-film concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya Hodoshima; Atsushi Shono; Kazumi Satoh; Yasukazu Saito

    2006-01-01

    A catalysis pair of tetralin dehydrogenation / naphthalene hydrogenation has been proposed in the present paper as an organic chemical hydride for operating stationary fuel cells. Catalytic naphthalene hydrogenation, having been commercialized since the 1940's, proceeds to generate decalin via tetralin as an intermediate. The storage capacities of tetralin (3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are lower than decalin (7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) but both tetralin dehydrogenation and naphthalene hydrogenation are much faster than the decalin / naphthalene pair. Moreover, existing infrastructures, e.g., gas station and tank lorry, are available for storage, transportation and supply of hydrogen. As for the stationary fuel cells with large space for hydrogen storage, tetralin as a hydrogen carrier is superior to decalin in terms of fast hydrogen supply. Rapid hydrogen supply from tetralin under mild conditions was only accomplished with the carbon supported metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions. In contrast to the ordinary suspended states, the catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film state gave high catalytic performances at around 250 C. As a result, serious coke formation over the catalyst surface and excessive exergy consumption were prevented simultaneously. (authors)

  16. Recyclable hydrogen storage system composed of ammonia and alkali metal hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hikaru [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Miyaoka, Hiroki; Hino, Satoshi [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Nakanishi, Haruyuki [Higashi-Fuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Misyuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) reacts with alkali metal hydrides MH (M = Li, Na, and K) in an exothermic reaction to release hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at room temperature, resulting that alkali metal amides (MNH{sub 2}) which are formed as by-products. In this work, hydrogen desorption properties of these systems and the condition for the recycle from MNH{sub 2} back to MH were investigated systematically. For the hydrogen desorption reaction, the reactivities of MH with NH{sub 3} were better following the atomic number of M on the periodic table, Li < Na < K. It was confirmed that the hydrogen absorption reaction of all the systems proceeded under 0.5 MPa of H{sub 2} flow condition below 300 C. (author)

  17. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  18. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  19. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  20. Efficient micromagnetics for magnetic storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar Acevedo, Marco Antonio

    Micromagnetics is an important component for advancing the magnetic nanostructures understanding and design. Numerous existing and prospective magnetic devices rely on micromagnetic analysis, these include hard disk drives, magnetic sensors, memories, microwave generators, and magnetic logic. The ability to examine, describe, and predict the magnetic behavior, and macroscopic properties of nanoscale magnetic systems is essential for improving the existing devices, for progressing in their understanding, and for enabling new technologies. This dissertation describes efficient micromagnetic methods as required for magnetic storage analysis. Their performance and accuracy is demonstrated by studying realistic, complex, and relevant micromagnetic system case studies. An efficient methodology for dynamic micromagnetics in large scale simulations is used to study the writing process in a full scale model of a magnetic write head. An efficient scheme, tailored for micromagnetics, to find the minimum energy state on a magnetic system is presented. This scheme can be used to calculate hysteresis loops. An efficient scheme, tailored for micromagnetics, to find the minimum energy path between two stable states on a magnetic system is presented. This minimum energy path is intimately related to the thermal stability.

  1. Evaluation of Thermal Creep and Hydride Re-orientation Properties of High Burnup Spent Fuel Cladding under Long Term Dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, K [JNES (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    In Japan, spent fuels will be reprocessed as recyclable energy source at a reprocessing plant. The first commercial plant is under-constructing and will start operation in 2008. It is necessary that spent fuels should be stored in the independent interim storage facilities (ISF) until reprocessing. Utilities plan the operation of the first ISF in 2010. JNES has a mission to support the safety body by researching the data of technical standard and regulation. Investigating of spent fuel integrity during long term dry storage is one of them. The objectives are: 1) Evaluation of the effects of material design changes on creep properties of high burnup spent fuel cladding; 2) Evaluation of the effects of alloy elements and texture of irradiated Zircaloy on hydride re-orientation properties and the effects of radial hydrides on cladding mechanical properties; 3) Evaluation of the effects of temperature on irradiation hardening recovery.

  2. Hydriding properties of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.I.; Bustamante, L.A.C.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the development of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd alloy for hydrogen storage purposes. The hydrogen storage properties of the alloy were analyzed using pressure-composition isotherms and hydrogen desorption kinetic curves at different temperatures. The characterization of the microstructures, before and after hydrogenation, was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Hydrogenation caused significant changes in the alloy microstructure. Two pressure plateaus were observed. The maximum hydrogen storage reversible capacity measured was 4 wt.% at 573 K

  3. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig

    2017-02-28

    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  4. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  5. Hybrid functional calculations of potential hydrogen storage material: Complex dimagnesium iron hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Kanoun, Mohammed; Ahmed, Rashid; Bououdina, M.; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    .%) within a reasonable formation energy of -78 kJ mol-1, at room temperature, can be easily achievable, thus making Mg2FeH6 as potential material for practical H2 storage applications. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published

  6. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    promising option. Effective hydrogen storage methods must be used as sources of available hydrogen. One possibility is to use hydrogen stored in a solid chemical compound such as magnesium hydride. The kinetics of hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of magnesium hydride with 2 wt% acetic acid was examined. The hydrogen produced was supplied to a fuel cell and the amount of hydrogen consumed by the fuel cell was determined. Carbon nanotubes also can play a role in energy sources and as components in fuel cells. VUV photo-oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) paper was grafted with polyacrylic acid and analyzed using XPS.

  7. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Leif [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Stroemme, Maria [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Effects of Nd-addition on the structural, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of C14 metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Ng, K.Y.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Nd-addition to the AB{sub 2}-based alloy Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 22.8−x}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 7.0}Ni{sub 32.2}Al{sub 0.4}Nd{sub x} is studied for its effects on the structure, gaseous-phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties. This study follows a series of Cu, Mo, Fe, Y, Si, and La doping studies in similar AB{sub 2}-based alloys. Limited solubility of Nd in the main Laves phase promotes the formation of secondary phases (AB and Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}) to provide catalytic effects and synergies for improved capacity and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) performance. The main C14 storage phase has smaller lattice constants and cell volumes, and these effects reduce the storage capacity at higher Nd levels. Different hydrogen absorption mechanisms can occur in these multi-component, multi-phase alloys depending on the interfaces of the phases, and they have effects on the alloy properties. Higher Nd-levels improve the HRD performance despite having lower bulk diffusion and surface exchange current. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate large percentage of larger metallic nickel clusters are present in the surface oxide of alloys with higher Nd-content, and AC impedance studies show very low charge-transfer resistance with high catalytic capability in the alloys. The −40 °C charge-transfer resistance of 8.9 Ω g in this Nd-series of alloys is the lowest measured out of the studies investigating doped AB{sub 2}-based MH alloys for improved low-temperature characteristics. The improvement in HRD and low-temperature performance appears to be related to the proportion of the highly catalytic NdNi-phase at the surface, which must offset the increased bulk diffusion resistance in the alloy. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of hydrogen flow and corresponding PCT isotherms in funneling mode. - Highlights: • Structural and hydrogen storage properties of Nd-substituted AB{sub 2} metal hydride are reported. • Nd contributes to the lowest

  9. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Dhanesh [Primary Contact; Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra

    2011-03-28

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255°C; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly

  10. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  11. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  12. A composite of complex and chemical hydrides yields the first Al-based amidoborane with improved hydrogen storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Jepsen, Lars H; Safin, Damir A; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Dyadkin, Vadim; Jensen, Torben R; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2015-10-05

    The first Al-based amidoborane Na[Al(NH2 BH3 )4 ] was obtained through a mechanochemical treatment of the NaAlH4 -4 AB (AB=NH3 BH3 ) composite releasing 4.5 wt % of pure hydrogen. The same amidoborane was also produced upon heating the composite at 70 °C. The crystal structure of Na[Al(NH2 BH3 )4 ], elucidated from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and confirmed by DFT calculations, contains the previously unknown tetrahedral ion [Al(NH2 BH3 )4 ](-) , with every NH2 BH3 (-) ligand coordinated to aluminum through nitrogen atoms. Combination of complex and chemical hydrides in the same compound was possible due to both the lower stability of the AlH bonds compared to the BH ones in borohydride, and due to the strong Lewis acidity of Al(3+) . According to the thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-DSC-MS) studies, Na[Al(NH2 BH3 )4 ] releases in two steps 9 wt % of pure hydrogen. As a result of this decomposition, which was also supported by volumetric studies, the formation of NaBH4 and amorphous product(s) of the surmised composition AlN4 B3 H(0-3.6) were observed. Furthermore, volumetric experiments have also shown that the final residue can reversibly absorb about 27 % of the released hydrogen at 250 °C and p(H2 )=150 bar. Hydrogen re-absorption does not regenerate neither Na[Al(NH2 BH3 )4 ] nor starting materials, NaAlH4 and AB, but rather occurs within amorphous product(s). Detailed studies of the latter one(s) can open an avenue for a new family of reversible hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the NaAlH4 -4 AB composite might become a starting point towards a new series of aluminum-based tetraamidoboranes with improved hydrogen storage properties such as hydrogen storage density, hydrogen purity, and reversibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  14. New nanomaterials for hydrogen storage. A new class of aluminum hydrides; Neue Nanomaterialien zur Wasserstoffspeicherung. Eine neue Klasse von Aluminiumhydriden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Joern

    2009-02-13

    for a structure with D{sub 2d} symmetry show a splitting in the two highest lying energy levels, which for perfect T{sub d} symmetry ar degenerated. This splitting gives rise to a HOMO-LUMO-Gap between the fifth and sixth pairs of skeletal electrons. Al{sub 4}H{sub 6}, a cluster with ten skeletal electrons and thus five electron pairs therefore adopts a structure with D{sub 2d} symmetry and reaches a stable electronic configuration via the lowering of the fifth orbital. The applicability of the wade's rules to aluminum hydride clusters shows that there is a strong connection between the boranes and the alanes and makes it plausible to see the aluminum hydrides as analoga to the boranes BnHm. The experimentally found values for HOMO-LUMO-Gaps and electron affinities give cause for hope that the investigated or similar clusters could be building blocks for a stable cluster material which could be produced in macroscopic quantities. This material on the one hand could potentially be applied in hydrogen storage, but also could be a candidate as a primary energy carrier, e.g. in rocket propulsion, since the investigated aluminum hydrides show a extraordinary large heat of combustion when reacting with oxygen. For Al{sub 4}H{sub 6}, a value of 438 kcal/mol was calculated, which is about a factor of 2,5 above the corresponding value for methane. Should the hopes of synthesizing such a material prove fruitful, it could become an important energy carrier for the future. (orig.)

  15. Surface treatment for hydrogen storage alloy of nickel/metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.-S.; Wu, H.-R.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Wan, C.-C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-04-28

    The electrochemical performance of AB{sub 2}-type (Ti{sub 0.35}Zr{sub 0.65}Ni{sub 1.2}V{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.2}Cr{sub 0.2}) and AB{sub 5}-type (MmB{sub 4.3}(Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.4}){sub 0.5}) hydrogen storage alloys modified by hot KOH etching and electroless nickel coating has been investigated. It is found that the alloy modified with hot KOH solution shows quick activation but at the expense of cycle-life stability. The alloy coated with nickel was effectively improved in both cycle-life stability and discharge capacity. Both the exchange and limiting current densities were increased by modifying the alloys by hot KOH solution dipping or electroless nickel coating as compared with untreated alloy electrode. The electrode with higher exchange current density and limiting current density leads to increased high-rate dischargeability. A duplex surface modified alloy (i.e., alloy first treated with hot KOH solution and then coated with nickel) has been developed, which performs satisfactorily with respect to both quick activation and long cycle life. In addition, the high-rate dischargeability for the electrode with duplex surface modification is superior to that of electrode solely treated with KOH etching or Ni plating. (orig.)

  16. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  17. Device with pivoting base for the storage of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A storage rack for nuclear fuel assemblies comprising lower and upper bearers to support and hold fuel assemblies in their vertical position is described. The feature of this rack is the lower supporting device which comprises a pivoting base on which rests each fuel assembly, thereby enabling the fuel assembly not be subjected to any fatigue during storage [fr

  18. An automatic device for charging a storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyukov, A A

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the service life of storage batteries (AB) through ensuring automatic protection of the device from overloads with short circuits (KZ) and from incorrect switching polarity of the storage batteries. The device contains a transformer, a rectifier, a smoothing capacitor, a trigger capacitor, a charge current control transistor, a controllable transistor, a shielding transistor, two resistors, a diode, a resistor and a voltage divider, another resistor, a reference voltage stabilitron, a resistor and another diode and the storage battery.

  19. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., and digital memory. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  20. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  1. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  3. A visual-display and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Memory and display device uses cathodochromic material to store visual information and fast phosphor to recall information for display and electronic processing. Cathodochromic material changes color when bombarded with electrons, and is restored to its original color when exposed to light of appropiate wavelength.

  4. The effect of compositional changes on the structural and hydrogen storage properties of (La–Ce)Ni5 type intermetallics towards compounds suitable for metal hydride hydrogen compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odysseos, M.; De Rango, P.; Christodoulou, C.N.; Hlil, E.K.; Steriotis, T.; Karagiorgis, G.; Charalambopoulou, G.; Papapanagiotou, T.; Ampoumogli, A.; Psycharis, V.; Koultoukis, E.; Fruchart, D.; Stubos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Highlights: ► Absorption-based systems exploit the properties of reversible metal hydrides. ► AB5 intermetallics are mostly popular for thermal desorption compressors. ► Investigation of H2 absorption/desorption properties of LaNi5 and its derivatives. ► LaNi5 thermodynamic properties adjustment by partially replacing La with rare earths. -- Abstract: The present work has been aiming at the synthesis and study of a series of La 1−x Ce x Ni 5 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8) alloys in an attempt to investigate possible alterations of the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties The alloys were prepared by induction melting of the constituent elements. The systematic characterization of all new compounds by means of XRD and hydrogen sorption measurements revealed the effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Extensive absorption/desorption experiments (Van’t Hoff diagrams) have shown that such alloys can be used to build a metal hydride compressor (MHC), compressing H 2 gas from 0.2 MPa to 4.2 MPa using cold (20 °C) and hot (80 °C) water

  5. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  6. Security risks arising from portable storage devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molotsi, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of the security risks arising from the use of PSDs, and further provides possible security countermeasures to help organisations and users to protect their digital assets. APPROACH Literature review: ? To investigate security risks posed by PSDs... technology in the workplace. International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics. 3(1): 73?81 [3] Kim, K., Kim, E. & Hong S. (2009). Privacy information protection in portable device. Proceedings of International Conference on Convergence...

  7. Fiber-shaped energy harvesting and storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Huisheng

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers flexible fiber-shaped devices in the area of energy conversion and storage. The first part of the book introduces recently developed materials, particularly, various nanomaterials and composite materials based on nanostructured carbon such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, metals and polymers for the construction of fiber electrodes. The second part of the book focuses on two typical twisted and coaxial architectures of fiber-shaped devices for energy conversion and storage. The emphasis is placed on dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, lithium-ion b

  8. bank as an energy storage device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES are not the backbone of the Polish electricity generation sector. Even though the use of such resources is beneficial in terms of, e.g., CO2 emissions, current policy seems to create more and more obstacles hindering their further development on an industrial scale. The present paper proposes a simulation model of a hybrid micro power source coupled with a battery bank supplying a small group of households with an annual energy demand of 30 MWh. Results indicate that, for the selected site, a power source consisting of a wind turbine – 8kW, photovoltaic array – 9kW, water turbine – 2kW and 256 kWh energy storage capacity of a battery bank can be a reliable energy source. However, due to the intermittent nature of the selected energy sources there is still a need to remain on-grid in order to avoid excessive energy surpluses (in the case of an oversized system and deficits. This work opens several interesting directions for future studies, which will be discussed in later sections.

  9. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for a metal-hydride alkaline battery; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Higashiyama, N.; Kimoto, M.; Nogami, M.; Nishio, K.; Saito, T.

    1996-07-16

    This invention aims to present a hydrogen storage alloy electrode which gives a metal-hydride alkaline battery with a high discharge characteristics at an initial stage of the charge and discharge cycle and excellent charge and discharge cycle characteristics. Thin belt-like misch metal(Mm)-nickel hydrogen storage alloy lumps with a CaCu5 type crystal structure and with dissolved boron or carbon as replaced atoms of nickel in a supersaturated state are obtained by quenching and solidification of molten Mm-Ni hydrogen storage alloy with addition of boron or carbon in 0.005 to 0.150 molar ratio to 1 mole of Mm by a single or dual role method, and annealed in an inert gas or in vacuum at a temperature of 620 to 1000{degree}C for a prescribed time to separate out a boron compound as a second phase, followed by pulverization to produce the alloy powder which is used as a hydrogen storage alloy material. The presence of the second phase promotes cracking of the alloy at an early stage of the charge and discharge cycle and suppresses generation of fine powder in the following charge and discharge cycles. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Mesoporous nanocrystalline film architecture for capacitive storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Wang, John; Brezesinski, Torsten; Gruner, George

    2017-05-16

    A mesoporous, nanocrystalline, metal oxide construct particularly suited for capacitive energy storage that has an architecture with short diffusion path lengths and large surface areas and a method for production are provided. Energy density is substantially increased without compromising the capacitive charge storage kinetics and electrode demonstrates long term cycling stability. Charge storage devices with electrodes using the construct can use three different charge storage mechanisms immersed in an electrolyte: (1) cations can be stored in a thin double layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface (non-faradaic mechanism); (2) cations can interact with the bulk of an electroactive material which then undergoes a redox reaction or phase change, as in conventional batteries (faradaic mechanism); or (3) cations can electrochemically adsorb onto the surface of a material through charge transfer processes (faradaic mechanism).

  11. Selective reduction of arsenic species by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry. Part 2 - sample storage and arsenic determination in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quináia Sueli P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Total arsenic, arsenite, arsinate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were selectively determined in natural waters by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry, using sodium tetrahydroborate(III as reductant but in different reduction media. River water samples from the north region of Paraná State, Brazil, were analysed and showed arsenate as the principal arsenical form. Detection limits found for As(III (citrate buffer, As(III + DMA (acetic acid and As(III + As(V (hydrochloric acid were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.5 mg As L-1, respectively. Sample storage on the proper reaction media revealed to be a useful way to preserve the water sample.

  12. A paste type negative electrode using a MmNi{sub 5} based hydrogen storage alloy for a nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Hoshino, H. [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Different conducting materials (nickel, copper, cobalt, graphite) were mixed with a MmNi{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloy, and negative electrodes for a nickel-metal hydride(Ni-MH) rechargeable battery were prepared and examined with respect to the discharge capacity of the electrodes. The change in the discharge capacity of the electrodes with different conducting materials was measured as a function of the number of electrochemical charge and discharge cycles. From the measurements, the electrodes with cobalt and graphite were found to yield much higher discharge capacities than those with nickel or cobalt. From a comparative discharge measurements for an electrode composed of only cobalt powder without the alloy and an electrode with a mixture of cobalt and the alloy, an appreciable contribution of the cobalt surface to the enhancement of charge and discharge capacities was found. (author)

  13. Improved design model for the multi-bed system in the storage and delivery system at ITER: Effects of decay of hydriding and dehydriding rate of a getter bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148-gil Kwahak-ro, Yusong-gu, Daejon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo, E-mail: eslee@dongguk.edu [Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Beum [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper proposes an improved design model for the multi-bed system in the Storage and Delivery System considering that the hydriding and dehydriding rates of a getter bed decay over time. More specifically, the hydriding and dehydriding rates are influenced by the amount of remaining inventory in the getter bed and time simultaneously. Therefore, we formulate the rate decays mathematically to consider these features in the design model. The optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) model with nonlinear constraints. Inductive operation scenario is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  14. Improved design model for the multi-bed system in the storage and delivery system at ITER: Effects of decay of hydriding and dehydriding rate of a getter bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Uk; Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun; Lee, Euy Soo; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved design model for the multi-bed system in the Storage and Delivery System considering that the hydriding and dehydriding rates of a getter bed decay over time. More specifically, the hydriding and dehydriding rates are influenced by the amount of remaining inventory in the getter bed and time simultaneously. Therefore, we formulate the rate decays mathematically to consider these features in the design model. The optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) model with nonlinear constraints. Inductive operation scenario is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  15. Effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes supported nano-nickel and TiF{sub 3} addition on hydrogen storage properties of magnesium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wei; Zhu, Yunfeng, E-mail: yfzhu@njtech.edu.cn; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Yana; Yang, Yang; Mao, Qifeng; Li, Liquan

    2016-06-05

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes supported nano-nickel (Ni/MWCNTs) with superior catalytic effects was introduced to magnesium hydride by the process of hydriding combustion synthesis (HCS) and mechanical milling (MM). The effect of different Ni/MWCNTs contents (5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.%) on the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties of the composite was investigated systematically. It is revealed that Mg{sub 85}-(Ni/MWCNTs){sub 15} composite shows the best comprehensive hydrogen storage properties, which absorbs 5.68 wt.% hydrogen within 100 s at 373 K and releases 4.31 wt.% hydrogen within 1800 s at 523 K under initial hydrogen pressures of 3.0 and 0.005 MPa, respectively. The in situ formed nano-Mg{sub 2}Ni and MWCNTs have excellent catalytic effect on the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation performances of MgH{sub 2}. To further improve the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties, TiF{sub 3} was added to the Mg–Ni/MWCNTs system. The result shows that TiF{sub 3} addition has little influence on the thermodynamic performance, but affects greatly the kinetic properties. The Mg{sub 85}-(Ni/MWCNTs){sub 15}-TiF{sub 3} composite exhibits an appreciably enhanced hydrogen desorption performance at low temperature, and the hydrogen desorption capacity within 1800 s at 473 K for the TiF{sub 3}-added composite is approximately four times the capacity of Mg{sub 85}-(Ni/MWCNTs){sub 15} under the same condition. The catalytic effects during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation have been discussed in the study. - Highlights: • The nanosized Ni/MWCNTs catalyst was successfully prepared. • Ni/MWCNTs shows superior catalytic effect on H absorption/desorption of Mg. • Mg{sub 85}-(Ni/MWCNTs){sub 15} composite shows the best hydrogen storage properties. • Ni/MWCNTs coupling with TiF{sub 3} improves the hydriding/dehydriding properties largely.

  16. Using MRI devices for the energy storage purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Molokáč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically a difficult process. Such a process is connected with energy losses, as most frequently it is the conversion of electrical energy into another form, for example mechanical, and then back to the primal electrical form. Though, the SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the basis of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, (basically caused only by its „software fustiness“ and not by functional faults, there is a possibility of using such devices for the energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological. A research project is running at the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies (F BERG, the Department of Business and Management, in the field of using rejected MRI for energy storage purposes.

  17. Device for sealing and shielding a nuclear fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Gengo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a shield device for opening and closing a great opening in a relay-storage-tank within a hot cell for temporarily storing a nuclear fuel, in which the device is simplified in construction and which can perform the opening and closing operation in simple, positive and quick manner. Structure: A biological shield is positioned upwardly of an opening of a nuclear fuel storage tank to render an actuator inoperative. A sealing plate, which is pivotally supported by a plurality of support rod devices from the biological shield for parallel movement with respect to the biological shield, comes in contact with a resilient seal disposed along the entire peripheral edge of the opening to form an air-tight seal therebetween. In order to release the opening, the actuator is first actuated and the end of the sealing plate is horizontally pressed by a piston rod thereof. Then, the sealing plate is moved along the line depicted by the end of the support rod in the support rod devices and as a consequence, the plate is moved away from the resilient seal in the peripheral edge of the opening. When a driving device is actuated to travel the plate along the aforesaid line while maintaining the condition as described, the biological device moves along the guide. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino Salvatore; Bruce, Peter; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; van Schalkwijk, Walter

    2005-05-01

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.

  19. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel storage device and spent nuclear fuel storage method using the device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro

    1998-01-01

    Storage cells attachably/detachably support nuclear fuel containing vessels while keeping the vertical posture of them. A ventilation pipe which forms air channels for ventilating air to the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel is disposed at the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel contained in the storage cell. A shielding port for keeping the support openings gas tightly is moved, and a communication port thereof can be aligned with the upper portion of the support opening. The lower end of the transporting and containing vessel is placed on the shielding port, and an opening/closing shutter is opened. The gas tightness is kept by the shielding port, the nuclear fuel containing vessel filled with spent nuclear fuels is inserted to the support opening and supported. Then, the support opening is closed by a sealing lid. (I.N.)

  1. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  2. Power Management of MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2008-01-01

    Because of its small form factor, high capacity, and expected low cost, MEMS-based storage is a suitable storage technology for mobile systems. MEMS-based storage devices should also be energy efficient for deployment in mobile systems. The problem is that MEMS-based storage devices are mechanical,

  3. Hydride generation – in-atomizer collection of Pb in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device for atomic absorption spectrometry – an interference study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotný, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); High School in Hořice, Husova 1414, 508 01 Hořice (Czech Republic); Kratzer, Jan, E-mail: jkratzer@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Interferences of selected hydride forming elements (As, Sb, Bi, Se and Sn) on lead determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry were extensively studied in both on-line atomization and preconcentration (collection) modes. The commonly used on-line atomization mode was found free of significant interferences, whereas strong interference from Bi was observed when employing the preconcentration mode with plumbane collection in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device. Interference of Bi seems to take place in the preconcentration step. Interference of Bi in the collection mode cannot be reduced by increased hydrogen radical amount in the trap and/or the atomizer. - Highlights: ► Interference study on Pb determination by in-atomizer trapping was performed for the first time. ► Bi was found as a severe interferent in the preconcentration mode (Pb:Bi ratio 1:100). ► No interference was found in the on-line atomization (no preconcentration). ► Bi interference occurs during preconcentration.

  4. Selenium analysis by an integrated microwave digestion-needle trap device with hydride sorption on carbon nanotubes and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratta Martínez, Ariel; Vázquez, Sandra; Lara, Rodolfo; Martínez, Luis Dante; Pacheco, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    An integrated microwave assisted digestion (MW-AD) - needle trap device (NTD) for selenium determination in grape pomace samples is presented. The NTD was filled with oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (oxMWCNTS) where Se hydrides were preconcentrated. Determination was carried out by flow injection-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-ETAAS). The variables affecting the system were established by a multivariate design (Plackett Burman), indicating that the following variables significantly affect the system: sample amount, HNO3 digestion solution concentration, NaBH4 volume and elution volume. A Box-Behnken design was implemented to determine the optimized values of these variables. The system improved Se atomization in the graphite furnace, since only trapped hydrides reached the graphite furnace, and the pyrolysis stage was eliminated according to the aqueous matrix of the eluate. Under optimized conditions the system reached a limit of quantification of 0.11 μg kg- 1, a detection limit of 0.032 μg kg- 1, a relative standard deviation of 4% and a preconcentration factor (PF) of 100, reaching a throughput sample of 5 samples per hour. Sample analysis show Se concentrations between 0.34 ± 0.03 μg kg- 1 to 0.48 ± 0.03 μg kg- 1 in grape pomace. This system provides minimal reagents and sample consumption, eliminates discontinuous stages between samples processing reaching a simpler and faster Se analysis.

  5. Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, L.

    2009-12-07

    Paper, invented more than 2,000 years ago and widely used today in our everyday lives, is explored in this study as a platform for energy-storage devices by integration with 1D nanomaterials. Here, we show that commercially available paper can be made highly conductive with a sheet resistance as low as 1 ohm per square (Omega/sq) by using simple solution processes to achieve conformal coating of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver nanowire films. Compared with plastics, paper substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance of 200 F/g, a specific energy of 30-47 Watt-hour/kilogram (Wh/kg), a specific power of 200,000 W/kg, and a stable cycling life over 40,000 cycles are achieved. These values are much better than those of devices on other flat substrates, such as plastics. Even in a case in which the weight of all of the dead components is considered, a specific energy of 7.5 Wh/kg is achieved. In addition, this conductive paper can be used as an excellent lightweight current collector in lithium-ion batteries to replace the existing metallic counterparts. This work suggests that our conductive paper can be a highly scalable and low-cost solution for high-performance energy storage devices.

  6. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  7. Sorption properties of nanocrystalline metal hydrides for the storage of hydrogen; Sorptionseigenschaften von nanokristallinen Metallhydriden fuer die Wasserstoffspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelerich, W.

    2000-07-01

    For the utilisation of hydrogen in emission-free automobiles new nanostructured Mg-based metal hydrides were developed. These materials show significantly faster absorption and desorption kinetics, which can be even further enhanced by additions of suitable catalysts. Contrary to conventional magnesium powder, hydrogenation at room temperature is demonstrated for the first time. During dehydrogenation at 250 C a desorption rate of 3 to 8 kW/kg with a capacity of 2.5 kWh/kg is achieved, that fulfills the technical requirements for automobile application. (orig.) [German] Im Hinblick auf den Einsatz von Wasserstoff in emissionsfreien Kraftfahrzeugen wurden neuartige nanostrukturierte Metallhydride auf Basis von Magnesium hergestellt. Diese Materialien zeigen eine deutlich schnellere Absorptions- und Desorptionskinetik, die sich durch den Zusatz von geeigneten Katalysatoren noch weiter steigern laesst. Im Gegensatz zu konventionellem Magnesiumpulver konnte erstmals eine Hydrierung bei Raumtemperatur demonstriert werden. Bei der Dehydrierung bei 250 C wird eine Desorptionsrate von 3 bis 8 kW/kg bei einer Kapazitaet von 2,5 kWh/kg erreicht, die die technischen Leistungsanforderungen von Kraftfahrzeugen erfuellt. (orig.)

  8. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  9. Storage device for fuel rods of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, B.

    1983-01-01

    The storage device, which can be flexibly matched to the number of fuel rods to be stored and is not tied to a space, has a vertical support post situated on the floor and a stiff upright also situated vertically on the floor, which is used to accommodate at least one fuel rod. The stiff upright is connected directly to the support post by connections which can be undone, or form locking via another vertical stiff upright situation on the floor. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  11. 2D materials for renewable energy storage devices: Outlook and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-11-15

    Scientists are looking for cost-effective, clean and durable alternative energy devices. Superior charge storage devices can easily meet the demands of our daily needs. In this respect, a material with suitable dimensions for charge storage devices has been considered to be very important. Improved performance of charge storage devices has been derived from whole-body participation and the best are from 2D materials, which provide a viable and acceptable solution.

  12. Analysis of multi cloud storage applications for resource constrained mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage, which can be a surrogate for all physical hardware storage devices, is a term which gives a reflection of an enormous advancement in engineering (Hung et al., 2012. However, there are many issues that need to be handled when accessing cloud storage on resource constrained mobile devices due to inherent limitations of mobile devices as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup (Yeo et al., 2014. There are many multi cloud storage applications available, which handle issues faced by single cloud storage applications. In this paper, we are providing analysis of different multi cloud storage applications developed for resource constrained mobile devices to check their performance on the basis of parameters as battery consumption, CPU usage, data usage and time consumed by using mobile phone device Sony Xperia ZL (smart phone on WiFi network. Lastly, conclusion and open research challenges in these multi cloud storage apps are discussed.

  13. Thermal design of a metal hydride storage bed, permitting tritium accountancy to 0.1% resolution and repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tritium storage beds at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor are likely to use uranium as a getter material with a total inventory of 150 g T 2 at 75% stoichiometric composition of UT 3 . We propose a storage bed design directly extrapolated from the Joint European Torus uranium beds, which already have a 238 U inventory of 4.284 kg. Three alternative approaches to implement calorimetry for in situ tritium inventory accounting are discussed. The favored solution uses a microporous thermal insulation operating in a hydrogen atmosphere. This design is shown to meet all operational and safety requirements. The accuracy of calorimetric assay to ±0.1 requires only the measurement of a temperature difference to ±0.1 K and stabilization of the ambient reference temperature of 300 to ±0.1 K. 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery using Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luo, J.L.; Chuang, K.T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-04-28

    The performance of a sealed prismatic prototype Ni-MH battery having a Mg-Ni-Y-Al alloy anode was investigated. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The laboratory tests run on this prototype battery as well as the single electrode was compared. The electrochemical behavior was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The battery has a good dischargeability but a high self-discharge rate during storage at open-circuit state. (orig.)

  15. Hydrogen Storage and Release Properties of Transition Metal-Added Magnesium Hydride Alloy Fabricated by Grinding in a Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sung Nam; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    90 wt% MgH{sub 2}+5 wt% Ni+2.5 wt% Fe+2.5 wt% Ti (called MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti), a hydrogen storage and release material, was fabricated by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere, and then its quantities of stored and released hydrogen as a function of time were examined. A nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti specimen was made by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere and subsequent hydrogen storage-release cycling. The crystallite size of Mg and the strain of the Mg crystallite after ten hydrogen storage-release cycles, which were obtained using the Williamson-Hall method, were 38.6 (±1.4) nm and 0.025 (±0.0081) %, respectively. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti sample after the process of grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere was highly reactive with hydrogen. The sample exhibited an available storage capacity of hydrogen (the amount of hydrogen stored during 60 minutes) of about 5.7 wt%. At the first cycle, the MgH2+Ni+Fe+Ti sample stored hydrogen of 5.53 wt% in 5 minutes, 5.66 wt% in 10 minutes and 5.73 wt% in 60 minutes at 573 K and 12 bar of hydrogen. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti after activation released hydrogen of 0.56 wt% in 5 minutes, 1.26 wt% in 10 minutes, 2.64 wt% in 20 minutes, 3.82 wt% in 30 minutes, and 5.03 wt% in 60 minutes.

  16. Low cost AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloys for a nickel-metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Lijun [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China); Zhan Feng [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China); Bao Deyou [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China); Qing Guangrong [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China); Li Yaoquan [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China); Wei Xiuying [General Res. Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-15

    The studies have been carried out on utilizing Ml(NiAl){sub 5}-based alloys as a low cost negative battery electrode. The replacement of nickel by copper improved the cycle lifetime to some extent without a decrease in capacity. Using Ml(NiAlCu){sub 5} alloys, hydrogen storage alloys with good overall characteristics and low cost were obtained through substituting cobalt or silicon for nickel. The discharge capacity was further increased by increasing the lanthanum content in lanthanum-rich mischmetal. (orig.)

  17. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. How to Analyse Metal Hydride Decomposition Temperatures Using a Sieverts’ Type Hydriding-Dehydriding Apparatus and Hydrogen-Storage Characteristics for an MgH2–Based Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun KWAK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method to analyze metal hydride decomposition temperatures (the onset temperature of the metal hydride decomposition and the temperature for the maximum ratio of released gas quantity change with temperature change, of prepared samples were investigated using a Sieverts’ type hydriding-dehydriding apparatus, in which a back-pressure regulator was employed. The quantity of the gas released under 1.0 bar H2 was measured as the temperature was increased with a heating rate of 4 K/min. The variation in the ratio of released hydrogen quantity Hd change with temperature T change, dHd/dT, as a function of temperature was obtained and from the variation in dHd/dT with T, the metal hydride decomposition temperatures were analyzed. This analysis method can be used instead of thermal analysis methods such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS analysis. For this analysis, a sample with a composition of 89 wt.% MgH2 + 4.9 wt.% Ni + 1.7 wt.% Zn(BH42 + 1.0 wt% NaCl + 1.7 wt.% Ti + 1.7 wt % Fe (named MgH2-Ni-Zn(BH42-NaCl-Ti-Fe sample was prepared by planetary ball milling. In the prepared MgH2-Ni-Zn(BH42-NaCl-Ti-Fe sample, it is believed that MgH2 begins to decompose at about 575 K and dHd/dT reaches its peak at about 610 K.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17664

  19. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  20. Device for storage of radio-nuclide configurations releasing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, R.; Jeschar, R.; Tenhumberg, M.

    1985-01-01

    In dry intermediate storage of burnt-up fuel elements and HAN, the storage shafts have cooling air flowing through them in the axial direction. The lids of the storage cells are made into heat exchangers via the outer cooling air circulation. Inside the storage cells, vertical, spatially and functionally separate updraught and downdraught chimneys are situated at the openings of the storage shafts. To force a convection flow of the right direction inside the storage cells, the lid or the storage shafts are inclined in the direction of the downdraught chimney or the storage shafts are provided with flow obstructions favouring one direction. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Fundamental experiments on hydride reorientation in zircaloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Kimberly B.

    reoriented hydride fraction and connectivity increase with number of cycles which could lead to more dangerous microstructure for storage of spent fuel. Pre-existing cracks were also found to affect hydride connectivity and morphology which directly impacts DHC and fuel integrity. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  2. Tritium processing using metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company is commissioned by the US Department of Energy to operate the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory. The primary purpose of the plant is to produce radioactive materials for national defense. In keeping with current technology, new processes for the production of tritium are being developed. Three main objectives of this new technology are to ease the processing of, ease the storage of, and to reduce the operating costs of the tritium production facility. Research has indicated that the use of metal hydrides offers a viable solution towards satisfying these objectives. The Hydrogen and Fuels Technology Division has the responsibility to conduct research in support of the tritium production process. Metal hydride technology and its use in the storage and transportation of hydrogen will be reviewed

  3. Predicting formation enthalpies of metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, A.

    2004-12-01

    In order for the hydrogen based society viz. a society in which hydrogen is the primary energy carrier to become realizable an efficient way of storing hydrogen is required. For this purpose metal hydrides are serious candidates. Metal hydrides are formed by chemical reaction between hydrogen and metal and for the stable hydrides this is associated with release of heat ({delta}H{sub f} ). The more thermodynamically stable the hydride, the larger {delta}H{sub f}, and the higher temperature is needed in order to desorp hydrogen (reverse reaction) and vice versa. For practical application the temperature needed for desorption should not be too high i.e. {delta}H{sub f} should not be too large. If hydrogen desorption is to be possible below 100 deg C (which is the ultimate goal if hydrogen storage in metal hydrides should be used in conjunction with a PEM fuel cell), {delta}H{sub f} should not exceed -48 kJ/mol. Until recently only intermetallic metal hydrides with a storage capacity less than 2 wt.% H{sub 2} have met this criterion. However, discovering reversible hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides such as NaAlH{sub 4} (5.5 wt. % reversible hydrogen capacity) have revealed a new group of potential candiates. However, still many combination of elements from the periodic table are yet to be explored. Since experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of the vast combinations of elements is tedious it may be advantagous to have a predictive tool for this task. In this report different ways of predicting {delta}H{sub f} for binary and ternary metal hydrides are reviewed. Main focus will be on how well these methods perform numerically i.e. how well experimental results are resembled by the model. The theoretical background of the different methods is only briefly reviewed. (au)

  4. Hydrogen absorbing alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkali storage battery and hydrogen absorbing particles for metal-hydride alkali storage battery; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin ryushi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, K.; Konno, Y.; Maeda, R.; Nogami, K.; Nishio, K.; Saito, T.

    1996-02-02

    For preventing degradation due to oxidation of hydrogen absorbing alloy to elongate the life of batteries, a proposal has been made to coat the surface of hydrogen absorbing alloy with electroless nickel plated film. When the surfaces of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles are coated with such electroless nickel plated films having low phosphoric acid content, however, absorption of the oxygen gas produced by overcharge delays to increase the pressure inside the battery because the plated film is unporous dense coat with high crystallinity. This invention relates to phosphoric acid containment in the ratios from 11 to 14wt% in the electroless nickel plated layer of the hydrogen absorbing alloy electrode for the metal-hydride alkali storage battery. Long time is required for the initial activation when the phosphoric acid content is less than 11wt% because the crystallinity of the plated film is too high and forms a dense unporous film. On the other hand, the plated film becomes brittle and tends to peel off from the hydrogen absorbing alloy if phosphoric acid content exceeds 14wt%. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Formation of gallium nitride templates and freestanding substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for homoepitaxial growth of III-nitride devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adrian Daniel

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a direct wide band gap semiconductor currently under heavy development worldwide due to interest in its applications in ultra-violet optoelectronics, power electronics, devices operating in harsh environments (high temperature or corrorsive), etc. While a number of devices have been demonstrated with this material and its related alloys, the unavailability of GaN substrates is seen as one of the current major bottlenecks to both material quality and device performance. This dissertation is concerned with the synthesis of high quality GaN substrates by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy method (HVPE). In this work, the flow of growth precursors in a home-built HVPE reactor was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation and solved by finite element analysis to promote uniformity of GaN on 2'' sapphire substrates. Kinetics of growth was studied and various regimes of growth were identified to establish a methodology for HVPE GaN growth, independent of reactor geometry. GaN templates as well as bulk substrates were fabricated in this work. Realization of freestanding GaN substrates was achieved through discovery of a natural stress-induced method of separating bulk GaN from sapphire via mechanical failure of a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process eliminates the need for pre- or post-processing of sapphire substrates, as is currently the standard. Stress in GaN-on-sapphire is discussed, with the dominant contributor identified as thermal stress due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the two materials. This thermal stress is analyzed using Stoney's equation and conditions for crack-free growth of thick GaN substrates were identified. An etch-back process for planarizing GaN templates was also developed and successfully applied to rough GaN templates. The planarization of GaN has been mainly addressed by chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) methods in the literature, with notable shortcomings including the inability to effectively

  6. Use of triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid as risk mitigant for aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2017-08-08

    A process and a resulting product by process of an aluminum hydride which is modified with by physically combining in a ball milling process an aluminum hydride with a triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid. The resulting product is an aluminum hydride which is resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while maintaining useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  7. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng; Udell, Kent S.; Bowman, Robert C.; Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J.; Kekelia, Bidzina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH 2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH 2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH 2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV 0.62 Mn 1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  8. A Study on the Radial Hydride Assisted Delayed Hydride Cracking of Zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin-Ho; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Yong-Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Extensive studies have been done on understanding of DHC(Delayed hydride cracking) phenomenon since several zirconium alloy pressure tubes failed in nuclear reactor in the 1970s. Recently, long-term dry storage strategy has been considered seriously in order to manage spent nuclear fuel in Korea and other countries around the world. Consequentially, many researches have been investigated the degradation mechanisms which will threaten the spent fuel integrity during dry storage and showed that hydrogen related phenomenon such as hydride reorientation and DHC are the critical factors. Especially, DHC is the direct cracking mechanism which can cause not only a through-wall defect but also a radiation leak to the environment. In addition, DHC can be enhanced by radial hydride as reported by Kim who demonstrate that radial hydrides clearly act as crack linkage path. This phenomenon is known as the radial hydride assisted DHC (RHA-DHC). Therefore, study on DHC is essential to ensure the safety of spent fuel. Finite element analysis will be carried out for the stress gradient evaluation around notch tip. A variation in thermal cycle which leads to change in hydrogen solid solution trajectory may be required. If the radial hydride precipitates at notch tip, we will investigate what conditions should be met. Ultimately, we will suggest the regulation criteria for long-term dry storage of spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Implementation of heat production and storage technology and devices in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, G.; Mutale, J.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of heat storage devices and technologies at power generation plants is a promising way to provide more efficient use of natural energy resources. Heat storage devices can partly replace conventional heating technologies (such as direct use of fossil fuels) during peak energy demand or in the situations where heat and electricity supply and demand do not coincide and to obtain low cost heat energy which can be further transmitted to industrial, commercial and domestic consumers. This paper presents the innovative Heat Production and Storage Device and its application at conventional, nuclear and renewable power generation plants for optimization and balancing of electricity grids. The Heat Production and Storage Device is a vessel type induction-immersion heat production and storage device which produces pre-heated water under pressure for heat energy conservation. Operation of this device is based on simultaneous and/or sequential action of an inductor and an immersion heater and can be easily connected to the electricity network as a single or a three phase unit. Heat energy accumulated by the Heat Production and Storage Device can be utilized in different industrial technological processes during periods of high energy prices. - Highlights: ► Heat Production and Storage Device for energy conservation within low load hours. ► Simultaneous and/or sequential operation of the inductor and immersion heater. ► Transform the energy of low frequency electrical current (50 Hz) into heat energy. ► Connection to the electricity network either in single or three phase unit. ► Heat Production and Storage Device will enhance the economic value of the system.

  10. The next generation mass storage devices - Physical principles and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Gai, S.

    2014-04-01

    The amount of digital data today has been increasing at a phenomenal rate due to the widespread digitalisation service in almost every industry. The need to store such ever-increasing data aggressively triggers the requirement to augment the storage capacity of the conventional storage technologies. Unfortunately, the physical limitations that conventional forms face have severely handicapped their potential to meet the storage need from both consumer and industry point of view. The focus has therefore been switched into the development of the innovative data storage technologies such as scanning probe memory, nanocrystal memory, carbon nanotube memory, DNA memory, and organic memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of these emerging storage technologies and their superiorities as the next generation data storage device, as well as their respective technical challenges on further enhancing the storage capacity. We also compare these novel technologies with the mainstream data storage means according to the technology roadmap on areal density.

  11. Application of energy storage devices in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    paper concentrates on performance benefits of adding energy storage to power ..... Because of geographical, environmental, and cost constraints, construction of pumped .... transport, in Information Day on Non-Nuclear Energy RTD, Brussels.

  12. Recent advances in energy storage materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles nine comprehensive contributions from the principle of Li-ion batteries, cathode and anode electrode materials to future energy storage systems such as solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries and high capacity redox flow battery.

  13. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  14. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  15. Trapping of hydride forming elements within miniature electrothermal devices. Part 2. Investigation of collection of arsenic and selenium hydrides on a surface and in a cavity of a graphite rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, Bohumil

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of arsenic and selenium hydrides with bare and modified graphite was investigated by atomic absorption spectrometry and by radiotracer technique using 75 Se radionuclide in a laboratory made brass cylindrical chamber equipped with a vertical quartz tube torch for supporting miniature hydrogen diffusion flame atomizer. Strong interaction was observed at elevated temperatures above 800 deg. C. In contrast to the very often-reported data for conventional graphite tube atomizers, this high temperature interaction was also accompanied by a pronounced trapping of analytes at elevated temperatures close to 1100-1200 deg. C when modified graphite was used. Comparing modifiers tested (Ir, Pt and Rh), iridium appeared the only useful permanent modifier. Among various graphite-rod traps designed, the most efficient trapping of analytes was achieved in a graphite cavity. The net selenium trapping efficiencies of approximately 53% and 70% were found by radiotracer technique for the iridium-treated graphite surface and the iridium-treated graphite cavity, respectively. In contrast to the molybdenum surface, bare graphite did not exhibit any significant trapping effect. Trapping isotherms obtained at different temperatures displayed non-linear course in the range up to the upper limit of the analytical relevance of 100 ng of an analyte, indicating a limited trapping capacity of the modified graphite surface and the same trapping mechanism at low and elevated temperatures applied (300-1300 deg. C). Radiography experiments with 75 Se radiotracer showed that a major part of selenium was collected within the small cavity of the graphite rod and that selenium was also deposited after the trapping and vaporization steps in the trap chamber and on the quartz tube wall of the burner. Complementary experiments performed with the conventional transversally heated graphite tube and with bare and thermally shielded injection capillaries for hydride introduction, showed that

  16. Storage of plugs and experimental devices from reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.

    1961-01-01

    - Within the general programme of storage and treatment of radioactive waste produced by the various operations carried out in an atomic center, it is useful to consider separately the problem of certain waste from reactors, which, because of its size and physical nature, has to be stored with a view to being later treated and finally evacuated. The solution which we propose for this storage problem is presented in this paper. (authors) [fr

  17. Smart Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices with Self-Protection and Self-Adaptation Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Yu, Dandan; Wang, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Currently, with booming development and worldwide usage of rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices, their safety issues, operation stability, service life, and user experience are garnering special attention. Smart and intelligent energy storage devices with self-protection and self-adaptation abilities aiming to address these challenges are being developed with great urgency. In this Progress Report, we highlight recent achievements in the field of smart energy storage systems that could early-detect incoming internal short circuits and self-protect against thermal runaway. Moreover, intelligent devices that are able to take actions and self-adapt in response to external mechanical disruption or deformation, i.e., exhibiting self-healing or shape-memory behaviors, are discussed. Finally, insights into the future development of smart rechargeable energy storage devices are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  19. SUBWAY POWER SYSTEMS WITH MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS AND ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kholod

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five subway power systems, a traditional power system and power systems with an active rectifier and an energy storage device, are considered. Estimation of energy loss in the analyzed subway power systems circuits is made.

  20. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jingwei; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Du, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devic...

  1. Pyrophoric behaviour of uranium hydride and uranium powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyadec, F.; Génin, X.; Bayle, J. P.; Dugne, O.; Duhart-Barone, A.; Ablitzer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability and spontaneous ignition conditions of uranium hydride and uranium metal fine powders have been studied and observed in an original and dedicated experimental device placed inside a glove box under flowing pure argon. Pure uranium hydride powder with low amount of oxide (Oxidation mechanisms are proposed.

  2. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...

  3. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  4. Super capacitors for embarked systems as a storage energy device solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Rael, S.; Pierfederici, S.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The management of embarked electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances, in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of super-capacitors for this storage system is quite suitable, because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak serial resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), of direct storage (energy ready for use), and of easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and the achievement of two hybrid power sources using super-capacitors as auxiliary storage device. We present the structures, the control principles, and some experimental results. (authors)

  5. ES-5052 storage devices on magnetic disks for the BESM-4 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukova, N.B.; Vinogradov, A.F.; Eliseev, G.N.; Ivanchenko, Z.M.; Pervushov, V.I.; Samojlov, V.N.; Stuk, G.P.; Shchelev, S.A.; Chulkov, N.I.

    1975-01-01

    The basic principles of connection between ES-5052 magnetic disk storage devices and a BESM-4 computer are set forth. The interchange of instructions and guidance information between computer and magnetic disk storage is accomplished through a disk controlling unit. The time taken to find the required cylinder (to pass from track to track) is 20 ms, the access time is 60 to 95 ms. The data transfer rate (512 45-digit machine words) is 20 ms. The total disk storage capacity is equivalent to 250 BESM-4 memory units. The instructions for BESM-4 access to the ES-5052 magnetic disk storage are described

  6. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  7. Magnetic energy storage devices for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers basic principles of magnetic energy storage, structure requirements and limitations, configurations of inductors, attributes of high-T c superconducting materials including thermal instabilities, a relative comparison with the state-of-the-art high energy density power sources, and refrigeration requirements. Based on these fundamental considerations, the design parameters of a micro superconducting magnetic energy unit for Air Force applications is presented and discussed

  8. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1, high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.

  9. Integrated Solar-Energy-Harvesting and -Storage Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    whitacre, Jay; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Mojarradi, Mohammed; Johnson, Travis; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Bugga, Ratnakumar; West, William; Surampudi, Subbarao; Blosiu, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A modular, integrated, completely solid-state system designed to harvest and store solar energy is under development. Called the power tile, the hybrid device consists of a photovoltaic cell, a battery, a thermoelectric device, and a charge-control circuit that are heterogeneously integrated to maximize specific energy capacity and efficiency. Power tiles could be used in a variety of space and terrestrial environments and would be designed to function with maximum efficiency in the presence of anticipated temperatures, temperature gradients, and cycles of sunlight and shadow. Because they are modular in nature, one could use a single power tile or could construct an array of as many tiles as needed. If multiple tiles are used in an array, the distributed and redundant nature of the charge control and distribution hardware provides an extremely fault-tolerant system. The figure presents a schematic view of the device.

  10. Ultrapure hydrogen thermal compressor based on metal hydrides for fuel cells and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasan, V.; Biris, A.; Coldea, I.; Lupu, D.; Misan, I.; Popeneciu, G.; Ardelean, O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hydrogen economy, efficient compressors are indispensable elements in the storage, transport and distribution of the produced hydrogen. Energetic efficient technologies can contribute to H 2 pipelines transport to the point of use and to distribute H 2 by refuelling stations. Characteristic for metal hydrides systems is the wide area of possibilities to absorb hydrogen at low pressure from any source of hydrogen, to store and deliver it hydrogen at high pressure (compression ratio more than 30). On the basis of innovative concepts and advanced materials for H 2 storage/compression (and fast thermal transfer), a fast mass (H 2 ) and heat transfer unit will be developed suitable to be integrated in a 3 stage thermal compressor. Metal hydrides used for a three stage hydrogen compression system must have different equilibrium pressures, namely: for stage 1, low pressure H 2 absorption and resistant to poisoning with impurities of hydrogen, for stage 2, medium pressure H 2 absorption and for stage 3, high pressure hydrogen delivery (120 bar). In the case of compression device based on metallic hydrides the most important properties are the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate, a smaller process enthalpy and a great structural stability on long term hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. These properties require metal hydrides with large differences between the hydrogen absorption and desorption pressures at equilibrium, within a rather small temperature range. The main goal of this work is to search and develop metal hydride integrated systems for hydrogen purification, storage and compression. After a careful screening three hydrogen absorbing alloys will be selected. After selection, the work up of the alloys composition on the bases of detailed solid state studies, new multi-component alloys will be developed, with suitable thermodynamic and kinetic properties for a hydrogen compressor. The results of the study are the following: new types of hydrogen

  11. Modified Borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Au

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing de-hydriding temperature and generating de-hydriding-re-hydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature. (authors)

  12. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  13. Small Form Factor Information Storage Devices for Mobile Applications in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Pil; Park, No-Cheol; Kim, Chul-Jin

    Recently, the ubiquitous environment in which anybody can reach a lot of information data without any limitations on the place and time has become an important social issue. There are two basic requirements in the field of information storage devices which have to be satisfied; the first is the demand for the improvement of memory capacity to manage the increased data capacity in personal and official purposes. The second is the demand for new development of information storage devices small enough to be applied to mobile multimedia digital electronics, including digital camera, PDA and mobile phones. To summarize, for the sake of mobile applications, it is necessary to develop information storage devices which have simultaneously a large capacity and a small size. Korea possesses the necessary infrastructure for developing such small sized information storage devices. It has a good digital market, major digital companies, and various research institutes. Nowadays, many companies and research institutes including university cooperate together in the research on small sized information storage devices. Thus, it is expected that small form factor optical disk drives will be commercialized in the very near future in Korea.

  14. An AC impedance study of self-discharge mechanism of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery using Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luo, J.L. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The self-discharge mechanism during storage in open-circuit states of a Ni-MH battery using a Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy anode was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The loss of discharge capacity for this battery can be ascribed to two causes: (i) desorption of hydrogen from the Mg{sub 1.95}Y{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 0.92}Al{sub 0.08} hydride anode; and (ii) anode surface degradation resulting from oxidation of the magnesium alloy in the electrolyte. At the higher open-circuit voltages (OCV), the former was mainly responsible for a high self-discharge rate, while the latter might dominate the loss of capacity at the lower OCV. XRD results confirmed that Mg(OH){sub 2} formed on the magnesium alloy anode after storage in an open-circuit condition for 20 days. (author)

  15. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  16. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  17. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  18. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2013-07-02

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  20. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Flexible Electrochemical Energy Storage: from Materials to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage (FEES) devices have received great attention as a promising power source for the emerging field of flexible and wearable electronic devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have many excellent properties that make them ideally suited for use in FEES devices. A brief definition of FEES devices is provided, followed by a detailed overview of various structural models for achieving different FEES devices. The latest research developments on the use of CNTs and graphene in FEES devices are summarized. Finally, future prospects and important research directions in the areas of CNT- and graphene-based flexible electrode synthesis and device integration are discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Identification of a new pseudo-binary hydroxide during calendar corrosion of (La, Mg)2Ni7-type hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J.; Chen, H.; Joiret, S.; Bourgon, J.; Latroche, M.

    2014-11-01

    To improve the performances of Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries, an important step is the understanding of the corrosion processes that take place in the electrode material. In particular, the present study focuses for the first time on the model (La, Mg)2Ni7 system. The calendar corrosion in 8.7 M KOH medium was investigated from 6 h to 16 weeks immersion. By a unique combination of structural and elemental characterisations, the corrosion products are evidenced in those systems. In particular, we demonstrate that Ni and Mg combine in a pseudo-binary hydroxide Mg1-xNix(OH)2 whereas La corrodes into nanoporous La(OH)3 needles with inner hollow nanochannels.

  3. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  4. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  5. Application of latent heat storage devices and thermal solar collectors; Einsatz von Latentwaermespeichern und Solarthermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen, E.ON Energieforschungszentrum, Lehrstuhl fuer Gebaeude- und Raumklimatechnik (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Modern heating systems for buildings need a supply temperature of approximately 35 C. In this temperature range it is possible to use low temperature storage systems. Therefore the heat losses over the envelope can be reduced because of the smaller temperature difference between the ambient air and the storage. In order to use the existing technique of the buffer storages more efficiently, latent heat storage devices are put into the storage volume. For the operating temperature range of 30 to 40 C paraffins or salt hydrates can be used. Because of the low operating temperature it is possible to integrate solar thermal systems in the heating system (especially in spring and autumn). The overall system performance will be analysed. (Copyright copyright 2010 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  6. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  7. 3D direct writing fabrication of electrodes for electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Zhou, Chi; Wu, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Among different printing techniques, direct ink writing is commonly used to fabricate 3D battery and supercapacitor electrodes. The major advantages of using the direct ink writing include effectively building 3D structure for energy storage devices and providing higher power density and higher energy density than traditional techniques due to the increased surface area of electrode. Nevertheless, direct ink writing has high standards for the printing inks, which requires high viscosity, high yield stress under shear and compression, and well-controlled viscoelasticity. Recently, a number of 3D-printed energy storage devices have been reported, and it is very important to understand the printing process and the ink preparation process for further material design and technology development. We discussed current progress of direct ink writing technologies by using various electrode materials including carbon nanotube-based material, graphene-based material, LTO (Li4Ti5O12), LFP (LiFePO4), LiMn1-xFexPO4, and Zn-based metallic oxide. Based on achieve electrochemical performance, these 3D-printed devices deliver performance comparable to the energy storage device fabricated using traditional methods still leaving large room for further improvement. Finally, perspectives are provided on the potential future direction of 3D printing for all solid-state electrochemical energy storage devices.

  8. The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingxia; Hong, Yang; Wang, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21634003, 21604012).

  9. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Li-ion Electrodes for High-Power Energy Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chun-Han

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have been a rapidly emerging option to meet future energy demand. However, their systems require stable, high-power storage devices to overcome fluctuating energy outputs for consistent distribution. Since traditional Li-ion batteries (LIB) are not considered to be capable of fast charging and discharging, we have to develop devices with new chemistry for high-power operation. This dissertation focuses on the development of supercapacitors and high-rate batteries...

  11. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  12. Blistering and hydride embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals have been categorized into several groups. Two of the groups, hydrogen blistering and hydride embrittlement, are reasonably well understood, and problems relating to their occurrence may be avoided if that understanding is used as a basis for selecting alloys for hydrogen service. Blistering and hydride embrittlement are described along with several techniques of materials selection and used to minimize their adverse effects. (U.S.)

  13. Lightweight carbon nanotube-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Monica; Cole, Daniel P.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Reddy, Arava L. M.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Karna, Shashi P.; Bundy, Mark L.

    2012-06-01

    There is a strong need for small, lightweight energy storage devices that can satisfy the ever increasing power and energy demands of micro unmanned systems. Currently, most commercial and developmental micro unmanned systems utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium polymer batteries for their energy storage needs. While COTS lithium polymer batteries are the industry norm, the weight of these batteries can account for up to 60% of the overall system mass and the capacity of these batteries can limit mission durations to the order of only a few minutes. One method to increase vehicle endurance without adding mass or sacrificing payload capabilities is to incorporate multiple system functions into a single material or structure. For example, the body or chassis of a micro vehicle could be replaced with a multifunctional material that would serve as both the vehicle structure and the on-board energy storage device. In this paper we present recent progress towards the development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems. Randomly oriented and vertically aligned CNT-polymer composite electrodes with varying degrees of flexibility are used as the primary building blocks for lightweight structural-supercapacitors. For the purpose of this study, the mechanical properties of the CNT-based electrodes and the charge-discharge behavior of the supercapacitor devices are examined. Because incorporating multifunctionality into a single component often degrades the properties or performance of individual structures, the performance and property tradeoffs of the CNT-based structural-energy storage devices will also be discussed.

  14. Towards Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Devices in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Yu, Wei; Griffith, David; Golmie, Nada; Moulema, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) provides a generic infrastructure for different applications to integrate information communication techniques with physical components to achieve automatic data collection, transmission, exchange, and computation. The smart grid, as one of typical applications supported by IoT, denoted as a re-engineering and a modernization of the traditional power grid, aims to provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution to consumers. How to effectively integrate distributed (renewable) energy resources and storage devices to satisfy the energy service requirements of users, while minimizing the power generation and transmission cost, remains a highly pressing challenge in the smart grid. To address this challenge and assess the effectiveness of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices, in this paper we develop a theoretical framework to model and analyze three types of power grid systems: the power grid with only bulk energy generators, the power grid with distributed energy resources, and the power grid with both distributed energy resources and storage devices. Based on the metrics of the power cumulative cost and the service reliability to users, we formally model and analyze the impact of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices in the power grid. We also use the concept of network calculus, which has been traditionally used for carrying out traffic engineering in computer networks, to derive the bounds of both power supply and user demand to achieve a high service reliability to users. Through an extensive performance evaluation, our data shows that integrating distributed energy resources conjointly with energy storage devices can reduce generation costs, smooth the curve of bulk power generation over time, reduce bulk power generation and power distribution losses, and provide a sustainable service reliability to users in the power grid.

  15. Voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamed-Yacine; Pierfederici, Serge; Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The management of embedded electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of supercapacitors for this storage system is quite suitable because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use) and easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and realisation of a voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as an auxiliary storage device. Here, we present the structure, control principle and results associated with experimental validation. Our interest will be focused on the management of transient power peaks

  16. Voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as energy storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamed-Yacine; Pierfederici, Serge; Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Unite Mixte de Recherche 7037), 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-07-15

    The management of embedded electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of supercapacitors for this storage system is quite suitable because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use) and easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and realisation of a voltage regulated hybrid DC power source using supercapacitors as an auxiliary storage device. Here, we present the structure, control principle and results associated with experimental validation. Our interest will be focused on the management of transient power peaks. (author)

  17. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  18. Improved dehydriding property of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated Mg-Ni hydrogen storage nano-composite prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis and wet mechanical milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP coated Mg95Ni5 nano-composites were prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis (HCS plus wet mechanical milling (WM with tetrahydrofuran (THF and donated as WM-x wt% PVP (x = 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. The phase compositions, microstructures and dehydriding property, as well as the co-effect of PVP and THF were investigated in detail. XRD results showed that the average crystal size of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 23 nm without PVP to 18 nm with 1 wt% PVP. The peak temperature of dehydrogenation of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 293.0 °C without THF to 250.4 °C with THF. The apparent activation energy for decomposition of MgH2 in WM-7 wt% PVP was estimated to be 66.94 kJ/mol, which is 37.70 kJ/mol lower than that of milled Mg95Ni5 without THF and PVP. PVP and THF can facilitate the refinement of particle size during mechanical milling process. Attributed to small particle sizes and synergistic effect of PVP and THF, the composites exhibit markedly improved dehydriding properties. Keywords: Mg-Ni-PVP, Composite, Mg-based alloy, Wet mechanical milling, Dehydriding temperature

  19. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha S [Tampa, FL; Niemann, Michael U [Venice, FL; Goswami, D Yogi [Tampa, FL; Stefanakos, Elias K [Tampa, FL

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  20. Measuring Device for Air Speed in Macroporous Media and Its Application Inside Apple Storage Bins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geyer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In cold storage facilities of fruit and vegetables, airflow is necessary for heat removal. The design of storage facilities influences the air speed in the surrounding of the product. Therefore, knowledge about airflow next to the product is important to plan the layout of cold stores adapted to the requirements of the products. A new sensing device (ASL, Air speed logger is developed for omnidirectional measurement of air speed between fruit or vegetables inside storage bins or in bulk. It consists of four interconnected plastic spheres with 80 mm diameter each, adapted to the size of apple fruit. In the free space between the spheres, silicon diodes are fixed for the airflow measurement based on a calorimetric principle. Battery and data logger are mounted inside the spheres. The device is calibrated in a wind tunnel in a measuring range of 0–1.3 m/s. Air speed measurements in fruit bulks on laboratory scale and in an industrial fruit store show air speeds in gaps between fruit with high stability at different airflow levels. Several devices can be placed between stored products for determination of the air speed distribution inside bulks or bin stacks in a storage room.

  1. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  2. Thermal-Responsive Polymers for Enhancing Safety of Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Thermal runway constitutes the most pressing safety issue in lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors of large-scale and high-power density due to risks of fire or explosion. However, traditional strategies for averting thermal runaway do not enable the charging-discharging rate to change according to temperature or the original performance to resume when the device is cooled to room temperature. To efficiently control thermal runaway, thermal-responsive polymers provide a feasible and reversible strategy due to their ability to sense and subsequently act according to a predetermined sequence when triggered by heat. Herein, recent research progress on the use of thermal-responsive polymers to enhance the thermal safety of electrochemical storage devices is reviewed. First, a brief discussion is provided on the methods of preventing thermal runaway in electrochemical storage devices. Subsequently, a short review is provided on the different types of thermal-responsive polymers that can efficiently avoid thermal runaway, such as phase change polymers, polymers with sol-gel transitions, and polymers with positive temperature coefficients. The results represent the important development of thermal-responsive polymers toward the prevention of thermal runaway in next-generation smart electrochemical storage devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A passive cold storage device economic model to evaluate selected immunization location scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Nourollahi, Sevnaz; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T; Claypool, Erin G; Connor, Diana L; Schmitz, Michelle M; Rajgopal, Jayant; Wateska, Angela R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-10-25

    The challenge of keeping vaccines cold at health posts given the unreliability of power sources in many low- and middle-income countries and the expense and maintenance requirements of solar refrigerators has motivated the development of passive cold storage devices (PCDs), containers that keep vaccines cold without using an active energy source. With different PCDs under development, manufacturers, policymakers and funders need guidance on how varying different PCD characteristics may affect the devices' cost and utility. We developed an economic spreadsheet model representing the lowest two levels of a typical Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccine supply chain: a district store, the immunization locations that the district store serves, and the transport vehicles that operate between the district store and the immunization locations. The model compares the use of three vaccine storage device options [(1) portable PCDs, (2) stationary PCDs, or (3) solar refrigerators] and allows the user to vary different device (e.g., size and cost) and scenario characteristics (e.g., catchment area population size and vaccine schedule). For a sample set of select scenarios and equipment specification, we found the portable PCD to generally be better suited to populations of 5,000 or less. The stationary PCD replenished once per month can be a robust design especially with a 35L capacity and a cost of $2,500 or less. The solar device was generally a reasonable alternative for most of the scenarios explored if the cost was $2,100 or less (including installation). No one device type dominated over all explored circumstances. Therefore, the best device may vary from country-to-country and location-to-location within a country. This study introduces a quantitative model to help guide PCD development. Although our selected set of explored scenarios and device designs was not exhaustive, future explorations can further alter model input values to represent additional scenarios

  4. Energy storage device based on flywheel, power converters and Simulink real-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kedra, Bartosz; Malkowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    by Gdansk University of Technology in Poland. Paper is divided into four sections. First section of the paper provides introductory information on the Energy Storage Device and its capabilities. In the second section of the paper concept of the unit is presented. Requirements for the unit are described...... as well as proposed and introduced functions are listed. Implementation details are given in third section of paper. Hardware structure is presented and described. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance and storage solution, as well as used Simulink realtime features...

  5. Ultratrace determination of lead by hydride generation in-atomizer trapping atomic absorption spectrometry: Optimization of plumbane generation and analyte preconcentration in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, Jan, E-mail: jkratzer@biomed.cas.cz

    2012-05-15

    A compact trap-and-atomizer device and a preconcentration procedure based on hydride trapping in excess of oxygen over hydrogen in the collection step, both constructed and developed previously in our laboratory, were employed to optimize plumbane trapping in this device and to develop a routine method for ultratrace lead determination subsequently. The inherent advantage of this preconcentration approach is that 100% preconcentration efficiency for lead is reached in this device which has never been reported before using quartz or metal traps. Plumbane is completely retained in the trap-and-atomizer device at 290 Degree-Sign C in oxygen-rich atmosphere and trapped species are subsequently volatilized at 830 Degree-Sign C in hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Effect of relevant experimental parameters on plumbane trapping and lead volatilization are discussed, and possible trapping mechanisms are hypothesized. Plumbane trapping in the trap-and-atomizer device can be routinely used for lead determination at ultratrace levels reaching a detection limit of 0.21 ng ml{sup -1} Pb (30 s preconcentration, sample volume 2 ml). Further improvement of the detection limit is feasible by reducing the blank signal and increasing the trapping time. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-atomizer trapping HG-AAS was optimized for Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A compact quartz trap-and-atomizer device was employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generation, preconcentration and atomization steps were investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 100% preconcentration efficiency for lead was reached. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analytical method was developed for Pb determination (LOD of 0.2 ng ml{sup -1} Pb).

  6. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Study of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo suiso denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On the study on low-cost electrode materials, the physical properties and electrode characteristics were studied of the prototype hydrogen absorbing alloys prepared by substituting Cu or Ni for Co in Mm(Ni-Co-Mn-Al)5 (Mm: mixture of rare earth elements). The result clarified that it is difficult to reduce Co content in the alloy to 0.4 atom or less. Simple heat treatment and milling processes in production of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes were achieved by adopting an improved metal mold and gas atomization method. Characteristics and cycle life of the Ni positive electrode prepared by applying active paste material of Ni(OH)2 were studied, however, the result showed only lives of nearly 300 cycles. (2) On the study on electrode structure for high-performance (long-life) battery, the 3-D porous metal electrode support was evaluated, and various battery configurations were studied. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Multi-scale characterization of nanostructured sodium aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaraseGowda, Shathabish

    Complex metal hydrides are the most promising candidate materials for onboard hydrogen storage. The practicality of this class of materials is counter-poised on three critical attributes: reversible hydrogen storage capacity, high hydrogen uptake/release kinetics, and favorable hydrogen uptake/release thermodynamics. While a majority of modern metallic hydrides that are being considered are those that meet the criteria of high theoretical storage capacity, the challenges lie in addressing poor kinetics, thermodynamics, and reversibility. One emerging strategy to resolve these issues is via nanostructuring or nano-confinement of complex hydrides. By down-sizing and scaffolding them to retain their nano-dimensions, these materials are expected to improve in performance and reversibility. This area of research has garnered immense interest lately and there is active research being pursued to address various aspects of nanostructured complex hydrides. The research effort documented here is focused on a detailed investigation of the effects of nano-confinement on aspects such as the long range atomic hydrogen diffusivities, localized hydrogen dynamics, microstructure, and dehydrogenation mechanism of sodium alanate. A wide variety of microporous and mesoporous materials (metal organic frameworks, porous silica and alumina) were investigated as scaffolds and the synthesis routes to achieve maximum pore-loading are discussed. Wet solution infiltration technique was adopted using tetrahydrofuran as the medium and the precursor concentrations were found to have a major role in achieving maximum pore loading. These concentrations were optimized for each scaffold with varying pore sizes and confinement was quantitatively characterized by measuring the loss in specific surface area. This work is also aimed at utilizing neutron and synchrotron x-ray characterization techniques to study and correlate multi-scale material properties and phenomena. Some of the most advanced

  8. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  9. Multidimensional simulations of hydrides during fuel rod lifecycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    In light water reactor fuel rods, waterside corrosion of zirconium-alloy cladding introduces hydrogen into the cladding, where it is slightly soluble. When the solubility limit is reached, the hydrogen precipitates into crystals of zirconium hydride which decrease the ductility of the cladding and may lead to cladding failure during dry storage or transportation events. The distribution of the hydride phase and the orientation of the crystals depend on the history of the spatial temperature and stress profiles in the cladding. In this work, we have expanded the existing hydride modeling capability in the BISON fuel performance code with the goal of predicting both global and local effects on the radial, azimuthal and axial distribution of the hydride phase. We compare results from 1D simulations to published experimental data. We demonstrate the new capability by simulating in 2D a fuel rod throughout a lifecycle that includes irradiation, short-term storage in the spent fuel pool, drying, and interim storage in a dry cask. Using the 2D simulations, we present qualitative predictions of the effects of the inter-pellet gap and the drying conditions on the growth of a hydride rim. - Highlights: • We extend BISON fuel performance code to simulate lifecycle of fuel rods. • We model hydrogen evolution in cladding from reactor through dry storage. • We validate 1D simulations of hydrogen evolution against experiments. • We show results of 2D axisymmetric simulations predicting hydride formation. • We show how our model predicts formation of a hydride rim in the cladding.

  10. Mixtures of glyme and aprotic-protic ionic liquids as electrolytes for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, T.; Huang, P.; Goktas, M.; Adelhelm, P.; Balducci, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In the last years, due to deficiency in storage of lithium on earth, innovative systems, such as sodium-based devices, attracted considerable attention. IL-based electrolytes have been proposed also as electrolytes for these devices. Nevertheless, in the case of these systems, the advantages and limits of IL-based electrolytes need to be further investigated. In this work we report an investigation about the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether diglyme (2G), which is presently considered as one of the most interesting solvents for sodium-based devices, and the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) and 1-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PyrH4TFSI). The conductivities, viscosities, and densities of several mixtures of 2G and these ILs have been investigated. Furthermore, their impact on the electrochemical behaviour of activated carbon composite electrodes has been considered. The results of this investigation indicate that these mixtures are promising electrolytes for the realization of advanced sodium-based devices.

  11. General overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading to increased exploitation of existing rings and activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article they present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation. 66 references, 20 figures, 1 table

  12. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  13. Advanced Energy Storage Devices: Basic Principles, Analytical Methods, and Rational Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Xu, Chaohe; Li, Chunzhong; Lin, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tremendous efforts have been dedicated into the development of high‐performance energy storage devices with nanoscale design and hybrid approaches. The boundary between the electrochemical capacitors and batteries becomes less distinctive. The same material may display capacitive or battery‐like behavior depending on the electrode design and the charge storage guest ions. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms and the electrochemical processes occurring upon charge storage may be confusing for researchers who are new to the field as well as some of the chemists and material scientists already in the field. This review provides fundamentals of the similarities and differences between electrochemical capacitors and batteries from kinetic and material point of view. Basic techniques and analysis methods to distinguish the capacitive and battery‐like behavior are discussed. Furthermore, guidelines for material selection, the state‐of‐the‐art materials, and the electrode design rules to advanced electrode are proposed. PMID:29375964

  14. Hybrid heat pipe based passive cooling device for spent nuclear fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid heat pipe was presented as a passive cooling device for dry storage cask of SNF. • A method to utilize waste heat from spent fuel was suggested using hybrid heat pipe. • CFD analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe. • Hybrid heat pipe can increase safety margin and storage capacity of the dry storage cask. - Abstract: Conventional dry storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were designed to remove decay heat through the natural convection of air, but this method has limited cooling capacity and a possible re-criticality accident in case of flooding. To enhance the safety and capacity of dry storage cask of SNF, hybrid heat pipe-based passive cooling device was suggested. Heat pipe is an excellent passive heat transfer device using the principles of both conduction and phase change of the working fluid. The heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, the so-called hybrid heat pipe, is expected to prevent the re-criticality accidents of SNF and to increase the safety margin during interim and long term storage period. Moreover, a hybrid heat pipe with thermoelectric module, a Stirling engine and a phase change material tank can be used for utilization of the waste heat as heat-transfer medium. Located at the guide tube or instrumentation tube, hybrid heat pipe can remove decay heat from inside the sealed metal cask to outside, decreasing fuel rod temperature. In this paper, a 2-step analysis was performed using computational fluid dynamics code to evaluate the heat and fluid flow inside a cask, which consisted of a single spent fuel assembly simulation and a full-scope dry cask simulation. For a normal dry storage cask, the maximum fuel temperature is 290.0 °C. With hybrid heat pipe cooling, the temperature decreased to 261.6 °C with application of one hybrid heat pipe per assembly, and to 195.1 °C with the application of five hybrid heat pipes per assembly. Therefore, a dry

  15. Dynamical aspects on FEL interaction in single passage and storage ring devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G.; Renieri, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The dynamical behaviour of the free-electron lasers is investigated using appropriate scaling relations valid for devices operating in the low and high gain regimes, including saturation. The analysis is applied to both single passage and storage ring configurations. In the latter case the interplay between the interaction of the electron bean with the laser field and with the accelerator environment is investigated. In particular we discuss the effect of FEL interaction on the microwave instability.

  16. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  17. On-Chip Fluorescence Switching System for Constructing a Rewritable Random Access Data Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Jeho; Hwang, Seungwoo; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Shin, Yong-Beom; Ha, Tai Hwan; Kim, Moonil

    2018-01-10

    We report the development of on-chip fluorescence switching system based on DNA strand displacement and DNA hybridization for the construction of a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device. In this study, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of our proposed system was evaluated with a series of wet experiments involving 40 bits (5 bytes) of data encoding a 5-charactered text (KRIBB). Also, a flexible data rewriting function was achieved by converting fluorescence signals between "ON" and "OFF" through DNA strand displacement and hybridization events. In addition, the proposed system was successfully validated on a microfluidic chip which could further facilitate the encoding and decoding process of data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of DNA hybridization and DNA strand displacement in the field of data storage devices. Taken together, our results demonstrated that DNA-based fluorescence switching could be applicable to construct a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device through controllable DNA manipulations.

  18. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  19. Some new techniques in tritium gas handling as applied to metal hydride synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasise, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A state-of-the-art tritium Hydriding Synthesis System (HSS) was designed and built to replace the existing system within the Tritium Salt Facility (TSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new hydriding system utilizes unique fast-cycling 7.9 mole uranium beds (47.5g of T at 100% loading) and novel gas circulating hydriding furnaces. Tritium system components discussed include fast-cycling uranium beds, circulating gas hydriding furnaces, valves, storage volumes, manifolds, gas transfer pumps, and graphic display and control consoles. Many of the tritium handling and processing techniques incorporated into this system are directly applicable to today's fusion fuel loops. 12 refs., 7 figs

  20. Toward Wearable Self-Charging Power Systems: The Integration of Energy-Harvesting and Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-01-01

    One major challenge for wearable electronics is that the state-of-the-art batteries are inadequate to provide sufficient energy for long-term operations, leading to inconvenient battery replacement or frequent recharging. Other than the pursuit of high energy density of secondary batteries, an alternative approach recently drawing intensive attention from the research community, is to integrate energy-generation and energy-storage devices into self-charging power systems (SCPSs), so that the scavenged energy can be simultaneously stored for sustainable power supply. This paper reviews recent developments in SCPSs with the integration of various energy-harvesting devices (including piezoelectric nanogenerators, triboelectric nanogenerators, solar cells, and thermoelectric nanogenerators) and energy-storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. SCPSs with multiple energy-harvesting devices are also included. Emphasis is placed on integrated flexible or wearable SCPSs. Remaining challenges and perspectives are also examined to suggest how to bring the appealing SCPSs into practical applications in the near future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sodium-based hydrides for thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Humphries, T. D.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) represents an attractive alternative to conventional fossil fuels for base-load power generation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a well-known sodium-based complex metal hydride but, more recently, high-temperature sodium-based complex metal hydrides have been considered for TES. This review considers the current state of the art for NaH, NaMgH3- x F x , Na-based transition metal hydrides, NaBH4 and Na3AlH6 for TES and heat pumping applications. These metal hydrides have a number of advantages over other classes of heat storage materials such as high thermal energy storage capacity, low volume, relatively low cost and a wide range of operating temperatures (100 °C to more than 650 °C). Potential safety issues associated with the use of high-temperature sodium-based hydrides are also addressed.

  2. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  3. Integration of dispenser-printed ultra-low-voltage thermoelectric and energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z; Chen, A; Winslow, R; Madan, D; Nill, M; Wright, P K; Juang, R C; Evans, J W

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an integrated energy harvesting prototype that consists of dispenser-printed thermoelectric energy harvesting and electrochemical energy storage devices. Parallel-connected thermoelectric devices with low internal resistances were designed, fabricated and characterized. The use of a commercially available dc-to-dc converter was explored to step-up a 27.1 mV input voltage from a printed thermoelectric device to a regulated 2.34 V output at a maximum of 34% conversion efficiency. The regulated power succeeds in charging dispenser-printed, zinc-based micro-batteries with charging efficiencies of up to 67%. The prototype presented in this work demonstrates the feasibility of deploying a printable, cost-effective and perpetual power solution for practical wireless sensor network applications. (paper)

  4. The electrochemical impedance of metal hydride electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valøen, Lars Ole; Lasia, Andrzej; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical impedance responses for different laboratory type metal hydride electrodes were successfully modeled and fitted to experimental data for AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys as well as one MgNi type electrode. The models fitted the experimental data remarkably well. Several AC......, explaining the experimental impedances in a wide frequency range for electrodes of hydride forming materials mixed with copper powder, were obtained. Both charge transfer and spherical diffusion of hydrogen in the particles are important sub processes that govern the total rate of the electrochemical...... hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction. To approximate the experimental data, equations describing the current distribution in porous electrodes were needed. Indications of one or more parallel reduction/oxidation processes competing with the electrochemical hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction were...

  5. Determination of the size of an imaging data storage device at a full PACS hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, S. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Hur, G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the appropriate size of a short and long-term storage device, bearing in mind the design factors involved and the installation costs. The number of radiologic studies quoted is the number of these undertaken during a one-year period at a university hospital with 650 beds, and reflects the actual number of each type of examination performed at a full PACS hospital. The average daily number of outpatients was 1586, while that of inpatients was 639.5. The numbers of radiologic studies performed were as follows : 378 among 189 outpatients, and 165 among 41 inpatients. The average daily number of examinations was 543, comprising 460 CR, 30 ultrasonograms, 25 CT, 8 MRI, 20 others. The total amount of digital images was 17.4 GB per day, while the amount of short-term data with lossless compression was 6.7 GB per day. During 14 days short-term storage, the amount of image data was 93.7 GB in disk array. The amount of data stored mid term (1 year), with lossy compression, was 369.1 GB. The amount of data stored in the form of long-term cache and educational images was 38.7 GB and 30 GB, respectively, The total size of disk array was 531.5 GB. A device suitable for the long-term storage of images, for at least five years, requires a capacity of 1845.5 GB. At a full PACS hospital with 600 beds, the minimum disk space required for the short-and mid-term storage of image data in disk array is 540 GB. The capacity required for long term storage (at least five years) is 1900 GB. (author)

  6. Fabrication of Flexible, Fully Organic, Degradable Energy Storage Devices Using Silk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ramendra K; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2018-03-21

    Flexible and thin-film devices are of great interest in epidermal and implantable bioelectronics. The integration of energy storage and delivery devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) with properties such as flexibility, miniaturization, biocompatibility, and degradability are sought for such systems. Reducing e-waste and using sustainable materials and processes are additional desirable qualities. Herein, a silk protein-based biocompatible and degradable thin-film microSC (μSC) is reported. A protein carrier with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and reduced graphene oxide dopant is used as a photopatternable biocomposite ink. Active electrodes are fabricated using photolithography under benign conditions, using only water as the solvent. These electrodes are printed on flexible protein sheets to form degradable, organic devices with a benign agarose-NaCl gel electrolyte. High capacitance, power density, cycling stability over 500 cycles, and the ability to power a light-emitting diode are shown. The device is flexible, can sustain cyclic mechanical stresses over 450 cycles, and retain capacitive properties over several days in liquid. Significantly, the μSCs are cytocompatible and completely degraded over the period of ∼1 month. By precise control of the device configuration, these silk protein-based, all-polymer organic devices can be designed to be tunably transient and provide viable alternatives for powering flexible and implantable bioelectronics.

  7. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, B.; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2014-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  8. Artificial exomuscle investigations for applications-metal hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevier, Marie-Charlotte; Richard, Martin; Rittenhouse, D Matheson; Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Bedard, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    In pursuing the development of bionic devices, Victhom identified a need for technologies that could replace current motorized systems and be better integrated into the human body motion. The actuators used to obtain large displacements are noisy, heavy, and do not adequately reproduce human muscle behavior. Subsequently, a project at Victhom was devoted to the development of active materials to obtain an artificial exomuscle actuator. An exhaustive literature review was done at Victhom to identify promising active materials for the development of artificial muscles. According to this review, metal hydrides were identified as a promising technology for artificial muscle development. Victhom's investigations focused on determining metal hydride actuator potential in the context of bionics technology. Based on metal hydride properties and artificial muscle requirements such as force, displacement and rise time, an exomuscle was built. In addition, a finite element model, including heat and mass transfer in the metal hydride, was developed and implemented in FEMLAB software. (review article)

  9. Development of zirconium hydride highly effective moderator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2005-10-01

    The zirconium hydride with highly content of hydrogen and low density is new efficient moderator material for space nuclear power reactor. Russia has researched it to use as new highly moderator and radiation protection materials. Japanese has located it between the top of pressure vessel and the main protection as a shelter, the work temperature is rach to 220 degree C. The zirconium hydride moderator blocks are main parts of space nuclear power reactor. Development of zirconium hydride moderator materials have strength research and apply value. Nuclear Power Research and Design Instituteoh China (NPIC) has sep up the hydrogenation device and inspect systems, and accumurate a large of experience about zirconium hydride, also set up a strict system of QA and QC. (authors)

  10. Electrolytic hydriding and hydride distribution in zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M.H.L.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the electrolytic hydriding of zircaloy-4 in the range 20-80 0 C, for reaction times from 5 to 30 hours, and the effect of potential, pH and dissolved oxygen has been investigated. The hydriding reaction was more sensitive to time and temperature conditions than to the electrochemical variables. It has been shown that a controlled introduction of hydrides in zircaloy is feasible. Hydrides were found to be plate like shaped and distributed mainly along grain-boundaries. It has been shown that hydriding kinetics do not follow a simple law but may be described by a Johnson-Mehl empirical equation. On the basis of this equation an activation energy of 9.400 cal/mol has been determined, which is close to the activation energy for diffusion of hydrogen in the hydride. (author)

  11. Physical multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage from theory to engineering to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Alejandro A; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the use of innovative physical multiscale modeling methods to deeply understand the electrochemical mechanisms and numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion.

  12. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  13. Energetics of the lithium-magnesium imide-magnesium amide and lithium hydride reaction for hydrogen storage: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2007-01-01

    An ab initio study within the density functional theory of the recently described reversible hydrogen storage reaction Mg(NH 2 ) 2 + 2LiH ↔ Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 + 2H 2 has been conducted. The electronic structure, structural parameters, vibrational spectra, and enthalpies of formation of all the reactants and products as well as the heat of the overall reaction at zero and finite temperature have been calculated in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to the exchange correlation potential. The heat of the overall reaction is calculated to be 53.4 kJ/mol H 2 in contrast to the experimentally obtained overall heat of reaction of ∼44.1 kJ/mol H 2 . The difference of ∼20% between the experimental and calculated values is discussed

  14. Storage device for a long nuclear reactor fuel element and/or a long nuclear reactor fuel element part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.; Schoenwitz, H.P.; Dassbach, W.

    1986-01-01

    The storage device can be erected in a dry storage room for new fuel elements and also in a storage pond for irradiated fuel elements. It consists of shells, which are arranged vertically and which have a lid. A suspension for the fuel element is provided on the underside of the lid, which acts as a support against squashing or bending in case of vertical forces acting (earthquake). (DG) [de

  15. Optimization of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Device via a CPU-Efficient Semi-Analytical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, I K; Zhang, X; Solovyov, V F; Chubar, O; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in second generation (YBCO) high temperature superconducting wire could potentially enable the design of super high performance energy storage devices that combine the high energy density of chemical storage with the high power of superconducting magnetic storage. However, the high aspect ratio and considerable filament size of these wires requires the concomitant development of dedicated optimization methods that account for both the critical current density and ac losses in ...

  16. Electronic structure, bonding and chemisorption in metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Problems that can arise during the cycling steps for a hydride storage system usually involve events at surfaces. Chemisorption and reaction processes can be affected by small amounts of contaminants that may act as catalytic poisons. The nature of the poisoning process can vary greatly for the different metals and alloys that form hydrides. A unifying concept is offered, which satisfactorily correlates many of the properties of transition-metal, rare-earth and actinide hydrides. The metallic hydrides can be differentiated on the basis of electronegativity, metallic radius (valence) and electronic structure. For those systems where there are d (transition metals) or f (early actinides) electrons near the Fermi level a broad range of chemical and catalytic behaviors are found, depending on bandwidth and energy. The more electropositive metals (rare-earths, actinides, transition metals with d > 5) dissolve hydrogen and form hydrides by an electronically somewhat different process, and as a class tend to adsorb electrophobic molecules. The net charge-transfer in either situation is subtle; however, the small differences are responsible for many of the observed structural, chemical, and catalytic properties in these hydride systems

  17. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured chemical hydrides in hydrogen alloying mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, Z.; Varin, R.A.; Chiu, C.; Czujko, T.; Calka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying of magnesium metal powders with hydrogen in specialized hydrogen ball mills can be used as a direct route for mechanochemical synthesis of emerging chemical hydrides and hydride mixtures for advanced solid-state hydrogen storage. In the 2Mg-Fe system, we have successfully synthesized the ternary complex hydride Mg 2 FeH 6 in a mixture with nanometric Fe particles. The mixture of complex magnesium-iron hydride and nano-iron released 3-4 wt.%H 2 in a thermally programmed desorption experiment at the range 285-295 o C. Milling of the Mg-2Al powder mixture revealed a strong competition between formation of the Al(Mg) solid solution and the β-MgH 2 hydride. The former decomposes upon longer milling as the Mg atoms react with hydrogen to form the hydride phase, and drive the Al out of the solid solution. The mixture of magnesium dihydride and nano-aluminum released 2.1 wt.%H 2 in the temperature range 329-340 o C in the differential scanning calorimetry experiment. The formation of MgH 2 was suppressed in the Mg-B system; instead, a hydrogenated amorphous phase (Mg,B)H x , was formed in a mixture with nanometric MgB 2 . Annealing of the hydrogen-stabilized amorphous mixture produced crystalline MgB 2

  18. The use of metal hydrides in fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo V. Lototskyy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews state-of-the-art developments in hydrogen energy systems which integrate fuel cells with metal hydride-based hydrogen storage. The 187 reference papers included in this review provide an overview of all major publications in the field, as well as recent work by several of the authors of the review. The review contains four parts. The first part gives an overview of the existing types of fuel cells and outlines the potential of using metal hydride stores as a source of hydrogen fuel. The second part of the review considers the suitability and optimisation of different metal hydrides based on their energy efficient thermal integration with fuel cells. The performances of metal hydrides are considered from the viewpoint of the reversible heat driven interaction of the metal hydrides with gaseous H2. Efficiencies of hydrogen and heat exchange in hydrogen stores to control H2 charge/discharge flow rates are the focus of the third section of the review and are considered together with metal hydride – fuel cell system integration issues and the corresponding engineering solutions. Finally, the last section of the review describes specific hydrogen-fuelled systems presented in the available reference data.

  19. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Udell, Kent S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Bowman, Robert C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH{sub 2} and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH{sub 2} to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH{sub 2} as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 1.5} alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles.

  20. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  1. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near λ. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices

  2. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  3. Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Hayes, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by the oxidation of uranium hydride are described. The models were developed to demonstrate that ignition of large uranium ingots could not occur as a result of possible hydride formation during storage. The thermodynamics-based analytical model predicted an overall 17 C temperature rise of the ingot due to hydride oxidation upon opening of the storage can in air. The numerical model predicted locally higher temperature increases at the surface; the transient temperature increase quickly dissipated. The numerical model was further used to determine conditions for which hydride oxidation does lead to ignition of uranium metal. Room temperature ignition only occurs for high hydride fractions in the nominally oxide reaction product and high specific surface areas of the uranium metal

  4. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  5. Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

    2013-04-05

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

  6. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  7. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  8. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  9. Hydriding of metallic thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Masanobu; Katsura, Masahiro; Matsuki, Yuichi; Uno, Masayoshi

    1983-01-01

    Powdered thorium is usually prepared through a combination of hydriding and dehydriding processes of metallic thorium in massive form, in which the hydriding process consists of two steps: the formation of ThH 2 , and the formation of Th 4 H 15 . However, little has yet been known as to on what stage of hydriding process the pulverization takes place. It is found in the present study that the formation of Th 4 H 15 by the reaction of ThH 2 with H 2 is responsible for pulverization. Temperature of 70 deg C adopted in this work for the reaction of formation Th 4 H 15 seems to be much more effective for production of powdered thorium than 200 - 300 deg C in the literature. The pressure-composition-temperature relationships for Th-H system are determined at 200, 300, 350, and 800 deg C. From these results, a tentative equilibrium phase diagram for the Th-H system is proposed, attention being focused on the two-phase region of ThH 2 and Th 4 H 15 . Pulverization process is discussed in terms of the tentative phase diagram. (author)

  10. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  11. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  12. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  13. Device for storage of cylindrical objects with quick loading-unloading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier, J.

    1995-01-01

    This device comprises one or more co-axial rotative racks with radially distributed alveoles for the storage of cylindrical objects such as small jugs filled with radioactive samples. An opening is managed in each alveole for the ejection of the object towards a receptacle and alveoles are inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the rack to avoid casual fall of the objects. Selective ejection of the samples is obtained with ab toggle lever fitted inside each alveole and controlled by a single pneumatic jack. Details of manufacturing and description of parts are given. (J.S.). 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  15. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  16. Promising and Reversible Electrolyte with Thermal Switching Behavior for Safer Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunhui; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yan; Jia, Limin; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-02-28

    A major stumbling block in large-scale adoption of high-energy-density electrochemical devices has been safety issues. Methods to control thermal runaway are limited by providing a one-time thermal protection. Herein, we developed a simple and reversible thermoresponsive electrolyte system that is efficient to shutdown the current flow according to temperature changes. The thermal management is ascribed to the thermally activated sol-gel transition of methyl cellulose solution, associated with the concentration of ions that can move between isolated chains freely or be restricted by entangled molecular chains. We studied the effect of cellulose concentration, substituent types, and operating temperature on the electrochemical performance, demonstrating an obvious capacity loss up to 90% approximately of its initial value. Moreover, this is a cost-effective approach that has the potential for use in practical electrochemical storage devices.

  17. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: alsharmaiitkgp@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central university of Punjab, Bathinda-151001. INDIA (India); Sadiq, M. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. (BHU), Varanasi-India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF{sub 6} are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  18. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  19. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nuramdhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly(4-styrenesulfonate polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5. Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR(QR(QR for uncharged and (QR(QR(Q(RW for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device.

  20. Insights into the use of polyethylene oxide in energy storage/conversion devices: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this review, the latest updates in poly (ethylene oxide) based electrolytes are summarized. The ultimate goal of researchers globally is towards the development of free-standing solid polymeric separators for energy storage devices. This single free-standing solid polymeric separator may replace the liquid and separator (organic/inorganic) used in existing efficient/smart energy technology. As an example, polyethylene oxide (PEO) consists of an electron donor-rich group which provides coordinating sites to the cation for migration. Owing to this exclusive structure, PEO exhibits some remarkable properties, such as a low glass transition temperature, excellent flexibility, and the ability to make complexation with various metal salts which are unattainable by another polymer host. Hence, the PEO is an emerging candidate that has been most examined or is currently under consideration for application in energy storage devices. This review article first provides a detailed study of the PEO properties, characteristics of the constituents of the polymer electrolyte, and suitable approaches for the modification of polymer electrolytes. Then, the synthesization and characterizations techniques are outlined. The structures, characteristics, and performance during charge-discharge of four types of electrolyte/separators (liquid, plasticized, and dispersed and intercalated electrolyte) are highlighted. The suitable ion transport mechanism proposed by researchers in different renowned groups have been discussed for the better understanding of the ion dynamics in such systems.

  1. Thin Film Energy Storage Device with Spray‐Coated Sliver Paste Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Man Yoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the fabrication of a thin film energy storage device on a flexible polymer substrate specifically by replacing most commonly used metal foil current collectors with coated current collectors. Mass‐manufacturable spray‐coating technology enables the fabrication of two different half‐cell electric double layer capacitors (EDLC with a spray‐coated silver paste current collector and a Ni foil current collector. The larger specific capacitances of the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated silver current collector are obtained as 103.86 F/g and 76.8 F/g for scan rates of 10 mV/s and 500 mV/s, respectively. Further, even though the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated current collector is heavier than that with the Ni foil current collector, smaller Warburg impedance and contact resistance are characterized from Nyquist plots. For the applied voltages ranging from −0.5 V to 0.5 V, the spray‐coated thin film energy storage device exhibits a better performance.

  2. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  3. Non-aqueous energy storage devices using graphene nanosheets synthesized by green route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattakumar Mhamane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the use of triethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide (TRGO as an electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. TRGO based non–aqueous symmetric supercapacitor is constructed and shown to deliver maximum energy and power densities of 60.4 Wh kg–1 and 0.15 kW kg–1, respectively. More importantly, symmetric supercapacitor shows an extraordinary cycleability (5000 cycles with over 80% of capacitance retention. In addition, Li-storage properties of TRGO are also evaluated in half-cell configuration (Li/TRGO and shown to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼705 mAh g–1 with good cycleability at constant current density of 37 mA g–1. This result clearly suggests that green-synthesized graphene can be effectively used as a prospective electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  4. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena

    1992-01-01

    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  5. Tritium immobilization and packaging using metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Yaraskavitch, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    Tritium recovered from CANDU heavy water reactors will have to be packaged and stored in a safe manner. Tritium will be recovered in the elemental form, T 2 . Metal tritides are effective compounds in which to immobilize the tritium as a stable non-reactive solid with a high tritium capacity. The technology necessary to prepare hydrides of suitable metals, such as titanium and zirconium, have been developed and the properties of the prepared materials evaluated. Conceptual designs of packages for containing metal tritides suitable for transportation and long-term storage have been made and initial testing started. (author)

  6. Microcapsulated rare earth - nickel hydride-forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Oguro, K.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, H.; Ishii, E.

    1985-01-01

    Fine particles of hydride-forming alloys such as LaNi/sub 5/ and MmNi/sub 4.5/Mn/sub 0.5/ (MM : mischmetal) were coated with metallic copper thin layer by chemical plating method. Hydrogen storage capacities of alloys were not appreciably affected by the plating treatment. The capsulated alloy powders were easily pressed into pellets. The pellets obtained had high thermal conductivity and porosity enough to permeate hydrogen, leading to fast reaction kinetics. These were able to withstand more than 5,000 repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles without disintegrating

  7. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  8. Zircaloy-4 hydridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this work can be summarized as: 1) To reproduce, by heat treatments, matrix microstructures and hydride morphologies similar to those observed in structural components of the CNA-1 and CNE nuclear power plants; 2) To study the evolution of the mechanical properties of the original material with different hydrogen concentrations, such as microhardness, and its capacity to distinguish these materials; 3) To find parameters that allow to estimate the hydrogen content of a material by quantitative metallographic techniques, to be used as complementary in the study of the radioactive materials from reactors

  9. Hydride embrittlement in zircaloy components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Castagnet, Mariano, E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Zirconium alloys are used in nuclear reactor cores under high-temperature water environment. During service, hydrogen is generated by corrosion processes, and it is readily absorbed by these materials. When hydrogen concentration exceeds the terminal solid solubility, the excess hydrogen precipitates as zirconium hydride (ZrH{sub 2}) platelets or needles. Zirconium alloys components can fail by hydride cracking if they contain large flaws and are highly stressed. Zirconium alloys are susceptible to a mechanism for crack initiation and propagation termed delayed hydride cracking (DHC). The presence of brittle hydrides, with a K{sub Ic} fracture toughness of only a few MPa{radical}m, results in a severe loss in ductility and toughness when platelet normal is oriented parallel to the applied stress. In plate or tubing, hydrides tend to form perpendicular to the thickness direction due to the texture developed during fabrication. Hydrides in this orientation do not generally cause structural problems because applied stresses in the through-thickness direction are very low. However, the high mobility of hydrogen in a zirconium lattice enables redistribution of hydrides normal to the applied stress direction, which can result in localized embrittlement. When a platelet reaches a critical length it ruptures. If the tensile stress is sufficiently great, crack initiation starts at some of these hydrides. Crack propagation occurs by repeating the same process at the crack tip. Delayed hydride cracking can degrade the structural integrity of zirconium alloys during reactor service. The paper focuses on the fracture mechanics and fractographic aspects of hydride material. (author)

  10. A study of selenium nanoparticles as charge storage element for flexible semi-transparent memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Sattam; Nama Manjunatha, Krishna; Paul, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Flexible Semi-Transparent electronic memory would be useful in coming years for integrated flexible transparent electronic devices. However, attaining such flexibility and semi-transparency leads to the boundaries in material composition. Thus, impeding processing speed and device performance. In this work, we present the use of inorganic stable selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a storage element and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) as an insulating layer in two terminal non-volatile physically flexible and semi-transparent capacitive memory devices (2T-NMDs). Furthermore, a-C:H films can be deposited at very low temperature (industrial technique called Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) which is available in many existing fabrication labs. Self-assembled Se-NPs has several unique features including deposition at room temperature by simple vacuum thermal evaporation process without the need for further optimisation. This facilitates the fabrication of memory on a flexible substrate. Moreover, the memory behaviour of the Se-NPs was found to be more distinct than those of the semiconductor and metal nanostructures due to higher work function compared to the commonly used semiconductor and metal species. The memory behaviour was observed from the hysteresis of current-voltage (I-V) measurements while the two distinguishable electrical conductivity states (;0; and "1") were studied by current-time (I-t) measurements.

  11. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  12. Pulse power 350 V nickel-metal hydride battery power-D-005-00181

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskra, Michael D.; Ralston, Paula; Salkind, Alvin; Plivelich, Robert F.

    Energy-storage devices are needed for applications requiring very high-power over short periods of time. Such devices have various military (rail guns, electromagnetic launchers, and DEW) and commercial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles, vehicle starting (SLI), and utility peak shaving. The storage and delivery of high levels of burst power can be achieved with a capacitor, flywheel, or rechargeable battery. In order to reduce the weight and volume of many systems they must contain advanced state-of-the-art electrochemical or electromechanical power sources. There is an opportunity and a need to develop energy-storage devices that have improved high-power characteristics compared to existing ultra capacitors, flywheels or rechargeable batteries. Electro Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of bipolar nickel-metal hydride batteries, which may fulfil the requirements of some of these applications. This paper describes a module rated at 300 V (255 cells) (6 Ah). The volume of the module is 23 L and the mass is 56 kg. The module is designed to deliver 50 kW pulses of 10 s duration at 50% state-of-charge. Details of the mechanical design of the module, safety considerations, along with the results of initial electrical characterization testing by the customer will be discussed. Some discussion of the possibilities for design optimization is also included.

  13. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  14. Identifying the best locations to install flow control devices in sewer networks to enable in-sewer storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Carbajal, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Simões, N. E.; Sá Marques, A.; de Sousa, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The activation of available in-sewer storage volume has been suggested as a low-cost flood and combined sewer overflow mitigation measure. However, it is currently unknown what the attributes for suitable objective functions to identify the best location for flow control devices are and the impact of those attributes on the results. In this study, we present a novel location model and efficient algorithm to identify the best location(s) to install flow limiters. The model is a screening tool that does not require hydraulic simulations but rather considers steady state instead of simplistic static flow conditions. It also maximises in-sewer storage according to different reward functions that also considers the potential impact of flow control device failure. We demonstrate its usefulness on two real sewer networks, for which an in-sewer storage potential of approximately 2,000 m3 and 500 m3 was estimated with five flow control devices installed.

  15. Freestanding, heat resistant microporous film for use in energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Cherukupalli, Srinivas; Waterhouse, Robert R.

    2018-02-20

    Preferred embodiments of a freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film (10) constructed for use in an energy storage device (70, 100) implements one or more of the following approaches to exhibit excellent high temperature mechanical and dimensional stability: incorporation into a porous polyolefin film of sufficiently high loading levels of inorganic or ceramic filler material (16) to maintain porosity (18) and achieve low thermal shrinkage; use of crosslinkable polyethylene to contribute to crosslinking the polymer matrix (14) in a highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film; and heat treating or annealing of biaxially oriented, highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film above the melting point temperature of the polymer matrix to reduce residual stress while maintaining high porosity. The freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film embodiments exhibit extremely low resistance, as evidenced by MacMullin numbers of less than 4.5.

  16. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Graphene as Charge Storage Layer in Flash Memory Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a flash memory device with chemical-vapor-deposited graphene as a charge trapping layer. It was found that the average RMS roughness of block oxide on graphene storage layer can be significantly reduced from 5.9 nm to 0.5 nm by inserting a seed metal layer, which was verified by AFM measurements. The memory window is 5.6 V for a dual sweep of ±12 V at room temperature. Moreover, a reduced hysteresis at the low temperature was observed, indicative of water molecules or −OH groups between graphene and dielectric playing an important role in memory windows.

  17. Tracking studies of insertion device effects on dynamic aperture in the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yong-chul; Crosbie, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of an insertion device (ID) on the dynamic aperture in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring using the program RACETRACK. We found that the nonlinear effect of the ID is the dominant effect on the dynamic aperture reduction compared to the other multipole errors which exist in the otherwise ideal lattice. The previous study of dynamic aperture was based on the assumption that the effect of the fast oscillating terms in L. Smith's Hamiltonian is small, and hence can be neglected in the simulation. The remarkable agreement between the previous study and the current results using RACETRACK, including all effects of the fast oscillating terms, justified those assumptions at least for the APS ring

  18. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eSchneider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has suggested that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired vs. no information estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1 compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard-drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant, also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiment 2a and 2b. The current work shows that importance influences weight perceptions beyond specific objects.

  19. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2017-10-01

    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  20. Tailorable and Wearable Textile Devices for Solar Energy Harvesting and Simultaneous Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhisheng; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Chuanxi; Fan, Hong Jin; Fan, Xing; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-10-05

    The pursuit of harmonic combination of technology and fashion intrinsically points to the development of smart garments. Herein, we present an all-solid tailorable energy textile possessing integrated function of simultaneous solar energy harvesting and storage, and we call it tailorable textile device. Our technique makes it possible to tailor the multifunctional textile into any designed shape without impairing its performance and produce stylish smart energy garments for wearable self-powering system with enhanced user experience and more room for fashion design. The "threads" (fiber electrodes) featuring tailorability and knittability can be large-scale fabricated and then woven into energy textiles. The fiber supercapacitor with merits of tailorability, ultrafast charging capability, and ultrahigh bending-resistance is used as the energy storage module, while an all-solid dye-sensitized solar cell textile is used as the solar energy harvesting module. Our textile sample can be fully charged to 1.2 V in 17 s by self-harvesting solar energy and fully discharged in 78 s at a discharge current density of 0.1 mA.

  1. Magnesium mechanical alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Konstanchuk, I.; Stepanov, A.; Boldyrev, V.

    1985-01-01

    Metal hybrides are currently being used to store and handle hydrogen and its isotopes. They are also being tested in hydrogen compressors and in heat energy, refrigerators and in hydrogen and thermal storage devices. Metal hydrides have been proposed as one of the possible media for hydrogen storage to overcome the limitations of other techniques in regard to safety hydrogen weight and volume ration. The suitability of metal hybrides as a hydrogen storage media depends on a number of factors such as storage capacity, reactivity with hydrogen at various pressures and temperatures, and the cost of base materials. Magnesium based alloys are promising materials for storing hydrogen. They are generally made by argon melting and no attention has been payed to other fabrication techniques such as mechanical alloying or powder technique

  2. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  3. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today......’s hydride batteries, but a much poorer stability towards repeated charge/discharge cycling. The aim was to see if the cycleability of CaNi5 could be enhanced enough by modifications to make the compound a suitable electrode material. An alloying method based on mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill...

  4. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  5. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A. [Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  6. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  7. Response of GaAs charge storage devices to transient ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, D. L.; Klem, J. F.; Hughes, R. C.; Weaver, H. T.

    Charge storage devices in which non-equilibrium depletion regions represent stored charge are sensitive to ionizing radiation. This results since the radiation generates electron-hole pairs that neutralize excess ionized dopant charge. Silicon structures, such as dynamic RAM or CCD cells are particularly sensitive to radiation since carrier diffusion lengths in this material are often much longer than the depletion width, allowing collection of significant quantities of charge from quasi-neutral sections of the device. For GaAs the situation is somewhat different in that minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter than in silicon, and although mobilities are higher, we expect a reduction of radiation sensitivity as suggested by observations of reduced quantum efficiency in GaAs solar cells. Dynamic memory cells in GaAs have potential increased retention times. In this paper, we report the response of a novel GaAs dynamic memory element to transient ionizing radiation. The charge readout technique is nondestructive over a reasonable applied voltage range and is more sensitive to stored charge than a simple capacitor.

  8. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  9. Hydride precipitation crack propagation in zircaloy cladding during a decreasing temperature history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of safety, design, and cost tradeoff issues for short (ten to fifty years) and longer (fifty to hundreds of years) interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in Zircaloy rods shall address potential failures of the Zircaloy cladding caused by the precipitation response of zirconium hydride platelets. To perform such assessment analyses rigorously and conservatively will be necessarily complex and difficult. For Zircaloy cladding, a model for zirconium hydride induced crack propagation velocity was developed for a decreasing temperature field and for hydrogen, temperature, and stress dependent diffusive transport of hydrogen to a generic hydride platelet at a crack tip. The development of the quasi-steady model is based on extensions of existing models for hydride precipitation kinetics for an isolated hydride platelet at a crack tip. An instability analysis model of hydride-crack growth was developed using existing concepts in a kinematic equation for crack propagation at a constant thermodynamic crack potential subject to brittle fracture conditions. At the time an instability is initiated, the crack propagation is no longer limited by hydride growth rate kinetics, but is then limited by stress rates. The model for slow hydride-crack growth will be further evaluated using existing available data. (authors)

  10. Hydride precipitation crack propagation in zircaloy cladding during a decreasing temperature history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab

    2001-07-01

    An assessment of safety, design, and cost tradeoff issues for short (ten to fifty years) and longer (fifty to hundreds of years) interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in Zircaloy rods shall address potential failures of the Zircaloy cladding caused by the precipitation response of zirconium hydride platelets. To perform such assessment analyses rigorously and conservatively will be necessarily complex and difficult. For Zircaloy cladding, a model for zirconium hydride induced crack propagation velocity was developed for a decreasing temperature field and for hydrogen, temperature, and stress dependent diffusive transport of hydrogen to a generic hydride platelet at a crack tip. The development of the quasi-steady model is based on extensions of existing models for hydride precipitation kinetics for an isolated hydride platelet at a crack tip. An instability analysis model of hydride-crack growth was developed using existing concepts in a kinematic equation for crack propagation at a constant thermodynamic crack potential subject to brittle fracture conditions. At the time an instability is initiated, the crack propagation is no longer limited by hydride growth rate kinetics, but is then limited by stress rates. The model for slow hydride-crack growth will be further evaluated using existing available data. (authors)

  11. A proposal of a beam injection device for the proton storage ring of JAERI neutron science project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    A new injection device (a charge-exchange device) with light and magnetic field, is proposed for a proton storage ring of JAERI Neutron Science Project. This injection device is composed of a neutralizer and an ionizer. The neutralizer strips electrons of H 0 beam into H - one with the undulator magnetic field. The ionizer which is composed of undulator magnets and an optical resonator placed along a straight part in the storage ring, can ionize effectively the H 0 beam excited to n=3 level by a laser beam into H + one. Adopting the 2nd harmonics of Nd : YAG laser, the powerful laser on the market can be used, and the required items of the technological development can be minimized. The energy of the particle beam, however, should be accelerated up to 1.587 GeV by 6% increase from 1.5 GeV. In this device, the non-charge-exchange rate and beam-spill can be minimized by decreasing the deflection angle of the beam which occurs at the charge-exchange process. This method can be realized with exiting technologies and there are not any effects on the trajectory of the ring-circulating proton beam due to scatterings by the foil as the usual charge-exchange devices. This device, therefore, will be an optimal and highly effective method of the least beam-spill as the injector of the high power proton storage ring. (author)

  12. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  13. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  14. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  15. A review of uranium corrosion by hydrogen and the formation of uranium hydride

    OpenAIRE

    Banos, A.; Harker, N. J.; Scott, T. B.

    2018-01-01

    Uranium hydride (UH3) is the direct product of the reaction between uranium metal and gaseous hydrogen. In the context of uranium storage, this corrosion reaction is considered deleterious, not just because the structure of the metal may become significantly degraded but also because the resulting hydride is pyrophoric and therefore potentially flammable in air if present in significant quantity. The current review draws from the literature surrounding the uranium-hydrogen system accrued over...

  16. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  17. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  18. Hydriding failure in water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    1980-01-01

    Hydriding of the zircaloy cladding has been one of the important causes of failure in water reactor fuel elements. This report reviews the causes, the mechanisms and the methods for prevention of hydriding failure in zircaloy clad water reactor fuel elements. The different types of hydriding of zircaloy cladding have been classified. Various factors influencing zircaloy hydriding from internal and external sources in an operating fuel element have been brought out. The findings of post-irradiation examination of fuel elements from Indian reactors, with respect to clad hydriding and features of hydriding failure are included. (author)

  19. Safe storage of pesticides in Sri Lanka - identifying important design features influencing community acceptance and use of safe storage devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning with pesticides is the cause of an estimated 300,000 deaths annually in rural Asia. The great majority of these deaths are from impulsive acts of self-harm using pesticides that are readily available in the home. The secure storage of pesticides under lock has been...

  20. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    mole of Si. We compare our silicon nanoparticles (˜10nm diameter) with commercial silicon nanopowder (rate upon decreasing the particle size to 10 nm was even greater than would be expected based upon the increase in surface area. While specific surface area increased by a factor of 6 in going from rate increased by a factor of 150. However, in all cases, silicon requires a base (e.g. NaOH, KOH, hydrazine) to catalyze its reaction with water. Metal hydrides are also promising hydrogen storage materials. The optimum metal hydride would possess high hydrogen storage density at moderate temperature and pressure, release hydrogen safely and controllably, and be stable in air. Alkali metal hydrides have high hydrogen storage density, but exhibit high uncontrollable reactivity with water. In an attempt to control this explosive nature while maintaining high storage capacity, we mixed our silicon nanoparticles with the hydrides. This has dual benefits: (1) the hydride- water reaction produces the alkali hydroxide needed for base-catalyzed silicon oxidation, and (2) dilution with 10nm coating by, the silicon may temper the reactivity of the hydride, making the process more controllable. Initially, we analyzed hydrolysis of pure alkali metal hydrides and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Lithium hydride has particularly high hydrogen gravimetric density, along with faster reaction kinetics than sodium hydride or magnesium hydride. On analysis of hydrogen production we found higher hydrogen yield from the silicon nanoparticle—metal hydride mixture than from pure hydride hydrolysis. The silicon-hydride mixtures using our 10nm silicon nanoparticles produced high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical yield. Some evidence of slowing of the hydride reaction rate upon addition of silicon nanoparticles was observed.

  1. Mechanical properties and fracture of titanium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koketsu, Hideyuki; Taniyama, Yoshihiro; Yonezu, Akio; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Takemoto, Mikio; Nakayama, Gen

    2006-01-01

    Titanium hydrides tend to suffer fracture when their thicknesses reach a critical thickness. Morphology and mechanical property of the hydrides are, however, not well known. The study aims to reveal the hydride morphology and fracture types of the hydrides. Chevron shaped plate hydrides were found to be produced on the surface of pure titanium (Grade 1) and Grade 7 titanium absorbing hydrogen. There were tree types of fracture of the hydrides, i.e., crack in hydride layer, exfoliation of the layer and shear-type fracture of the hydride plates, during the growth of the hydrides and deformation. We next estimated the true stress-strain curves of the hydrides on Grade 1 and 7 titanium using the dual Vickers indentation method, and the critical strain causing the Mode-I fine crack by indentation. Fracture strength and strain of the hydrides in Grade 1 titanium were estimated as 566 MPa and 4.5%, respectively. Those of the hydride in Grade 7 titanium were 498 MPa and 16%. Though the fracture strains estimated from the plastic instability of true stress-strain curves were approximately the half of those estimated by finite element method, the titanium hydrides were estimated to possess some extent of toughness or plastic deformation capability. (author)

  2. Operation and control of an ion-implantation/sputtering storage device for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.; Greenwell, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a device for implanting 85 Kr in a sputtered Cu-Y alloy for long-term storage tests are described. A total of approx.400 Ci of 85 Kr, in a 4.2% mixture with nonradioactive isotopes, was implanted in three batches at a rate of 6.1 sccm. A triode discharge operating at a pressure of 0.4 Pa with a plasma current of 4.5 A was maintained with a potential of 67 V. The target and substrate potentials were 2400 and 290, respectively, with an ion current density of approx.100 A/m 2 . The discharge and pumping action was started with nonradioactive Kr, then was switched to the radioactive gas until all in the reservoir was consumed, then again was switched to the nonradioactive gas to apply a closeout layer. The control feature used made it possible to empty the 85 Kr reservoir without use of an auxiliary pumping system. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Applications of nano and smart materials in renewable energy production and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents development of renewable energy production and storage devices employing nanomaterials and smart materials. The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNS) to improve the performance and durability of wind turbine and wave rotor blades will be explained. While GNS are primary used for the performance enhancement of the resin system called Nanoresin, CNT Nanoforests and Nanofilms are used to improve the performance of fiber systems in high-performance Nanocomposites. In addition, the use of CNTs and piezo-nanofibers will be explained as the health monitoring and smart systems within the composites. A self-healing mechanism will also be explained within the composites using these materials. Next the use of CNTs as gas diffusion layers and CNTs combined with in-situ generated platinum nanoparticles as catalyst layers will be explained to improve the performance, efficiency, and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells while reducing their costs, weight, and size. In addition, the use of CNTs and GNSs to improve the efficiency and performance of polymer solar cells will be explained. Finally, the use of CNTs and GNSs to enhance the performance, efficiency, and durability of batteries and supercapacitors while reducing their costs, weight, and size will be discussed.

  4. Improving the network infeed accuracy of non-dispatchable generators with energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, Gaudenz; Korpaas, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The power output of generators based on renewable energy sources is often difficult to predict due to the non-deterministic behaviour of the energy source. Particularly in the case of wind turbines this leads to unpredicted line loading and requires balancing energy, at relatively high costs, depending on market structures. Consequently, the income from the production from such non-dispatchable generators can be significantly reduced by the penalty costs incurred. This paper investigates the potential of operating an energy storage device in parallel with the non-dispatchable generator in order to compensate the inaccuracies of the forecasted infeed and to avoid infeed deviations. A time series based simulation methodology is discussed, suitable for any type of non-dispatchable generator. The methodology contains a procedure for simulating different forecast errors, applying an exponentially weighted moving average approach. Analysis procedures and system performance indices are introduced for the evaluation of the configuration's performance. The applicability is shown in two case studies, using measurement data from a wind turbine and from a photovoltaic system. Both case studies show that the suggested configuration considerably improves the reliability or dependability of the network infeed, in turn reducing the demand for balancing energy and back-up generation. The relation between forecast error magnitude and required energy capacity is identified and the coherence of the time series analysis is discussed. (author)

  5. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  6. The effect of stress state on zirconium hydride reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim

    Prior to storage in a dry-cask facility, spent nuclear fuel must undergo a vacuum drying cycle during which the spent fuel rods are heated up to elevated temperatures of ≤ 400°C to remove moisture the canisters within the cask. As temperature increases during heating, some of the hydride particles within the cladding dissolve while the internal gas pressure in fuel rods increases generating multi-axial hoop and axial stresses in the closed-end thin-walled cladding tubes. As cool-down starts, the hydrogen in solid solution precipitates as hydride platelets, and if the multiaxial stresses are sufficiently large, the precipitating hydrides reorient from their initial circumferential orientation to radial orientation. Radial hydrides can severely embrittle the spent nuclear fuel cladding at low temperature in response to hoop stress loading. Because the cladding can experience a range of stress states during the thermo-mechanical treatment induced during vacuum drying, this study has investigated the effect of stress state on the process of hydride reorientation during controlled thermo-mechanical treatments utilizing the combination of in situ X-ray diffraction and novel mechanical testing analyzed by the combination of metallography and finite element analysis. The study used cold worked and stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet containing approx. 180 wt. ppm hydrogen as its material basis. The failure behavior of this material containing radial hydrides was also studied over a range of temperatures. Finally, samples from reactor-irradiated cladding tubes were examined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. To reveal the stress state effect on hydride reorientation, the critical threshold stress to reorient hydrides was determined by designing novel mechanical test samples which produce a range of stress states from uniaxial to "near-equibiaxial" tension when a load is applied. The threshold stress was determined after thermo-mechanical treatments by

  7. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  8. High-pressure hydriding of Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The hydriding characteristics of Zircaloy-2(Zry), sponge zirconium (as a liner on Zry plate), and crystal-bar zirconium exposed to pure H 2 at 0.1 MPa or 7 MPa and 400 C were determined in a thermogravimetric apparatus. The morphology of the hydrided specimens was also examined by optical microscopy. For all specimen types, the rate of hydriding in 7 MPa H 2 was two orders of magnitude greater than in 0.1 MPa H 2 . For Zry, uniform bulk hydriding was revealed by hydride precipitates at room temperature and on one occasion, a sunburst hydride. In addition, all specimen types exhibited a hydride surface layer. In a duplex Zry/sponge-Zr specimen, Zry is more heavily hydrided than the sponge Zr layer. (orig.)

  9. Hydride Olefin complexes of tantalum and niobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, Aan Hendrik

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on low-valent tantalum and niobium hydride and alkyl complexes, particularly the dicyclopentadienyl tantalum hydride olefin complexes Cp2Ta(H)L (L=olefin). ... Zie: Summary

  10. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  11. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  12. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmand, Maryam [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-19

    The development of better energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, is crucial for reduction of our global carbon footprint and improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, both of these technologies face important challenges. The development of lower cost and better electrode materials, which are more durable and allow more control over the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface, is perhaps most important for meeting these challenges. Hence, full characterization of the electrochemical processes that occur at the electrodes is vital for intelligent design of more energy efficient electrodes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a short-range order, element specific technique that can be utilized to probe the processes occurring at operating electrode surfaces, as well for studying the amorphous materials and nano-particles making up the electrodes. It has been increasingly used in recent years to study fuel cell catalysts through application of the and #916; and mgr; XANES technique, in combination with the more traditional X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The and #916; and mgr; XANES data analysis technique, previously developed and applied to heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell electrocatalysts by the GWU group, was extended in this work to provide for the first time space resolved adsorbate coverages on both electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell. Even more importantly, the and #916; and mgr; technique was applied for the first time to battery relevant materials, where bulk properties such as the oxidation state and local geometry of a cathode are followed.

  13. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L; Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  14. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L [Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae, E-mail: hbt100@ee.ucla.edu [Advanced Technology Development Team and Process Development Team, Memory R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-24

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  15. Trapping of antimony and bismuth hydrides on a molybdenum-foil strip

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s148-s149 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hydride generation * hydride trapping * molybdenum-foil strip device Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  16. Conceptual study on HTGR-IS hydrogen supply system using organic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Atsuhiko; Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    We have proposed a hydrogen supply-chain system, which is a storage/supply system of large amount of hydrogen produced by HTGR-IS hydrogen production system. The organic chemical hydride method is one of the candidate techniques in the system for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this study, properties of organic hydrides and conventional hydrogen storage/supply system were surveyed to make use of the conceptual design of the hydrogen supply system using an organic hydrides method with VHTR-IS hydrogen production process (hydrogen production: 85,400 Nm 3 /h). Conceptual specifications of the main equipments were designed for the hydrogen supply system consisting of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation process. It was also clarified the problems of hydrogen supply system, such as energy efficiency and system optimization. (author)

  17. Thermal coupling of a high temperature PEM fuel cell with a complex hydride tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, P.; Wall, C.; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2009-01-01

    the possibilities of a thermal coupling of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operating at 160-200 degrees C. The starting temperatures and temperature hold-times before starting fuel cell operation, the heat transfer characteristics of the hydride storage tanks, system temperature, fuel cell electrical power......Sodium alanate doped with cerium catalyst has been proven to have fast kinetics for hydrogen ab- and de-sorption as well as a high gravimetric storage density around 5 wt%. The kinetics of hydrogen sorption can be improved by preparing the alanate as nanocrystalline material. However, the second...... decomposition step, i.e. the decomposition of the hexahydride to sodium hydride and aluminium which refers to 1.8 wt% hydrogen is supposed to happen above 110 degrees C. The discharge of the material is thus limited by the level of heat supplied to the hydride storage tank. Therefore, we evaluated...

  18. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  19. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  20. Performance study of a hydrogen powered metal hydride actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, Md Mainul Hossain; Kim, Kwang J

    2016-01-01

    A thermally driven hydrogen powered actuator integrating metal hydride hydrogen storage reactor, which is compact, noiseless, and able to generate smooth actuation, is presented in this article. To test the plausibility of a thermally driven actuator, a conventional piston type actuator was integrated with LaNi 5 based hydrogen storage system. Copper encapsulation followed by compaction of particles into pellets, were adopted to improve overall thermal conductivity of the reactor. The operation of the actuator was thoroughly investigated for an array of operating temperature ranges. Temperature swing of the hydride reactor triggering smooth and noiseless actuation over several operating temperature ranges were monitored for quantification of actuator efficiency. Overall, the actuator generated smooth and consistent strokes during repeated cycles of operation. The efficiency of the actuator was found to be as high as 13.36% for operating a temperature range of 20 °C–50 °C. Stress–strain characteristics, actuation hysteresis etc were studied experimentally. Comparison of stress–strain characteristics of the proposed actuator with traditional actuators, artificial muscles and so on was made. The study suggests that design modification and use of high pressure hydride may enhance the performance and broaden the application horizon of the proposed actuator in future. (paper)

  1. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  2. Effect of the La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Lei, Y. Q.; Chen, L. X.; Lu, G. L.; Pan, H. G.; Wang, Q. D.

    Effect of La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) ternary alloys was investigated. All alloys are consisted of a main phase with hexagonal PuNi 3-type structure and a few impurity phases (mainly LaNi 5 and MgNi 2). The increase of La/Mg ratio in the alloys leads to an increase in both the cell volume and the hydride stability. The discharge capacity of the alloys at 100 mA/g increases with the increase of La/Mg ratio and passes though a maximum of 397.5 mAh/g at x=2.0. As the La/Mg ratio increases, the high-rate dischargeability of the alloy electrodes at 1200 mA/g HRD 1200 decreases from 66.7% ( x=1.6) to 26.5% ( x=2.2). The slower decrease of HRD 1200 (from 66.7 to 52.7%) of the alloys with x=1.6-2.0 is mainly attributed to the decrease of electrocatalytic activity of the alloys for charge-transfer reaction, the more rapid decrease of HRD 1200 of the alloys with x>2.0 is mainly attributed to the lowering of the hydrogen diffusion rate in the bulk of alloy. The cycling capacity degradation of the alloys is rather fast for practical application due to the corrosion of La and Mg and the large VH in the hydride phase.

  3. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  4. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  5. Predicting Hydride Donor Strength via Quantum Chemical Calculations of Hydride Transfer Activation Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alherz, Abdulaziz; Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B

    2018-01-25

    We propose a method to approximate the kinetic properties of hydride donor species by relating the nucleophilicity (N) of a hydride to the activation free energy ΔG ⧧ of its corresponding hydride transfer reaction. N is a kinetic parameter related to the hydride transfer rate constant that quantifies a nucleophilic hydridic species' tendency to donate. Our method estimates N using quantum chemical calculations to compute ΔG ⧧ for hydride transfers from hydride donors to CO 2 in solution. A linear correlation for each class of hydrides is then established between experimentally determined N values and the computationally predicted ΔG ⧧ ; this relationship can then be used to predict nucleophilicity for different hydride donors within each class. This approach is employed to determine N for four different classes of hydride donors: two organic (carbon-based and benzimidazole-based) and two inorganic (boron and silicon) hydride classes. We argue that silicon and boron hydrides are driven by the formation of the more stable Si-O or B-O bond. In contrast, the carbon-based hydrides considered herein are driven by the stability acquired upon rearomatization, a feature making these species of particular interest, because they both exhibit catalytic behavior and can be recycled.

  6. Search for ideal metal hydrides for PEMFC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, T.-P.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Previously, an LmNi5-based alloy was prepared and its hydrogenation properties were studied. In order to make use of such a type of metal hydride for application in PEMFC, the room-temperature desorption pressure has to be adjusted to 1-2atm and the cyclic stability has to be maintained. In this study, the same alloy was partially substituted with Al and cyclic hydrogenation was conducted with different hydrogen loadings up to 3000 cycles at room temperature. The saturated hydrogen loadings in equilibrium were controlled at H/M = 0.75 and 1.0. The P-C-T curves after 1000, 2000, and 3000 cycles of test were collected at T=30, 50, and 70 o C. After 3000 cycles, it is observed that the maximum hydrogenation capacities of the samples for the loadings of 0.75 and 1.0 are reduced to 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. The plateaus do not change much for T=30 and 50 o C, but become little sloped without observable split at 70 o C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the strains associated with repeated hydrogenation are isotropic for all samples. Both unsubstituted and Al-substituted alloys were then used to store hydrogen in a small cylinder with a diameter 10mm and length of 40 mm. The cylinder was connected to a small PEMFC for discharge test at room temperature. More than 540ml H2 was released at below 2atm and discharged to a capacity of 1200mAh. The hydrogenation properties of the alloys and design of the hydrogen storage cylinder for application in small portable PEMFCs for electronic devices are evaluated. The effect of Al substitution and hydrogen loading on cyclic hydrogenation property of the LmNi5-based alloy is also discussed. (author)

  7. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  8. Li4 Ti5 O12 Anode: Structural Design from Material to Electrode and the Construction of Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijie; Li, Honsen; Wu, Langyuan; Lu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2018-03-01

    Spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , known as a zero-strain material, is capable to be a competent anode material for promising applications in state-of-art electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs). Compared with commercial graphite, spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 offers a high operating potential of ∼1.55 V vs Li/Li + , negligible volume expansion during Li + intercalation process and excellent thermal stability, leading to high safety and favorable cyclability. Despite the merits of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 been presented, there still remains the issue of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 suffering from poor electronic conductivity, manifesting disadvantageous rate performance. Typically, a material modification process of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 will be proposed to overcome such an issue. However, the previous reports have made few investigations and achievements to analyze the subsequent processes after a material modification process. In this review, we attempt to put considerable interest in complete device design and assembly process with its material structure design (or modification process), electrode structure design and device construction design. Moreover, we have systematically concluded a series of representative design schemes, which can be divided into three major categories involving: (1) nanostructures design, conductive material coating process and doping process on material level; (2) self-supporting or flexible electrode structure design on electrode level; (3) rational assembling of lithium ion full cell or lithium ion capacitor on device level. We believe that these rational designs can give an advanced performance for Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -based energy storage device and deliver a deep inspiration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  10. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-07

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  11. Oxidation of graphene ‘bow tie’ nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Davis, R C; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a ‘bow tie’ geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each. (paper)

  12. Oxidation of graphene ‘bow tie’ nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A. C.; Jamieson, S.; Linford, M. R.; Lunt, B. M.; Davis, R. C.

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a ‘bow tie’ geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

  13. Static and Dynamic Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, V.

    2011-01-01

    of the Smart Grids (SGs). A SG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid or in islanded mode. This paper presents experimental tests for static and dynamic stability analysis carried out in a dedicated laboratory for research in distributed control and smart grid with a high share of renewable......The distributed energy resources (DER) contains several technologies, such as diesel engines, small wind turbines, photovoltaic inverters, etc. The control of DER components with storage devices and (controllable) loads, such as batteries, capacitors, dump loads, are central to the concept...... energy production. Moreover to point out, on a laboratory scale, the coupling between DR and storage and to effectively compensate wind fluctuations a number of tests have been done. In order to find out the parameters of various types of DER components for dynamic simulation models a number of tests...

  14. Evaluation of a binary optimization approach to find the optimum locations of energy storage devices in a power grid with stochastically varying loads and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The prices in the electricity market change every five minutes. The prices in peak demand hours can be four or five times more than the prices in normal off peak hours. Renewable energy such as wind power has zero marginal cost and a large percentage of wind energy in a power grid can reduce the price significantly. The variability of wind power prevents it from being constantly available in peak hours. The price differentials between off-peak and on-peak hours due to wind power variations provide an opportunity for a storage device owner to buy energy at a low price and sell it in high price hours. In a large and complex power grid, there are many locations for installation of a storage device. Storage device owners prefer to install their device at locations that allow them to maximize profit. Market participants do not possess much information about the system operator's dispatch, power grid, competing generators and transmission system. The publicly available data from the system operator usually consists of Locational Marginal Prices (LMP), load, reserve prices and regulation prices. In this thesis, we develop a method to find the optimum location of a storage device without using the grid, transmission or generator data. We formulate and solve an optimization problem to find the most profitable location for a storage device using only the publicly available market pricing data such as LMPs, and reserve prices. We consider constraints arising due to storage device operation limitations in our objective function. We use binary optimization and branch and bound method to optimize the operation of a storage device at a given location to earn maximum profit. We use two different versions of our method and optimize the profitability of a storage unit at each location in a 36 bus model of north eastern United States and south eastern Canada for four representative days representing four seasons in a year. Finally, we compare our results from the two versions of our

  15. Organizational Security Threats Related to Portable Data Storage Devices: Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant growth of portable devices capable of storing both personal data as well as sensitive organizational data. This growth of these portable devices has led to an increased threat of cyber-criminal activity. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of security threats to the data assets of organizations…

  16. Forced intrusion of water and aqueous solutions in microporous materials: from fundamental thermodynamics to energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H

    2017-12-07

    We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles. Several microporous hydrophobic zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) also happen to be quite stable and resistant towards hydrolysis and thus seem very promising for energy storage applications. Replacing pure water by electrolyte aqueous solutions enables to increase the stored energy by a factor close to 3, on account of the high pressure shift of the intrusion transition. In addition to the fact that aqueous solutions and microporous silica materials are environmental friendly, these systems are thus becoming increasingly interesting for the design of new energy storage devices. This review also addresses the theoretical approaches and molecular simulations performed in order to better understand the experimental behavior of nano-confined water. Molecular simulation studies showed that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional and sufficiently open. In an extreme confinement situations such as in ferrierite zeosil, condensation seem to take place through a continuous supercritical crossing from a diluted to a dense fluid, on account of the fact that the first-order transition line is shifted to higher pressure, and the confined water critical point is correlatively shifted to lower temperature. These molecular simulation studies suggest that the most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium

  17. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Louthan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); PNNL, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  18. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  19. Study on an innovative fast reactor utilizing hydride neutron absorber - Final report of phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Itoh, K.; Hirai, M.; Sato, J.; Kurosaki, K.; Suzuki, A.; Matsumura, Y.; Abe, S.

    2010-01-01

    These days, the demand to use nuclear resources efficiently is growing for long-term energy supply and also for solving the green house problem. It is indispensable to develop technologies to reduce environmental load with the nuclear energy supply for sustainable development of human beings. In this regard, the development of the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is preferable to utilize nuclear resources effectively and also to burn minor actinides which possess very long toxicity for more than thousands years if they are not extinguished. As one of the FBR developing works in Japan this phase I study started in 2006 to introduce hafnium (Hf) hydride and Gadolinium-Zirconium (Gd-Zr) hydride as new control materials in FBR. By adopting them, the FBR core control technology is improved by two ways. One is extension of control rod life time by using long life Hf hydride which leads to reduce the fabrication and disposal cost and the other is reduction of the excess reactivity by adopting Gd-Zr hydride which leads to reduce the number of control rods and simplifies the core upper structure. This three year study was successfully completed and the following results were obtained. The core design was performed to examine the applicability of the Hf hydride absorber to Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) and it is clarified that the control rod life time can be prolonged to 6 years by adopting Hf hydride and the excess reactivity of the beginning of the core cycle can be reduced to half and the number of the control rods is also reduced to half by using the Gd-Zr hydride burnable poison. The safety analyses also certified that the core safety can be maintained with the same reliability of JSFR Hf hydride and Gd-Zr hydride pellets were fabricated in good manner and their basic features for design use were measured by using the latest devices such as SEM-EDX. In order to reduce the hydrogen transfer through the stainless steel cladding a new technique which shares calorizing

  20. Hydride Molecules towards Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Raquel R.; La, Ngoc; Goldsmith, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Observations carried out by the Herschel Space Observatory revealed strong spectroscopic signatures from light hydride molecules within the Milky Way and nearby active galaxies. To better understand the chemical and physical conditions of the interstellar medium, we conducted the first comprehensive survey of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and water molecular lines observed through the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer. By collecting and analyzing the sub-millimeter spectra of over two hundred sources, we found that the HF J = 1 - 0 rotational transition which occurs at approximately 1232 GHz was detected in a total of 39 nearby galaxies both in absorption and emission. The analysis will determine the main excitation mechanism of HF in nearby galaxies and provide steady templates of the chemistry and physical conditions of the ISM to be used in the early universe, where observations of hydrides are more scarce.

  1. Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination in Presence of Inverter-based Wind Farms and Electrical Energy Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Esmaeel Nezhad, Ali; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordination problem of overcurrent relays (OCRs) in presence of wind power generation and electrical energy storage (EES) systems. As the injected short-circuit current of inverter-based devices connected to the electrical grid is a function of the power electronic...... mainly matter for the EES system operating in either charging or discharging modes, as well. This paper evaluates different operation strategies considering the variations of the load demand and the presence of large-scale wind farms as well as an EES system, while validating the suggested method...

  2. Toward Wearable Energy Storage Devices: Paper-Based Biofuel Cells based on a Screen-Printing Array Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitanda, Isao; Momiyama, Misaki; Watanabe, Naoto; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tsujimura, Seiya; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    A novel paper-based biofuel cell with a series/parallel array structure has been fabricated, in which the cell voltage and output power can easily be adjusted as required by printing. The output of the fabricated 4-series/4-parallel biofuel cell reached 0.97±0.02 mW at 1.4 V, which is the highest output power reported to date for a paper-based biofuel cell. This work contributes to the development of flexible, wearable energy storage device.

  3. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-01-01

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01

    Finding a promising material and constructing a new method to have both high energy and power are key issues for future energy storage systems. This dissertation addresses three different materials systems to resolve those issues. Pseudocapacitive materials such as RuO2 and MnO2 display high capacitance but Nb2O5, displays a different charge storage mechanism, one highly dependent on its crystal phase rather than its surface area. Various sol-gel techniques were used to synthesize the differe...

  5. NMR study of hydride systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, M.

    1980-02-01

    The hydrides of thorium (ThH 2 , Th 4 H 15 and Th 4 D 15 ) and the intermetallic compound system (Zr(Vsub(1-x)Cosub(x)) 2 and its hydrides were investigated using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. From the results for the thorium hydride samples it was concluded that the density of states at the Fermi level n(Esub(f)) is higher in Th 4 H 15 than in ThH 2 ; there is an indirect reaction between the protons and the d electrons belonging to the Th atoms in Th 4 H 15 ; n(E) has a sharp structure near Esub(f). It was also found that the hydrogen diffusion mechanism changes with temperature. From the results for the intermetallic compound system conclusions were drawn concerning variations in the electronic structure, which explain the behavior of the system. In hydrogen diffusion studies in several samples it was found that Co atoms slow the diffusion rate. Quadrupole spectra obtained at low temperatures show that the H atoms preferably occupy tetrahedral sites formed by three V atoms and one Z atom. (H.K.)

  6. Characteristics of hydride precipitation and reorientation in spent-fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.; Strain, R. V.; Billone, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology, number density, orientation, distribution, and crystallographic aspects of Zr hydrides in Zircaloy fuel cladding play important roles in fuel performance during all phases before and after discharge from the reactor, i.e., during normal operation, transient and accident situations in the reactor, temporary storage in a dry cask, and permanent storage in a waste repository. In the past, partly because of experimental difficulties, hydriding behavior in irradiated fuel cladding has been investigated mostly by optical microscopy (OM). In the present study, fundamental metallurgical and crystallographic characteristics of hydride precipitation and reorientation were investigated on the microscopic level by combined techniques of OM and transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) of spent-fuel claddings discharged from several boiling and pressurized water reactors (BWRs and PWRs). Defueled sections of standard and Zr-lined Zircaloy-2 fuel claddings, irradiated to fluences of ∼3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 and ∼9.2 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV), respectively, were obtained from spent fuel rods discharged from two BWRs. Sections of standard and low-tin Zircaloy-4 claddings, irradiated to fluences of ∼4.4 x 10 21 n cm -2 , ∼5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 , and ∼9.6 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) in three PWRs, were also obtained. Microstructural characteristics of hydrides were analyzed in as-irradiated condition and after gas-pressurization-burst or expanding-mandrel tests at 292-325 C in Ar for some of the spent-fuel claddings. Analyses were also conducted of hydride habit plane, morphology, and reorientation characteristics on unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding that contained dense radial hydrides. Reoriented hydrides in the slowly cooled unirradiated cladding were produced by expanding-mandrel loading

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woung

    Finding a promising material and constructing a new method to have both high energy and power are key issues for future energy storage systems. This dissertation addresses three different materials systems to resolve those issues. Pseudocapacitive materials such as RuO2 and MnO2 display high capacitance but Nb2O5, displays a different charge storage mechanism, one highly dependent on its crystal phase rather than its surface area. Various sol-gel techniques were used to synthesize the different phases of Nb2O5 and electrochemical testing was used to study their charge storage with some phases displaying comparable charge storage to MnO2. To overcome the electrical limitations of using an insulating material, the core-shell structure (Nb2O 5/C) was also examined and the method could be generalized to improve other pseudocapacitors. Besides electronic conductivity, the diffusion of the electrolyte ions through the shell material is a critical factor for fast charging/discharging in the core-shell structure. This dissertation also involves another topic, a reconfigurable electrode, that displays both high energy and power density. By constructing a reconfigurable electrode which has different electrical properties (metallic or insulating state) depending on the amount of intercalated `guest' ions into `host' material, it can be used as a battery or electrochemical capacitor material in the insulating or metallic state respectively. Metal oxide bronzes having metal-insulator transition were investigated in this study.

  8. Storage and detection of a single flux quantum in Josephson junction devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueret, P.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown both by computer simulations and experimentally that a single Josephson junction has memory and can therefore be used for information storage. Means of reading-out the information content of such a memory element are demonstrated. Finally, memory operation, writing and reading, is described as a direct application of these concepts

  9. MEMS-Based Storage Devices : Integration in Energy-Constrained Mobile Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The digital era in which we are living today requires our increasing awareness of energy efficiency to reduce the negative effects on our lovely environment. We, people, are increasingly dealing with digital contents to facilitate our deals, which increases the demand for larger storage capacities

  10. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Leijonmarck, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning dev...

  12. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Aymard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  13. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Luc; Oumellal, Yassine; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH) with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g(-1) at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li(+)/Li(0)) and the lowest electrode polarization (lithium are subsequently detailed for MgH2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MH x and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MH x + xLi(+) + xe(-) in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths-involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content-were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should

  14. Investigations of intermetallic alloy hydriding mechanisms. Annual progress report, May 1 1979-April 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesay, B.R.; Larsen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Investigations are being conducted on mechanisms involved with the hydrogen-metal interactions which control the absorption and desorption processes in intermetallic compounds. The status of the following investigations is reported: modeling of hydride formation; microbalance investigations; microstructure investigations; flexure experiments; resistivity experiments; and nuclear backscattering measurements. These investigations concern fundamental hydrogen interaction mechanisms involved in storage alloys

  15. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL's MBM Framework for Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-07-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding. While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models. The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  16. Analytical method to evaluate fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Innovative analytically based method to calculate corrected fuel consumption of parallel and series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices is proposed and validated in the paper. The proposed analytical method is generally applicable and features highly accurate corrected fuel consumption results. It enables calculation of the corrected fuel consumption out of a single fuel consumption test run in a single analytic post-processing step. An additional fuel consumption test run might be needed to obtain highly accurate results if ratio of the energy content deviation of the electric storage devices to the energy used for vehicle propulsion over the test cycle is high. Proposed method enables consideration of non-linear energy flow changes and non-linear HEV component efficiency changes caused by the energy management strategy or by the component characteristics. The method therefore features highly accurate results out of the minimum number of fuel consumption test runs and thus optimizes workload for development or optimization of HEVs. The input data of the method are characteristic energy flows and efficiencies that are derived from the energy flows on selected energy paths of HEVs. (author)

  17. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Haoran; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A PET metallized by electroless nickel was developed as flexible current collector. • The Ni-PET current collector showed good conductivity and chemical stability. • The flexible nanocarbon electrodes with Ni-PET exhibited capacitive behavior. • The Ni-PET enabled electrodes performed nicely in liquid and solid supercapacitors. - Abstract: A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  18. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haoran, E-mail: haoran.wu@mail.utoronto.ca; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • A PET metallized by electroless nickel was developed as flexible current collector. • The Ni-PET current collector showed good conductivity and chemical stability. • The flexible nanocarbon electrodes with Ni-PET exhibited capacitive behavior. • The Ni-PET enabled electrodes performed nicely in liquid and solid supercapacitors. - Abstract: A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of Co-Co(OH)2 composite anode material on Cu current collector for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Abdulcabbar; Yakup Hacıibrahimoğlu, M.; Bedir, Metin

    2017-04-01

    A Co-Co(OH)2 modified electrode on inexpensive Cu substrate was synthesized at room temperature and demonstrated to be a promising anode material for energy storage devices. A modified Co film was obtained potentiostatically and was then potentiodynamically treated with KOH solution to form Co(OH)2. Co-Co(OH)2 coatings were obtained and were dominated by Co(OH)2 at the oxidized side, whereas Co dominant Co-Co(OH)2 occurred at the reduced side (-1.1 V). As OH- ions were able to diffuse into (out of) the film during oxidation (reduction) and did not react with the Cu current collector, the Co-Co(OH)2 electrode can be used as an anode material in energy storage devices. Although the specific capacitance of the electrodes varied depending on thickness, the redox reaction between the modified electrode and KOH electrolyte remained the same consisting of a surface-controlled and diffusion-controlled mechanism which had a desirable fast charge and discharge property. Capacity values remained constant after 250 cycles as the film evolved. Overall capacity retention was 84% for the film after 450 scans. A specific capacitance of 549 F g-1 was obtained for the Co-Co(OH)2 composite electrode in 6 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 73% of capacitance was retained when the scan rate was increased to 100 mV s-1.

  20. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride-BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (~14 000 NForce/kgMH) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems.

  2. Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-07-28

    Carbon nanocoil (CNC) based electrodes are shown to be promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage applications, provided the CNCs are properly functionalized. In the present study, nanocrystalline metal oxide (RuO 2, MnO2, and SnO2) dispersed CNCs were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using different electrochemical methods. In the two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with values reaching up to 311, 212, and 134 F/g for RuO2/CNCs, MnO2/CNCs, and SnO2/CNCs, respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be superior to those reported for metal oxide dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two electrode configuration. In addition, the fabricated supercapacitors retained excellent cycle life with ∼88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Process and device for controling lateral wall of fuel assembly storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inspection procedure involves moving a detection system along the length of the wall of a cell in the fuel storage rack immersed in water. The detection system has at least one probe for determining the wall thickness. The probe signal is received above the pond and compared against a reference signal. This process allows to verify the presence of neutron absorbing material in the side walls of the cell [fr

  4. The role of nanomaterials in redox-based supercapacitors for next generation energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Sánchez, Beatriz Mendoza; Dobson, Peter J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2011-03-01

    The development of more efficient electrical storage is a pressing requirement to meet future societal and environmental needs. This demand for more sustainable, efficient energy storage has provoked a renewed scientific and commercial interest in advanced capacitor designs in which the suite of experimental techniques and ideas that comprise nanotechnology are playing a critical role. Capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly and are one of the primary building blocks of many types of electrical circuit, from microprocessors to large-sale power supplies, but usually have relatively low energy storage capability when compared with batteries. The application of nanostructured materials with bespoke morphologies and properties to electrochemical supercapacitors is being intensively studied in order to provide enhanced energy density without comprising their inherent high power density and excellent cyclability. In particular, electrode materials that exploit physical adsorption or redox reactions of electrolyte ions are foreseen to bridge the performance disparity between batteries with high energy density and capacitors with high power density. In this review, we present some of the novel nanomaterial systems applied for electrochemical supercapacitors and show how material morphology, chemistry and physical properties are being tailored to provide enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor performance.

  5. A design handbook for phase change thermal control and energy storage devices. [selected paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Griggs, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Comprehensive survey is given of the thermal aspects of phase change material devices. Fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer within the phase change device are discussed. Performance in zero-g and one-g fields are examined as it relates to such a device. Computer models for phase change materials, with metal fillers, undergoing conductive and convective processes are detailed. Using these models, extensive parametric data are presented for a hypothetical configuration with a rectangular phase change housing, using straight fins as the filler, and paraffin as the phase change material. These data are generated over a range of realistic sizes, material properties, and thermal boundary conditions. A number of illustrative examples are given to demonstrate use of the parametric data. Also, a complete listing of phase change material property data are reproduced herein as an aid to the reader.

  6. Device having expandable mandrel for making nuclear fuel element storage tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, F.; Weis, O.

    1984-01-01

    A device for manufacturing containers for storing nuclear materials. The purpose of the device is to maintain angular sheet metals in the precise position required during the welding operation which is performed along the outer edges of their flange portions. The device includes a core, a thrust bearing and a counter-pressure bearing. The core is sub-divided into two separate core portions. Spring means tend to draw the core portions toward each other. Fluid operated cylinder-piston units tend to separate the core portions against the action of said spring means. Adjustment screw means provided with abutment means and screwed into one of said core portions project into the other of said core portions with the abutment means thereof. The second core portion has abutment means cooperating with the abutment means on said adjustment screw means

  7. Microwave oven fabricated hybrid memristor devices for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrelli, E; Gray, R J; O’Neill, M; Kemp, N T; Kelly, S M

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid non-volatile memories made using an ultra-fast microwave heating method are reported for the first time. The devices, consisting of aligned ZnO nanorods embedded in poly (methyl methacrylate), require no forming step and exhibit reliable and reproducible bipolar resistive switching at low voltages and with low power usage. We attribute these properties to a combination of the high aspect ratio of the nanorods and the polymeric hybrid structure of the device. The extremely easy, fast and low-cost solution based method of fabrication makes possible the simple and quick production of cheap memory cells. (paper)

  8. Thermochemical heat storage for high temperature applications. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felderhoff, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Urbanczyk, Robert; Peil, Stefan [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Heat storage for high temperature applications can be performed by several heat storage techniques. Very promising heat storage methods are based on thermochemical gas solid reactions. Most known systems are metal oxide/steam (metal hydroxides), carbon dioxide (metal carbonates), and metal/hydrogen (metal hydrides) systems. These heat storage materials posses high gravimetric and volumetric heat storage densities and because of separation of the reaction products and their storage in different locations heat losses can be avoided. The reported volumetric heat storage densities are 615, 1340 and 1513 [ kWh m{sup -3}] for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH){sub 2}, calcium carbonate CaCO{sub 3} and magnesium iron hydride Mg{sub 2}FeH{sub 6} respectively. Additional demands for gas storage decrease the heat storage density, but metal hydride systems can use available hydrogen storage possibilities for example caverns, pipelines and chemical plants. (orig.)

  9. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on transportation of hydrogen in the form of metallic hydride; 1974-1980 nendo kinzoku suisokabutsu ni yoru suiso no yuso gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report concerns the transportation and storage of hydrogen using metallic hydrides that perform absorption and desorption of hydrogen. Alloys useable for this purpose have to be capable of reversibly absorbing and desorbing hydrogen within a certain temperature range. In the absence of guidelines to follow in the quest for such alloys, the efforts at discovering them turned out to be a continual series of trials and errors. Researches were conducted into the hydrogenation reaction of Mg and Mg-based alloys and into hydrides of V-based alloys, and into Zr-based alloy hydrides such as the ZrMn{sub 2} hydride, ZrNiMn hydride, Zr(Fe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}){sub 2} hydrides, TiZrFe{sub 2} hydride, Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}(Fe{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}) hydrides, etc. Also studied were the electronics of hydrogen in metallic hydrides, rates of reaction between Mg-Ni-based alloys and hydrogen systems, endurance tests for hydrides of Mg-Ni-based alloys, effects exerted by absorbed gas molecules during the storage of hydrogen in Mg-Ni-based alloys, effective thermal conductivity in a layer filled with a metallic hydride, metallic hydride-aided hydrogen transportation systems, chemical boosters, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  11. Manufacture of titanium and zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, F.; Hanslik, T.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described of manufacturing titanium and zirconium hydrides by hydrogenation of said metals characterized by the reaction temperature ranging between 250 to 500 degC, hydrogen pressure of 20 to 300 atm and possibly by the presence of a hydride of the respective metal. (V.V.)

  12. Hydride effect on crack instability of Zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Che-Chung, E-mail: cctseng@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Lungtan, Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ming-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Lungtan, Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Chao, Ching-Kong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Radial hydrides near the crack tip had a significant effect on crack propagation. • For radial hydrides off the crack line vertically, the effect on crack propagation was notably reduced. • The longer hydride platelet resulted in a remarkable effect on crack propagation. • A long split in the radial hydride precipitate would enhance crack propagation. • The presence of circumferential hydride among radial hydrides may play an important role in crack propagation. - Abstract: A methodology was proposed to investigate the effect of hydride on the crack propagation in fuel cladding. The analysis was modeled based on an outside-in crack with radial hydrides located near its crack tip. The finite element method was used in the calculation; both stress intensity factor K{sub I} and J integral were applied to evaluate the crack stability. The parameters employed in the analysis included the location of radial hydride, hydride dimensions, number of hydrides, and the presence of circumferential hydride, etc. According to our study, the effective distance between a radial hydride and the assumed cladding surface crack for the enhancement of crack propagation proved to be no greater than 0.06 mm. For a hydride not on the crack line, it would induce a relatively minor effect on crack propagation if the vertical distance was beyond 0.05 mm. However, a longer hydride precipitate as well as double radial hydrides could have a remarkable effect on crack propagation. A combined effect of radial and circumferential hydrides was also discussed.

  13. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  14. Surface Modification of MXenes: A Pathway to Improve MXene Electrode Performance in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-12-31

    The recent discovery of layered transition metal carbides (MXenes) is one of the most important developments in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Preliminary theoretical and experimental studies suggest a wide range of potential applications for MXenes. The MXenes are prepared by chemically etching ‘A’-layer element from layered ternary metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MAX phases) through aqueous acid treatment, which results in various surface terminations such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine. It has been found that surface terminations play a critical role in defining MXene properties and affects MXene performance in different applications such as electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, sensors and catalysis. Also, the electronic, thermoelectric, structural, plasmonic and optical properties of MXenes largely depend upon surface terminations. Thus, controlling the surface chemistry if MXenes can be an efficient way to improve their properties. This research mainly aims to perform surface modifications of two commonly studied MXenes; Ti2C and Ti3C2, via chemical, thermal or physical processes to enhance electrochemical energy storage properties. The as-prepared and surface modified MXenes have been studied as electrode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs). In pursuit of desirable MXene surface, we have developed an in-situ room temperature oxidation process, which resulted in TiO2/MXene nanocomposite and enhanced Li-ion storage. The idea of making metal oxide and MXene nanocomposites was taken to the next level by combining a high capacity anode materials – SnO2 – and MXene. By taking advantage of already existing surface functional groups (–OH), we have developed a composite of SnO2/MXene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) which showed enhanced capacity and excellent cyclic stability. Thermal annealing of MXene at elevated temperature under different atmospheres was

  15. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  16. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  17. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  18. Design and finite element simulation of vacuum systems for insertion devices in Indus-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Bais, Vijay; Sridhar, R.; Dhimole, Vivek K.; Nitesh, Suthar; Rawal, B.R.; Chogaonkar, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV, 300 mA, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) located at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. As part of insertion device (ID) development programme two new devices namely, APPLE-2 (Advanced Planar Polarized Light Emitter) type Undulator (also known as U-3 Undulator) and 5 Tesla superconducting wavelength shifter (SWLS) are being developed. APPLE-2 will generate variably polarized synchrotron radiation (SR) required for carrying out magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and magnetic linear dichroism (MLD) experiments and SWLS will generate synchrotron radiation (SR) with critical photon energy of about 20.8 keV for Energy Dispersive XRD beam line. This paper describes design details and finite element analysis results of various simulations carried out for the vacuum systems of these IDs

  19. Method and device allowing a more rational exploitation of electrical power-stations. [energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarello, J

    1974-04-12

    Description is given of a device permitting a more rational exploitation of electrical power stations characterized by the fact that, while electric power available during slack hours is used for pressurizing air (the pressurized air being stored in tanks), the electric power available during slack days is used for generating hydrogen from water, the hydrogen being stored in other tanks. Combustion of the stored hydrogen by the stored air is used for generating electric power during electric power consumption peak-periods.

  20. Accommodation stresses in hydride precipitates by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J R; Vicente, M A; Vizcaino, P; Banchik, A D; Almer, J

    2012-01-01

    Hydride-forming materials (Zr, Ti, Nb, etc) are affected by a sub-critical crack growth mechanism that involves the diffusion of H to the stressed region ahead of a crack, followed by nucleation and fracture of hydrides at the crack tip [1]. The phenomenon is intermittent, with the crack propagating through the hydride and stopping when it reaches the matrix. By repeating these processes, the crack propagates through a component at a rate that is highly dependent on the temperature history of the component. Most research effort to understand this phenomenon has occurred within the nuclear industry, as it affects the safe operation of pressure tubes (Zr2.5%Nb) and the long-term storage of nuclear fuel (Zircaloy cladding). Stress-induced hydride formation is a consequence of the volume dilatation that accompanies hydride formation (of the order of 15%), which is elastoplastically accommodated by the matrix and precipitate. Compressive stresses are expected within hydride precipitates due to the constraint imposed by the matrix. Such 'accommodation' stresses are essential ingredients in all theoretical models developed to assess the crack growth rate dependence on operational variables such as temperature, applied stress intensity factor, or overall H concentration [2]. Yet little experimental information is available about the magnitude and directionality of such accommodation stresses. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is the only technique capable of quantifying such stresses. Here we briefly describe the fundaments of the technique, when used through an area detector placed in transmission geometry. The results of the experiments have allowed us to produce a comprehensive picture about the magnitude and origin of accommodation stresses in δ zirconium hydride platelets (author)

  1. Hydrogen adsorption on palladium and palladium hydride at 1 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Skulason, Egill; Nielsen, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    strongly to Pd hydride than to Pd. The activation barrier for desorption at a H coverage of one mono layer is slightly lower on Pd hydride, whereas the activation energy for adsorption is similar on Pd and Pd hydride. It is concluded that the higher sticking probability on Pd hydride is most likely caused...

  2. Cyclopentadiene-mediated hydride transfer from rhodium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, C L; Finster, O N L; Miller, A J M

    2016-07-12

    Attempts to generate a proposed rhodium hydride catalytic intermediate instead resulted in isolation of (Cp*H)Rh(bpy)Cl (1), a pentamethylcyclopentadiene complex, formed by C-H bond-forming reductive elimination from the fleeting rhodium hydride. The hydride transfer ability of diene 1 was explored through thermochemistry and hydride transfer reactions, including the reduction of NAD(+).

  3. Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as template for water storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sanjib; Taraphder, Srabani, E-mail: srabani@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-11-10

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, endohedrally functionalized with a protonated/unprotonated carboxylic acid group, are examined as potential templates for water storage using classical molecular dynamics simulation studies. Following a spontaneous entry of water molecules into the core of model functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs), a large fraction of water molecules are found to be trapped inside FCNTs of lengths 50 and 100 Å. Only water molecules near the two open ends of the nanotube are exchanged with the bulk solvent. The residence times of water molecules inside FCNTs are investigated by varying the length of the tube, the length of suspended functional group and the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group. Favorable energetic interactions between the functional group and water, assisted by a substantial gain in rotational entropy, are found to compensate for the entropy loss resulting from restricted translational diffusion of trapped water molecules.

  4. Structural and electrochemical properties of single crystalline MoV 2O8 nanowires for energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    We report the synthesis of MoV2O8 nanowires of high quality using spin coating followed by the thermal annealing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the average diameter of synthesized nanowire about 100 nm, and average length ranges from 1 to 5 μm. The TEM analysis further confirms the <001> growth direction of MoV 2O8 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of synthesized nanowires using cyclic voltammetry show the specific capacitance 56 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 that remains 24 Fg -1 at 100 mV s-1. The electrochemical measurements suggest that the MoV2O8 nanowires can be used as a material for the future electrochemical capacitors (energy storage devices). © 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  6. Structural and electrochemical properties of single crystalline MoV 2O8 nanowires for energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Liu, Jingling; Ali, Zahid; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of MoV2O8 nanowires of high quality using spin coating followed by the thermal annealing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the average diameter of synthesized nanowire about 100 nm, and average length ranges from 1 to 5 μm. The TEM analysis further confirms the <001> growth direction of MoV 2O8 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of synthesized nanowires using cyclic voltammetry show the specific capacitance 56 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 that remains 24 Fg -1 at 100 mV s-1. The electrochemical measurements suggest that the MoV2O8 nanowires can be used as a material for the future electrochemical capacitors (energy storage devices). © 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of hydriding alloys with multi-functionally-graded properties and their applications to energy conversion devices; Keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, S; Kadoma, H; Nagamoto, H; Okura, T [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the formation of fluoride layer on the surface of hydriding alloys. The fluoride formation reaction consists of a reduction removal process of surface oxide and a fluorination process. Specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by the hydrogenation reaction in the surface layer accompanied with the removal of surface oxide, which results in easier permeation of molecular hydrogen into fluoride layer. During the fluorination process, a large amount of Ni in the alloy components is eluted, which results in the reduction of Ni distribution immediately under the fluoride layer in the alloy. Consequently, collector sites near the surface are reduced, and conductivity among alloy grains is degraded. To enhance the hydrogen collector sites, specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by controlling the pH value of fluorination treatment solution in a given range. Moreover, performance of fluoride layer can be advanced by electrochemically dispersing metal Ni in the fluoride layer using Ni complex ion mixed in the treatment solution. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Paper-based energy-storage devices comprising carbon fiber-reinforced polypyrrole-cladophora nanocellulose composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaq, Aamir; Sjoedin, Martin; Stroemme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Nyholm, Leif [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and Cladophora nanocellulose, reinforced with 8 {mu}m-thick chopped carbon filaments, can be used as electrode materials to obtain paper-based energy-storage devices with unprecedented performance at high charge and discharge rates. Charge capacities of more than 200 C g{sup -1} (PPy) are obtained for paper-based electrodes at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s{sup -1}, whereas cell capacitances of {proportional_to}60-70 F g{sup -1} (PPy) are reached for symmetric supercapacitor cells with capacitances up to 3.0 F (i.e.,0.48 F cm{sup -2}) when charged to 0.6 V using current densities as high as 31 A g{sup -1} based on the PPy weight (i.e., 99 mA cm{sup -2}). Energy and power densities of 1.75 Wh kg{sup -1} and 2.7 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively, are obtained when normalized with respect to twice the PPy weight of the smaller electrode. No loss in cell capacitance is seen during charging/discharging at 7.7 A g{sup -1} (PPy) over 1500 cycles. It is proposed that the nonelectroactive carbon filaments decrease the contact resistances and the resistance of the reduced PPy composite. The present straightforward approach represents significant progress in the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly paper-based energy-storage devices for high-power applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two non-linear coupled partial differential equations for the temperature of the storage medium and heat transfer fluid, respectively. Preliminary results show that smaller TES units provide a higher heat flux to the heat pump vaporiser. This makes the small TES unit discharge more rapidly during time periods with higher thermal loads. The larger TES units provide heat during longer time periods, even if the heat flux they supply is generally smaller. The maximum heat flux is extracted from the TES unit during the morning. Both the heat pump COP and exergy efficiency decrease when the TES unit length increases. Also, the monthly thermal energy stored by the TES unit and the monthly energy necessary to drive the heat pump compressor are increased by increasing the TES unit length

  10. Multislice simulations for in-situ HRTEM studies of nanostructured magnesium hydride at ambient hydrogen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, Alexander, E-mail: a.surrey@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Rellinghaus, Bernd, E-mail: b.rellinghaus@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Multislice HRTEM contrast simulations of a windowed environmental cell. • Study of Mg and MgH2 nanocrystals as model system in hydrogen at ambient pressure. • Investigation of spatial resolution and contrast depending on specimen thickness, defocus, and hydrogen pressure. • Atomic resolution is expected for specimens as thin as 5  nm. - Abstract: The use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the structural characterization of many nanostructured hydrides, which are relevant for solid state hydrogen storage, is hindered due to a rapid decomposition of the specimen upon irradiation with the electron beam. Environmental TEM allows to stabilize the hydrides by applying a hydrogen back pressure of up to 4.5 bar in a windowed environmental cell. The feasibility of high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations of light weight metals and metal hydrides in such a “nanoreactor” is studied theoretically by means of multislice HRTEM contrast simulations using Mg and its hydride phase, MgH{sub 2}, as model system. Such a setup provides the general opportunity to study dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions at the nanoscale under technological application conditions. We analyze the dependence of both the spatial resolution and the HRTEM image contrast on parameters such as the defocus, the metal/hydride thickness, and the hydrogen pressure in order to explore the possibilities and limitations of in-situ experiments with windowed environmental cells. Such simulations may be highly valuable to pre-evaluate future experimental studies.

  11. Multislice simulations for in-situ HRTEM studies of nanostructured magnesium hydride at ambient hydrogen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, Alexander; Schultz, Ludwig; Rellinghaus, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multislice HRTEM contrast simulations of a windowed environmental cell. • Study of Mg and MgH2 nanocrystals as model system in hydrogen at ambient pressure. • Investigation of spatial resolution and contrast depending on specimen thickness, defocus, and hydrogen pressure. • Atomic resolution is expected for specimens as thin as 5  nm. - Abstract: The use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the structural characterization of many nanostructured hydrides, which are relevant for solid state hydrogen storage, is hindered due to a rapid decomposition of the specimen upon irradiation with the electron beam. Environmental TEM allows to stabilize the hydrides by applying a hydrogen back pressure of up to 4.5 bar in a windowed environmental cell. The feasibility of high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations of light weight metals and metal hydrides in such a “nanoreactor” is studied theoretically by means of multislice HRTEM contrast simulations using Mg and its hydride phase, MgH_2, as model system. Such a setup provides the general opportunity to study dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions at the nanoscale under technological application conditions. We analyze the dependence of both the spatial resolution and the HRTEM image contrast on parameters such as the defocus, the metal/hydride thickness, and the hydrogen pressure in order to explore the possibilities and limitations of in-situ experiments with windowed environmental cells. Such simulations may be highly valuable to pre-evaluate future experimental studies.

  12. Method and device for incinerating radioactive wastes and preparing burnable wastes for non-polluting storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating radioactive wastes includes a furnace which has air inlet conduits and a flue gas outlet conduit and air heaters as well as blowers connected to the air inlets for forcing hot air into the furnace. The apparatus further has a feeding device connected to the charging end of the furnace for introducing liquid or solid wastes thereinto and a device which communicates with the discharge end of the furnace for removing solid reaction products from the furnace. In the flue gas conduit there is connected a plurality of flue gas filters each containing filter candles, a flue gas chamber and a mechanism for removing ashes from the flue gas chamber. The apparatus also includes a mixer section connected with the outlet of each flue gas filter and having a mechanism for mixing cool air with the flue gas filtered by the flue gas filters. Gas blowers connected to the output of the mixer section draw the gas from the apparatus. 18 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  13. Identification and characterization of a new Zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In order to control the integrity of the fuel clad, alloy of zirconium, it is necessary to predict the behavior of zirconium hydrides in the environment (temperature, stress...), at a microscopic scale. A characterization study by TEM of hydrides has been realized. It shows little hydrides about 500 nm, in hydride Zircaloy 4. Then a more detailed study identified a new hydride phase presented in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  14. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  15. A procedure for preparing alkali metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.U.; Sanford, C.E.; Prescott, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A plain low cost, procedure for the continuous, low temperature preparation of sodium or potassium hydrides using cheap reagents is presented. Said invention is especially concerned with a process of purifying of a catalytic exchange liquid used for deuterium enrichment, in which an alkali metal hydride is produced as intermediate product. The procedure for producing the sodium and potassium hydrides consists in causing high pressure hydrogen to be absorbed by a mixture of at least a lower monoalkylamine and an alkylamide of an alkali metal from at least one of said amines [fr

  16. Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.

  17. Zirconium-hydride solid zero power reactor and its application research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shenghuo; Luo Zhanglin; Su Zhuting

    1994-10-01

    The Zirconium Hydride Solid Zero Power Reactor built at China Institute of Atomic Energy is introduced. In the reactor Zirconium-hydride is used as moderator, plexiglass as reflector and U 3 O 8 with enrichment of 20% as the fuel, Since its initial criticality, the physical characteristics and safety features have been measured with the result showing that the reactor has sound stability and high sensitivity, etc. It has been successfully used for the personnel training and for the testing of reactor control instruments and experiment devices. It also presents the special advantage for the pre-research of some applications

  18. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  19. Measures of stress corrosion cracking in the canister storage facility of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.3. Development of salt particle collection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel. At the storage facilities of concrete casks built near the seashore, the air including the sea salt particles comes into the concrete casks and could cause SCC to the canister made of stainless steel. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with a low flow resistance which does not block the air flow into the building. The effect of the device was evaluated quantitatively in laboratory experiments and in field tests. Obtained results are as follows: (1) The pressure loss of the device is smaller than one-sevenths of pressure loss of a filter used in a forced ventilation system and the efficiency of salt particle collection is more than 80% in both laboratory experiments and field tests. However, the efficiency of salt particle collection depends on the diameter of a salt particle. (2) It was clarified the diameter of the particle which can be collected by the device under the condition of the size of the device, the density and velocity of the particle. And the pressure loss of the device was evaluated. In the case of setting the device in the air inlet of a concrete cask, salt particles lager than 27μm in diameter can be collected by the device under the condition of the same pressure loss of a bard screen which opening ratio is 80%. (author)

  20. Tritium removal using vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, F.B.; Wong, Y.W.; Chan, Y.N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an initial examination of the feasibility of separation of tritium from gaseous protium-tritium mixtures using vanadium hydride in cyclic processes is reported. Interest was drawn to the vanadium-hydrogen system because of the so-called inverse isotope effect exhibited by this system. Thus the tritide is more stable than the protide, a fact which makes the system attractive for removal of tritium from a mixture in which the light isotope predominates. The initial results of three phases of the research program are reported, dealing with studies of the equilibrium and kinetics properties of isotope exchange, development of an equilibrium theory of isotope separation via heatless adsorption, and experiments on the performance of a single heatless adsorption stage. In the equilibrium and kinetics studies, measurements were made of pressure-composition isotherms, the HT--H 2 separation factors and rates of HT--H 2 exchange. This information was used to evaluate constants in the theory and to understand the performance of the heatless adsorption experiments. A recently developed equilibrium theory of heatless adsorption was applied to the HT--H 2 separation using vanadium hydride. Using the theory it was predicted that no separation would occur by pressure cycling wholly within the β phase but that separation would occur by cycling between the β and γ phases and using high purge-to-feed ratios. Heatless adsorption experiments conducted within the β phase led to inverse separations rather than no separation. A kinetic isotope effect may be responsible. Cycling between the β and γ phases led to separation but not to the predicted complete removal of HT from the product stream, possibly because of finite rates of exchange. Further experimental and theoretical work is suggested which may ultimately make possible assessment of the feasibility and practicability of hydrogen isotope separation by this approach

  1. Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Yumeng; Zhao, Cheng Xi; Wong, Jen It; Yang, Hui Ying; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) was proposed and developed by utilizing screen printing technology. A typical printed MSC is composed of a printed Ag electrode, MnO 2 /onion-like carbon (MnO 2 /OLC) as active material and a polyvinyl alcohol:H 3 PO 4 (PVA:H 3 PO 4 ) as solid electrolyte. A capacity of 7.04 mF cm −2 was achieved for the screen printed MnO 2 /OLC MSCs at a current density of 20 μA cm −2 . It also showed an excellent cycling stability, with 80% retention of the specific capacity after 1000 cycles. The printed all-solid flexible MSCs exhibited remarkably high mechanical flexibility when the devices were bent to a radius of 3.5 mm. In addition, all-solid MSCs were successfully demonstrated by screen printing technique on various substrates, such as silicon, glass and conventional printing paper. Moreover, the screen printing technique can be extended to other active materials, such as OLC and carbon nanotubes. This method provides a general route for printable all-solid flexible MSCs, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll process for various high performance active materials. (paper)

  2. Simultaneous determination of arsenic and antimony by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with dielectric barrier discharge atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Zhi [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of the Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kuermaiti, Biekesailike [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of the Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Products Quality Inspection Institute, Yili, Xinjiang 835000 (China); Wang Juan; Han Guojun; Zhang Sichun [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of the Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xinrong, E-mail: xrzhang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences of the Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Simultaneous determination of As and Sb by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed with the dielectric barrier discharge plasma as the hydride atomizer. The low-temperature and atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma was generated in a quartz cylindrical configuration device, which was constructed by an axial internal electrode and an outer electrode surrounding outside of the tube. The optimization of the atomizer construction and parameters for hydride generation and fluorescence detection systems were carried out. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits for As and Sb were 0.04 and 0.05 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the applicability of the present method was confirmed by the detection of As and Sb in reference materials of quartz sandstone (GBW07106) and argillaceous limestone (GBW07108). The present work provided a new approach to exploit the miniaturized hydride generation dielectric barrier discharge atomic fluorescence spectrometry system for simultaneous multi-element determination.

  3. Simultaneous determination of arsenic and antimony by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with dielectric barrier discharge atomizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhi; Kuermaiti, Biekesailike; Wang Juan; Han Guojun; Zhang Sichun; Zhang Xinrong

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of As and Sb by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed with the dielectric barrier discharge plasma as the hydride atomizer. The low-temperature and atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma was generated in a quartz cylindrical configuration device, which was constructed by an axial internal electrode and an outer electrode surrounding outside of the tube. The optimization of the atomizer construction and parameters for hydride generation and fluorescence detection systems were carried out. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits for As and Sb were 0.04 and 0.05 μg L -1 , respectively. In addition, the applicability of the present method was confirmed by the detection of As and Sb in reference materials of quartz sandstone (GBW07106) and argillaceous limestone (GBW07108). The present work provided a new approach to exploit the miniaturized hydride generation dielectric barrier discharge atomic fluorescence spectrometry system for simultaneous multi-element determination.

  4. ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPED) - Monthly Report - November 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-17

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in high - capacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high -capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrat ed operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge

  5. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  6. Method of making alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pruski, Marek; Hlova, Ihor; Castle, Andra

    2017-05-30

    A method is provided for making alkali metal hydrides by mechanochemically reacting alkali metal and hydrogen gas under mild temperature (e.g room temperature) and hydrogen pressure conditions without the need for catalyst, solvent, and intentional heating or cooling.

  7. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    validation, implementation, and cost reduction. 2. Identification of the next viable technology with emphasis on the potential to meet USABC cost and operating temperature range goals. 3. Support high-risk, high-reward battery technology R&D. Specific to the Cooperative Agreement DE- FC26-05NT42403, addressing High-Energy and High Power Energy Storage Technologies, the USABC focus was on understanding and addressing the following factors (listed in priority of effort): • Cost: Reducing the current cost of lithium- ion batteries (currently about 2-3 times the FreedomCAR target ($20/kW). • Low Temperature Performance: Improving the discharge power and removing lithium plating during regenerative braking. • Calendar Life: Achieving 15-year life and getting accurate life prediction. • Abuse Tolerance: Developing a system level tolerance to overcharge, crush, and high temperature exposure. This Final Technical Report compilation is submitted in fulfillment of the subject Cooperative Agreement, and is intended to serve as a ready-reference for the outcomes of following eight categories of projects conducted by the USABC under award from the DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ) Vehicle Technologies Program: USABC DoE Final Report – DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-95EE50425 8 Protected Information 1. Electric Vehicle (EV) (Section A of this report) 2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Section B 3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (Section C) 4. Low-Energy Energy Storage Systems (LEESS) (Section D) 5. Technology Assessment Program (TAP) (Section E) 6. Ultracapacitors (Section F) 7. 12 Volt Start-Stop (Section G) 8. Separators (Section H) The report summarizes the main areas of activity undertaken in collaboration with the supplier community and the National Laboratories. Copies of the individual supplier final reports are available upon request. Using project gap analysis versus defined USABC goals in each area, the report documents known technology limits

  8. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride–BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (∼14 000 N Force /kg MH ) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems

  9. Investigation of a 10 kWh sorption heat storage device for effective utilization of low-grade thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, T.X.; Nomura, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Heating and domestic hot water for family houses represents a notable share of energy consumption. However, sufficient space for the installation of thermal energy storage (TES) components may not be available in family houses or urban areas, where space may be restricted and expensive. Sorption TES devices seem to be a promising means of replacing conventional TES devices and reducing the occupied space for its high energy density. In this paper, a 10 kWh short-term sorption TES device was developed and investigated. The employed composite sorbent was formed from lithium chloride (LiCl) with the addition of expanded graphite (EG). The principle of sorption TES for the LiCl/water working pair is first illustrated. This prototype was tested under conditions representative of transition or winter seasons. Under the conditions used (charging temperature T_c_h_a at 85 °C, discharging temperature T_d_i_s at 40 °C, condensing temperature T_c at 18 °C, and evaporating temperature T_e at 30 °C), the heat storage capacity can reach 10.25 kWh, of which sorption heat accounts for approximately 60%. The heat storage density obtained was 873 Wh per kg of composite sorbent or 65.29 kWh/m"3, while the heat storage density of hot water tank was about 33.02 kWh/m"3. - Highlights: • A 10 kWh short-term sorption thermal energy device was developed. • The device was tested under conditions of transition and winter seasons. • The performance of the device was improved by recovering waste heat. • The sorption thermal energy device was compared with a 300-L hot water tank.

  10. Simultaneous purification and storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Weber, R.; Carlson, E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Specially coated magnesium particles have been shown to selectively absorb hydrogen from a hydrogen-rich gas stream such as reformate. These coated magnesium particles can store the absorbed hydrogen as required and subsequently deliver pure hydrogen, just as uncoated magnesium particles can. These coated magnesium particles could be used in a device that accepts a steady stream of reformate, as from a methane reformer, stores the selectively absorbed hydrogen indefinitely, and delivers purified hydrogen on demand. Unfortunately, this coating (magnesium nitride) has been shown to degrade over a period of several weeks, so that the magnesium within evidences progressively lower storage capacity. The authors are investigating two other coatings, one of which might be applicable to hydridable metals other than magnesium, to replace magnesium nitride.

  11. Optimal micro-mirror tilt angle and sync mark design for digital micro-mirror device based collinear holographic data storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lin, Xiao; Liu, Jinyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    The collinear holographic data storage system (CHDSS) is a very promising storage system due to its large storage capacities and high transfer rates in the era of big data. The digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator is the key device of the CHDSS due to its high speed, high precision, and broadband working range. To improve the system stability and performance, an optimal micro-mirror tilt angle was theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed by analyzing the relationship between the tilt angle of the micro-mirror on the DMD and the power profiles of diffraction patterns of the DMD at the Fourier plane. In addition, we proposed a novel chess board sync mark design in the data page to reduce the system bit error rate in circumstances of reduced aperture required to decrease noise and median exposure amount. It will provide practical guidance for future DMD based CHDSS development.

  12. Influence of hydrides orientation on strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, A.

    2005-09-01

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300 C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embrittlement depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress. This investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress on strain, damage and failure mechanisms. Macroscopic and SEM in-situ ring tensile tests are performed on cladding tube material (unirradiated cold worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4) hydrided with about 200 and 500 wppm hydrogen, and with different main hydrides orientation: either parallel or perpendicular to the circumferential tensile direction. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. Neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the global and local strain modes are significantly affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are strongly modified. Indeed, only 200 wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fail in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases sample reach at least 750 MPa before necking and final failure, in ductile or brittle mode. To model this particular heterogeneous material behavior, a non-coupled damage approach which takes into account the anisotropic distribution of the hydrides is proposed. Its parameters are identified from the macroscopic strain field measurements and a

  13. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  14. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shirui

    hybrids provides an attractive pathway for the fabrication of novel 3-Dimensional hybrid nanostructures. The second type hybrid is graphene oxide (GO) and SWCNT composite ink (GO-SWCNT ink). SWCNTs are dispersed using a GO aqueous solution (2mg/ml) with sonication support to achieve a SWCNT concentration of 12mg/ml, the highest reported value so far without surfactant assistance. Paper based electrodes for supercapacitors are fabricated using GO-SWCNT composite ink via dip casting method. By employing different concentrations of SWCNT inside the ink, supercapacitors demonstrated different capacitance values. The highest value of specific capacitance reaches up to 295 F/g at a current density of 0.5A/g with a GO/SWCNT weight ratio of 1:5. The cycling stability for the GO-SWCNT paper electrode supercapacitors indicates capacitance retention of 85% over 60,000 cycles. Finally, engineered interactions between nanomaterials, polymers, molecules and graphene/carbon nanotube can lead to the development of new types of devices for myriad applications.

  15. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid...... filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance...... degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane...

  16. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  17. gamma-Zr-Hydride Precipitate in Irradiated Massive delta- Zr-Hydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, M. R.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    1975-01-01

    During examination of A Zircaloy-2-clad fuel pin, which had been part of a test fuel assembly in a boiling water reactor, several regions of severe internal hydriding were noticed in the upper-plenum end of the pin. Examination of similar fuel pins has shown that hydride of this type is caused by...... to irradiation-induced swelling....

  18. High-efficiency heat pump technology using metal hydrides (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Harada, T.; Niikura, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, J. [Human Environmental Systems Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Gamo, T. [Corporate Environmental Affairs Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Metal hybrides are effective materials for utilizing hydrogen as a clean energy medium. That is, when the metal hydrides absorb or desorb the hydrogen, a large heat output of reaction occurs. So, the metal hydrides can be applied to a heat pump. We have researched on a high efficiency heat pump technology using their metal hydrides. In this report, a double effect type metal hydride heat pump configuration is described in which the waste heat of 160 C is recovered in a factory cite and transported to areas far distant from the industrial district. In the heat recovery unit, a low pressure hydrogen is converted into highly effective high pressure hydrogen by applying the metal hydrides. Other metal hydrides perform the parts of heating by absorbing the hydrogen and cooling by desorbing the hydrogen in the heat supply unit. One unit scale of the system is 3 kW class as the sum of heating and cooling. This system using the hydrogen absorbing alloy also has good energy storage characteristics and ambient hydrogen pressure self-safety control ability. Furthermore, this heating and cooling heat supply system is not harmful to the natural environment because it is a chlorofluorocarbon-free, and low noise type system. We have developed in the following element technologies to attain the above purposes, that is development of hydrogen absorbing alloys with high heat outputs and technologies to construct the heat pump system. This study is proceeded at present as one of the programs in New Sunshine Project, which aims for development of ingenious energy utilization technology to achieve reduction of primary energy consumption with keeping cultural and wealthy life and preventing deterioration of global environment. (orig.)

  19. Conception of modular hydrogen storage systems for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, V.; Miotti, P.; Manzoni, G.; Ozebec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen, till now the most prominent candidate as a future sustainable energy carrier, yields a gravimetric energy density three times as high as liquid hydrocarbon. Furthermore it is proven to be the most environmentally friendly fuel. Unfortunately, a few components regarding storage and tank solutions have not yet reached a technology level required for broad use. Thus, we intend to propose solutions and device concepts for both devices everyday use and space applications. This contribution assesses both state of the art of storage materials and existing technologies of power generation systems for application in portable devices. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics of a modular system, being suitable for a wide range of different devices, operating on advanced metal hydrides as the active hydrogen supply component. The concept has been studied and modelled with respect to volumes, mass and power requirements of different devices. The smallest system developed is intended to run, for example, a mobile phone. Minor tuning and straightforward scale up of this power supply module should make it suitable for general applicability in any portable device. (author)

  20. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  1. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  2. The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components Delayed Hydride Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Puls, Manfred P

    2012-01-01

    By drawing together the current theoretical and experimental understanding of the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys, The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components: Delayed Hydride Cracking provides a detailed explanation focusing on the properties of hydrogen and hydrides in these alloys. Whilst the focus lies on zirconium alloys, the combination of both the empirical and mechanistic approaches creates a solid understanding that can also be applied to other hydride forming metals.   This up-to-date reference focuses on documented research surrounding DHC, including current methodologies for design and assessment of the results of periodic in-service inspections of pressure tubes in nuclear reactors. Emphasis is placed on showing that our understanding of DHC is supported by progress across a broad range of fields. These include hysteresis associated with first-order phase transformations; phase relationships in coherent crystalline metallic...

  3. MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3B 0.3 hydrogen storage alloys for high-power nickel/metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Yuexiang; Chen, Jianxia; Zhang, Hong

    Non-stoichiometric La-rich MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3B 0.3 hydrogen storage alloys using B-Ni or B-Fe alloy as additive and Ce-rich MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3B 0.3 one using pure B as additive have been prepared and their microstructure, thermodynamic, and electrochemical characteristics have been examined. It is found that all investigated alloys show good activation performance and high-rate dischargeability though there is a certain decrease in electrochemical capacities compared with the commercial MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3 alloy. MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3B 0.3 alloys using B-Ni alloy as additive or adopting Ce-rich mischmetal show excellent rate capability and can discharge capacity over 190 mAh/g even under 3000 mA/g current density, which display their promising use in the high-power type Ni/MH battery. The electrochemical performances of these MmNi 3.55Co 0.75Mn 0.4Al 0.3B 0.3 alloys are well correlated with their microstructure, thermodynamic, and kinetic characteristics.

  4. Production of hydrogen gas from novel chemical hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, R.; Matthews, M.A. [South Carolina Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Columbia, SC (United States); Reger, D.L.; Collins, J.E. [South Carolina Univ., Chemistry and Biochemistry Dept., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Six ligand-stabilized complexes have been synthesized and tested for use as hydrogen storage media for portable fuel cell applications. The new hydrides are: [HC(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (1), [[H{sub 2}C(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 2}]LiBH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (2) (pz = pyrazolyl), [(TMEDA)Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (3) (TMEDA (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}), [HC(pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (4), [[H{sub 2}C(pz){sub 2}]Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (5) and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}3THF (6) (THF = tetrahydrofuran). Hydrolysis reactions of the compounds liberate hydrogen in quantities which range from 56 to 104 ({+-}5%) of the theoretical yield. Gas chromatographic analysis of the product gases from these reactions indicate that hydrogen is the only gas produced. Thermally initiated reactions of the novel compounds with NH{sub 4}Cl were unsuccessful. Although the amount of hydrogen energy which can be theoretically obtained per unit weight is lower than that of the classical hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} and NaBH{sub 4}, the reactions are less violent and hydrolysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 releases less heat per mole of hydrogen generated. (Author)

  5. Gas desorption properties of ammonia borane and metal hydride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': Ammonia borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) has been of great interest owing to its ideal combination of low molecular weight and high H 2 storage capacity of 19.6 mass %, which exceeds the current capacity of gasoline. DOE's year 2015 targets involve gravimetric as well as volumetric energy densities. In this work, we have investigated thermal decomposition of ammonia borane and calcium hydride composites at different molar ratio. The samples were prepared by planetary ball milling under hydrogen gas atmosphere pressure of 1Mpa at room temperature for 2, and 10 hours. The gas desorption properties were examined by thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). The identification of phases was carried out by X-ray diffraction. The results obtain were shown in fig (a),(b),and (c). Hydrogen desorption properties were observed at all molar ratios, but the desorption temperature is significantly lower at around 70 o C at molar ratio 1:1 as shown in fig (c), and unwanted gas (ammonia) emissions were remarkably suppressed by mixing with the calcium hydride. (author)

  6. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  7. Analysis and Comparison of Si and SiC Power Devices on a Grid-Tie Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    In renewable energy applications power conversion efficiency is major concern. This is especially true for grid-tie energy storage systems based on bidirectional dc-dc and dc-ac converters where power flows through these system components. Latest developments in power semiconductors technology......-tie energy storage systems. Results highlight dc-dc conversion efficiencies up to 98.2% with an isolated topology and dc-ac conversion efficiencies up to 97.7%. Overall system efficiency improvements above 1% are achieved compared to traditional Si devices. Results on efficiency improvement are analyzed...

  8. Application of hydrogen isotopes and metal hydrides in future energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guoqiang, Jiang [Sichuan Inst. of Materials and Technology, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-12-01

    The probable application of hydrogen isotopes and metal hydrides to future energy source is reviewed. Starting from existing state of China`s energy source, the importance for developing hydrogen energy and fusion energy is explained. It is suggested that the application investigation of hydrogen energy and hydrogen storage materials should be spurred and encouraged; keeping track of the development on tritium technology for fusion reactor is stressed.

  9. Application of hydrogen isotopes and metal hydrides in future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guoqiang

    1994-12-01

    The probable application of hydrogen isotopes and metal hydrides to future energy source is reviewed. Starting from existing state of China's energy source, the importance for developing hydrogen energy and fusion energy is explained. It is suggested that the application investigation of hydrogen energy and hydrogen storage materials should be spurred and encouraged; keeping track of the development on tritium technology for fusion reactor is stressed

  10. Economic analysis of hydride fueled BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Shuffler, C.; Greenspan, E.; Todreas, N.

    2009-01-01

    The economic implications of designing BWR cores with hydride fuels instead of conventional oxide fuels are analyzed. The economic analysis methodology adopted is based on the lifetime levelized cost of electricity (COE). Bracketing values (1970 and 3010 $/kWe) are used for the overnight construction costs and for the power scaling factors (0.4 and 0.8) that correlate between a change in the capital cost to a change in the power level. It is concluded that a newly constructed BWR reactor could substantially benefit from the use of 10 x 10 hydride fuel bundles instead of 10 x 10 oxide fuel bundles design presently in use. The cost saving would depend on the core pressure drop constraint that can be implemented in newly constructed BWRs - it is between 2% and 3% for a core pressure drop constraint as of the reference BWR, between 9% and 15% for a 50% higher core pressure drop, and between 12% and 21% higher for close to 100% core pressure. The attainable cost reduction was found insensitive to the specific construction cost but strongly dependent on the power scaling factor. The cost advantage of hydride fuelled cores as compared to that of the oxide reference core depends only weakly on the uranium and SWU prices, on the 'per volume base' fabrication cost of hydride fuels, and on the discount rate used. To be economically competitive, the uranium enrichment required for the hydride fuelled core needs to be around 10%.

  11. Hydriding and dehydriding characteristics of small-scale DU and ZrCo beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dongyou; Lee, Jungmin; Koo, Daeseo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk, E-mail: hschung1@kaeri.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chang, Min Ho [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahakro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Camp, Patrick [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jung, Ki Jung; Cho, Seungyon; Yun, Sei-Hun; Kim, Chang Shuk [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahakro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yoshida, Hiroshi [Fusion Science Consultant, 3288-10 Sakado-cho, Mito-shi 310-0841, Ibakaki-ken (Japan); Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Hansoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We have designed and fabricated a twosome small-scale getter bed for a comparison of ZrCo with DU on the hydriding/dehydriding properties. • We provide preliminary experimental results of our ZrCo and DU beds. -- Abstract: With the development of fusion technology, it will be necessary to store large amounts of tritium during the nuclear fusion fuel cycle. Stable metal tritides are viewed as potential candidates for the high-density storage of tritium. Metal tritide formers offer a safe and convenient method for tritium storage. For the storage, supply, and recovery of hydrogen isotopes, zirconium cobalt (ZrCo) and depleted uranium (DU) have been extensively proposed. Thus, we have designed and fabricated two identical small-scale getter beds for a comparison of ZrCo with DU on the hydriding/dehydriding properties. After the powderization of the metals, the hydriding/dehydriding performance at different stoichiometries of ZrCo and DU was measured. We provide preliminary experimental results of our ZrCo and DU beds.

  12. Experimental investigation of strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4 with various hydride orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, A; Catherine, C.S.; Cappelaere, C.; Bornert, M.; Caldemaison, D.

    2005-01-01

    This experimental investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides on the mechanical response of Zircaloy-4. Ring tensile tests are performed on unirradiated CWSR Zircaloy-4, charged with about 200 or 500wppm hydrogen. Hydrides are oriented either parallel ('tangential'), or perpendicular ('radial') to the circumferential tensile direction. Tangential hydrides are usually observed in cladding tubes, however, hydrides can be reoriented after cooling under stress to become radial and then trigger brittle behavior. In this investigation, we perform, 'macroscopic' or SEM in-situ tensile tests on smooth rings, at room temperature. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. The results lead to the following conclusions: neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the strain modes are affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are. Indeed, only 200wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fails in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases samples reach at least 750 MPa before failure, with ductile or brittle mode. (authors)

  13. Efficient synthesis of tungsten oxide hydrate-based nanocomposites for applications in bifunctional electrochromic-energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Lu, Tong; Liu, Tao; Lei, Yanhua; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we realized the large-scale synthesis of WO3 · H2O nanoflakes (NFs), g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O nanocomposite (NC) and graphene (G)/WO3 · H2O NC via a sonochemical process with tungsten salt as the precursor, g-C3N4 or G sheets as the supports, and distilled water as the solvent. Both the g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC and G/WO3 · H2O NC exhibited much better electrochromic (EC) performance (higher coloration efficiencies and faster response times) than that of the WO3 · H2O NFs. Using the WO3 · H2O-based materials as electrode materials, EC batteries that integrate the energy storage and EC functions in one device have been assembled. The energy status of the EC batteries could be visually indicated by the reversible color variations. Compared with the plain WO3 · H2O-based EC batteries, the NC-based EC batteries possessed a lower color contrast between the charged and discharged conditions but much longer discharge durations. The EC batteries could be quickly charged in a few seconds by adding H2O2, and the charged batteries exhibited significantly-enhanced discharging durations in comparison with the initial ones. The g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC-EC batteries charged by a small amount of H2O2 could produce a long discharging duration up to 760 min.

  14. Self-assembled graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer film and its application in electrochemical energy storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xiaogong

    2011-03-01

    Graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer films were fabricated through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, and their performance as electrochemical capacitor electrode was investigated. Cationic azo polyelectrolyte (QP4VP-co-PCN) was synthesized through radical polymerization, postpolymerization azo coupling reaction, and quaternization. Negatively charged graphene nanosheets were prepared by a chemically modified method. The LbL films were obtained by alternately dipping a piece of the pretreated substrates in the QP4VP-co-PCN and nanosheet solutions. The processes were repeated until the films with required numbers of bilayers were obtained. The self-assembly and multilayer surface morphology were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, and TEM. The performance of the LbL films as electrochemical capacitor electrode was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the graphene nanosheets are densely packed in the multilayers and form random graphene network. The azo polyelectrolyte cohesively interacts with the nanosheets in the multilayer structure, which prevents agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. The sheet resistance of the LbL films decreases with the increase of the layer numbers and reaches the stationary value of 1.0 × 10(6) Ω/square for the film with 15 bilayers. At a scanning rate of 50 mV/s, the LbL film with 9 bilayers shows a gravimetric specific capacitance of 49 F/g in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) solution. The LbL films developed in this work could be a promising type of the electrode materials for electric energy storage devices.

  15. The growth of crystals of erbium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.A.; Spooner, F.J.; Wilson, C.G.; McQuillan, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Crystals of the rare-earth hydride ErH 2 have been produced with face areas greater than a square millimetre and corresponding volumes exceeding those of earlier crystals by orders of magnitude. The hydride, which was produced in bulk polycrystalline form by hydriding erbium metal at 950 0 C, has been examined by optical and X-ray techniques. For material of composition ErH 2 and ErHsub(1.8) the size of the grains and their degree of strain appears to depend more on oxygen contamination during formation and on the subsequent cooling procedure, than on the size of erbium metal crystals in the starting material. (author)

  16. Stress induced reorientation of vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, M.B.

    1977-10-01

    The critical stress for the reorientation of vanadium hydride was determined for the temperature range 180 0 to 280 0 K using flat tensile samples containing 50 to 500 ppM hydrogen by weight. The critical stress was observed to vary from a half to a third of the macroscopic yield stress of pure vanadium over the temperature range. The vanadium hydride could not be stress induced to precipitate above its stress-free precipitation temperature by uniaxial tensile stresses or triaxial tensile stresses induced by a notch

  17. Hydriding and structural characteristics of thermally cycled and cold-worked V-0.5 at.%C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Sharma, Archana; Chellappa, Raja; Cathey, William N.; Lynch, Franklin E.; Bowman, Robert C.; Wermer, Joseph R.; Paglieri, Stephen N.

    2008-01-01

    High pressure hydrides of V 0.995 C 0.005 were thermally cycled between β 2 - and γ-phases hydrides for potential use in cryocoolers/heat pumps for space applications. The effect of addition of carbon to vanadium, on the plateau enthalpies of the high pressure β 2 + γ region is minimal. This is in contrast to the calculated plateau enthalpies for low pressure (α + β 1 ) mixed phases which showed a noticeable lowering of the values. Thermal cycling between β 2 -and γ-phase hydrides increased the absorption pressures but desorption pressure did not change significantly and the free energy loss due to hysteresis also increased. Hydriding of the alloy with prior cold-work increased the pressure hysteresis significantly and lowered the hydrogen capacity. In contrast to the alloy without any prior straining (as-cast), desorption pressure of the alloy with prior cold-work also decreased significantly. Microstrains, 2 > 1/2 , in the β 2 -phase lattice of the thermally cycled hydrides decreased after 778 cycles and the domain sizes increased. However, in the γ-phase, both the microstrains and the domain sizes decreased after thermal cycling indicating no particle size effect. The dehydrogenated α-phase after 778 thermal cycles also showed residual microstrains in the lattice, similar to those observed in intermetallic hydrides. The effect of thermal cycling (up to 4000 cycles between β 2 - and γ-phases) and cold working on absorption/desorption pressures, hydrogen storage capacity, microstrains, long-range strains, and domain sizes of β 2 - and γ-phase hydrides of V 0.995 C 0.005 alloys are presented

  18. In situ hydride formation in titanium during focused ion milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rengen; Jones, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that titanium and its alloys are sensitive to electrolytes and thus hydrides are commonly observed in electropolished foils. In this study, focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to prepare thin foils of titanium and its alloys for transmission electron microscopy. The results show the following: (i) titanium hydrides were observed in pure titanium, (ii) the preparation of a bulk sample in water or acid solution resulted in the formation of more hydrides and (iii) FIB milling aids the precipitation of hydrides, but there were never any hydrides in Ti64 and Ti5553.

  19. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Effects of δ-hydride precipitation at a crack tip on crack propagation in delayed hydride cracking of Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T., E-mail: kubo@nfd.co.jp [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [M.O.X. Co., Ltd., 1828-520 Hirasu-cho, Mito, Ibaraki 311-0853 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Steady state crack velocity of delayed hydride cracking in Zircaloy-2 was analyzed. • A large stress peak is induced at an end of hydride by volume expansion of hydride. • Hydrogen diffuses to the stress peak, thereby accelerating steady hydride growth. • Crack velocity was estimated from the calculated hydrogen flux into the stress peak. • There was good agreement between calculation results and experimental data. -- Abstract: Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of Zircaloy-2 is one possible mechanism for the failure of boiling water reactor fuel rods in ramp tests at high burnup. Analyses were made for hydrogen diffusion around a crack tip to estimate the crack velocity of DHC in zirconium alloys, placing importance on effects of precipitation of δ-hydride. The stress distribution around the crack tip is significantly altered by precipitation of hydride, which was strictly analyzed using a finite element computer code. Then, stress-driven hydrogen diffusion under the altered stress distribution was analyzed by a differential method. Overlapping of external stress and hydride precipitation at a crack tip induces two stress peaks; one at a crack tip and the other at the front end of the hydride precipitate. Since the latter is larger than the former, more hydrogen diffuses to the front end of the hydride precipitate, thereby accelerating hydride growth compared with that in the absence of the hydride. These results indicated that, after hydride was formed in front of the crack tip, it grew almost steadily accompanying the interaction of hydrogen diffusion, hydride growth and the stress alteration by hydride precipitation. Finally, crack velocity was estimated from the calculated hydrogen flux into the crack tip as a function of temperature, stress intensity factor and material strength. There was qualitatively good agreement between calculation results and experimental data.

  1. Characterisation of hydrides in a zirconium alloy, by EBSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubhi, H.S.; Larsen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are used in nuclear reactors owing to their low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons and good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, they do suffer from delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC) due to formation of hydride particles. This study shows how the electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique can be used to characterise hydrides and their orientation relationship with the matrix. Hydrided EB weld specimens were prepared by electro-polishing, characterised using Oxford instruments AZtecHKL EBSD apparatus and software attached to a FEG SEM. Hydrides were found to exist as fine intra granular plates and having the Blackburn orientation relationship, i.e. (0002)Zr//(111)hydride and (1120)Zr//(1-10)hydride. The hydrides were also found to contain sigma 3 boundaries as well as local misorientations. (author)

  2. Hydride formation on deformation twin in zirconium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Dae [Korea Institute of Material Science (KIMS), 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jonghun, E-mail: yooncsmd@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Hydrides deteriorate the mechanical properties of zirconium (Zr) alloys used in nuclear reactors. Intergranular hydrides that form along grain boundaries have been extensively studied due to their detrimental effects on cracking. However, it has been little concerns on formation of Zr hydrides correlated with deformation twins which is distinctive heterogeneous nucleation site in hexagonal close-packed metals. In this paper, the heterogeneous precipitation of Zr hydrides at the twin boundaries was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. It demonstrates that intragranular hydrides in the twinned region precipitates on the rotated habit plane by the twinning and intergranular hydrides precipitate along the coherent low energy twin boundaries independent of the conventional habit planes. Interestingly, dislocations around the twin boundaries play a substantial role in the nucleation of Zr hydrides by reducing the misfit strain energy.

  3. Method for preparation of uranium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, M.S.; Goncalves, Miriam; Mirage, A.; Lima, W. de.

    1985-01-01

    A method for preparation of Uranium Hydride starting from Hidrogen and Uranium is described. In the temperature range of 250 0 up to 350 0 C, and pressures above 10torr, Hydrogen reacts smoothly with Uranium turnings forming a fine black or dark gray powder (UH 3 ). Samples containing a significant amount of oxides show a delay before the reaction begging. (Author) [pt

  4. Hydrogen isotope exchange in metal hydride columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.; Reilly, J.; Bloch, F.; Wirsing, E.

    1977-01-01

    Several metal hydrides were shown to act as chromatographic media for hydrogen isotopes. The procedure was to equilibrate a column of hydride with flowing hydrogen, inject a small quantity of tritium tracer, and observe its elution behavior. Characteristic retention times were found. From these and the extent of widening of the tritium band, the heights equivalent to a theoretical plate could be calculated. Values of around 1 cm were obtained. The following are the metals whose hydrides were studied, together with the temperature ranges in which chromatographic behavior was observed: vanadium, 0 to 70 0 C; zirconium, 500 to 600 0 C; LaNi 5 , -78 to +30 0 C; Mg 2 Ni, 300 to 375 0 C; palladium, 0 to 70 0 C. A dual-temperature isotope separation process based on hydride chromatography was demonstrated. In this, a column was caused to cycle between two temperatures while being supplied with a constant stream of tritium-traced hydrogen. Each half-cycle was continued until ''breakthrough,'' i.e., until the tritium concentration in the effluent was the same as that in the feed. Up to that point, the effluent was enriched or depleted in tritium, by up to 20%

  5. Magnesium hydrides and their phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 23 (2016), s. 9769-9773 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen * magnesium and transition metal hydrides * crystal structure stability * displacive phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  6. Are RENiAl hydrides metallic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eichinger, K.; Havela, L.; Prokleška, J.; Stelmakhovych, O.; Daniš, S.; Šantavá, Eva; Miliyanchuk, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1200-1202 ISSN 1862-5282 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA202/07/0418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : rare earth metals * magnetism * hydrides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  7. Lithium hydride hydrolysis: experimental and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Maupoix, C.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.; Heintz, O.; Saviot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work has been studied the contribution of various analyses techniques in the framework, on the one hand of revealing the mechanisms implied in lithium hydride hydrolysis, and on the other hand of studying the kinetics of hydrogen production. Among the methods recently investigated, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SIMS seem to be particularly attractive. (O.M.)

  8. The Current Status of Hydrogen Storage Alloy Development for Electrochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, the fundamentals of electrochemical reactions involving metal hydrides are explained, followed by a report of recent progress in hydrogen storage alloys for electrochemical applications. The status of various alloy systems, including AB5, AB2, A2B7-type, Ti-Ni-based, Mg-Ni-based, BCC, and Zr-Ni-based metal hydride alloys, for their most important electrochemical application, the nickel metal hydride battery, is summarized. Other electrochemical applications, such as Ni-hydrogen, fuel cell, Li-ion battery, air-metal hydride, and hybrid battery systems, also have been mentioned. PMID:28788349

  9. Investigation of the thermodynamics governing metal hydride synthesis in the molten state process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Berseth, Polly A.; Farrell, Thomas P.; Laughlin, Laura; Anton, Donald; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at utilizing a new synthetic technique to form novel complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. This technique is based on fusing different complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new species with improved hydrogen storage properties. Under conditions of elevated hydrogen overpressures and temperatures the starting materials can reach melting or near-melting point without decomposing (molten state processing), allowing for enhanced diffusion and exchange of elements among the starting materials. The formation and stabilization of these compounds, using the molten state process, is driven by the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the starting and resulting compounds. Complex hydrides (e.g. NaK 2 AlH 6 , Mg(AlH 4 ) 2 ) were formed, structurally characterized and their hydrogen desorption properties were tested. In this paper we report on investigations of the thermodynamic aspects governing the process and products. We also report on the role of molar ratio in determining the final products. The effectiveness of the molten state process is compared with chemomechanical synthetic methods (ball milling)

  10. Hydriding and dehydriding rates and hydrogen-storage capacity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    means of nuclear, wind, solar, tidal or geothermal energy. When hydrogen is converted into energy, water is the only exhaust product. It is thus extremely environmental friendly as an energy carrier. Although hydrogen has obvious benefits, an immediate incorporation of hydrogen into the world economy has a number of ...

  11. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Titanium-doped Sodium Aluminum Hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnane, Lance F.

    Hydrogen fuel cells play an important role in today's diverse and blossoming alternative energy industry. One of the greatest technological barriers for vehicular applications is the storage of hydrogen (which is required to power hydrogen fuel cells). Storing hydrogen as a gas is not volume efficient, and storing it as a liquid is not cost effective, therefore solid-state storage of hydrogen, such as in metal hydrides offers the most potential for success since many metal hydrides have attractive qualities for hydrogen storage such as: high volumetric capacity, cost efficiency, weight efficiency, low refueling times, and most importantly, high safety. Unfortunately, a compound has not been discovered which contains all of the attractive hydrogen storage qualities for vehicular applications. Sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH 4) is one of the few compounds which is close to meeting requirements for car manufacturers, and has perhaps been researched the most extensively out of all metal hydrides in the last 15 years. This arises from the remarkable discovery by Bogdanovic who found that doping NaAlH4 with Ti dopants enabled the reversible dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH 4 at mild conditions. Various evidence and theories have been proposed to suggest explanations for the enhanced kinetic effect that Ti-doping and ball-milling provide. However, the research community has not reached a consensus as to the exact role of Ti-dopants. If the role of titanium in the NaAlH4 dehydrogenation/hydrogenation mechanism could be understood, then more attractive metal hydrides could be designed. To this end, we conducted Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies to explain the role of the Ti dopants. The first known thorough particle size analysis of the NaAlH4 system was conducted, as well as TEM-EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and in-situ imaging studies. Preparation methods were found to be important for the

  12. Microbial profiling of cpn60 universal target sequences in artificial mixtures of vaginal bacteria sampled by nylon swabs or self-sampling devices under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, John J; Oh, Angela Yena; Hill, Janet E

    2017-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is increasingly characterized by deep sequencing of universal genes. However, there are relatively few studies of how different specimen collection and sample storage and processing influence these molecular profiles. Here, we evaluate molecular microbial community profiles of samples collected using the HerSwab™ self-sampling device, compared to nylon swabs and under different storage conditions. In order to minimize technical variation, mixtures of 11 common vaginal bacteria in simulated vaginal fluid medium were sampled and DNA extracts prepared for massively parallel sequencing of the cpn60 universal target (UT). Three artificial mixtures imitating commonly observed vaginal microbiome profiles were easily distinguished and proportion of sequence reads correlated with the estimated proportion of the organism added to the artificial mixtures. Our results indicate that cpn60 UT amplicon sequencing quantifies the proportional abundance of member organisms in these artificial communities regardless of swab type or storage conditions, although some significant differences were observed between samples that were stored frozen and thawed prior to DNA extraction, compared to extractions from samples stored at room temperature for up to 7days. Our results indicate that an on-the-market device developed for infectious disease diagnostics may be appropriate for vaginal microbiome profiling, an approach that is increasingly facilitated by rapidly dropping deep sequencing costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  14. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  15. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  16. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Andersson

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM. In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%, including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%. In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%. Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  17. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... included. (E) For condensers, the design evaluation shall include the final temperature of the stream vapors, the type of condenser, and the design flow rate of the emission stream. (ii) Performance test. A... control device design evaluation or performance test requirements. When using a control device other than...

  18. Research on hydrogen storage alloys and their uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.B.; Hewitt, J.S.; Khatamian, D.; Manchester, F.D.; McLean, A.; Ward, C.A.; Weatherly, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief account is given of the work being done by members of the Centre on the development of hydrogen storage alloys having useful, reliable, and predictable, performance characteristics. Metals and alloys which have been studied, in one or more aspects, so far, include FeTi, and also FeTi with small added amounts of C, Mn, Al and Mischmetal. Experimental work on the FeTi family of alloys has been concentrated on surface structure and surface behaviour and the importance of these for determining successful activation for hydrogen absorption. As a part of development work on control devices responding to temperature changes through hydrogen desorption, experiments have been performed on hydrides of Nb, La-Ni-Al and Ca-Ni. Some theoretical modelling on kinetics of hydrogen absorption into metals has also been done

  19. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF BIS(PHENYLTETRAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE - THE FIRST MONOMERIC BIS(CYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE : The First Monomeric Bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) Hydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, J.M.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The first structurally characterized monomeric bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) hydride, (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiH (4), was synthesized by hydrogenolysis of (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiMe (5). Hydride 4 was found to be a monomeric bent sandwich by X-ray diffraction methods, and the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl

  20. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.