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Sample records for hydride battery system

  1. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  2. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  3. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  4. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  5. Anodematerials for Metal Hydride Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work on development of hydride forming alloys for use as electrode materials in metal hydride batteries. The work has primarily been concentrated on calcium based alloys derived from the compound CaNi5. This compound has a higher capacity compared with alloys used in today......’s hydride batteries, but a much poorer stability towards repeated charge/discharge cycling. The aim was to see if the cycleability of CaNi5 could be enhanced enough by modifications to make the compound a suitable electrode material. An alloying method based on mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill....... The higher stability is explained by a smaller volume expansion during charge. It is shown than sodium can substitute for calcium forming the compound Ca0.8Na0.2Ni5. The compound had CaCu5 structure and a capacity of 365 mAh/g but a poor electrochemical cycle life. The alloys Ca0.8Na0.2Ni4Mg0.5Cu0.5 and Ca...

  6. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K T; Chan, C C; Shen, W X

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents.

  7. Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works.

  8. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  9. Metal hydrides used as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Sabrina; Cuevas, Fermin; Latroche, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a key issue for future generation. Researches are conducted worldwide to develop new efficient means for energy conversion and storage. Electrochemical storage is foreseen as an efficient way to handle intermittent renewable energy production. The most advanced batteries are nowadays based on lithium-ion technology though their specific capacities should be significantly increased to bring solution to mass storage. Conversion reactions are one way to step forward larger capacities at the anode. We here review the possibility to use metallic or complex hydrides as negative electrode using conversion reaction of hydride with lithium. Moreover, promising alloying of lithium with the metallic species might provide additional reversible capacities. Both binary and ternary systems are reviewed and results are compared in the frame of the electrochemical application.

  10. An all-solid-state metal hydride - Sulfur lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aranguren, Pedro; Berti, Nicola; Dao, Anh Ha; Zhang, Junxian; Cuevas, Fermín; Latroche, Michel; Jordy, Christian

    2017-07-01

    A metal hydride is used for the first time as anode in a complete all-solid-state battery with sulfur as cathode and LiBH4 as solid electrolyte. The hydride is a nanocomposite made of MgH2 and TiH2 counterparts. The battery exhibits a high reversible capacity of 910 mAh g-1 with discharge plateaus at 1.8 V and 1.4 V. Moreover, the capacity remains to 85% of the initial value over the 25 first charge/discharge cycles.

  11. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  12. Development of a novel metal hydride-air secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamburzev, S.; Zhang, W.; Velev, O.A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A.J. [Texas A and M University, College Station (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; Visintin, A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Insituto Nacional de Investigaciones Fisicoquimica Teoricas y Applicadas

    1998-05-01

    A laboratory metal hydride/air cell was evaluated. Charging was via a bifunctional air gas-diffusion electrode. Mixed nickel and cobalt oxides, supported on carbon black and activated carbon, were used as catalysts in this electrode. At 30 mA cm{sup -2} in 6 M KOH, the air electrode potentials were -0.2 V (oxygen reduction) and +0.65 V (oxygen evolution) vs Hg/HgO. The laboratory cell was cycled for 50 cycles at the C/2 rate (10 mA cm{sup -2}). The average discharge/charge voltages of the cell were 0.65 and 1.6 V, respectively. The initial capacity of the metal hydride electrode decreased by about 15% after 50 cycles. (author)

  13. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  14. High performance nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, U.; Kümpers, J.; Ullrich, M.

    In comparison to pure electric vehicles (EV) the opportunities for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are much better, since range restrictions no longer apply and the interaction of the internal combustion engine and electrical drive bring increased energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. The batteries used in such applications must meet very high standards in terms of performance and service life. Although the battery capacity is smaller than for a purely EV, it needs to be able to generate far higher levels of power. The technical challenges of hybrid applications have led to the development of high-performance batteries. At the forefront of these is the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH). With specific power and energy data in the range from 300 to 900 W/kg, 55 to 37 Wh/kg, respectively (based on cell weight), excellent charge efficiency and energy throughput levels of more than 10,000 times the nominal energy, the NiMH system comes very close to satisfying the needs of the HEV. Parallel developments with the lithium-ion system based on manganese spinel as cathode material show that, with specific power and energy levels above 1000 W/kg, 50 Wh/kg, respectively, this technology will also be able to play an important role in the future. Service life figures in terms of calendar life have been improved tremendously to about three years, but there is still a need for further improvement in order to meet the specifications of car manufacturers. For this reason, an increase of life span is the subject of intensive development work.

  15. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Aymard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  16. Alloys for hydrogen storage in nickel/hydrogen and nickel/metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, Anaba; Visintin, Arnaldo; Petrov, Konstantin; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Reilly, James J.; Johnson, John R.; Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Desch, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors in the three laboratories to (1) prepare alloys of the AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) types, using arc-melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques; (2) examine their physico-chemical characteristics (morphology, composition); (3) determine the hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior (pressure-composition isotherms as a function of temperature); and (4) evaluate their performance characteristics as hydride electrodes (charge/discharge, capacity retention, cycle life, high rate capability). The work carried out on representative AB(sub 5) and AB(sub 2) type modified alloys (by partial substitution or with small additives of other elements) is presented. The purpose of the modification was to optimize the thermodynamics and kinetics of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions and enhance the stabilities of the alloys for the desired battery applications. The results of our collaboration, to date, demonstrate that (1) alloys prepared by arc melting/annealing and mechanical alloying/annealing techniques exhibit similar morphology, composition and hydriding/dehydriding characteristics; (2) alloys with the appropriate small amounts of substituent or additive elements: (1) retain the single phase structure, (2) improve the hydriding/dehydriding reactions for the battery applications, and (3) enhance the stability in the battery environment; and (3) the AB(sub 2) type alloys exhibit higher energy densities than the AB(sub 5) type alloys but the state-of-the-art, commercialized batteries are predominantly manufactured using Ab(sub 5) type alloys.

  17. Nickel/metal hydride batteries using rate-earth hydrogen storage alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1994-07-01

    Fine particles of a hydrogen storage alloy (LaNi3.8Co0.5Mn0.4Al0.3) were microencapsulated with a thin film of nickel of about 0.6 micron thickness. The microencapsulated alloy powders were used as an anode material in a sealed nickel/metal hydride battery. The battery characteristics were compared with those of a battery with a bare (uncoated) alloy anode. The battery using the bare alloy was less stable compared to the coated alloy due to the role of the coated nickel as an oxygen barrier for protecting the alloy surface from oxidation. In addition, charge- discharge characteristics were improved greatly by the nickel coating, especially at high rates and at low temperatures due to the role of nickel as a microcurrent collector. So the microencapsulation of the alloy powders improves the performances of the alloy electrode.

  18. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  19. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  20. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  1. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments.

  2. Sealed CylindrIcal Silver Metal Hydride Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Space Science missions require energy systems with high energy density with power levels up to several kW. Advances in mission electronics technology have...

  3. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  4. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  5. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hardy, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Corgnale, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ward, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Motyka, Ted [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate a metal hydride-based TES system for use with a CSP system. A unique approach has been applied to this project that combines our modeling experience with the extensive material knowledge and expertise at both SRNL and Curtin University (CU). Because of their high energy capacity and reasonable kinetics many metal hydride systems can be charged rapidly. Metal hydrides for vehicle applications have demonstrated charging rates in minutes and tens of minutes as opposed to hours. This coupled with high heat of reaction allows metal hydride TES systems to produce very high thermal power rates (approx. 1kW per 6-8 kg of material). A major objective of this work is to evaluate some of the new metal hydride materials that have recently become available. A problem with metal hydride TES systems in the past has been selecting a suitable high capacity low temperature metal hydride material to pair with the high temperature material. A unique aspect of metal hydride TES systems is that many of these systems can be located on or near dish/engine collectors due to their high thermal capacity and small size. The primary objective of this work is to develop a high enthalpy metal hydride that is capable of reversibly storing hydrogen at high temperatures (> 650 °C) and that can be paired with a suitable low enthalpy metal hydride with low cost materials. Furthermore, a demonstration of hydrogen cycling between the two hydride beds is desired.

  6. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  7. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  8. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  9. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  10. Electrochemical characterization of melt spun AB{sub 5} alloys for metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brateng, Randi

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is part of a larger research project where two metal hydride forming AB{sub 5} type alloys have been investigated. A slightly non-stoichiometric alloy with mischmetal on A-site and nickel, cobalt, manganese and aluminium on B-site has been characterized. The composition of this material, which will be referred to as Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}, is close to the normal battery composition. The other alloy characterized is LaNi{sub 5} based, where nickel is partly substituted with tin. This material will later be referred to as La(NiSn){sub 5}. These materials were produced by melt spinning to vary the cooling rate during solidification. The main purpose of the study has been to characterize the electrochemical properties related to battery performance. The production as well as the metallurgical and structural characterization of the materials were performed in another part of the project. For Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15} the unit cell volume was dependent on the cooling rate before heat treatment, while the unit cell volume was almost independent of the cooling rate for La(NiSn){sub 5}. For both alloy compositions, the electrochemical properties seemed to change with varying cooling rate. The desorption equilibrium potential, the discharge capacity when discharging at a low current and the deterioration rate were found to be reduced with decreasing unit cell volume and increased with increasing unit cell volume, before heat treatment of Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5.15}. The self discharge rate was observed to be inversely proportional to the unit cell volume for this material. For not heat treated La(NiSn){sub 5}, produced at different cooling rates, the desorption equilibrium potential decreased when the self discharge rate and the discharge capacity increased after cycling for 300 cycles. The deterioration rate decreased when the desorption equilibrium potential was reduced for La(NiSn){sub 5}. The electrochemical parameters both before and after heat treatment of La

  11. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  12. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, P. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with

  13. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible w...

  14. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  15. DETERMINATION OF METAL HYDRIDE SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS WHILE HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Kluchka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental dependence of the pressure of hydrogen in the hydride cartridge when it is heated is obtained. Experimental data prove the theoretical values with an accuracy of ≈ 6%.

  16. Lithium storage in amorphous TiNi hydride: Electrode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bououdina, M., E-mail: mboudina@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Centre, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Oumellal, Y.; Dupont, L.; Aymard, L. [Laboratoire de Reactivite du Solid (RCS), UMR CNRS 6007, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Al-Gharni, H. [Department of Electronics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Maark, T.A. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); De Sarkar, A. [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Deshpande, M.D. [Department of Physics, H.P.T. Arts and R.Y.K. Science College, Nasik 422 005, Maharashtra (India); Qian, Z. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rahane, A.B. [Department of Physics, H.P.T. Arts and R.Y.K. Science College, Nasik 422 005, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-08-15

    In this study, amorphous TiNi phase was successfully prepared using mechanically milling for a very short time of 8 h. HRTEM confirms the formation of amorphous phase with the presence of nanocrystalline Fe particles. After hydrogenation (30 bars of H{sub 2} for a duration of 2 h), the electrochemical reaction shows that TiNi hydride/Li cell discharges at a current of one Li for 10 h between 3 V and 0.005 V. The discharge of TiNiH electrode around x = 1 Li corresponds to a capacity of 251 mAh g{sup −1} and a hydride composition of TiNiH{sub 1.0} at an average voltage of 0.4 V. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction pattern collected at the end of the discharge shows a mixture of amorphous TiNi compound and LiH. A general mechanism for the electrochemical reaction is then proposed: α-TiNiH + Li{sup +} + e{sup −} → α-TiNi + LiH. The results from DFT calculations yield an average cell voltage of 0.396 V, which is in good agreement with the experimental pseudo-plateau occurring at 0.4 V. - Highlights: • Synthesis of amorphous TiNi in a very short time. • Hydrogenation of amorphous TiNi phase using reactive ball milling (30 bars H{sub 2}, 2 h). • A discharge capacity of 251 mAh g{sup −1} which corresponds to TiNiH{sub 1.0} at an average voltage of 0.4 V. • Using ex-situ X-ray diffraction, a mechanism has been proposed: α-TiNiH + Li{sup +} + e{sup −} → α-TiNi + LiH. • DFT results show an average cell voltage of 0.396 V.

  17. High capacity V-based metal hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Heng; Weadock, Nicholas J.; Tan, Hongjin; Fultz, Brent

    2017-01-01

    We report the successful development of Ti_(29)V_(62−x)Ni_9Cr_x (x = 0, 6, 12) body centered cubic metal hydride (MH) electrodes by addressing vanadium corrosion and dissolution in KOH solutions. By identifying oxygen as the primary source of corrosion and eliminating oxygen with an Ar-purged cell, the Cr-free Ti_(29)V_(62)Ni_9 alloy electrode achieved a maximum capacity of 594 mAh g^(-1), double the capacity of commercial AB_5 MH electrodes. With coin cells designed to minimize oxygen evolut...

  18. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  19. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  20. Formation of alloys in Ti-V system in hydride cycle and synthesis of their hydrides in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanyan, A.G., E-mail: a.g.aleks_yan@mail.ru [A.B. Nalbandyan Institute of Chemical Physics of Armenian NAS, 5/2 P.Sevak Str., Yerevan 0014 (Armenia); Dolukhanyan, S.K. [A.B. Nalbandyan Institute of Chemical Physics of Armenian NAS, 5/2 P.Sevak Str., Yerevan 0014 (Armenia); Shekhtman, V.Sh. [Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432 (Russian Federation); Huot, J., E-mail: jacques_huot@uqtr.ca [Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada); Ter-Galstyan, O.P.; Mnatsakanyan, N.L. [A.B. Nalbandyan Institute of Chemical Physics of Armenian NAS, 5/2 P.Sevak Str., Yerevan 0014 (Armenia)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > We synthesize Ti-V alloys by new 'hydride cycle' method. Structural characteristics of formed alloys we investigate by X-ray diffraction. > We show that the alloys contain mainly BCC crystal structure. > We investigate the interaction of the synthesized alloys with hydrogen in combustion regime. > We study the properties of hydrides by X-ray, DTA and DSC analyses. - Abstract: In the present work, the possibility of formation of titanium and vanadium based alloys of BCC structure using hydride cycle was investigated. The mechanism of formation of alloys in Ti-V system from the powders of hydrides TiH{sub 2} and VH{sub 0.9} (or of V) by compaction followed by dehydrogenation was studied. Then, the interaction of the synthesized alloys with hydrogen in combustion regime (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, SHS) resulting in hydrides of these alloys was investigated. DTA and DSC analyses of some alloys and their hydrides were performed and their thermal characteristics were measured.

  1. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  2. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  3. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified lanthum-nickel for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Jason

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications using conventional cast and crush alloy techniques. The previous works nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) that could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. This work examined the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (316L stainless steel. This nozzle was demonstrated to produce a high yield of ultrafine powders that are essential for development of a direct production process for AB5 alloys for powders for battery applications. Rapid solidification by gas atomization of LaNi4.6Si 0.4 and LaNi4.85Sn0.15, LaNi4.75Sn 0.25 and LaNi5.5Sn0.3 alloys was studied. Small atomized particles (phase hydrogen cycling. Rapid annealing of the gasatomized AB 5 alloys at 900°C for 5 minutes was sufficient to fully remove quenched-in nonequilibrium substitution-rich phases La-Ni-Si and La-Ni-Sn alloys. During annealing, preferential diffusion paths for Sn were observed on {002} and {202} planes using XRD. The activation enthalpy and interdiffusion coefficient for tin diffusing in La(Ni,Sn)5 intermetallic were determined to be 152.24 KJ.mole-1 and 1.975 (10-6) cm 2. sec-1, respectively, using a simple isotropic diffusion model. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders.

  4. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  5. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Morten B.; Meggouh, Mariem; Moury, Romain; Peinecke, Kateryna; Felderhoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability. PMID:28793541

  6. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi5 for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi5 substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 μm) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB5 alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB5 alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB5 alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB5 alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB5 production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle

  7. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  8. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  9. Hydride heat pump. Volume I. Users manual for HYCSOS system design program. [HYCSOS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Moritz, P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for the design and costing of a metal hydride heat pump for residential use and a computer program, HYCSOS, which automates that method are described. The system analyzed is one in which a metal hydride heat pump can provide space heating and space cooling powered by energy from solar collectors and electric power generated from solar energy. The principles and basic design of the system are presented, and the computer program is described giving detailed design and performance equations used in the program. The operation of the program is explained, and a sample run is presented. This computer program is part of an effort to design, cost, and evaluate a hydride heat pump for residential use. The computer program is written in standard Fortran IV and was run on a CDC Cyber 74 and Cyber 174 computer. A listing of the program is included as an appendix. This report is Volume 1 of a two-volume document.

  10. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  11. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2015-07-06

    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  12. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  13. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  14. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  15. ReaxFF(MgH) reactive force field for magnesium hydride systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sam; Deng, Wei-Qiao; van Duin, Adri C T; Goddard, William A

    2005-02-10

    We have developed a reactive force field (ReaxFF(MgH)) for magnesium and magnesium hydride systems. The parameters for this force field were derived from fitting to quantum chemical (QM) data on magnesium clusters and on the equations of states for condensed phases of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride crystal. The force field reproduces the QM-derived cell parameters, density, and the equations of state for various pure Mg and MgH(2) crystal phases as well as and bond dissociation, angle bending, charge distribution, and reaction energy data for small magnesium hydride clusters. To demonstrate one application of ReaxFF(MgH), we have carried out MD simulations on the hydrogen absorption/desorption process in magnesium hydrides, focusing particularly on the size effect of MgH(2) nanoparticles on H(2) desorption kinetics. Our results show a clear relationship between grain size and heat of formation of MgH(2); as the particle size decreases, the heat of formation increases. Between 0.6 and 2.0 nm, the heat of formation ranges from -16 to -19 kcal/Mg and diverges toward that of the bulk value (-20.00 kcal/Mg) as the particle diameter increases beyond 2 nm. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that Mg nanoparticles formed by ball milling (20-100 nm) do not exhibit any significant change in thermochemical properties.

  16. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  17. Effect of the Metal Hydride Tank Structure on the Reaction Heat Recovery for the Totalized Hydrogen Energy Utilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maeda, Tetsuhiko; Nakano, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Motyka, Theodore; Perez-Berrios, Jose M; Greenway, Scott

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper, a metal hydride tank (MHT) is chosen as hydrogen storage. In the MHT, the heating and cooling from adsorption/desorption processes is used to produced heated and chilled water for building ventilation systems...

  18. Development of a modular room-temperature hydride storage system for vehicular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Giovanni; Schiavo, Benedetto; Jepsen, Julian; Lozano, Gustavo; Metz, Oliver; Saccone, Adriana; De Negri, Serena; Bellosta von Colbe, José M.; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The subject of this paper concerns the development of a vehicular hydrogen tank system, using a commercial interstitial metal hydride as storage material. The design of the tank was intended to feed a fuel cell in a light prototype vehicle, and the chosen hydride material, Hydralloy C5 by GfE, was expected to be able to absorb and desorb hydrogen in a range of pressure suitable for this purpose. A systematic analysis of the material in laboratory scale allows an extrapolation of the thermodynamic and reaction kinetics data. The following development of the modular tank was done according to the requirements of the prototype vehicle propulsion system and led to promising intermediate results. The modular approach granted flexibility in the design, allowing both to reach carefully the design goals and to learn the limiting factors in the sorption process. Proper heat management and suitable equipment remain key factors in order to achieve the best performances.

  19. The renaissance of hydrides as energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Materials based on hydrides have been the linchpin in the development of several practical energy storage technologies, of which the most prominent example is nickel-metal hydride batteries. Motivated by the need to meet the future's energy demand, the past decade has witnessed substantial advancements in the research and development of hydrides as media for hydrogen energy storage. More recently, new and rapidly evolving discoveries have positioned hydrides as highly promising materials for future electrochemical energy storage, such as electrolytes for mono- and divalent batteries, and anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the potential of hydrides in efficient power transmission has been recently revealed. In this Review, we highlight key advances and illustrate how the versatility of hydrides has not only yielded a meaningful past, but also ensures a very bright future.

  20. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  1. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  2. Integrated Cabin and Fuel Cell System Thermal Management with a Metal Hydride Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovland, V.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated approaches for the heating and cooling requirements of both the fuel cell (FC) stack and cabin environment are critical to fuel cell vehicle performance in terms of stack efficiency, fuel economy, and cost. An integrated FC system and cabin thermal management system would address the cabin cooling and heating requirements, control the temperature of the stack by mitigating the waste heat, and ideally capture the waste heat and use it for useful purposes. Current work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) details a conceptual design of a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP) for the fuel cell system and cabin thermal management.

  3. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  4. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  5. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  6. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    The current state of the art in the field of the mechanical behavior of electric vehicle (EV) battery cells is limited to quasi-static analysis. The lack of published data in the dynamic mechanical behavior of EV battery cells blinds engineers and scientists with the uncertainty of what to expect when EVs experience such unexpected events as intrusions to their battery systems. To this end, the recent occurrences of several EVs catching fire after hitting road debris even make this topic timelier. In order to ensure the safety of EV battery, it is critical to develop quantitative understanding of battery cell mechanical behavior under dynamic compressive loadings. Specifically, the research focuses on the dynamic mechanical loading effect on the standard "18650" cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells. In the study, the force-displacement and voltage-displacement behavior of the battery cells were analyzed experimentally at two strain rates, two state-of-charges, and two unit-cell configurations. The results revealed the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical responses with the solid sacrificial elements. When the hollow sacrificial cells are used, on the other hand, effect was negligible up to the point of densification strength. Also, the high state-of-charge appeared to increase the stiffness of the battery cells. The research also revealed the effectiveness of the sacrificial elements on the mechanical behavior of a unit cell that consists of one battery cell and six sacrificial elements. The use of the sacrificial elements resulted in the delayed initiation of electric short circuit. Based on the analysis of battery behavior at the cell level, granular battery assembly, a battery pack, was designed and fabricated. The behavior of the granular battery assembly was analyzed both quasistatically and dynamically. Building on the results of the research, various research plans were proposed. Through conducting the research, we sought to answer the following

  7. Hydride heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  8. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  9. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  10. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  11. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  12. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  13. Boron Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-07-01

    hydroxide . The compound Is perfectly stable at room temperatures; at approximately 100 C it loses hydrogan slowly and turns from pure white to Gray...hydrides. of nrsc~nic, antirrorýy Ind bianmith ,nd tho alkyl hydrides of zr-c-nlc ,,rc kno%:.n. tho rl1:yl hydridin of etniinony ar~d bismuth have not yet... bismuth hydridv frtim bisnmth ý,hlorido felleod eithor because th.- roduction vnnt to the mot-U or boc.-usc the instability of the hydride- prcvcnt.od

  14. Complex Metal Hydrides for hydrogen storage and solid-state ion conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein

    and electricity in batteries. However, both hydrogen and electricity must be stored in a very dense way to be useful, e.g. for mobile applications. Complex metal hydrides have high hydrogen density and have been studied during the past twenty years in hydrogen storage systems. Moreover, they have shown high ionic...... conductivities which promote their application as solid electrolytes in batteries. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of a variety of complex metal hydrides and explores their hydrogen storage properties and ionic conductivity. Five halide free rare earth borohydrides RE(BH4)3, (RE...

  15. Wireless Battery Management System of Electric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Rahman, Mizanur; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are being developed and considered as the future transportation to reduce emission of toxic gas, cost and weight. The battery pack is one of the main crucial parts of the electric vehicle. The power optimization of the battery pack has been maintained by developing a two phase evaporative thermal management system which operation has been controlled by using a wireless battery management system. A large number of individual cells in a battery pack have many wire terminations that are liable for safety failure. To reduce the wiring problem, a wireless battery management system based on ZigBee communication protocol and point-to-point wireless topology has been presented. Microcontrollers and wireless modules are employed to process the information from several sensors (voltage, temperature and SOC) and transmit to the display devices respectively. The WBMS multistage charge balancing system offering more effective and efficient responses for several numbers of series connected battery cells. The concept of double tier switched capacitor converter and resonant switched capacitor converter is used for reducing the charge balancing time of the cells. The balancing result for 2 cells and 16 cells are improved by 15.12% and 25.3% respectively. The balancing results are poised to become better when the battery cells are increased.

  16. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  17. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems...

  18. Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process....... It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature...

  19. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  20. Development of Novel Metal Hydride-Carbon Nanomaterial Based Nanocomposites as Anode Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    SnO2 decorated over the composite material. The images clearly demonstrate the proposed structure of MWNTs interwoven with graphene sheets. TEM...Fig. 11b depicts the uniform dispersion of SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene - carbon nanotubes hybrid structure. The particle size of the SnO2 ...interaction and its lithium ion battery application, Journal of Material Chemistry, 2012, 22, 9949 2. Development of novel SnO2 dispersed graphene

  1. Hydrides in young stellar objects : Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Staeuber, P.; Wampfler, S. F.; Melchior, M.; Dedes, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Doty, S. D.; van der Tak, F.; Baechtold, W.; Csillaghy, A.; Megej, A.; Monstein, C.; Soldati, M.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dieleman, P.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jacq, T.; Jellema, W.; Johnstone, D.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Schieder, R.; Shipman, R.; Stutzki, J.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Yildiz, U. A.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements are fundamental molecules in cosmic chemistry. Some of them trace gas irradiated by UV or X-rays. Aims. We explore the abundances of major hydrides in W3 IRS5, a prototypical region of high-mass star formation. Methods. W3 IRS5 was observed by

  2. Hydrides in young stellar objects: Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benz, A.O.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Stäuber, P.; Wampfler, S.F.; Melchior, M.; Dedes, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Doty, S.D.; van der Tak, F.; Bächtold, W.; Csillaghy, A.; Megej, A.; Monstein, C.; Soldati, M.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; Di Giorgio, A.M.; Dieleman, P.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J.R.; de Graauw, T.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G.J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M.R.; Jacq, T.; Jellema, W.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J.K.; Kristensen, L.E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Schieder, R.; Shipman, R.; Stutzki, J.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; van Kempen, T.A.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements are fundamental molecules in cosmic chemistry. Some of them trace gas irradiated by UV or X-rays. Aims. We explore the abundances of major hydrides in W3 IRS5, a prototypical region of high-mass star formation. Methods. W3 IRS5 was observed by

  3. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  4. Operation of metal hydride hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen compression using solar thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruki Endo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a newly constructed bench-scale hydrogen energy system with renewable energy, ‘Pure Hydrogen Energy System’, the present study demonstrates the operations of a metal hydride (MH tank for hydrogen compression as implemented through the use solar thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is used to generate hot water as a heat source of the MH tank. Thus, 70 kg of LaNi5, one of the most typical alloys used for hydrogen storage, was placed in the MH tank. We present low and high hydrogen flow rate operations. Then, the operations under winter conditions are discussed along with numerical simulations conducted from the thermal point of view. Results show that a large amount of heat (>100 MJ is generated and the MH hydrogen compression is available.

  5. Battery Cell Balancing Optimisation for Battery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, M. S.; Toha, S. F.; Kamisan, N. A.; Hashim, N. N. W. N.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Battery cell balancing in every electrical component such as home electronic equipment and electric vehicle is very important to extend battery run time which is simplified known as battery life. The underlying solution to equalize the balance of cell voltage and SOC between the cells when they are in complete charge. In order to control and extend the battery life, the battery cell balancing is design and manipulated in such way as well as shorten the charging process. Active and passive cell balancing strategies as a unique hallmark enables the balancing of the battery with the excellent performances configuration so that the charging process will be faster. The experimental and simulation covers an analysis of how fast the battery can balance for certain time. The simulation based analysis is conducted to certify the use of optimisation in active or passive cell balancing to extend battery life for long periods of time.

  6. Recent advances in improving performances of the lightweight complex hydrides Li-Mg-N-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of state-of-the art advances in improving performances of the lightweight complex hydrides Li-Mg-N-H system is reported. Among the hydrogen storage materials, Li-Mg-N-H combination systems are regarded as one of the most potential candidates for the vehicular applications owing to their high hydrogen storage capacity (>5 wt% H and a more appropriate thermodynamic properties of hydrogen absorption and desorption. In the Li-Mg-N-H systems, tremendous efforts have been devoted to improving the hydrogen storage properties by adjusting composition, revealing reaction mechanisms, adding catalysts and refining the microstructures, etc. During the studies, different mechanisms, such as the coordinated two-molecule or multimolecule reaction mechanism and the ammonia-mediated mechanism, are proposed and applied under some certain conditions. Catalysis and nanosizing are very effective in enhancing the kinetic properties and thermodynamic destabilization of Li-Mg-N-H systems. Due to nano effects, the space-confinement and nanoconfinement seems to be more effective for improving the hydrogen storage performance, and it is great significant to develop hydrogen storage materials by studying the nanoconfined effects on the Li-Mg-N-H systems.

  7. Monitoring and control of a hydrogen production and storage system consisting of water electrolysis and metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Herranz, V.; Perez-Page, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Beneito, R. [Area de Energia. Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion. Instituto Tecnologico del Juguete (AIJU). Avda. Industria 23, 03440 Ibi, Alicante (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic are energy sources that cannot generate continuous electric power. The seasonal storage of solar or wind energy in the form of hydrogen can provide the basis for a completely renewable energy system. In this way, water electrolysis is a convenient method for converting electrical energy into a chemical form. The power required for hydrogen generation can be supplied through a photovoltaic array. Hydrogen can be stored as metal hydrides and can be converted back into electricity using a fuel cell. The elements of these systems, i.e. the photovoltaic array, electrolyzer, fuel cell and hydrogen storage system in the form of metal hydrides, need a control and monitoring system for optimal operation. This work has been performed within a Research and Development contract on Hydrogen Production granted by Solar Iniciativas Tecnologicas, S.L. (SITEC), to the Politechnic University of Valencia and to the AIJU, and deals with the development of a system to control and monitor the operation parameters of an electrolyzer and a metal hydride storage system that allow to get a continuous production of hydrogen. (author)

  8. Conventional superconductivity at 203 kelvin at high pressures in the sulfur hydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A. P.; Eremets, M. I.; Troyan, I. A.; Ksenofontov, V.; Shylin, S. I.

    2015-09-01

    A superconductor is a material that can conduct electricity without resistance below a superconducting transition temperature, Tc. The highest Tc that has been achieved to date is in the copper oxide system: 133 kelvin at ambient pressure and 164 kelvin at high pressures. As the nature of superconductivity in these materials is still not fully understood (they are not conventional superconductors), the prospects for achieving still higher transition temperatures by this route are not clear. In contrast, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of conventional superconductivity gives a guide for achieving high Tc with no theoretical upper bound--all that is needed is a favourable combination of high-frequency phonons, strong electron-phonon coupling, and a high density of states. These conditions can in principle be fulfilled for metallic hydrogen and covalent compounds dominated by hydrogen, as hydrogen atoms provide the necessary high-frequency phonon modes as well as the strong electron-phonon coupling. Numerous calculations support this idea and have predicted transition temperatures in the range 50-235 kelvin for many hydrides, but only a moderate Tc of 17 kelvin has been observed experimentally. Here we investigate sulfur hydride, where a Tc of 80 kelvin has been predicted. We find that this system transforms to a metal at a pressure of approximately 90 gigapascals. On cooling, we see signatures of superconductivity: a sharp drop of the resistivity to zero and a decrease of the transition temperature with magnetic field, with magnetic susceptibility measurements confirming a Tc of 203 kelvin. Moreover, a pronounced isotope shift of Tc in sulfur deuteride is suggestive of an electron-phonon mechanism of superconductivity that is consistent with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer scenario. We argue that the phase responsible for high-Tc superconductivity in this system is likely to be H3S, formed from H2S by decomposition under pressure. These findings raise hope for the

  9. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  10. Bonding of xenon hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Peralta, N.; Juarez, R.; Cerpa, E.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Merino, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have computed the structure and stability of the xenon hydrides HXeY (with Y = F, Cl, Br, I, CCH, CN, NC) using relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at ZORA-BP86/TZ2P level. All model systems HXeY studied here are bound equilibrium structures, but they are also significantly destabilized

  11. Study of the fundamental plasma parameters by HG ICP-OES with a dual hydride generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Carrión

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hydrogen from hydrides generation in a radially-viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy with a dual hydride-generator system on plasma excitation characteristic was studied. The effects of the acid concentration and reductant solution flow rate on the fundamental parameters were evaluated. Results showed an improvement on the plasma excitation conditions compared to standard nebulization. The excitation temperature, the electron number density and the ionic-to-atomic lines Mg(II/Mg(I ratio increased significantly when the system was operated in the dual mode, even at very low reductant flow. These parameters increased in magnitude when increased reductant flow rate and acid concentration

  12. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  13. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  14. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  15. Application of metal hydride paper to simple pressure generator for use in soft actuator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Shuichi; Sakaki, Kouji; Hosono, Minako; Doi, Kouki; Shimada, Shigenobu; Chikai, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) actuators have a simple structure and a number of features that make them attractive for use in rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. The MH actuator provides a high power-to-weight ratio, high-strain actuation, human-compatible softness, and noiseless operation, while being environmentally benign. On the other hand, there remain technical challenges to be overcome to improve the MH actuator regarding its speed of operation and energy efficiency, given the low heat conductivity of the MH powder that is used as the pressure generator for soft actuation. To overcome the issues of low heat conductivity and the handling of MH powder, we developed an MH paper, which is a special paper incorporating MH powder and carbon fiber, for use as a new pressure-generating element for a soft MH actuator system. In addition, the basic properties and structure of the proposed MH paper were investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and several thermodynamic experiments. The results of these experiments showed that the hydrogen absorption and desorption rates of the MH paper were significantly higher than those of the MH powder around room temperature.

  16. High level theoretical study of binding and of the potential energy surface in benzene-hydride system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coletti, Cecilia, E-mail: ccoletti@unich.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita ' G. d' Annunzio' Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti (Italy); Re, Nazzareno [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita ' G. d' Annunzio' Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Graphical abstract: In-plane minimum geometries for benzene-H{sup -} non-covalent adducts: linear adduct (left) with the hydride ion hydrogen bonded to one aromatic hydrogen; bifurcated adduct (right), with the hydride ion hydrogen bonded to two adjacent aromatic hydrogens. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical study on covalent and non-covalent binding in benzene-hydride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two non-covalent stable adducts were characterized in the in-plane geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant sections of the potential energy surface were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of a very stable C{sub 6}H{sub 7}{sup -} anion upon covalent binding to carbon. - Abstract: High level ab initio calculations were performed on the interaction of the hydride anion with benzene, a system of potential interest for modelling the interactions occurring in hydrogen rich planetary atmospheres. We investigated both non-covalent and covalent binding, exploring the complete basis set limit using highly correlated MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. Two non-covalent minima on the potential energy surface have been characterized, and found to correspond to moderately strong hydrogen bonding interactions. To gain further insight on the nature of binding, the total interaction energy was decomposed into its physically meaningful components and selected sections of the potential energy surface were calculated. Moreover, we found that H{sup -} can easily covalently bind to one of the carbon atoms of benzene to form a stable C{sub 6}H{sub 7}{sup -} anion, a global minimum on the potential energy surface, characterized by a puckered geometry, with a carbon atom bending out of the benzene plane. A slightly less stable planar C{sub 6}H{sub 7}{sup -} structure was also identified, corresponding to the transition state for the flipping motion of the puckered species.

  17. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of metal hydride based hydrogen storage systems using in-situ Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bellosta von Colbe, J. M.; Bücherl, T.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-10-01

    For the storage of hydrogen, complex metal hydrides are considered as highly promising with respect to capacity, reversibility and safety. The optimization of corresponding storage tanks demands a precise and time-resolved investigation of the hydrogen distribution in scaled-up metal hydride beds. In this study it is shown that in situ fission Neutron Radiography provides unique insights into the spatial distribution of hydrogen even for scaled-up compacts and therewith enables a direct study of hydrogen storage tanks. A technique is introduced for the precise quantification of both time-resolved data and a priori material distribution, allowing inter alia for an optimization of compacts manufacturing process. For the first time, several macroscopic fields are combined which elucidates the great potential of Neutron Imaging for investigations of metal hydrides by going further than solely 'imaging' the system: A combination of in-situ Neutron Radiography, IR-Thermography and thermodynamic quantities can reveal the interdependency of different driving forces for a scaled-up sodium alanate pellet by means of a multi-correlation analysis. A decisive and time-resolved, complex influence of material packing density is derived. The results of this study enable a variety of new investigation possibilities that provide essential information on the optimization of future hydrogen storage tanks.

  18. Hydrides in young stellar objects: Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow system

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, A.O.; Dominik, C.; Visser, R.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements are fundamental molecules in cosmic chemistry. Some of them trace gas irradiated by UV or X-rays. Aims. We explore the abundances of major hydrides in W3 IRS5, a prototypical region of high-mass star formation. Methods. W3 IRS5 was observed by HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory with deep integration (≃2500 s) in 8 spectral regions. Results. The target lines including CH, NH, H_3O^+, and the new molecules SH^+, H_2O^+, and OH...

  19. Hydride development for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.; Yang, N.Y.C. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Sandrock, G. [SunaTech, Inc., Ringwood, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate improved hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The work currently is organized into four tasks: hydride development, bed fabrication, materials support for engineering systems, and IEA Annex 12 activities. At the present time, hydride development is focused on Mg alloys. These materials generally have higher weight densities for storing hydrogen than rare earth or transition metal alloys, but suffer from high operating temperatures, slow kinetic behavior and material stability. The authors approach is to study bulk alloy additions which increase equilibrium overpressure, in combination with stable surface alloy modification and particle size control to improve kinetic properties. This work attempts to build on the considerable previous research in this area, but examines specific alloy systems in greater detail, with attention to known phase properties and structures. The authors have found that specific phases can be produced which have significantly improved hydride properties compared to previous studies.

  20. A Novel In-Flight Space Battery Health Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buergler Brandon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a novel health assessment system is proposed by which a more straight forward and accurate assessment of the battery health in terms of capacity and energy can be performed. The proposed system consists to use one or some battery string(s, which can be safely disconnected via the PCDU (Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit from the battery for a dedicated capacity measurement while the main part of the battery continues to operate normally. In this paper, the viability of the proposed system is demonstrated and the implications on the battery and the power system are discussed.

  1. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  2. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  3. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  4. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the...

  5. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  6. Battery-Aware Scheduling of Mixed Criticality Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    Wireless systems such as satellites and sensor networks are often battery-powered. To operate optimally they must therefore take the performance properties of real batteries into account. Additionally, these systems, and therefore their batteries, are often exposed to loads with uncertain timings....... Mixed criticality and soft real-time systems may accept deadline violations and therefore enable trade-offs and evaluation of performance by criteria such as the number of tasks that can be completed with a given battery. We model a task set in combination with the kinetic battery model as a stochastic...... model we also calculate an upper bound on the attainable number of task instances from a battery, and we provide a battery-aware scheduler that wastes no energy on instances that are not guaranteed to make their deadlines....

  7. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  8. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  9. Lightweight hydrides for automotive storage of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohy, D. A.; Nachman, J. F.; Argabright, T. A.

    The primary objectives of the considered investigations are related to the reduction of the dissociation temperature of lightweight materials, and the development of new lightweight hydrides containing little, if any, critical material. Attention is given to the characteristics of metal hydrides, the characteristics of a magnesium-base alloy which is to be employed in hydrogen storage systems for automobiles, aspects of alloy development, and the evaluation of magnesium hydride alloys with the aid of a hydride cycling rig. New information concerning the effect of cycling on magnesium alloys is discussed.

  10. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  11. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  12. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  13. Absorber for removing antimony hydride and arsenic hydride from oxyhydrogen gas mixtures occuring in the operation of lead batteries. Absorber zur Entfernung von Antimonwasserstoff und Arsenwasserstoff aus beim Betrieb von Bleiakkumulatoren entstehenden Knallgasgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahme, N.; Sassmannshausen, G.

    1984-04-26

    The absorber according to the invention for removing Sb H/sub 3/ and As H/sub 3/ consists of copper oxide applied on a granular carrier (eg. clay gel). This absorber material may be provided with additional iron oxide. This gives a longer life of the lead acid battery.

  14. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Che Yanbo; Zhou Yan; Sun Yue; Hu Bo

    2013-01-01

    As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of t...

  15. Optimization of spacecraft battery charger/discharger systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sable, Daniel Mark

    1991-01-01

    This ,vork develops a methodology to facilitate the optimum design of spacecraft power processing systems. Em phasis is placed on the battery charge and discharge systems. A comparison of several battery charge and discharge topologies is presented. Characteristics \\vhich effect the overall system performance are addressed including size, weight, efficiency, dynamic performance, electromagnetic interference, and reliability. A detailed comparison, using nonlinear design opti...

  16. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  17. Hydridic and electrocatalytic properties of hypo-hyper-d-electronic combinations of transition metal intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaksic, J.M. [University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Chemistry; Krstajic, N.V.; rgur, B.N.; Jaksic, M.M. [University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy

    1998-12-01

    Hydridic and electrocatalytic properties of hypo-hyper-d-electronic combinations of transition metals in their intermetallic phases and alloys for the hydrogen storage, hydridic batteries and its electrode reactions (HELR) have been considered in the light of Fermi dynamics (or the electronic density of states), work function and the Brewer or Miedema intermetallic bonding theory (structural factors). It has been pointed out that such an intermetallic hypo-hyper-d-electronic interaction of transition metals (or the doped effect of a hyper-d- upon the bulk or surface of a hypo-d-electronic metal, or vice versa), which leads to the defined optimal mutual (bulk or surface) electronic density of states for both hydridic storage and/or electrocatalytic reaction (cathodic evolution (HER) and/or anodic oxidation (HOR) of hydrogen), imposes the same catalytic effect as the Non-Faradaic promotion by induced polarization, or the so-called NEMCA effect (Non-Faradaic Electrochemical Modification of Catalytic Activity). The main impact has been imposed on the most promising hydridic battery system (Ti-Ni crystalline and sintered), as well as on typical electrocatalytic issues (Mo-Co, Mo-Ni, Zr-Ni). (author)

  18. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  19. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  20. First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Karl Johnson

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

  1. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  2. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  3. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  4. Battery-Less Electroencephalogram System Architecture Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    person shall be  subject  to any penalty  for failing to comply with a collection of  information  if  it does not display a  currently valid OMB...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES  14. ABSTRACT  15.  SUBJECT  TERMS  16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:    17. LIMITATION        OF          ABSTRACT  18...base to build a larger system as its power consumption would allow it to operate from a AA battery for more than 72 h. While this might be acceptable

  5. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  6. Research of new AB type hydrogen storage materials that can be used as a negative electrode in nickel -metal hydride battery; Recherche de nouveaux composes intermetalliques hydrurables de type AB utilisables comme electrode negative d`accumulateur nickel-hydrure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordy, Ch.

    1994-12-15

    The aim of this work is to determine new AB type hydrogen storage materials that can be used as a negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride battery. The main requested solid-gas hydrogenation properties are as follows : a reversible capacity higher than 400 mAh/g and a plateau pressure close to 0, 01 MPa at 25 deg C. Binary intermetallic compounds have been selected according to their high hydrogen capacity. The thermodynamic properties of the hydride have to be adjusted by partial substitution of the A and/or B elements. The selected binary intermetallic rate to the substitution was based on known thermodynamic models and on criteria on hydrogen atom occupation in interstitial sites. The only alloys, which could have interest, are the one which are homogeneous. Amongst them, the compounds Ti(Fe{sub 1-x}) where M=Ni,Co,Mn,Cr, showed a solid-gas capacity higher than 400 mAh/g and a plateau pressure close to 0,01 MPa at 25 deg C. Nevertheless, the electrochemical capacity is extremely low due to the iron corrosion in concentrated KOH. The electrochemical capacities of (Ti{sub 1-x-y} Zr{sub x}M{sub y})Ni compounds for M=V and Si are the most promising in the AB type since a 350 m Ah/g reversible capacity has been measured bY THE CONSTANT POTENTIAL METHOD. We also showed that the partial zirconium substitution made the martensitic transformation temperature higher. (author)

  7. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  8. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select...... the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used....... The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each...

  9. Photovoltaic System Test Platform with Integrated Battery Energy Storage Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a hybrid simulation and a real-time test platform for developing control systems for photovoltaic (PV) inverters with integrated battery energy storage (BES). The platform consists of a dual-stage single-phase PV inverter system, DC coupled with a full-bridge grid connected...... or directly to a physical PV array. The platform enables real-time testing of PV+BES control systems, including battery (BMS) and energy management systems (EMS), for a variety of battery technologies, which can be modelled in detail and emulated by the full-bridge grid connected inverter. Such flexibility...

  10. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in PROLOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11. A BASIC program running on a PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio, and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system.

  11. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Analysis and modelling of the use of a nickel/metal hydride battery in the Autarkic Hybrid; Analyse und Modellierung des Einsatzes einer Nickel/Metallhydrid-Batterie im Autarken Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, J.; Wagner, U.

    1999-07-01

    The optimal operation of traction batteries in hybrid drive concepts requires a battery analysis and modelling in order to prepare the vehicle integration of the battery. In order to use a Ni/MH battery in the Autarkic Hybrid a battery management was set-up in the frame of the special research field 365, whose development depends on the measuring-technical analysis of the energetic battery performance and on a new method to determine the load condition. The contribution describes how neuronal networks can be used by extending conventional methods in order to better determine the actual load condition of the battery. (orig.) [German] Der optimale Betrieb von Traktionsbatterien in hybriden Antriebskonzepten erfordert die vorherige Batterieanalyse und -modellierung, um die Fahrzeugintegration der Batterie vorzubereiten. Fuer den Einsatz einer Ni/MH-Batterie im Autarken Hybrid wurde im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereichs 365 ein Batteriemanagement aufgebaut, dessen Entwicklung auf der messtechnischen Analyse des energetischen Batterieverhaltens und einem neuen Verfahren der Ladezustandsbestimmung basiert. Der Beitrag beschreibt, wie in Erweiterung herkoemmlicher Methoden neuronale Netze verwendet werden koennen, um den aktuellen Ladezustand der Batterie praeziser zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  13. Systems and methods for distributing power using photovoltaic resources and a shifting battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoli, Andrea A.; Lavrova, Olga; Arellano, Brian; Cheng, Feng; Greenwood, Wesley; Hawkins, Jonathan; Willard, Steve

    2017-06-27

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for delivering energy using a renewable resource. The method includes providing a photovoltaic energy source and applying energy storage to the photovoltaic energy source via a battery storage unit. The energy output from the photovoltaic energy source and the battery system is controlled using a battery control system. The battery control system predicts peak load, develops a schedule that includes when to begin discharging power and when to stop discharging power, shifts power to the battery storage unit when excess power is available, and prioritizes the functionality of the battery storage unit and the photovoltaic energy source.

  14. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  15. Design and Implementation of Battery Management System for Electric Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the electric vehicle (EV has been developed in such a way that electronic motor, battery, and charger replace the engine, tank and gasoline pump of the conventional gasoline-powered [1]. In other word, instead of using fossil fuel to move the vehicle, in this case we used a pack of batteries to move it. The global climate change and the abnormal rising international crude oil prices call for the development of EV [2]. To solve these problems, a new energy needs to be developed or optimized in order to replace the current energy which is fossil fuel. A clean and green energy [2]. Because of this, it is very important to make sure that the battery that being used is reliable as the fossil fuel. Thus, the design of the battery management system plays an important role on battery life preservation and performance improvement of EV [3]. The BMS also performs many tasks including the measurement of system voltage, current and temperature, the cells’ state of charge (SOC, state of health (SOH, remaining useful life (RUL determination, controlling and monitoring the charge / discharge characteristics and cell balancing [3]. For this project, 18650 Lithium-Ion battery is used to develop battery management for 144V 50Ah. As lithium-ion batteries have high value of specific energy, high energy density, high open circuit voltage, and low self-discharge, they are a proper candidate for EVs among other cell chemistries [4].

  16. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  17. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, S. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  18. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  19. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  20. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  1. Generic modelling framework for economic analysis of battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets provide opportunities for Battery Systems (BS) to participate in energy arbitrage and ancillary services (regulation, operating reserves, contingency reserves, voltage regulation, power quality etc.). To evaluate the economic viability of BS with different business...... for battery cycle life estimation, since the cycle life plays a central role in the economic analysis of BS. To illustrate the modelling framework, a case study using a Sodium Sulfur Battery (NAS) system with 5-minute regulating service is performed. The economic performances of two dispatch scenarios, a so...

  2. Advances in battery manufacturing, service, and management systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shiyu; Han, Yehui

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together experts in the field to highlight the cutting edge research advances in BM2S2 and to promote an innovative integrated research framework responding to the challenges. There are three major parts included in this book: manufacturing, service, and management. The first part focuses on battery manufacturing systems, including modeling, analysis, design and control, as well as economic and risk analyses. The second part focuses on information technology’s impact on service systems, such as data-driven reliability modeling, failure prognosis, and service decision making methodologies for battery services. The third part addresses battery management systems (BMS) for control and optimization of battery cells, opera ions, and hybrid storage systems to ensure overall performance and safety, as well as EV management.

  3. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  4. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coughlin, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Neikirk, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fisher, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  5. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongcheol Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems.

  6. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  7. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  8. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage......-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two...

  9. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  10. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wei Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit model for a Li-ion battery. A dynamic model for the battery charging process is then constructed based on the Li-ion battery electrochemical model and the buck-boost power converter dynamic model. The battery charging process forms a system with multiple interconnections. Characteristics, including battery charging system stability margins for each individual operating mode, are analyzed and discussed. Because of supply voltage variation, the system can switch between buck, buck-boost, and boost modes. The system is modeled as a Markov jump system to evaluate the mean square stability of the system. The MATLAB based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the battery charging model.

  11. Development of a MSFIA system for sequential determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Fernanda A; Portugal, Lindomar A; Serra, Antonio M; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-08-15

    This paper proposed a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system for antimony, arsenic and selenium determination in peanut samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The optimization step of the hydride generation was performed using a two-level full factorial design involving the parameters: hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations. So, using the chemical conditions optimized, this method allows the determination of these elements employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for antimony, 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for arsenic and 0.14 and 0.37µgL(-1) for selenium, respectively. Additionally, the effect of vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, zinc, copper, iron and molybdenum on the generation of chemical vapour was also studied. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation varied from 1.2 to 3.6% for antimony, 1.8-3.9% for arsenic and 1.8-2% for selenium. The accuracy for arsenic and selenium was confirmed using the certified peach leaves reference material SRM 1547 produced by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The proposed method showed 45 injection throughput (h(-1)) using 1.6mL sample volume for each element, 0.8mL NaBH4 0.5% (w/v) containing NaOH 0.05% (w/v), 0.8mL HCl 5M and 0.4mL KI 14% (w/v) containing L-ascorbic acid 2.5% (w/v). The method was applied to the determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium in peanut samples, which were firstly lyophilized and afterward digested using microwave assisted radiation. Six samples were analyzed and the contents of the elements found were: 28.7-41.3µgkg(-1) for arsenic, 86.4-480.1µgkg(-1) for selenium and 32.6-52.4µgkg(-1) for antimony. Addition/recovery tests were also performed to confirm the method accuracy for the three elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Hyeongjin; Han, Kyuhong; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS) model, are connected together like in the target r...

  13. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wei Ma; Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit mod...

  14. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  15. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  16. Automated system for on-line determination of dimethylarsinic and inorganic arsenic by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro, L.L.; Leal, L.O. [Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection Department, Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV), Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Ferrer, L.; Cerda, V. [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    A multisyringe flow-injection approach has been coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with UV photo-oxidation for dimethylarsinic (DMA), inorganic As and total As determination, depending on the pre-treatment given to the sample (extraction or digestion). The implementation of a UV lamp allows on-line photo-oxidation of DMA and the following arsenic detection, whereas a bypass leads the flow directly to the HG-AFS system, performing inorganic arsenic determination. DMA concentration is calculated by the difference of total inorganic arsenic and measurement of the photo-oxidation step. The detection limits for DMA and inorganic arsenic were 0.09 and 0.47 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The repeatability values accomplished were of 2.4 and 1.8 %, whereas the injection frequencies were 24 and 28 injections per hour for DMA and inorganic arsenic, respectively. This method was validated by means of a solid reference material BCR-627 (muscle of tuna) with good agreement with the certified values. Satisfactory results for DMA and inorganic arsenic determination were obtained in several water matrices. The proposed method offers several advantages, such as increasing the sampling frequency, low detection limits and decreasing reagents and sample consumption, which leads to lower waste generation. (orig.)

  17. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. Pore-Confined Light Metal Hydrides for Energy Storage and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramwell, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Light metal hydrides have enjoyed several decades of attention in the field of hydrogen storage, but their applications have recently begun to diversify more and more into the broader field of energy storage. For example, light metal hydrides have shown great promise as battery materials, in sensors

  19. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  20. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  1. Battery management systems with thermally integrated fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-07-11

    A thermal management system is integral to a battery pack and/or individual cells. It relies on passive liquid-vapor phase change heat removal to provide enhanced thermal protection via rapid expulsion of inert high pressure refrigerant during abnormal abuse events and can be integrated with a cooling system that operates during normal operation. When a thermal runaway event occurs and sensed by either active or passive sensors, the high pressure refrigerant is preferentially ejected through strategically placed passages within the pack to rapidly quench the battery.

  2. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  3. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  4. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  5. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  6. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  7. A battery ageing model used in stand alone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, A.; Jraidi, M.; Dhouib, A.

    The authors present a new model for the ageing of a lead-acid battery which is based on the initial model of Shepherd. The proposed model allows to predict temporal variations of the Shepherd coefficients and to control the deterioration of the battery parameters and performances. The model validation has been realised by the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm by using long-term measurements under several solicitations. This study will improve the storage section of stand-alone photovoltaic systems and reduce overloads and deep discharges.

  8. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  9. Design and simulation of liquid cooled system for power battery of PHEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Xu, Haijun; Xu, Xiaojun; Pan, Cunyun

    2017-09-01

    Various battery chemistries have different responses to failure, but the most common failure mode of a cell under abusive conditions is the generation of heat and gas. To prevent battery thermal abuse, a battery thermal management system is essential. An excellent design of battery thermal management system can ensure that the battery is working at a suitable temperature and keeps the battery temperature diffenence at 2-3 °C. This paper presents a thermal-elcetric coupling model for a 37Ah lithium battery using AMESim. A liquid cooled system of hybrid electric vehicle power battery is designed to control the battery temperature.A liquid cooled model of thermal management system is built using AMESim, the simulation results showed that the temperature difference within 3°C of cell in the pack.

  10. A Novel Electric Bicycle Battery Monitoring System Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery monitoring system (BMS plays a crucial role in maintaining the safe operation of the lithium battery electric bicycle and prolonging the life of the battery pack. This paper designed a set of new battery monitoring systems based on the Android system and ARM single-chip microcomputer to enable direct management of the lithium battery pack and convenient monitoring of the state of the battery pack. The BMS realizes the goal of monitoring the voltage, current, and ambient temperature of lithium batteries, estimating the state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH, protecting the battery from abuse during charging or discharging, and ensuring the consistency of the batteries by integrating the passive equalization circuit. The BMS was proven effective and feasible through several tests, including charging/discharging, estimation accuracy, and communication tests. The results indicated that the BMS could be used in the design and application of the electric bicycle.

  11. Physical Integration of a Photovoltaic-Battery System : A Thermal Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega Garita, V.E.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Bauer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-battery systems are still expensive, bulky, and space consuming. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel device that combines all the components of a solar-battery system in one device. This device might help reduce installation cost compared to the current solar-battery systems as well as

  12. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  13. Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2014-12-02

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  14. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  15. Battery and electrochemical systems program summary, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, W. H. [ed.

    1978-04-01

    The success of wind and photovoltaic energy conversion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial applications is highly dependent on the development of a cost-effective battery storage system to provide power during periods of no wind or sunlight. The use of 3 to 9 million electric cars by the year 2000 will result in an oil saving from 35 to 90 million barrels per year. During FY 1977, STOR committed $13.3 million of its funds to these electrochemical programs, and managed an additional $5.6 million for the Division of Transportation Energy Conservation to develop near-term batteries for electric vehicles. This publication consists of summaries of all these programs, including contractors, major subcontracts, names of program managers, funding, and a brief description of the objectives and status of each program.

  16. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  17. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  18. Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Magnesium-Alloy Hydrides Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As potential hydrogen storage media, magnesium based hydrides have been systematically studied in order to improve reversibility, storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics. The present article deals with the electrochemical and optical properties of Mg alloy hydrides. Electrochemical hydrogenation, compared to conventional gas phase hydrogen loading, provides precise control with only moderate reaction conditions. Interestingly, the alloy composition determines the crystallographic nature of the metal-hydride: a structural change is induced from rutile to fluorite at 80 at.% of Mg in Mg-TM alloy, with ensuing improved hydrogen mobility and storage capacity. So far, 6 wt.% (equivalent to 1600 mAh/g of reversibly stored hydrogen in MgyTM(1-yHx (TM: Sc, Ti has been reported. Thin film forms of these metal-hydrides reveal interesting electrochromic properties as a function of hydrogen content. Optical switching occurs during (dehydrogenation between the reflective metal and the transparent metal hydride states. The chronological sequence of the optical improvements in optically active metal hydrides starts with the rare earth systems (YHx, followed by Mg rare earth alloy hydrides (MgyGd(1-yHx and concludes with Mg transition metal hydrides (MgyTM(1-yHx. In-situ optical characterization of gradient thin films during (dehydrogenation, denoted as hydrogenography, enables the monitoring of alloy composition gradients simultaneously.

  19. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  20. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available . The slope surface generally face south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere. Sometimes panels are installed on adjustable tracking devices. Solar angle calculations are also needed in those cases. The site longitude is used....................................................................................................... 18 2.6 Solar Resource Characterization ......................................................................... 20 2.7 Energy dispatch strategy ..................................................................................... 23 2.8 System...

  1. Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    unanswered. the light of current knowledge and re- For example, recent termination of a CaCrO 4 quirements may be helpiul. manufacturing source...so few elec- .ind b king proceo , res.48 The DEB pellets are trochemical systems have been used or uAsuall) made from a homog( ieous powder, studied

  2. A 6.6-kV Transformerless Battery Energy Storage System Based on a Cascade Multilevel PWM Converter: Experimental Verification by a 200-V, 10-kW, 3.6-kWh Laboratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigenori; Maharjan, Laxman; Asakura, Jun; Akagi, Hirofumi

    Renewable energy sources such as wind turbine generators and photovoltaics are intermittent in nature, thus resulting in fluctuating electric power. Leveling of their electric power is indispensable to realize large-scale renewable energy sources, and to avoid severe power quality problems when they are interconnected into the grid. A battery energy storage system (BESS), combining batteries with a power converter and digital control, should be installed in the vicinity of an intermittent energy source. The fluctuating power is compensated by appropriately controlling an active power stored in, or released from, the battery. This paper describes a 6.6-kV transformerless battery energy storage system based on a cascade multilevel PWM (pulse-width-modulation) converter, with focus on a control method for active power and SOC (state-of-charge) balancing. A down-scaled 200-V, 10-kW, 3.6-kWh (13-MJ) laboratory model using nine NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) battery packs is designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the 6.6-kV system.

  3. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  4. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  5. Chances of new battery systems; Chancen neuer Batteriesysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garche, J. [Geschaeftsbereich Energiespeicherung und Energiewandlung, Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Ulm (Germany); Willer, B. [Abt. Energiespeichertechnik im Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The working principle of electrochemical power sources is described. Commercial available systems as well as systems under development (systems with aqueous electrolytes, high temperature batteries, Li-systems, and metal-air-systems) are discussed based on the present status of development work, and their chance for applications. Novel applications such as electric vehicle propulsion, production of electric energy, network controlling, and regenerative energy systems are discussed. This discussion is focussed on PV applications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Arbeitsprinzip elektrochemischer Speichersysteme wird beschrieben. Die verfuegbaren und sich in Entwicklung befindlichen Speichersysteme, untergliedert nach Systemen mit waessrigen Elektrolyten, Hochtemperaturbatterien, Li-Systeme und Metall-Luft-Systeme werden auf der Basis des Status, der gegenwaertigen Entwicklungsarbeiten und ihrer Einsatzchancen betrachtet. Die Moeglichkeit des Einsatzes dieser Systeme in den ``neuen`` Anwendungen wie Elektroauto, Elektroenergieerzeugung, Netzregelelemente und regenerative Energien wird diskutiert. Auf die PV-Anwendung wird naeher eingegangen. (orig.)

  6. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  7. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  8. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  9. Design and Implementation of Novel Smart Battery Management System for FPGA Based Portable Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangrong Xue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and design of a smart battery management system for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA based portable electronic devices. It is a novel concept of incorporating the functionality of a smart battery management system into the FPGA used by portable electronic devices, which provides the following advantages. (1 It lowers cost since the conventional commercial independent battery management circuit can be eliminated; (2 It offers more flexibility because FPGA based battery management algorithms can be specifically designed for different battery chemistries of different devices and can provide the flexibility of algorithms and functionalities updating as well. Smart battery management system concepts include four aspects: (1 smart charging; (2 battery balancing; (3 smart discharging; and (4 safety operating. One novel charging algorithm, which combines the merits of multistage charging and pulse charging, is proposed to charge a Li-ion battery pack smartly. A Proportional Integral (PI control method is introduced to achieve the current control of charging circuit with considerable close loop stability. Simulation results from the PSIM 9.0.4 software package and experimental results from the prototype built in the lab are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of smart charging. The realizations of battery balancing, smart discharging, and safety operating are also briefly described by taking advantage of the proposed FPGA based smart battery management system topology, which verify the feasibility of the proposed FPGA based smart battery management system for portable electronic devices.

  10. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an overview of batteries and compares their technical properties such as the cycle life, power and energy densities, efficiencies and the costs. It proposes an optimal battery technology sizing and selection strategy, and then assesses the environmental impact of batteries in a typical renewable energy application by using a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system as a case study. The greenhouse gas (GHG impact of the batteries is evaluated based on the life cycle emission rate parameter. Results reveal that the battery has a significant impact in the energy system, with a GHG impact of about 36–68% in a 1.5 kW PV system for different locations. The paper discusses new batteries, strategies to minimize battery impact and provides insights into the selection of batteries with improved cycling capacity, higher lifespan and lower cost that can achieve lower environmental impacts for future applications.

  11. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  12. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha S [Tampa, FL; Niemann, Michael U [Venice, FL; Goswami, D Yogi [Tampa, FL; Stefanakos, Elias K [Tampa, FL

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  13. Copolymerization of 1-hexene and 1-dodecene with 1,3-butadiene by a versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate an alpha-olefin (1-hexene or 1-dodecene in a high cis polybutadiene chain, using a neodymium versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system. The influence of alpha-olefin on polymerization reaction and polymer characteristics, using different weight ratios of butadiene/α-olefin, was evaluated. The copolymers were characterized by SEC, FTIR, NMR, TGA and viscosimetric analysis. The thermal stability of the polymer tended to increase with incorporation of alpha-olefins, while its microstructure was not affected. The weight average molecular mass (Mw tended to increase and the polymerization conversion tended to decrease with increasing alpha-olefins content. The copolymers showed a lower intrinsic viscosity than for the homopolymer. The results indicated that the alpha-olefins were incorporated in the polybutadiene chain.

  14. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  15. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs. An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors

  16. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  17. Numerical estimation of heat distribution from the implantable battery system of an undulation pump LVAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Makino, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Mochizuki, Shu-ichi; Imachi, Kou; Inoue, Yusuke; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing an implantable battery system using three series-connected lithium ion batteries having an energy capacity of 1,800 mAh to drive an undulation pump left ventricular assist device. However, the lithium ion battery undergoes an exothermic reaction during the discharge phase, and the temperature rise of the lithium ion battery is a critical issue for implantation usage. Heat generation in the lithium ion battery depends on the intensity of the discharge current, and we obtained a relationship between the heat flow from the lithium ion battery q(c)(I) and the intensity of the discharge current I as q(c)(I) = 0.63 x I (W) in in vitro experiments. The temperature distribution of the implantable battery system was estimated by means of three-dimentional finite-element method (FEM) heat transfer analysis using the heat flow function q(c)(I), and we also measured the temperature rise of the implantable battery system in in vitro experiments to conduct verification of the estimation. The maximum temperatures of the lithium ion battery and the implantable battery case were measured as 52.2 degrees C and 41.1 degrees C, respectively. The estimated result of temperature distribution of the implantable battery system agreed well with the measured results using thermography. In conclusion, FEM heat transfer analysis is promising as a tool to estimate the temperature of the implantable lithium ion battery system under any pump current without the need for animal experiments, and it is a convenient tool for optimization of heat transfer characteristics of the implantable battery system.

  18. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  19. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  20. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC micro...

  1. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerek Ömer Nezih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015–2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  2. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezih Gerek, Ömer; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Filik, Tansu

    2017-11-01

    Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system) for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015-2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure) are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  3. Multi-module parallel small battery energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.J.; Liaw, C.M. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Chang, W.C.; Chang, W.Y. [Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Power Research Inst.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a multi-module parallel single-phase battery energy storage system (BESS). The single module BESS to be paralleled consists of only a full-bridge converter. When the utility is in normal condition, the BESS serves as a power conditioner as well as an active power filter. It can be arranged to charge the battery bank or to share daily peak load. In any case, the current supplied by the utility can be maintained sinusoidal and almost in phase with voltage. When the utility power failure happens, the BESS functions as an inverter to supply uninterruptible power to the load. With the good current sharing feature possessed by this BESS, a central power distribution control scheme with smooth current transfer characteristic is proposed to control the parallel operation of the multimodule BESS. The current sharing of each BESS module can be programmed according to its rating and the load condition. Designs of the power circuit, and the central power distribution control scheme are described in detail in this paper. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed parallel BESS are demonstrated by some experimental results.

  4. Crash analysis of a conceptual electric vehicle with a multifunctional battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Jaspreet S.

    For current electric vehicles, batteries are employed only as an energy source. Due to safety concerns, the space for battery storage is co-allocated with passenger space, which would constrain the design for the vehicle. An architectured multifunctional battery-structure material, namely Granular Battery Assembly (GBA), has been proposed by Tsutsui et al., 2014. Such a material system utilizes the deformation of sacrificing tubes to dissipate impact energy and protect the battery cells, thereby allowing the batteries to be placed in the front crumple zone of an electric vehicle, while also ensuring occupant safety. The primary focus of this study was vehicle level design analysis of GBA for application in an electric vehicle. A parametric study was performed to determine suitable characteristics of the GBA system for installation in a vehicle. To reduce computational cost, a homogenized material was used to represent GBA in the finite element model of the vehicle. Frontal crash simulation of a vehicle with GBA placed in crumple zone was performed on LS-DYNA platform.The crash response was used to demonstrate the utility of GBA mechanism to keep the batteries and passengers safe. The incorporation of GBA into an electric vehicle would allow for battery space to be decoupled from passenger space, thereby increasing the vehicle design freedom. Use of the crumple zone for battery storage would also result in increasing the available battery space.

  5. Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.

  6. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  7. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  8. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method for determining firstly, the optimal rating......Connecting renewable power plants to the grid must comply with certain codes and requirements. One requirement is the ramp rate constraint, which must be fulfilled in order to avoid penalties. As this service becomes compulsory with an increased grid penetration of renewable, all possible solutions...... of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...

  9. Battery and charge controller evaluations in small stand-alone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, J. R.; Thomas, M. G.; Stevens, J. W.; Dunlop, J. L.; Swamy, M. R.; Demetrius, L.; Harrington, S. R.

    1994-12-01

    We report the results of two separate long-term tests of batteries and charge controllers in small stand-alone PV systems. In these experiments, seven complete systems were tested for two years at each of two locations: Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque and the Florida Solar Energy Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Each system contained a PV array, flooded-lead-acid battery, a charge controller and a resistive load. Performance of the systems was strongly influenced by the difference in solar irradiance at the two sites, with some batteries at Sandia exceeding manufacturer's predictions for cycle life. System performance was strongly correlated with regulation reconnect voltage (R(sup 2) correlation coefficient = 0.95) but only weakly correlated with regulation voltage. We will also discuss details of system performance, battery lifetime and battery water consumption.

  10. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 1: Battery and Cranking System. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson-Roberts, Ludy; And Others

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 1, Battery and Cranking System. Focus of the posttests is the testing of the battery and cranking system. Four multiple choice posttests are provided, one for each of the performance objectives contained in the unit. (No answer keys are provided.)…

  11. Li-ion battery cooling system integrates in nano-fluid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lien; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez, Jesus; Uriostegui, Altovely; Barrera, Avery; Wiggins, Nathanial

    2017-02-01

    In this design challenge by the Texas Space Grant Consortium, the researchers design a cooling system for a lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries are an effective and reliable source of energy for small, portable devices. However, similar to other existing sources of energy, there is always a problem with overheating. The objective is to design a cooling system for lithium-ion batteries that will work in a zero gravity environment for orbital and interplanetary space systems. The system is to serve as a backup battery and a signal booster that can be incorporated into a spacesuit. The design must be able to effectively cool the batteries without the use of an atmosphere to carry away heat but also be a lightweight and reliable design. The design incorporates carbon nanotubes suspended in distilled water creating a nano-fluid environment. This design must include a failsafe in the event of thermal runaway, a problem common to lithium-ion batteries. This failsafe will completely shut off the system if the batteries reach a certain temperature. A cooling system that incorporates nano-fluids will achieve a lightweight and efficient way of cooling batteries.

  12. Prediction study on the degeneration of lithium-ion battery based on fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian Ping

    2017-07-01

    The degradation degree prediction of lithium-ion battery has been studied through experimental data. Characterization parameters on the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery were deduced under consideration of the internal and external factors. The analysis of discrete degree was proposed to depict the degradation degree for lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, based on fuzzy inference system (FIS), the predicted model of the degradation degree for lithium-ion battery was built and its output was defined as the degenerate coefficient β, β ∈ [0, 1]. Finally, by learning, training and simulating, the FIS model has been validated to be reliable and applicable in prediction on the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery. The simulation results show that the degradation degree of lithium-ion battery is more serious when β is closer to 1, and the degradation degree is lighter when β is closer to 0.

  13. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel...... a certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operating window. The second is a non-linear static model, while the third takes into account first...

  14. Functional Analysis of Battery Management Systems using Multi-Cell HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller HW and SW, such as analog front-end (AFE) and performance of generated control code. In comparison with tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL......, characterized and validated based on experimental data, converted to C code and emulated in real-time with a dSpace HIL simulator. The BMS to be tested interacts with the emulated battery pack as if it was managing a real battery pack. BMS functions such as protection, measuring of current, voltage...

  15. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  16. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor OPAMP Operational Amplifiers RMS Root, Mean, Square SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy... resistance in cells developed during repeated discharge and charge cycles, the voltage of individual Li-ion batteries in strings must be...cell shunting, resistive equalization, and transformer equalization. All of these methods rely on using either resistive means to dissipate energy

  17. Hybrid battery/supercapacitor energy storage system for the electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchachvili, Lia; Yaïci, Wahiba; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently attracted considerable attention and so did the development of the battery technologies. Although the battery technology has been significantly advanced, the available batteries do not entirely meet the energy demands of the EV power consumption. One of the key issues is non-monotonic consumption of energy accompanied by frequent changes during the battery discharging process. This is very harmful to the electrochemical process of the battery. A practical solution is to couple the battery with a supercapacitor, which is basically an electrochemical cell with a similar architecture, but with a higher rate capability and better cyclability. In this design, the supercapacitor can provide the excess energy required while the battery fails to do so. In addition to the battery and supercapacitor as the individual units, designing the architecture of the corresponding hybrid system from an electrical engineering point of view is of utmost importance. The present manuscript reviews the recent works devoted to the application of various battery/supercapacitor hybrid systems in EVs.

  18. A financing system for battery recycling in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordi, H. [BESO, ATAG Ernst and Young, Berne (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The household battery recycling procedures presently in progress in Switzerland are illustrated. Particular attention is devoted to the description of the country`s organizations for providing an efficient battery disposal plan. The financial aspects of this plan are also outlined. (orig.)

  19. Aircraft Battery State of Charge and Charge Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    electrode for oxygen comsumption . This concept divides the functions of charge and discharge and eliminates prob- lems encountered in conventional two...Marathon batteries will be performed at constant low temperatures. Two more aircraft batteries-- General Electric and one to be furnished by the

  20. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  1. The challenge to the automotive battery industry: the battery has to become an increasingly integrated component within the vehicle electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Eberhard; Richter, Gerolf

    During the time that the automotive battery was considered to be just a passive component in a vehicle electric power system, the battery industry's answer to all new challenges was constructive improvements. The emerging requirements of even higher function reliability cannot, however be met this way. A battery manufacturer of today has to give recommendations for the appropriate choice of the electrical architecture and has to design batteries that suit best the requirements. In addition, manufactures have to be engaged in the technology of battery management, of battery monitoring and state detection, and performance of prediction under future operation conditions. During service on-board a vehicle, battery performance undergoes significant changes, e.g., loss of storage capability, increase in internal resistance, and changes in voltage characteristics. These ageing processes have to be considered when the electrical architecture is being designed and management strategies are being formulated. Battery monitoring and state detection must be able to identify and quantify battery degradation. Moreover, performance prediction as well as management strategies have to be corrected on account of the changing battery characteristics.

  2. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...

  3. Behavior Patterns, Origin of Problems and Solutions Regarding Hysteresis Phenomena in Complex Battery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    to estimate the correct SoC or energy content of the battery consequently limiting operation life of the battery pack. Therefore, novel and more cutting-edge hysteresis management strategies are required to be able to prevent securely the energy storage system from ever facing these critical circumstances...

  4. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  5. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Larsen, K.G.; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact of

  6. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric...... vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  7. Experimental performances of a battery thermal management system using a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémery, Charles-Victor; Pra, Franck; Robin, Jean-François; Marty, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for mobility because electric vehicles (EV) are an environmentally friendly mean of transport. With age, Li-ion cells show a more resistive behavior leading to extra heat generation. Another kind of problem called thermal runway arises when the cell is too hot, what happens in case of overcharge or short circuit. In order to evaluate the effect of these defects at the whole battery scale, an air-cooled battery module was built and tested, using electrical heaters instead of real cells for safety reasons. A battery thermal management system based on a phase change material is developed in that study. This passive system is coupled with an active liquid cooling system in order to initialize the battery temperature at the melting of the PCM. This initialization, or PCM solidification, can be performed during a charge for example, in other words when the energy from the network is available.

  8. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  9. An online framework for state of charge determination of battery systems using combined system identification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Mulder, Grietus; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, an online state of charge (SoC) estimation framework is proposed, designed and implemented using the system identification approaches. The techniques are composed of cross combination between two modified nonlinear optimisation algorithms (modified Genetic Algorithm and modified Levenberg Marquardt) adapted for battery cell parameter estimation. Subsequently a linear recursive Kalman filter is employed to estimate the state parameters of the battery cell. Moreover, a newly statistical approach is developed to encounter hysteresis phenomena within the cell. The prerequisite for the SoC determination in the electrical vehicle (EV) is challenging as the battery can be composed of hundreds of cells while the load current changes dramatically inside the cells and the required elapsed time for SoC determination should be as short as possible to extend the expected lifetime of the battery pack. Thus, the accurate estimation of the SoC of the cells in a battery pack is one of the key factors for using them effectively. The framework is found to be robust, optimal and implementable in time constrained environment with acceptable accuracy.

  10. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  11. Control and Management of Energy in a PV System Equipped with Batteries Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirech, Kamal; Melhaoui, Mustapha; Kassmi, Khalil; Malek, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage...

  12. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  13. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  14. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  15. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  16. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  17. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Temperature excursions and non-uniformity of the temperature inside the battery systems are the main concern and drawback for any attempt to scale-up battery cells to the larger sizes as required for high power applications. The applications may include electric generating stations, substations...... this come with the very high expense of accelerated capacity fade i.e. ageing. Subsequently the lifetime of the battery system is reduced. Moreover poor performance (limited capacity availability) is observed at low operating temperature. In addition, excessive or uneven temperature rise in a system or pack...

  18. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  19. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1, high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.

  20. Applications technology satellites battery and power system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Bemis, B.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the ATS battery design which is onboard the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) is provided. The 15 ampere hour nickel cadmium cells were manufactured by Gulton, 19 series connected cells per battery, and there are two batteries in each spacecraft. The operating design life was two years in a synchronous orbit, and a maximum depth of discharge of 50 percent. The design temperature for the batteries in the spacecraft was 0 to 25 C, and the charge control consisted of 1 volt versus temperature on a constant percentage voltage. Also, C/10 current limit, and a commandable trickle charge rate, using C/20 or C/60. The undervoltage was sent across a 9 cell and a 10 cell group, and it was set at one volt average per group on either group.

  1. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  2. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Lin Lai; Li-Chih Chang; Tai-Hwa Liu; Yi-Chun Sung; Cheng-Lun Yin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs) of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs), coupling cable lines (CCLs), and small radiation patches (SRPs). The RFID sensing system ...

  3. Complex metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten Brix

    2014-01-01

    og batterier de to mest lovende energibærere til mobile applikationer. Komplekse metalhydrider er blevet undersøgt i vid udstrækning over de sidste tyve år, siden de gravimetrisk og volumetrisk kan indeholde store mængder brint. Derfor er metal borhydrider velegnet til faststofopbevaring af brint...

  4. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  5. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  6. Development of automotive battery systems capable of surviving modern underhood environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) battery in today's automobile typically finds itself in an engine compartment that is jammed with mechanical, electrical, and electronic devices. The spacing of these devices precludes air movement and, thus, heat transfer out of the compartment. Furthermore, many of the devices, in addition to the internal combustion engine, actually generate heat. The resulting underhood environment is extremely hostile to thermally-sensitive components, especially the battery. All indications point to a continuation of this trend towards higher engine-compartment temperatures as future vehicles evolve. The impact of ambient temperature on battery life is clearly demonstrated in the failure-mode analysis conducted by the Battery Council International in 1990. This study, when combined with additional failure-mode analyses, vehicle systems simulation, and elevated temperature life testing, provides insight into the potential for extension of life of batteries. Controlled fleet and field tests are used to document and quantify improvements in product design. Three approaches to battery life extension under adverse thermal conditions are assessed, namely: (i) battery design; (ii) thermal management, and (iii) alternative battery locations. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches (both individually and in combination) for original equipment and aftermarket applications are explored.

  7. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Jongerden, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact...... of usage (charge and discharge) profiles on cycle life. The wear score function can not only be used to rank different usage profiles, these rankings can also be used as a criterion for optimizing the overall lifetime of a battery-powered system. We perform such an optimization on a nano-satellite case...

  8. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    Operating conditions in off-grid renewable energy systems (RES) vary significantly in different applications and locations. To describe RES and the operating conditions of their components it is useful to define categories of similar operating conditions. Categories can also be used for lifetime...... for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  9. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  10. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  11. Hydride Olefin complexes of tantalum and niobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, Aan Hendrik

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on low-valent tantalum and niobium hydride and alkyl complexes, particularly the dicyclopentadienyl tantalum hydride olefin complexes Cp2Ta(H)L (L=olefin). ... Zie: Summary

  12. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  13. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical...... generation smart grids, for instance, photovoltaic (PV) with battery users. Additionally, the stakeholders in the energy sector are anticipating higher market share of the battery system as different battery powered system is penetrating into the consumer market. Currently, there is a revolution going...... on the power-system domain. The dumb grids are turning into a smart grid that contains computer intelligence and networking abilities to accommodate dispersed renewable generations (e.g. solar, wind power, geothermal, wave energy and so forth). The battery takes a primary role both as stationary...

  14. Electronic integration of fuel cell and battery system in novel hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter; Jostins, John; Hilmansen, Stuart; Kendall, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to integrate a lithium ion battery pack, together with its management system, into a hydrogen fuel cell drive train contained in a lightweight city car. Electronic units were designed to link the drive train components using conventional circuitry. These were built, tested and shown to perform according to the design. These circuits allowed start-up of battery management system, motor controller, fuel cell warm-up and torque monitoring. After assembling the fuel cell and battery in the vehicle, full system tests were performed. Analysis of results from vehicle demonstrations showed operation was satisfactory. The conclusion was that the electronic integration was successful, but the design needed optimisation and fine tuning. Eight vehicles were then fitted with the electronically integrated fuel cell-battery power pack. Trials were then started to test the integration more fully, with a duration of 12 months from 2011 to 2012 in the CABLED project.

  15. Speculations on the existence of hydride ions in proton conducting oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical and physical nature of the hydride ion is briefly treated. Several reactions of the hydride ion in oxides or oxygen atmosphere are given, A number of perovskites and inverse perovskites are listed. which contain the H- ion on the oxygen or B-anion sites in the archetype ABO(3) System...

  16. Compensation Effect in the Hydrogenation/Dehydrogenation Kinetics of Metal Hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.; Vegge, T.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2005-01-01

    The possible existence of a compensation effect, i.e. concurrent changes in activation energy and prefactor, is investigated for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation kinetics of metal hydrides, by analyzing a series of reported kinetic studies on Mg and LaNi5 based hydrides. For these systems, we...

  17. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  18. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Lithium-Ion Battery for Launch Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    55 Appendix 1—Summary OF EWR 127-1 Requirements for Batteries Brought to the Launch Site . 57...Regarding EWR 127-1 Requirements for System Safety for Flight and Aerospace Ground Equipment Lithium-Ion Batteries.” Aerospace Report No. TOR-2004...requirements specific to lithium-ion batteries generated after EWR 127-1 was released. If a sealed battery design is used, a pressure relief device such as

  19. Structures of battery- and energy management systems using lead-acid batteries and ultracaps; Strukturen von Batterie- und Energiemanagementsystemen mit Bleibatterien und Ultracaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, D.

    2007-07-01

    The publication presents methods of damage-free operation of lead batteries in electric road vehicles. The original charging method used in the citySTROMer car was based on the total voltage, causing permanent overload and fast ageing of modules. The charge state of the vehicle is defined on the basis of the residual charge state, a charge balance, and an evaluation of the temperature-compensated minimum module voltage. The time when current limiting is necessary is recognized reliably, and the charge state indicator works reliably soon after starting. The vehicle has an integrated power-assist store. Ultracap modules of various capacities were characterized in the laboratory. A variant was constructed in which the battery is discharged permanently with average driving current while the ultracap is used for making up the difference to the load at a given moment. The load cases for power-assist were identified on the basis of real driving cycles. The system can be described as an onboard dual-voltage system. The higher voltage of the ultracap provides higher power for acceleration. The availability of the ultracap is ensured in 90 percent of all accelerations. The first battery set installed in the car is now in its fourth winter, with a mileage of nearly 7000 km. In March 2006, 63 Ah were recorded in battery driving cycle in urban traffic at temperatures below freezing point. After commissioning in May 2002, 71 Ah were recorded. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit entwickelt Verfahren zum schaedigungsfreien Betrieb von Bleibatterien in elektrischen Strassenfahrzeugen. Das urspruenglich im untersuchten citySTROMer eingesetzte Ladeverfahren war an der Gesamtspannung orientiert und hat Module hoeherer Spannungslage ueberladen. Die permanente Ueberladung fuehrt zu einem sehr schnellen Alterungsprozess. Die Ladezustandsbestimmung im Fahrzeug erfolgt ueber die Bestimmung des Restladegrades, eine Ladungsbilanzierung und die Auswertung der temperaturkompensierten

  20. Simultaneous determination of hydride and non-hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzo, Z. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Altos de Pipe, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Matos-Reyes, M.N.; Cervera, M.L.; Guardia, M. de la, E-mail: m.luisa.cervera@uv.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    The operating characteristics of a dual nebulization system were studied including instrumental and chemical conditions for the hydride generation and analytical figures of merit for both, hydride and non hydride forming elements. Analytical performance of the nebulization system was characterized by detection limits from 0.002 to 0.0026 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for the hydride forming elements and between 0.0034 and 0.0121 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for the non-hydride forming elements, relative standard deviation for 10 replicate measurements at 0.25 mg L{sup -1} level and recovery percentages between 97 and 103%. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated in the simultaneous determination of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn, As, Bi, Sb, Se, and Te in the NIST 1549 (non-fat milk powder), NIST 1570a (spinach leaves), DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas) certified samples for trace elements. Results found were in good agreement with the certified ones. (author)

  1. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  2. How the systems approach is determining automotive battery design and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean; Stephany, Jean-Marie; Sheppelman, Todd

    Today, the battery in a vehicle system is specific and designed as a single, stand-alone vehicle product. Traditionally, customer specifications were the driving force behind battery design and application requirements. This method is not able to comprehend the fluctuating requirements of real-time, vehicle systems. Growing competition in the automotive market is increasing customer needs and expectations in regards to cost, weight, size efficiency, time-to-market, and quality of the products and systems. System engineering is a service that Delco Remy, as an electrical power system supplier, offers to help their customers secure gains in the market place. System development and application engineering is essential for the development of performance-optimized components that meet the systems and total vehicle cost, reliability and timing objectives. The battery integration must be managed through the electrical power system during the complete vehicle development process in order to increase ultimately customer satisfaction.

  3. A Rule Based Energy Management System of Experimental Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and efficient rule based energy management system for battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS used in electric vehicles is presented. The objective of the proposed energy management system is to focus on exploiting the supercapacitor characteristics and on increasing the battery lifetime and system efficiency. The role of the energy management system is to yield battery reference current, which is subsequently used by the controller of the DC/DC converter. First, a current controller is designed to realize load current distribution between battery and supercapacitor. Then a voltage controller is designed to ensure the supercapacitor SOC to fluctuate within a preset reasonable variation range. Finally, a commercial experimental platform is developed to verify the proposed control strategy. In addition, the energy efficiency and the cost analysis of the hybrid system are carried out based on the experimental results to explore the most cost-effective tradeoff.

  4. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  5. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene butadiene rubber and acrylic acid copolymer as binder to figure out lithium-ion battery with 2.5Ah, which is testified to present better performance on cold temperature & cycle life plus having a little bit swelling compared with the lithium-ion battery using only styrene butadiene rubber as binder.

  6. Mathematical analysis and coordinated current allocation control in battery power module systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiji; Zhang, Liang

    2017-12-01

    As the major energy storage device and power supply source in numerous energy applications, such as solar panels, wind plants, and electric vehicles, battery systems often face the issue of charge imbalance among battery cells/modules, which can accelerate battery degradation, cause more energy loss, and even incur fire hazard. To tackle this issue, various circuit designs have been developed to enable charge equalization among battery cells/modules. Recently, the battery power module (BPM) design has emerged to be one of the promising solutions for its capability of independent control of individual battery cells/modules. In this paper, we propose a new current allocation method based on charging/discharging space (CDS) for performance control in BPM systems. Based on the proposed method, the properties of CDS-based current allocation with constant parameters are analyzed. Then, real-time external total power requirement is taken into account and an algorithm is developed for coordinated system performance control. By choosing appropriate control parameters, the desired system performance can be achieved by coordinating the module charge balance and total power efficiency. Besides, the proposed algorithm has complete analytical solutions, and thus is very computationally efficient. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using simulations.

  7. Functional Analysis of Battery Management Systems using Multi-Cell HIL Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2015-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller HW and SW, such as analog front-end (AFE) and performance of generated control code. In comparison with tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator may be more costant time effective, easier to reproduce and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault simulation. In this pa...

  8. Design of a Battery Intermediate Storage System for Rep-Rated Pulsed Power Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    application , PCM -L16S40-346 BMS from AA Portable Power Corp. was chosen. The BMS provides multiple levels of protection, such as over-charge...venting. NRL has developed an integrated cooling system for high power batteries that can limit the residual heat in the battery cells. Results from...availability of high power density electrochemical storage present an opportunity to apply these technologies to applications of interest to the Navy

  9. Intelligent Energy Management System for PV-Battery-based Microgrids in Future DC Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. K.; Rajpurohit, B. S.; Gonzalez-Longatt, F. M.; Singh, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel intelligent energy management system (IEMS) for a DC microgrid connected to the public utility (PU), photovoltaic (PV) and multi-battery bank (BB). The control objectives of the proposed IEMS system are: (i) to ensure the load sharing (according to the source capacity) among sources, (ii) to reduce the power loss (high efficient) in the system, and (iii) to enhance the system reliability and power quality. The proposed IEMS is novel because it follows the ideal characteristics of the battery (with some assumptions) for the power sharing and the selection of the closest source to minimize the power losses. The IEMS allows continuous and accurate monitoring with intelligent control of distribution system operations such as battery bank energy storage (BBES) system, PV system and customer utilization of electric power. The proposed IEMS gives the better operational performance for operating conditions in terms of load sharing, loss minimization, and reliability enhancement of the DC microgrid.

  10. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  11. Development of a component design tool for metal hydride heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Essene L.

    Given current demands for more efficient and environmentally friendly energy sources, hydrogen based energy systems are an increasingly popular field of interest. Within the field, metal hydrides have become a prominent focus of research due to their large hydrogen storage capacity and relative system simplicity and safety. Metal hydride heat pumps constitute one such application, in which heat and hydrogen are transferred to and from metal hydrides. While a significant amount of work has been done to study such systems, the scope of materials selection has been quite limited. Typical studies compare only a few metal hydride materials and provide limited justification for the choice of those few. In this work, a metal hydride component design tool has been developed to enable the targeted down-selection of an extensive database of metal hydrides to identify the most promising materials for use in metal hydride thermal systems. The material database contains over 300 metal hydrides with various physical and thermodynamic properties included for each material. Sub-models for equilibrium pressure, thermophysical data, and default properties are used to predict the behavior of each material within the given system. For a given thermal system, this tool can be used to identify optimal materials out of over 100,000 possible hydride combinations. The selection tool described herein has been applied to a stationary combined heat and power system containing a high-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a hot water tank, and two metal hydride beds used as a heat pump. A variety of factors can be used to select materials including efficiency, maximum and minimum system pressures, pressure difference, coefficient of performance (COP), and COP sensitivity. The targeted down-selection of metal hydrides for this system focuses on the system's COP for each potential pair. The values of COP and COP sensitivity have been used to identify pairs of highest interest for

  12. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...

  13. Assessment of the status of fuel cell/battery vehicle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W.J.D.; Foster, R.W.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of the status of the integrated fuel cell/battery power system concept for electric vehicle propulsion is reported. The fuel cell, operating on hydrogen or methanol (indirectly), acts as a very high capacity energy battery for vehicle sustaining operation, while a special power battery provides over-capacity transient power on demand, being recharged by the fuel cell, e.g., during cruising. A focused literature search and a set of industrial and Government contacts were carried out to establish views, outlooks, and general status concerning the concept. It is evident that, although vehicle battery R and D is being actively pursued, little of today's fuel cell work is directed to transportation usage. Only very limited attention has been, and is being, given to the fuel cell/battery power system concept itself. However, judging largely from computer-simulated driving cycle results, the concept can provide needed range capabilities and general operating flexibility to electric vehicles. New transportation applications, conventionally viewed as beyond the capability of electric vehicles, may thereby be practical, e.g., rail, trucks. In view of these potential and important benefits, and the absence of any comprehensive research, development, and demonstration activities which are supportive of the fuel cell/battery system concept, the initiation of an appropriate effort is recommended by the Assessment Team. This general recommendation is supported by applicable findings, observations, and conclusions.

  14. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  15. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Assessment of Battery Management System Tested on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulator renders possible to conduct on-line tests on Battery Management Systems (BMSs) with an emulated battery pack instead of a real one. In this case, the BMS can be repeatedly evaluated under the exact same experimental scenarios, with safety and accuracy......, or under a flexible and beyond the normal operation area range, with less cost and time efforts. For this purpose, a multi-cell Li-ion battery pack consisting of 32 cells in series has been implemented and validated based on experimental results, converted into C code and emulated through the HIL simulator....... The BMS under test is interacting in real-time with the emulated battery pack and several of its functions such as current, voltage and State of Charge (SOC) estimation are evaluated. Also, passive balancing experiments are conducted during charging in order to assess different balancing settings...

  17. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    in the formulation of the total operating cost but an additional item that takes into account inevitable battery degradation. The speed of degradation depends on battery technology and its mission profile and this effect demands for eventual replacement of the stack. Therefore it can be mapped in additional......This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered...... operating cost. By modeling battery degradation as a function of depth of discharge (DoD) and discharge rate and translating incremental loss of capacity in each cycle into associated cost, objective function has been defined and solved using GAMS. Simulation results are presented to verify the proposed...

  18. Design of Parallel Air-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System through Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In electric vehicles, the battery pack is one of the most important components that strongly influence the system performance. The battery thermal management system (BTMS is critical to remove the heat generated by the battery pack, which guarantees the appropriate working temperature for the battery pack. Air cooling is one of the most commonly-used solutions among various battery thermal management technologies. In this paper, the cooling performance of the parallel air-cooled BTMS is improved through choosing appropriate system parameters. The flow field and the temperature field of the system are calculated using the computational fluid dynamics method. Typical numerical cases are introduced to study the influences of the operation parameters and the structure parameters on the performance of the BTMS. The operation parameters include the discharge rate of the battery pack, the inlet air temperature and the inlet airflow rate. The structure parameters include the cell spacing and the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum. The results show that the temperature rise and the temperature difference of the batter pack are not affected by the inlet air flow temperature and are increased as the discharge rate increases. Increasing the inlet airflow rate can reduce the maximum temperature, but meanwhile significantly increase the power consumption for driving the airflow. Adopting smaller cell spacing can reduce the temperature and the temperature difference of the battery pack, but it consumes much more power. Designing the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum is an effective way to improve the performance of the BTMS without occupying more system volume. An optimization strategy is used to obtain the optimal values of the plenum angles. For the numerical cases with fixed power consumption, the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference at the end of the five-current discharge process for

  19. The battery designer's challenge — satisfying the ever-increasing demands of vehicle electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The automotive battery designer of the 1990s and beyond will encounter an unprecedented array of complex challenges imposed by consumer desires, governmental mandates, and vehicle manufacturers' specifications. It is predicted that enhanced feature content in the areas of safety, convenience, performance, and guidance will result in a three- to six-fold increase in electrical power consumption in vehicles by the year 2000. In the absence of major break-throughs in vehicle electrical systems, these new loads will significantly modify the duty cycle to which the battery is subjected. The micro- and macro-environment in which the battery must survive will significantly impact the product's design and material specifications. Severe weight and size limits will be imposed on batteries in an attempt to meet mandated Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements and additional pre-start electrical loads may be introduced to reduce objectionable emissions. Finally, quality and reliability levels of vehicles and their component parts must undergo continuous improvement. In order to respond to these diverse and sometimes contradictory demands, the battery designer must participate as an integral part of the vehicle electrical system development team. Design considerations for the future must include elevated and multiple voltages, multiple batteries per vehicle designed for specific functions, and further improvements in power and energy density, as well as cycle-life.

  20. Application of a sodium sulfur cell with dynamic sulfur electrode to a battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Shimoyashiki, S.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of a sodium sulfur battery system with dynamic sulfur electrodes are described. Three cells were first connected in parallel, then two such groups were connected in series. Each cell included a liquid sodium-filled beta-double-prime-alumina tube and a system to feed liquid sulfur into the annular cathode. Low-resistance graphite felt was tightly packed around the beta-double-prime-alumina tube. Sodium pentasulfide was removed from the sulfur electrode. The battery was operated automatically and stably charged and discharged in the two-phase region. The discharged energy was 4372 Wh (capacity 1170 Ah) during a continuous operation of 19.5 h. The discharge/charge energy efficiency of the battery was 82 percent at an averaged current density of 100 mA/sq cm and operating temperature of 350 C. The deviation of the cell current in a parallel chain was less than 7 percent, and this was induced by the difference in internal resistance. In the daily charge/discharge cycle, cell capacity with the dynamic sulfur electrode was 1.5 times higher than that with the static sulfur electrode using the same active surface of beta-double-prime-alumina, because the internal resistance of the former cell was constant regardless of cell capacity. This battery system with a dynamic sulfur electrode can be applied to energy storage systems,such as large scale load leveling systems, electric vehicle batteries, and solar energy systems.

  1. Towards Robust Predictive Fault–Tolerant Control for a Battery Assembly System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybold Lothar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modeling and fault-tolerant control of a real battery assembly system which is under implementation at the RAFI GmbH company (one of the leading electronic manufacturing service providers in Germany. To model and control the battery assembly system, a unified max-plus algebra and model predictive control framework is introduced. Subsequently, the control strategy is enhanced with fault-tolerance features that increase the overall performance of the production system being considered. In particular, it enables tolerating (up to some degree mobile robot, processing and transportation faults. The paper discusses also robustness issues, which are inevitable in real production systems. As a result, a novel robust predictive fault-tolerant strategy is developed that is applied to the battery assembly system. The last part of the paper shows illustrative examples, which clearly exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.

  2. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  3. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT...of both Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions and Boron Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions with Oxygen: Anionic Products The anionic products of reactions

  4. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm...... together with a Monte Carlo simulation-based sensitivity analysis. In addition to illustrating the complementarity between the fluctuations of wind power and PV power, the results prove the proposed MPC algorithm is effective in fluctuation suppression but sensitive to factors such as forecast accuracy...

  5. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  6. Monitoring and control system of charging batteries connected to a photovoltaic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzkowski, Adam; Leoniuk, Katarzyna; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Budzynski, Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the off-grid photovoltaic system consisting of a PV panel, MMPT charge controller and battery is described. The realization of a laboratory stand for charging or discharging batteries is presented. Original monitoring and control system, which is based on LabVIEW software and LabJack DAQ device, has been built. Data acquisition part, arithmetic part and front panel of program created in LabVIEW are described. Some problems with implementation of this system, providing the monitoring of electrical parameters, are mentioned.

  7. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  8. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1, lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li-S batteries are presented.

  9. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  10. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  11. Investigation of metal hydride nanoparticles templated in metal organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Herberg, Julie L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Highley, Aaron M.; Grossman, Jeffrey (MIT, Cambridge, MA); Wagner, Lucas (MIT, Cambridge, MA); Bhakta, Raghu; Peaslee, D. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO); Allendorf, Mark D.; Liu, X. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO); Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO)

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is proposed as an ideal carrier for storage, transport, and conversion of energy. However, its storage is a key problem in the development of hydrogen economy. Metal hydrides hold promise in effectively storing hydrogen. For this reason, metal hydrides have been the focus of intensive research. The chemical bonds in light metal hydrides are predominantly covalent, polar covalent or ionic. These bonds are often strong, resulting in high thermodynamic stability and low equilibrium hydrogen pressures. In addition, the directionality of the covalent/ionic bonds in these systems leads to large activation barriers for atomic motion, resulting in slow hydrogen sorption kinetics and limited reversibility. One method for enhancing reaction kinetics is to reduce the size of the metal hydrides to nano scale. This method exploits the short diffusion distances and constrained environment that exist in nanoscale hydride materials. In order to reduce the particle size of metal hydrides, mechanical ball milling is widely used. However, microscopic mechanisms responsible for the changes in kinetics resulting from ball milling are still being investigated. The objective of this work is to use metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates for the synthesis of nano-scale NaAlH4 particles, to measure the H2 desorption kinetics and thermodynamics, and to determine quantitative differences from corresponding bulk properties. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer an attractive alternative to traditional scaffolds because their ordered crystalline lattice provides a highly controlled and understandable environment. The present work demonstrates that MOFs are stable hosts for metal hydrides and their reactive precursors and that they can be used as templates to form metal hydride nanoclusters on the scale of their pores (1-2 nm). We find that using the MOF HKUST-1 as template, NaAlH4 nanoclusters as small as 8 formula units can be synthesized inside the pores. A detailed picture of

  12. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  13. Exploding the Black Box: Personal Computing, the Notebook Battery Crisis, and Postindustrial Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Matthew N

    Historians of science and technology have generally ignored the role of power sources in the development of consumer electronics. In this they have followed the predilections of historical actors. Research, development, and manufacturing of batteries has historically occurred at a social and intellectual distance from the research, development, and manufacturing of the devices they power. Nevertheless, power source technoscience should properly be understood as an allied yet estranged field of electronics. The separation between the fields has had important consequences for the design and manufacturing of mobile consumer electronics. This paper explores these dynamics in the co-construction of notebook batteries and computers. In so doing, it challenges assumptions of historians and industrial engineers and planners about the nature of computer systems in particular and the development of technological systems. The co-construction of notebook computers and batteries, and the occasional catastrophic failure of their compatibility, challenges systems thinking more generally.

  14. Computational Design of Batteries from Materials to Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Qibo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University; Lamb, Josh [Sandia National Laboratories; Darcy, Eric [NASA

    2017-09-01

    Computer models are helping to accelerate the design and validation of next generation batteries and provide valuable insights not possible through experimental testing alone. Validated 3-D physics-based models exist for predicting electrochemical performance, thermal and mechanical response of cells and packs under normal and abuse scenarios. The talk describes present efforts to make the models better suited for engineering design, including improving their computation speed, developing faster processes for model parameter identification including under aging, and predicting the performance of a proposed electrode material recipe a priori using microstructure models.

  15. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  16. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  17. Optimal sizing of battery storage for stand-alone hybrid (photo-voltaic + diesel) power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaahid, S. M.; Elhadidy, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    An important element of hybrid photo- voltaic(PV) + diesel sytem is battery storage. Size of battery storage plays a role in optimum operation of the hybrid system. Emphasis needs to be placed on this issue. In this perspective, hourly solar radiation data, for the period 1986 93 recorded at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to investigate the optimum size of battery storage capacity for hybrid (PV + diesel) power systems. Various sizing configurations have been simulated. The monthly average daily values of solar global radiation range from 3.61 to 7.96kWh/m2. As a case study, hybrid systems considered in the present analysis consist of 225m2 PV array area (panels/modules) supplemented with battery storage unit and diesel backup generators (to meet the load requirements of a typical residential building with annual electrical energy demand of 35,200kWh). The monthly average energy generated from the aforementioned hybrid system for different scenarios has been presented. More importantly, the study explores the influence of variation of battery storage capacity on hybrid power generation. The results exhibit a trade-off between size of the storage capacity and diesel power to be generated to cope with annual load distribution. Concurrently, the energy to be generated from the diesel generator and the number of operational hours of the diesel system to meet the load demand have been also addressed.The study shows that for optimum operation of diesel system, storage capacity equivalent to 12 18h of maximum monthly average hourly demand need to be used. It has been found that in the absence of battery bank, ˜58% of the load needs to be provided by the diesel system. However, use of 12h of battery storage (autonomy) reduces diesel energy generation by ˜49% and the number of hours of operation of the diesel system get reduced by about ˜82%. The findings of this study can be employed as a tool for sizing of battery storage for PV/diesel systems for other

  18. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  19. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  20. Development of Lightweight CubeSat with Multi-Functional Structural Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkkainen, Ryan L.; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This collaborative multi-disciplinary effort aims to develop a lightweight, 1-unit (1U) CubeSat (10x10x10 cm) which utilizes improved and fully integrated structural battery materials for mission life extension, larger payload capability, and significantly reduced mass.The electrolytic carbon fiber material serves the multifunctional capacitive energy system as both a lightweight, load bearing structure and an electrochemical battery system. This implementation will improve traditional multifunctional energy storage concepts with a highly effective energy storage capability.

  1. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  2. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  3. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  4. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  5. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    Future large Wind Power Plants (WPP) will be intended to function like today's conventional power plants seen from the transmission system point of view, by complying with future, more stringent, grid codes and providing ancillary services. This is possible to achieve by integrating WPPs...... with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones...

  6. Big-Data-Based Thermal Runaway Prognosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A thermal runaway prognosis scheme for battery systems in electric vehicles is proposed based on the big data platform and entropy method. It realizes the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway simultaneously, which is caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data is derived from the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV in Beijing. Furthermore, a thermal security management strategy for thermal runaway is presented under the Z-score approach. The abnormity coefficient is introduced to present real-time precautions of temperature abnormity. The results illustrated that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. The presented method is flexible in all disorder systems and possesses widespread application potential in not only electric vehicles, but also other areas with complex abnormal fluctuating environments.

  7. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  8. Use of hydrides in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepler, J.; Bernauer, O.; Buchner, H.

    1980-09-01

    Results of research on hydrogen driven vehicles and hydride storage tanks are presented, along with a detailed discussion of the operational possibilities of low temperature hydrides, such as TiFe-H2, and of high temperature hydrides, such as Mg2Ni-H4. Attention is given to their cyclization stability and thermal conductivity. Heat storage and heat recovery with the aid of hydrides are discussed, and a theoretical hydride storage capacity of a Mg-Ni-alloy is presented. It was concluded that all hydride tanks will be 10 to 20 times heavier than the conventional gasoline tank. The problems of tank weight and gasoline shortage can be solved by a combination hydrogen/gasoline fuel. Existing energy infrastructures must be utilized, as the setting up of a hydrogen infrastructure is, at the present time, both technically and economically unfeasible.

  9. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  10. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Stationary battery energy storage systems are widely used for uninterruptible power supply systems. Furthermore, they are able to provide grid services. This yields in rising installed power and capacity. One possibility uses high voltage batteries. This results in an improvement of the overall...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...

  11. Use of reversible hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, B.; Pezat, M.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of metals or alloys whose hydrides have a high dissociation pressure allows a considerable increase in the hydrogenation rate of magnesium. The influence of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the reaction rate were studied. Results concerning the hydriding of magnesium rich alloys such as Mg2Ca, La2Mg17 and CeMg12 are presented. The hydriding mechanism of La2Mg17 and CeMg12 alloys is given.

  12. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  13. Entropy-Based Voltage Fault Diagnosis of Battery Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The battery is a key component and the major fault source in electric vehicles (EVs. Ensuring power battery safety is of great significance to make the diagnosis more effective and predict the occurrence of faults, for the power battery is one of the core technologies of EVs. This paper proposes a voltage fault diagnosis detection mechanism using entropy theory which is demonstrated in an EV with a multiple-cell battery system during an actual operation situation. The preliminary analysis, after collecting and preprocessing the typical data periods from Operation Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicle (OSMC-EV in Beijing, shows that overvoltage fault for Li-ion batteries cell can be observed from the voltage curves. To further locate abnormal cells and predict faults, an entropy weight method is established to calculate the objective weight, which reduces the subjectivity and improves the reliability. The result clearly identifies the abnormity of cell voltage. The proposed diagnostic model can be used for EV real-time diagnosis without laboratory testing methods. It is more effective than traditional methods based on contrastive analysis.

  14. Power Constrained High-Level Synthesis of Battery Powered Digital Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a high-level synthesis algorithm solving the combined scheduling, allocation and binding problem minimizing area under both latency and maximum power per clock-cycle constraints. Our approach eliminates the large power spikes, resulting in an increased battery lifetime, a property...... of utmost importance for battery powered embedded systems. Our approach extends the partial-clique partitioning algorithm by introducing power awareness through a heuristic algorithm which bounds the design space to those of power feasible schedules. We have applied our algorithm on a set of dataflow graphs...

  15. REopt Improves the Operations of Alcatraz's Solar PV-Battery-Diesel Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, Daniel R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Geet, Otto D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This poster identifies operations improvement strategies for a photovoltaic (PV)-battery-diesel hybrid system at the National Park Service's Alcatraz Island using NREL's REopt analysis tool. The current 'cycle charging' strategy results in significant curtailing of energy production from the PV array, requiring excessive diesel use, while also incurring high wear on batteries without benefit of improved efficiency. A simple 'load following' strategy results in near optimal operating cost reduction.

  16. Electrically rechargeable zinc/air battery: a high specific energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F.; Sauter, J.-C.; Masanz, G.; Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This contribution describes our research and development efforts towards the demonstration of a light-weight, low-cost 12 V/20 Ah electrically rechargeable Zn/air battery. We successfully developed electrodes having active areas of up to 200 cm{sup 2}. Deep discharge cycles at different currents as well as current-voltage curves are reported for a 10 cell Zn/air battery (serial connection) with a rated capacity of 20 Ah. Based on the discharge cycle at a power of 19 W, and the weight of the battery, a specific energy of more than 90 Wh/kg could be evaluated for the whole system. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  17. The Research of Super Capacitor and Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System with the THIPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has to be considered that dynamic performance of Super Capacitor and Battery hybrid energy storage system is poor and the output waveform of AC voltage distorted seriously. The Third Harmonic Injection PWM (THIPWM with the three-level inverter, which has a excellent performance to improve the dynamic performance of the super capacitor and battery, gathers information from ends of the DC output voltage or current and the total current of the DC side to solve the problem of unbalanced neutral line voltage of three-level inverter .It also keeps super capacitor and battery controlled smoothly during the operation, and reduces the final output waveform distortion index. The simulation results verify the practicality and correctness of the three-level inverter topology and its control algorithm.

  18. Power Management of Hybrid Power Systems with Li-Fe Batteries and Supercapacitors for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy of a Li-Fe battery and supercapacitor hybrid power system to provide both high power density and energy density for mobile robots with fluctuating workloads. A two-phase power-optimization approach is proposed to exploit the high power density of supercapacitors and the high energy density of Li-Fe batteries. With our strategy, large peak power can be provided for a short time period whenever needed, while low power can be provided for very long time. A set of experiments have been conducted. The experimental results show that our strategy can effectively improve the performance of mobile robots and extend the lifetime of batteries.

  19. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  20. Solid hydrides as hydrogen storage reservoirs; Hidruros solidos como acumuladores de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Friedrichs, O.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2010-07-01

    Metal hydrides as hydrogen storage materials are briefly reviewed in this paper. Fundamental properties of metal-hydrogen (gas) system such as Pressure-Composition-Temperature (P-C-T) characteristics are discussed on the light of the metal-hydride thermodynamics. Attention is specially paid to light metal hydrides which might have application in the car and transport sector. The pros and cons of MgH{sub 2} as a light material are outlined. Researches in course oriented to improve the behaviour of MgH{sub 2} are presented. Finally, other very promising alternative materials such as Al compounds (alanates) or borohydrides as light hydrogen accumulators are also considered. (Author)

  1. The storage of hydrogen in the form of metal hydrides: An application to thermal engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, C.; Perroud, P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using LaNi56, FeTiH2, or MgH2 as metal hydride storage sytems for hydrogen fueled automobile engines is discussed. Magnesium copper and magnesium nickel hydrides studies indicate that they provide more stable storage systems than pure magnesium hydrides. Several test engines employing hydrogen fuel have been developed: a single cylinder motor originally designed for use with air gasoline mixture; a four-cylinder engine modified to run on an air hydrogen mixture; and a gas turbine.

  2. Knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty: case from automotive battery supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sugiarto, D.; Surjasa, D.; Witonohadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Automotive battery supply chain include battery manufacturer, sulphuric acid suppliers, polypropylene suppliers, lead suppliers, transportation service providers, warehouses, retailers and even customers. Due to the increasingly dynamic condition of the environment, supply chain actors were required to improve their ability to overcome various uncertainty issues in the environment. This paper aims to describe the process of designing a knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty. The design methodology began with the identification of the knowledge needed to solve the problems associated with uncertainty and analysis of system requirements. The design of the knowledge management system was described in the form of a data flow diagram. The results of the study indicated that key knowledge area that needs to be managed were the knowledge to maintain the stability of process in sulphuric acid process and knowledge to overcome the wastes in battery manufacturing process. The system was expected to be a media acquisition, dissemination and storage of knowledge associated with the uncertainty in the battery supply chain and increase the supply chain performance.

  3. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  4. The Study of Operation Modes and Control Strategies of a Multidirectional MC for Battery Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of stand-alone battery based system and to achieve the continuous power transmission, the behavior of multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC has been analyzed in different operation modes. A systematic method interfacing a renewable source, a storage battery, and a load is proposed for a stand-alone battery based power system (SABBPS to utilize the MDMC as PWM converter, inverter, or PWM converter and inverter in different operation modes. In this study, the Extended Direct Duty Pulse Width Modulation (EDDPWM technique has been applied to control the power flow path between the renewable source, load, and the battery. Corresponding to generator voltage, input frequency, and loads demands, several operating states and control strategies are possible. Therefore, the boundaries and distribution of operation modes are discussed and illustrated to improve the system performance. The mathematical equation of the EDDPWM under different operation modes has been derived to achieve the maximum voltage ratio in each mode. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in simulation using MATLAB and experimental testing. Moreover, the THD, ripple, and power flow direction have been analyzed for output current to investigate the behavior of system in each operation mode.

  5. Evaluation of Advanced Control for Li-ion Battery Balancing Systems using Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    systems are evaluated in this paper by means of convex optimization. More than one hundred cases in a pure EV application are evaluated. Balancing circuits' efficiency models are implemented and realistic cell-to-cell parameter distributions are considered based on experimental data. Different battery...

  6. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  7. POWER EXPENSES ON HPFP DRIVE OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH BATTERY-DRIVEN FUEL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    А. Vrublevsky; A. Prohorenko; I. Pozhidaev; D. Meshkov; A. Timchenko

    2012-01-01

    The results of the research of impact of the process of fuel injection into the accumulator on the power of mechanical losses of the diesel engine are presented. The need to regulate the high pressure fuel pump for battery-driven fuel system is theoretically grounded.

  8. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  9. Charactrization of a Li-ion battery based stand-alone a-Si photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Vishkasougheh, Mehdi; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2014-11-01

    The number of photovoltaic (PV) system installations is increasing rapidly. As more people learn about this versatile and often cost-effective power option, this trend will accelerate. This document presents a recommended design for a battery based stand-alone photovoltaic system (BSPV). BSPV system has the ability to be applied in different areas, including warning signals, lighting, refrigeration, communication, residential water pumping, remote sensing, and cathodic protection. The presented calculation method gives a proper idea for a system sizing technique. Based on application load, different scenarios are possible for designing a BSPV system. In this study, a battery based stand-alone system was designed. The electricity generation part is three a-Si panels, which are connected in parallel, and for the storage part LFP (lithium iron phosphate) battery was used. The high power LFP battery packs are 40 cells each 8S5P (configured 8 series 5 parallel). Each individual pack weighs 0.5 kg and is 25.6 V. In order to evaluate the efficiency of a-Si panels with respect to the temperature and the solar irradiation, cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Adana in Turkey were selected. Temperature and solar irradiation were gathered from reliable sources and by using translation equations, current and voltage output of panels were calculated. As a result of these calculations, current and energy outputs were computed by considering an average efficient solar irradiation time value per day in Turkey. The calculated power values were inserted to a battery cycler system, and the behavior of high power LFP batteries in a time sequence of 7.2 h was evaluated. The charging and discharging cycles were obtained and their behavior was discussed. According to the results, Istanbul has the lowest number of peak month's energy, it followed by Ankara, and ultimately Adana has the highest number of peak months and energy storage. It was observed during the tests that values up to 4 A was

  10. Study of a Wind/PV/Battery hybrid system – Case study at Plaka in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    J. G. Fantidis; D. V. Bandekas; N. Vordos

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum hybrid system able to supply the necessary electrical load of a typical community in a remote location in Greece. The renewable energy systems were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind turbines supplemented with battery storage. A software tool, HOMER is used for the analysis. The hybrid system analysis has showed that the minimum cost of energy is 0.268 $/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage...

  11. Battery Recharging Issue for a Two-Power-Level Flywheel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel battery recharging system for an all-electric driveline comprising a flywheel with a permanent magnet double wound synchronous machine (motor/generator is presented. The double winding enables two voltage levels and two different power levels. This topology supersedes other all-electric drivelines. The battery operates in a low-power regime supplying the average power whereas the flywheel delivers and absorbs power peaks, which are up to a higher order of magnitude. The topology presents new challenges for the power conversion system, which is the focus of this investigation. The main challenge is the control of the power flow to the battery when the vehicle is parked despite the decay of the flywheel machine voltage; which is dependent on its charge state, that is, rotational speed. The design and simulation of an unidirectional DC/DC buck/boost converter for a variable rotational speed flywheel is presented. Conventional power electronic converters are used in a new application, which can maintain a constant current or voltage on the battery side. Successful PI current control has been implemented and simulated, together with the complete closed loop system.

  12. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  13. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  14. Development of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicles (EVs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehen P.M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery Management Systems (BMS is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the numbers will keep rising as numbers of registered car increase close up to 1 million yearly; double the amounts in the last two decades. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to predict the extended range of EVs, which need BMS implementation of optimization of optimum power management. Hence, using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is one of the potential methods of BMS optimization with power generated by Hybrid Energy Storage system of lithium-ion battery. Therefore, this paper address through reviewing previous literatures initially focuses on the BMS optimization for EVs (car in Malaysia as prognostic technology model improvement on performance management of EVs.

  15. Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, A.; Moya, J. S.; Remartinez, B.; Perez, S.; Sacedon, J. L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Iberdrola, Tomas Redondo 3, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuel claddings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings, as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H{sub 2} from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t{sup 1/2} potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} phase. The measured H{sub 2} desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

  16. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  17. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  18. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  19. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra...

  20. Ionic conduction of lithium hydride single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipenko, G.I.; Oparin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, N.A.; Gavrilov, F.F.

    1987-09-01

    Using the electrical-conductivity- and NMR-measurement- methods, the ionic-conduction mechanism is established in stoichiometric lithium hydride single crystals. The activation energies of migration of anion- and cation-vacancies and the formation of Schottky-pair defects are determined. They assume that the mechanisms of self-diffusion and conductivity are different in lithium hydride.

  1. Predicting formation enthalpies of metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order for the hydrogen based society viz. a society in which hydrogen is the primary energy carrier to become realizable an efficient way of storing hydrogen is required. For this purpose metal hydrides are serious candidates. Metal hydrides are formedby chemical reaction between hydrogen...

  2. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  3. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  4. Corrosion resistance of neodymium and dysprosium hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakchieva, Natalia; Lyamina, Galina; Knyazeva, Elena; Sachkov, Victor; Kurzina, Irina; Pichugina, Alina; Vladimirov, Alexander; Kazantseva, Ludmila; Sachkova, Anna

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the methods of obtaining hydrides of rare earth elements such as dysprosium and neodymium. The properties and corrosion resistance of these elements are investigated. A synthesis method of monophasic dysprosium and neodymium dihydrides is presented. Synthesized dihydrides are agglomerates with an average size of 3-50 µm and are formed by crystalline grains of a nanometer size. BET specific surface area, morphology, elemental analyses and composition of samples have been studied. Corrosion stability in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were studied. It was determined that both hydrides undergo hydrolysis in acid and alkaline mediums. Neodymium hydride is more stable to corrosion than dysprosium hydride, which is proved by its longer exposure to aggressive medium to hydrides. The formation of insoluble /poorly soluble products of corrosion can make a significant contribution to the process of powder dissolution.

  5. Study of a Wind/PV/Battery hybrid system – Case study at Plaka in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum hybrid system able to supply the necessary electrical load of a typical community in a remote location in Greece. The renewable energy systems were comprised of different combinations of PV modules and wind turbines supplemented with battery storage. A software tool, HOMER is used for the analysis. The hybrid system analysis has showed that the minimum cost of energy is 0.268 $/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage. The optimum hybrid system is comprised of 1.5 kW PV array, 1 wind generator, 3 kW power converter and 14 storage batteries.

  6. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  7. Design and Analysis of Generic Energy Management Strategy for Controlling Second-Life Battery Systems in Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, second-life battery systems have received a growing interest as one of the most promising alternatives for decreasing the overall cost of the battery storage systems in stationary applications. The high-cost of batteries represents a prominent barrier for their use in traction and stationary applications. To make second-life batteries economically viable for stationary applications, an effective power-electronics converter should be selected as well. This converter should be supported by an energy management strategy (EMS, which is needed for controlling the power flow among the second-life battery modules based on their available capacity and performance. This article presents the design, analysis and implementation of a generic energy management strategy (GEMS. The proposed GEMS aims to control and distribute the load demand between battery storage systems under different load conditions and disturbances. This manuscript provides the experimental verification of the proposed management strategy. The results have demonstrated that the GEMS can robustly handle any level of performance inequality among the used-battery modules with the aim to integrate different levels (i.e., size, capacity, and chemistry type of the second-life battery modules at the same time and in the same application.

  8. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  9. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    OpenAIRE

    Jingang Han; Jean-Frederic Charpentier; Tianhao Tang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs) as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power sys...

  10. Performance Evaluation of an Autonomous Photovoltaic System for Recharging Electrical Vehicle Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Ayad, M.Y; Becherif, M.; Akhrif, O.

    2015-01-01

    – This paper deals with the performance evaluation of an autonomous photovoltaic system for recharging (with electrical power produced by photovoltaic panels) Lithium-ion batteries for an electrical vehicle. In this system, the power flow control is performed via a DC-DC converter using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique. The performance evaluation is according to two operation modes: under degraded and optimal conditions

  11. A combined experimental, theoretical, and Van't Hoff model study for identity methyl, proton, hydrogen atom, and hydride exchange reactions. Correlation with three-center four-, three-, and two-electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Henk M.

    We have studied carbon transfer reactions following an SN2 reaction profile. With ab initio calculations and experimental geometries concerning the nature of the various complexes indicated as stable, intermediate, and transition state we were able to show the additional value of van't Hoff's tetrahedral configuration by changing its geometry via a trigonal pyramid into a trigonal bipyramid. The ratio of the apical bond and corresponding tetrahedral bond distances is then nearly 1.333. The relevance of this approach has also been shown for identity proton-(hydrogen atom-, and hydride-) in-line reactions. The use of this geometrical transmission will be demonstrated for the hydrogen bonding distances in e.g., DNA duplexes and other biological (supra) molecular systems.

  12. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  13. Experimental Verification of a Battery Energy Storage System for Integration with Photovoltaic Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental verification of a 2 kW battery energy storage system (BESS. The BESS comprises a full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter that is intended for integration with a photovoltaic (PV generator, resulting in leveling of the intermittent output power from the PV generator at the utility side. A phase-shift controller is also employed to manage the charging and discharging operations of the BESS based on PV output power and battery voltage. Moreover, a current controller that uses the d-q synchronous reference frame is proposed to regulate the dc voltage at the high-voltage side (HVS to ensure that the voltage ratio of the HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equivalent to the transformer turns ratio. The proposed controllers allow fast response to changes in real power requirements and results in unity power factor current injection at the utility side. In addition, the efficient active power injection is achieved as the switching losses are minimized. The peak efficiency of the bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter is measured up to 95.4% during battery charging and 95.1% for battery discharging.

  14. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  15. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  16. Channel Modeling of Miniaturized Battery-Powered Capacitive Human Body Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Garudadri, Harinath; Mercier, Patrick P

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to estimate the path loss of capacitive human body communication (HBC) systems under practical conditions. Most prior work utilizes large grounded instruments to perform path loss measurements, resulting in overly optimistic path loss estimates for wearable HBC devices. In this paper, small battery-powered transmitter and receiver devices are implemented to measure path loss under realistic assumptions. A hybrid electrostatic finite element method simulation model is presented that validates measurements and enables rapid and accurate characterization of future capacitive HBC systems. Measurements from form-factor-accurate prototypes reveal path loss results between 31.7 and 42.2 dB from 20 to 150 MHz. Simulation results matched measurements within 2.5 dB. Comeasurements using large grounded benchtop vector network analyzer (VNA) and large battery-powered spectrum analyzer (SA) underestimate path loss by up to 33.6 and 8.2 dB, respectively. Measurements utilizing a VNA with baluns, or large battery-powered SAs with baluns still underestimate path loss by up to 24.3 and 6.7 dB, respectively. Measurements of path loss in capacitive HBC systems strongly depend on instrumentation configurations. It is thus imperative to simulate or measure path loss in capacitive HBC systems utilizing realistic geometries and grounding configurations. HBC has a great potential for many emerging wearable devices and applications; accurate path loss estimation will improve system-level design leading to viable products.

  17. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  18. Modeling, control and experimental testing of a supercapacitor/battery hybrid system : passive and semi-active topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Seim, Lars Hagvaag

    2012-01-01

    Supercapacitors possess unique properties that can complement other energy storage technologies in hybrid electric energy systems. Due to its performance characteristics - such as fast charge and discharge capability, high power density and high recycleability - a supercapacitor can relieve the battery of narrow and repeated transient charging and discharging, ensuring longer battery life, enabling higher system peak power performance and improve system efficiency. An equivalent super...

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Power Sharing Control Strategy Based Fuel Cell/Battery Assisted Hybrid Electric Vehicle System

    OpenAIRE

    MURUGESAN, KARTHIK; SENNIAPPAN, VIJAYACHITRA

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic modeling of Fuel cell/Battery assisted hybrid electric vehicle system is presented in this article and two suitable power sharing control strategies are integrated into the system with the objective of minimizing the fuel consumption and maximizing the battery life through its safe operating limit. This prominent goal is accomplished into the developed hybrid vehicle system by incorporating suitable control strategies without compromising the drivability of the vehicle. The proposed...

  20. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  1. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  2. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-12-31

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  3. Investigation of Impedance-Based Parameters in Metal-O2 Batteries for Next Generation of Battery Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Elkjær; Højberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    -of-health of lithium-ion batteries. Applied Energy, 86(9), 1506–1511. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.11.021 [4] McCloskey, B. D., Garcia, J. M., & Luntz, A. C. (2014). Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li–O 2and Na–O2 Batteries. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5(7), 1230–1235. doi:10...... electrolyte. Journal of Power Sources, 272(c), 415–421. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.056 [Figure]...

  4. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  5. Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-09-25

    To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage (battery). However, the status-quo options do not match all of these attributes simultaneously and we also lack in an effective integration strategy to integrate them in complex architecture such as orthodontic domain in human body. Here we show, a physically complaint lithium-ion micro-battery (236 μg) with an unprecedented volumetric energy (the ratio of energy to device geometrical size) of 200 mWh/cm3 after 120 cycles of continuous operation. Our results of 90% viability test confirmed the battery’s biocompatibility. We also show seamless integration of the developed battery in an optoelectronic system embedded in a three-dimensional printed smart dental brace. We foresee the resultant orthodontic system as a personalized advanced health-care application, which could serve in faster bone regeneration and enhanced enamel health-care protection and subsequently reducing the overall health-care cost.

  6. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  7. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  8. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  9. Architecture for improved mass transport and system performance in redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jacob; Pezeshki, Alan; Clement, Jason T.; Aaron, Douglas; Mench, Matthew M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, electrochemical performance and parasitic losses are combined in an overall system-level efficiency metric for a high performance, all-vanadium redox flow battery. It was found that pressure drop and parasitic pumping losses are relatively negligible for high performance cells, i.e., those capable of operating at a high current density while at a low flow rate. Through this finding, the Equal Path Length (EPL) flow field architecture was proposed and evaluated. This design has superior mass transport characteristics in comparison with the standard serpentine and interdigitated designs at the expense of increased pressure drop. An Aspect Ratio (AR) design is discussed and evaluated, which demonstrates decreased pressure drop compared to the EPL design, while maintaining similar electrochemical performance under most conditions. This AR design is capable of leading to improved system energy efficiency for flow batteries of all chemistries.

  10. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    , and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill...... battery storage system can provide the extra energy needed during the peak energy consumption periods, as well as when renewable energy (RE) sources go offline. Based on the reviews, maximum demand shaving with good Return-of-Investment (ROI) can be achieved by considering the actual load profile...

  11. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  12. Effects of Alkaline Pre-Etching to Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The responses of one AB5, two AB2, four A2B7, and one C14-related body-centered-cubic (BCC metal hydrides to an alkaline-etch (45% KOH at 110 °C for 2 h were studied by internal resistance, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, inductively coupled plasma, and AC impedance measurements. Results show that while the etched rare earth–based AB5 and A2B7 alloys surfaces are covered with hydroxide/oxide (weight gain, the transition metal–based AB2 and BCC-C14 alloys surfaces are corroded and leach into electrolyte (weight loss. The C14-predominated AB2, La-only A2B7, and Sm-based A2B7 showed the most reduction in the internal resistance with the alkaline-etch process. Etched A2B7 alloys with high La-contents exhibited the lowest internal resistance and are suggested for use in the high-power application of nickel/metal hydride batteries.

  13. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  14. Understanding and Prevention of Transient Voltages and Dielectric Breakdown in High Voltage Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...in high current battery systems and how vented Li-ion electrolyte gas impacts the dielectric breakdown strength of ambient air. 1S. SUBJECTTERMS...electrical grid, either in homes or in the distribution network, but the loads being sourced in those applications are vastly different than those being

  15. Modeling a Grid-Connected PV/Battery Microgrid System with MPPT Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Genesis; Moradi, Hadis; Smith, Mathew; Zilouchian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on performance analyzing and dynamic modeling of the current grid-tied fixed array 6.84kW solar photovoltaic system located at Florida Atlantic University (FAU). A battery energy storage system is designed and applied to improve the systems stability and reliability. An overview of the entire system and its PV module are presented. In sequel, the corresponding I-V and P-V curves are obtained using MATLAB-Simulink package. Actual data was collected and utilized for the model...

  16. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  18. Storage battery operation technique of photovoltaic system to prevent the imbalance of state of charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirotake; Takigawa, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Yukihiro

    For the large scale storage battery system of a MW class photovoltaic system, simulation analyses were conducted to prevent the imbalance of state of charge. Effects of the charge and discharge I-V characteristics dispersion of individual storage battery on the dispersion of state of charge were elucidated through these analyses. Furthermore, a proper operation method to prevent the imbalance of state of charge was investigated. In the internal resistance and the electromotive voltage which determines the charge and discharge I-V characteristics, when the dispersion is found in the electromotive voltage in particular, the dispersion of state of charge gets larger. The electromotive voltage of storage battery depends on the specific gravity of electrolyte. Consequently, in order to prevent the imbalance of state of charge, it is important to control the specific gravity. For operating the system effectively preventing the imbalance of state of charge, the specific gravity should be controlled within (+ or -) 0.3 percent of approximate mean value.

  19. Recent Developments of Photovoltaics Integrated with Battery Storage Systems and Related Feed-In Tariff Policies: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angel A. Bayod-Rújula; Alessandro Burgio; Zbigniew Leonowicz; Daniele Menniti; Anna Pinnarelli; Nicola Sorrentino

    2017-01-01

    ...) and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece...

  20. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  1. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable

  2. Modelling and Energy Management Optimisation of Battery Energy Storage System Based Photovoltaic Charging Station (PV-CS) for University Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Esfandyari, Ayda; Norton, Brian; Conlon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As utilization of Photovoltaic Charging Stations (PV-CS) that generate clean electricity from the sun increase, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) adopts this application for accommodating the required charge of small campus Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This paper presents the virtual simulation of the 10.5 kW Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) based PV-CS model. Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) built-in climatic data and modular structure properties were adopted to replicate the...

  3. Environmental impacts of electricity self-consumption from organic photovoltaic battery systems at industrial facilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    investigate the life cycle environmental impacts of electricity self-consumption from an OPV system coupled with a sodium/nickel chloride battery at an iron/metal industry in Denmark. Results show that an OPV system without storage could decrease the carbon footprint of the industry; installation...... of the battery increases climate change and human toxicity impacts. We discuss sensitive modelling parameters and provide recommendations....

  4. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yihe Sun; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Kun Li; Yifei Jiang; Jie Wu

    2011-01-01

    Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system l...

  5. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  6. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  7. Multi-objective design of PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, a triple multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing, simultaneously, the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation, pollutant emissions (CO{sub 2}) and unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combination of components of the hybrid system and control strategies. As an example of application, a complex PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto Set). The results achieved demonstrate the practical utility of the developed design method. (author)

  8. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  9. An experimental study of heat pipe thermal management system with wet cooling method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gu, Junjie; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required for lithium-ion batteries to ensure a desirable operating temperature range with minimal temperature gradient, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. In this paper, a heat pipe and wet cooling combined BTM system is developed to handle the thermal surge of lithium-ion batteries during high rate operations. The proposed BTM system relies on ultra-thin heat pipes which can efficiently transfer the heat from the battery sides to the cooling ends where the water evaporation process can rapidly dissipate the heat. Two sized battery packs, 3 Ah and 8 Ah, with different lengths of cooling ends are used and tested through a series high-intensity discharges in this study to examine the cooling effects of the combined BTM system, and its performance is compared with other four types of heat pipe involved BTM systems and natural convection cooling method. A combination of natural convection, fan cooling and wet cooling methods is also introduced to the heat pipe BTM system, which is able to control the temperature of battery pack in an appropriate temperature range with the minimum cost of energy and water spray.

  10. Phase diagram, thermodynamic investigations, and modelling of systems relevant to lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertauer, Siegfried; Beutl, Alexander; Flanorfer, Hans [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry - Functional Materials; Li, Dajian; Cupid, Damian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP); Henriques, David; Giel, Hans; Markus, Thorsten [Mannheim Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Inst. for Thermo- and Fluiddynamics

    2017-11-15

    This article reports on two consecutive joint projects titled ''Experimental Thermodynamics and Phase Relations of New Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries'', which were performed in the framework of the WenDeLIB 1473 priority program ''Materials with new Design for Lithium Ion Batteries''. Hundreds of samples were synthesized using experimental techniques specifically developed to deal with highly reactive lithium and lithium-containing compounds to generate electrochemical, phase diagram and crystal structure data in the Cu-Li, Li-Sn, Li-Sb, Cu-Li-Sn, Cu-Li-Sb and selected oxide systems. The thermochemical and phase diagram data were subsequently used to develop self-consistent thermodynamic descriptions of several binary systems. In the present contribution, the experimental techniques, working procedures, results and their relevance to the development of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries are discussed and summarized. The collaboration between the three groups has resulted in more than fifteen (15) published articles during the six-year funding period.

  11. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    , grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information...... and maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability ofmodular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed...... on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery...

  12. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS, and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB. In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between system parameters and battery serving life, the data during a 37-minute driving cycle has been collected and decomposed into discharging/charging fragments firstly, and then the optimal control strategy which is supposed to maximally use the available EDLC energy is presented to decompose the power between battery and EDLC. Furthermore, based on a battery degradation model, the conversion of power demand by PE function and PE matrix is applied to evaluate the relationship between the available energy stored in HESS and the serving life of battery pack. Therefore, according to the approach which could decouple parameters matching and optimal control of the HESS, the process of battery degradation and its serving life estimation for HESS has been summed up.

  13. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  14. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  15. Lithium batteries. Lithiumbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahner, D.; Ludwig, G.; Bischoff, H.; Hauke, I.; Machill, S.; Siury, K.; Wiesener, K. (TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie)

    1992-01-01

    General rules on the method of operation of lithium batteries are worked out from the many commercially available lithium batteries or the systems examined by research, and some trends in development are indicated. It is shown from some selected research results that the the development of rechargeable lithium batteries is a demanding task for basic electrochemical research. (orig.).

  16. Structural phase stability in fluorinated calcium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varunaa, R.; Ravindran, P.

    2017-05-01

    In order to improve the hydrogen storage properties of calcium hydride (CaH2), we have tuned its thermodynamical properties through fluorination. Using ab-initio total energy calculations based on density functional theory, the structural stability, electronic structure and chemical bonding of CaH2-xFx systems are investigated. The phase transition of fluorinated systems from orthorhombic to cubic structure has been observed at 18% fluorine doped CaH2. The phase stability analysis shows that CaH2-xFx systems are highly stable and the stability is directly correlating with their ionicity. Density of states (DOS) plot reveals that CaH2-xFx systems are insulators. Partial DOS and charge density analyses conclude that these systems are governed by ionic bonding. Our results show that H closer to F can be removed more easily than that far away from F and this is due to disproportionation induced in the bonding interaction by fluorination.

  17. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  18. Handbook of Battery Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  19. Analysis of a battery management system (BMS) control strategy for vibration aged nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bruen, Thomas; Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Gama, Miguel; Chouchelamane, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO) were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles...

  20. Value of Battery Storage System in the Ferequency Regulation Markets of PJM and CAISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Shervin

    With an increasingly urgent need to decrease our utilization of fossil fuels, renewable power sources such as wind and solar are being incorporated in the electricity grid. However, these sources lack the conventional reliability that fossil fuels, such as natural gas, and oil have previously provided. The solution lies in energy storage, and exactly why battery storage systems are the means for renewable energy sources to become truly transformative and revolutionize the energy market. In the first part of this paper, a comprehensive summary of the different types of energy storage technologies have been provided along with their features, which make each technology suitable for different applications. Next, a detailed chapter focused on battery storage systems and their properties is provided along with the ancillary services they offer as sustenance and support sources integrated in the electric grid. These service are integral to the continuous transmission of power to consumers, and necessary for the supply to meet end-user demands. Among these service include frequency regulation as well as spinning reserve services, the latter being important under emergency condition following a power disruption. Regulation services however, are constantly required for grid stability and reliability, which is why this service was selected for further market analysis. For this market analysis, the California Independent Systems Operator (CAISO), and PJM Interconnection (PJM) were selected as both have extensive regulation markets and two of the major power suppliers nationwide. The main question in conducting this analysis was to determine which market would be more attractive and profitable for a potential regulation provider to invest using a Lithium ion battery. The Regulation Market Clearing Price (RMCP) for each market was extracted from the operators' annual reports over the last six years and used as measure of investor revenue. The Levelized Cost of Energy Storage

  1. An Aqueous Redox-Flow Battery with High Capacity and Power: The TEMPTMA/MV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-11-07

    Redox-flow batteries (RFB) can easily store large amounts of electric energy and thereby mitigate the fluctuating output of renewable power plants. They are widely discussed as energy-storage solutions for wind and solar farms to improve the stability of the electrical grid. Most common RFB concepts are based on strongly acidic metal-salt solutions or poorly performing organics. Herein we present a battery which employs the highly soluble N,N,N-2,2,6,6-heptamethylpiperidinyl oxy-4-ammonium chloride (TEMPTMA) and the viologen derivative N,N'-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride (MV) in a simple and safe aqueous solution as redox-active materials. The resulting battery using these electrolyte solutions has capacities of 54 Ah L-1 , giving a total energy density of 38 Wh L-1 at a cell voltage of 1.4 V. With peak current densities of up to 200 mA cm-2 the TEMPTMA/MV system is a suitable candidate for compact high-capacity and high-power applications. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development of lithium secondary batteries for electric vehicles and home-use load leveling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Funahashi, A.; Momose, H.; Mitsuishi, I.; Shiraga, S.; Yoshitake, S.; Awata, H.

    The Lithium Battery Energy Storage Technology Research Association (LIBES) has been conducting R&D on large-scale lithium secondary batteries for use in electric vehicles and home-use load leveling systems as part of the New Sunshine Program by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) under a contract with the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) since FY 1992. The R&D by LIBES, which is in Phase 2, has developed several hundred Wh class prototype cells of 4 types and 2 or 3 kWh class modules of each type connecting those cells in series. At the same time, LIBES member companies are conducting studies on supporting technologies for the above R&D, on the evaluation test, and on next-generation lithium secondary battery technology development. Here we describe the current results and status of LIBES's R&D as well as those technological aspects.

  3. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  4. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  5. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem...

  6. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, for use in fuel cells, engines, and turbines for transportation or mobile applications. Hydrogen is desirable as an energy carrier, because its oxidation by air releases substantial energy (thermally or electrochemically) and produces only water as a product. In contrast, hydrocarbon energy carriers inevitably produce CO2, contributing to global warming. While CO2 capture may prove feasible in large stationary applications, implementing it in transportation and mobile applications is a daunting challenge. Thus a zero-emission energy carrier like hydrogen is especially needed in these cases. Use of H2 as an energy carrier also brings new challenges such as safe handling of compressed hydrogen and implementation of new transport, storage, and delivery processes and infrastructure. With current storage technologies, hydrogen's energy per volume is very low compared to other automobile fuels. High density storage of compressed hydrogen requires combinations of high pressure and/or low temperature that are not very practical. An alternative for storage is use of solid light weight hydrogenous material systems which have long durability, good adsorption properties and high activity. Substantial research has been conducted on carbon materials like activated carbon, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes due to their high theoretical hydrogen capacities. However, the theoretical values have not been achieved, and hydrogen uptake capacities in these materials are below 10 wt. %. In this thesis we investigated the use of silicon for hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation via water oxidation of silicon had been ignored due to slow reaction kinetics. We hypothesized that the hydrogen generation rate could be improved by using high surface area silicon nanoparticles. Our laser-pyrolysis-produced nanoparticles showed surprisingly rapid hydrogen generation and high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical maximum of two moles of H2 per

  7. Control and management of energy in a PV system equipped with batteries storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Hirech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage. The objective is to exploit the maximum of power using Hill climbing improved algorithm that considers optimal electrical characteristics of PV panels regardless of the system perturbation, to manage the energy between blocs of PV system in order to control the charge/discharge process and inject the energy surplus into the grid and also to estimate the state of charge with precision. Moreover, the system guarantees the acquisition and presentation of results on computer, supervision and so on. The results obtained show the robustness of the PV system, good control and protection of batteries under the maximum of energy provided by the PV panels. The state of charge estimation is evaluated by using measured parameters in real time; it shows an improvement of around 5% compared to the conventional technique.

  8. gamma-Zr-Hydride Precipitate in Irradiated Massive delta- Zr-Hydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, M. R.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    1975-01-01

    During examination of A Zircaloy-2-clad fuel pin, which had been part of a test fuel assembly in a boiling water reactor, several regions of severe internal hydriding were noticed in the upper-plenum end of the pin. Examination of similar fuel pins has shown that hydride of this type is caused...

  9. Lattice-Hydride Mechanism in Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction by Structurally Precise Copper-Hydride Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Lee, Yongjin; Li, Dai-Ying; Choi, Woojun; Liu, C W; Lee, Dongil; Jiang, De-En

    2017-07-19

    Copper electrocatalysts can reduce CO2 to hydrocarbons at high overpotentials. However, a mechanistic understanding of CO2 reduction on nanostructured Cu catalysts has been lacking. Herein we show that the structurally precise ligand-protected Cu-hydride nanoclusters, such as Cu32H20L12 (L is a dithiophosphate ligand), offer unique selectivity for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction at low overpotentials. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the presence of the negatively charged hydrides in the copper cluster plays a critical role in determining the selectivity of the reduction product, yielding HCOOH over CO with a lower overpotential. The HCOOH formation proceeds via the lattice-hydride mechanism: first, surface hydrides reduce CO2 to HCOOH product, and then the hydride vacancies are readily regenerated by the electrochemical proton reduction. DFT calculations further predict that hydrogen evolution is less competitive than HCOOH formation at the low overpotential. Confirming the predictions, electrochemical tests of CO2 reduction on the Cu32H20L12 cluster demonstrate that HCOOH is indeed the main product at low overpotential, while H2 production dominates at higher overpotential. The unique selectivity afforded by the lattice-hydride mechanism opens the door for further fundamental and applied studies of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction by copper-hydride nanoclusters and other metal nanoclusters that contain hydrides.

  10. Grid tied PV/battery system architecture and power management for fast electric vehicle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed O.

    The prospective spread of Electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) arises the need for fast charging rates. Higher charging rates requirements lead to high power demands, which cant be always supported by the grid. Thus, the use of on-site sources alongside the electrical grid for EVs charging is a rising area of interest. In this dissertation, a photovoltaic (PV) source is used to support the high power EVs charging. However, the PV output power has an intermittent nature that is dependable on the weather conditions. Thus, battery storage are combined with the PV in a grid tied system, providing a steady source for on-site EVs use in a renewable energy based fast charging station. Verily, renewable energy based fast charging stations should be cost effective, efficient, and reliable to increase the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. Thus, this Dissertation proposes a novel power flow management topology that aims on decreasing the running cost along with innovative hardware solutions and control structures for the developed architecture. The developed power flow management topology operates the hybrid system at the minimum operating cost while extending the battery lifetime. An optimization problem is formulated and two stages of optimization, i.e online and offline stages, are adopted to optimize the batteries state of charge (SOC) scheduling and continuously compensate for the forecasting errors. The proposed power flow management topology is validated and tested with two metering systems, i.e unified and dual metering systems. The results suggested that minimal power flow is anticipated from the battery storage to the grid in the dual metering system. Thus, the power electronic interfacing system is designed accordingly. Interconnecting bi-directional DC/DC converters are analyzed, and a cascaded buck boost (CBB) converter is chosen and tested under 80 kW power flow rates. The need to perform power factor correction (PFC) on

  11. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  12. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  13. The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components Delayed Hydride Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Puls, Manfred P

    2012-01-01

    By drawing together the current theoretical and experimental understanding of the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in zirconium alloys, The Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrides on the Integrity of Zirconium Alloy Components: Delayed Hydride Cracking provides a detailed explanation focusing on the properties of hydrogen and hydrides in these alloys. Whilst the focus lies on zirconium alloys, the combination of both the empirical and mechanistic approaches creates a solid understanding that can also be applied to other hydride forming metals.   This up-to-date reference focuses on documented research surrounding DHC, including current methodologies for design and assessment of the results of periodic in-service inspections of pressure tubes in nuclear reactors. Emphasis is placed on showing that our understanding of DHC is supported by progress across a broad range of fields. These include hysteresis associated with first-order phase transformations; phase relationships in coherent crystalline metallic...

  14. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  15. An Assessment of Grid-Charged Inverter-Battery Systems for Domestic Applications in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Quansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghana, like many African countries, is currently facing power supply shortage, which has led to load shedding. To minimize the impact of the power crisis, options such as diesel and petrol generators, grid-charged battery-inverter systems (GBIS, and solar PV with battery storage (SPVS have been used in residential and nonresidential contexts. In this paper, we develop analytical models to conduct a technical and economic comparison of GBIS and SPVS systems. Using average electricity tariff of $0.186 for residential sector (excluding lifeline customers we show that although initial cost of SPVS is higher, it costs 30% less than GBIS. We also show that losses associated with the GBIS are as high as 42% when viewed from a systems perspective and that some of its costs are externalized. We conclude by commending the Ghana Government’s initiative of rolling out 200,000 residential rooftop solar systems and recommend an increase in system capacities as well as a similar programme for nonresidential facilities.

  16. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  17. Reversible Li-insertion in nanoscaffolds: A promising strategy to alter the hydrogen sorption properties of Li-based complex hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Barre, Charlotte; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    Intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium into graphene layers is a well-established phenomenon in Li-ion battery technology. Here we show how this phenomenon can be exploited to destabilize, and alter the hydrogen sorption behaviour of Li-based metal hydrides (LiBH4 and LiAlH4), thereby

  18. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  19. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  20. Real-Time Dynamic Simulation of Korean Power Grid for Frequency Regulation Control by MW Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hwan Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a real-time dynamic simulator of a power grid with power plant and battery model. The simulator was used to investigate the frequency control characteristics of a megawatt-scale high-capacity energy storage system connected to the electric power grid. In this study, a lithium-ion secondary battery was chosen as one of the batteries for a grid-connected model. The dynamics of the model was analysed in both steady and transient states. The frequency control system of the battery model plays a role in regulating the grid frequency by controlling the power of energy storage systems according to process variables and grid frequencies. The power grid model based on the current power network of South Korea, included power plants, substations and power demands. The power supply is classified by the type of turbine generator as thermal, nuclear, hydro power, pumped power storage, combined power plants, and batteries, including high-capacity energy storage systems rated for a maximum of 500 MW. This study deals with an installed capacity of 87.17 GW and peak load of 77.30 GW in the Korean power grid. For 24 hours of operation, the maximum and minimum power outputs were simulated as 61.59 GW and 46.32 GW, respectively. The commercialized real-time dynamic simulation software ProTRAX was used. The simulation was conducted to observe the operation characteristics of the frequency control system during a breakdown of power plants, as well as under governor-free operation, auto generation control operation, and with the battery energy storage system connected. The results show that the model is valid for each power plant breakdown simulation. They also confirm that the output power and frequency controls of the battery operated well during simulations.

  1. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  2. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  3. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  5. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  6. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    The demand for high efficiency and higher power density is a challenge for Si-based semiconductors due to the physical characteristics of material. These can be overcome by employing wide-band-gap materials like SiC. This paper compares a second generator SiC MOSFETs against a normally-on Trench ...... JFETs and theirs performances in a high efficiency battery converter for residential photovoltaic systems. The prototypes are 3 kW converters with more than 98% efficiency and high simplicity and power density....

  7. Prediction of the thermal conductivity of metal hydrides - The inverse problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafir, Mohd Fahmi Abdul; Batcha, Mohd Faizal Mohideen [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Johor (Malaysia); Raghavan, Vijay R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Technology Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskander, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2009-08-15

    With sustainability as an important and driving theme, not merely of research, but that of our existence itself, the effort in developing sustainable systems takes many directions. One of these directions is in the transport sector, particularly personal transport using hydrogen as fuel, which logically leads on to the problem of hydrogen storage. This paper deals with the prediction of the effective conductivity of beds of metal hydride for hydrogen storage. To enable modeling of the effective thermal conductivity of these systems, it is necessary to arrive at the functional dependence of the thermal conductivity of the solid hydride on its hydrogen concentration or content. This is the inverse problem in thermal conductivity of multiphase materials. Inverse methods in general are those where we start from known consequences in order to find unknown causes. Using published and known data of the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride-hydrogen assemblage, we arrive at the unknown hydride conductivity by analysis. Among the models available in the literature for determination of the effective conductivity of the bed from the properties of the constituent phases, the model of Raghavan and Martin is chosen for the analysis as it combines simplicity and physical rigor. The result is expected to be useful for predicting the thermal conductivity of hydride particles and determining the optimum heat transfer rates governing the absorption and desorption rates of hydrogen in the storage system. (author)

  8. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the High Specific Energy Battery project element is to develop high specific energy battery technologies that enable new capabilities for future...

  9. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  10. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  11. Synchronization method for grid integrated battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadić Bane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a robust and reliable synchronization method for battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults. For this purpose, a Matlab/Simulink based model for testing of the power electronic interface between the grid and the battery storage systems has been developed. The synchronization method proposed in the paper is based on the proportional integral resonant controller with the delay signal cancellation. The validity of the synchronization method has been verified using the advanced laboratory station for the control of grid connected distributed energy sources. The proposed synchronization method has eliminated unfavourable components from the estimated grid angular frequency, leading to the more accurate and reliable tracking of the grid voltage vector positive sequence during both the normal operation and the operation during asymmetrical grid faults. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 042004: Integrated and Interdisciplinary Research entitled: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  12. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  13. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  14. Design of Efficient Sound Systems for Low Voltage Battery Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Oortgiesen, Rien; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    . A small sized sound system was implemented using the discussed design considerations. The amplifier efficiency performance was found to be very high with near-idle efficiency reaching a remarkably 88% at 2 W. The average output SPL was estimated to be up to 90 dB in half spheric anechoic conditions......The efficiency of portable battery driven sound systems is crucial as it relates to both the playback time and cost of the system. This paper presents design considerations when designing such systems. This include loudspeaker and amplifier design. Using a low resistance voice coil realized...... with rectangular wire one can boost the efficiency of the loudspeaker driver and eliminate the need of an additional power supply. A newly developed switching topology is described which is beneficial to near-idle efficiency (audio applications in the consumer electronics space...

  15. Effect of the amount of battery charge on tube voltage in different hand-held dental x-ray systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Hand-held dental x-ray system is a self contained x-ray machine designed to perform intraoral radiography with one or two hands. The issue about its usage as general dental radiography is still in dispute. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the amount of battery charge and the tube voltage in different hand-held dental x-ray systems. Seven hand-held dental x-ray units were used for the study. Tube voltage was measured with Unfors ThinX RAD (Unfors Instruments AB, Billdal, Sweden) for 3 consecutive exposures at the different amount of battery charge of each unit. The average and the deviation percentage of measured kV from indicated kV of each unit were calculated. Tube voltage of only 1 unit was 70 kV (indicated by manufacturer) and those of the others were 60 kV. Tube voltage deviation percentage from the indicated kV at the fully charged battery was from 2.5% to -5.5% and from -0.8% to -10.0% at the lowest charged battery. Tube voltages of all units decreased as the residual amount of the battery charge decreased. It is suggested that the performance test for hand-held x-ray system should be performed for the minimum residual charged battery as well as the full charged one. Persistent battery charging is suggested to maintain the proper tube voltage of the hand-held portable x-ray system.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1 A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2 Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3 The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries. PMID:24646862

  18. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    use conditions cannot be neglected for a proper estimation of available fleet energy. In this paper we describe an average behavior of battery-EVs. Main points of this concept include the definition of the energy window and lifetime of the batteries, in relation to existing models and battery use...

  19. Multislice simulations for in-situ HRTEM studies of nanostructured magnesium hydride at ambient hydrogen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, Alexander, E-mail: a.surrey@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Rellinghaus, Bernd, E-mail: b.rellinghaus@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Multislice HRTEM contrast simulations of a windowed environmental cell. • Study of Mg and MgH2 nanocrystals as model system in hydrogen at ambient pressure. • Investigation of spatial resolution and contrast depending on specimen thickness, defocus, and hydrogen pressure. • Atomic resolution is expected for specimens as thin as 5  nm. - Abstract: The use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the structural characterization of many nanostructured hydrides, which are relevant for solid state hydrogen storage, is hindered due to a rapid decomposition of the specimen upon irradiation with the electron beam. Environmental TEM allows to stabilize the hydrides by applying a hydrogen back pressure of up to 4.5 bar in a windowed environmental cell. The feasibility of high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations of light weight metals and metal hydrides in such a “nanoreactor” is studied theoretically by means of multislice HRTEM contrast simulations using Mg and its hydride phase, MgH{sub 2}, as model system. Such a setup provides the general opportunity to study dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions at the nanoscale under technological application conditions. We analyze the dependence of both the spatial resolution and the HRTEM image contrast on parameters such as the defocus, the metal/hydride thickness, and the hydrogen pressure in order to explore the possibilities and limitations of in-situ experiments with windowed environmental cells. Such simulations may be highly valuable to pre-evaluate future experimental studies.

  20. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis of CaCrO{sub 4} powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO{sub 4} thermal battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe

    2000-04-01

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO{sub 4} produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO{sub 4}/Ni.

  2. Hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV BOGDANOVIĆ

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex metal hydrides such as sodium aluminohydride (NaAlH4 and sodium borohydride (NaBH4 are solid-state hydrogen-storage materials with high hydrogen capacities. They can be used in combination with fuel cells as a hydrogen source thus enabling longer operation times compared with classical metal hydrides. The most important point for a wide application of these materials is the reversibility under moderate technical conditions. At present, only NaAlH4 has favourable thermodynamic properties and can be employed as a thermally reversible means of hydrogen storage. By contrast, NaBH4 is a typical non- -reversible complex metal hydride; it reacts with water to produce hydrogen.

  3. Simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermal desorption spectroscopy measurements for the study of the decomposition of metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.F.; Cuevas, F.; Sanchez, C. [Univ. Autonoma, Madrid (Spain). Dept de Fisica de Materiales C-IV

    2000-02-28

    An innovative experimental method to investigate the thermal decomposition of metal hydrides is presented. The method is based on an experimental setup composed of a differential scanning calorimeter connected through a capillary tube to a mass spectrometer. The experimental system allows the simultaneous determination of the heat absorbed and the hydrogen evolved from a metal hydride during thermal decomposition. This arrangement constitutes a coupled differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique. It has been applied to metal hydride materials to demonstrate the capability of the experimental system. A method to obtain the heat of decomposition of metal hydrides is described. It involves the measurement of an apparent decomposition heat as a function of the carrier gas flow. (orig.)

  4. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  5. Design Considerations for Wireless Charging Systems with an Analysis of Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three criteria, including charging time, effective charging capacity and charging energy efficiency, are introduced to evaluate the CC (constant current and CC/CV (constant current/constant voltage charging strategies. Because the CC strategy presents a better performance and most resonant topologies have the CC characteristic, the CC strategy is more suitable for the design of wireless charging systems than the CC/CV strategy. Then, the state space model of the receiver is built to study the system dynamic characteristics, and the design of nonuse output filter capacitors is proposed, which can improve the system power density and avoid the drop in efficiency caused by capacitor degradation. At last, an electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS based analysis method is introduced to validate that the design without output filter capacitors has no effects on the battery characteristics when the charging frequency is higher than 460 Hz. A prototype is fabricated to verify our research results.

  6. Wearable Battery-free Wireless 2-channel EEG Systems Powered by Energy Scavengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke VAN BAVEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric generators worn on a person’s body have demonstrated their capability to power a variety of wireless sensor nodes that are to improve his/her health or comfort. In this article, the design, fabrication and performance of two prototypes of a battery-free wireless 2-channel electroencephalography (EEG system are presented. The first system is powered solely by a thermoelectric generator that produces 2-2.5mW of power and is worn as a headband. The second system resembles a diadem or headphones and uses a hybrid power supply that combines a thermoelectric generator and photovoltaic cells in one device. This portable EEG headset considerably improves the comfort of patients in clinical as well as in non-clinical environments and opens perspectives for a new range of non-clinical applications.

  7. Power system operation with battery charge/discharge scheduling based on interval analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Masuta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of photovoltaic (PV generation forecasts in economic load dispatching control, which includes the unit commitment of conventional power plants, is essential to ensure the economic performance and the reliability of power systems. In the previous study, we developed a day-ahead charge and discharge scheduling method of battery energy storage systems based on interval analysis using prediction intervals of a PV generation forecast; this interval forecast considers forecast errors and gives not only the forecasted output but also the possible range of the actual output with a certain confidence. In this study, we evaluate the proposed scheduling method by numerical simulations in terms of the power system supply and demand operation.

  8. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  9. Control of a Multi-Functional Inverter for Grid Integration of PV and Battery Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Beirami, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-functional control of a DC/AC inverter for Power Quality compensation of nonlinear and unequal local loads and grid integration of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems. Multi-layer neural network estimator and a DC/DC converter are used for maximum...... power point tracking (MPPT) of PV array. The power system is 3-phase 4-wires and the DC/AC inverter is chosen 4-leg three phase inverter which has good performance in presence of zero sequence components. Battery energy storage is connected to PV system in common DC bus and a power management strategy...... is used for delivering desire power to the grid. For compensation aim, instantaneous active and reactive power theory (p-q) is used. Via the algorithm, the DC/AC inverter not only can be controlled to inject the power of battery and PV, but also it is used as shunt active filter for compensating unequal...

  10. Atom Probe Analysis of Ex Situ Gas-Charged Stable Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Daniel; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report on the atom probe tomography analysis of two metallic hydrides formed by pressurized charging using an ex situ hydrogen charging cell, in the pressure range of 200-500 kPa (2-5 bar). Specifically we report on the deuterium charging of Pd/Rh and V systems. Using this ex situ system, we demonstrate the successful loading and subsequent atom probe analysis of deuterium within a Pd/Rh alloy, and demonstrate that deuterium is likely present within the oxide-metal interface of a native oxide formed on vanadium. Through these experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of ex situ hydrogen analysis for hydrides via atom probe tomography, and thus a practical route to three-dimensional imaging of hydrogen in hydrides at the atomic scale.

  11. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  12. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  13. A Sepic Type Switched Mode Power Supply System For Battery Charging In An Electric Tricycle Auto-Rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle Auto rickshaw battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply SMPS. The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLABSimulink.

  14. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, J.; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R. [Litronik GmbH und Co., Pirna (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described. (orig.)

  15. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Jürgen; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R.

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described.

  16. Battery management systems (BMS) optimization for electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehen, P. M. W.; Su'ait, M. S.; Razali, H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-04-01

    Following the UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Malaysia seriously committed on "Go Green" campaign with the aim to reduce 40% GHG emission by the year 2020. Therefore, the National Green Technology Policy has been legalised in 2009 with transportation as one of its focused sectors, which include hybrid (HEVs), electric vehicles (EVs) and fuel cell vehicles with the purpose of to keep up with the worst scenario. While the number of registered cars has been increasing by 1 million yearly, the amount has doubled in the last two decades. Consequently, CO2 emission in Malaysia reaches up to 97.1% and will continue to increase mainly due to the activities in the transportation sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia is now moving towards on green car which battery-based EVs. This type of transportation mainly needs power performance optimization, which is controlled by the Batteries Management System (BMS). BMS is an essential module which leads to reliable power management, optimal power performance and safe vehicle that lead back for power optimization in EVs. Thus, this paper proposes power performance optimization for various setups of lithium-ion cathode with graphene anode using MATLAB/SIMULINK software for better management performance and extended EVs driving range.

  17. Electrical performance and chemical composition studies on original and falsified Ni-MH batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Urbano; Jair Scarminio; Carlos Roberto Appoloni; Ricardo Floriano; Fábio Luiz Melquíades; Adenílson de Oliveira dos Santos; Paulo Rogério Catarini da Silva; Fábio Lopes; Rafael Bonacin de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    We show in this paper that falsifications on technological products have hit even rechargeable nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH). The electrical performance and the electrode chemical composition were investigated for authentic and falsified AAA Ni-MH batteries, purchased in the Londrina market, Paraná State. Battery charge capacities were measured at 0,2 C discharge rate and average electrical power was measured at 0.2 and 0.8 C discharge rate. To perform chemical composition analysis, ...

  18. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  19. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa; Mustapha Koussa; Nourredine Said

    2013-01-01

    The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study,...

  20. Optimal AGC with redox flow batteries in multi-area restructured power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the effect of Redox flow batteries (RFB in Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area restructured power systems. Initially, a two-area restructured thermal power system is investigated. For the analysis, optimal AGC regulators (OARs are designed employing performance index minimization criterion. The advantages of the OARs are shown by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA based integral controllers for the same restructured system. MATLAB simulation results further demonstrate significant improvements in the dynamic performance of the system with RFB. System stability enhancement with OARs/RFB is outlined by conducting the system modes study. The study is additionally extended to a more realistic two-area multi-source thermal–hydro–gas restructured system with/without RFB. To add nonlinearities, appropriate generation rate constraints (GRCs are considered for the thermal, hydro and gas plants. Results verify that OARs are able to satisfy the AGC requirement under varied power transactions taking place in an open power market. The robustness of OARs is demonstrated by sensitivity analysis, which is carried out with wide variation in initial loading, system parameters and magnitude/position of the uncontracted power demands. Finally, the study is extended to a two-area multi-source thermal–hydro power system with/without considering RFB.

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  2. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  3. Optimized wind-power system. Reduction of control energy demand for wind power plants; Optimiertes Wind-Batterie-System. Regelenergiebedarf von Windenergieanlagen reduzieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib, Arefeh Danesh [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Power System Consulting

    2012-12-10

    One challenge in the increasing amount of wind energy in the electrical power distribution system is the supply of additional balancing energy in order to balance the fluctuations of the power generation from wind power. Thus, it is important to recognize and develop methods which correspond to these challenges. The application of modern high-energy batteries such as sodium-sulfur batteries is an especially relevant option because the potential level also may serve the battery connection in the case of offshore wind farms with transmission of direct voltage. Fundamentally, this storage technology offers the potential of an enhanced energy density and performance density, a long lifetime as well as an enhanced efficiency. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on a wind-battery system which is used as a virtual power plant enabling the power generation with respect to the given schedule. Using wind farm specific, site specific as well as storage specific data, the wind-battery system is evaluated under consideration of different approaches of optimization by means of a computerized simulation. The wind-battery system also is optimized economically.

  4. High power valve regulated lead-acid batteries for new vehicle requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Francisco; Sáez, Francisco; Valenciano, Jesús

    The performance of high power VRLA ORBITAL™ batteries is presented. These batteries have been designed with isolated cylindrical cells, providing high reliability to the recombination process, while maintaining, at the same time, a very high compression (>80 kPa) over the life of the battery. Hence, the resulting VRLA modules combine a high rate capability with a very good cycle performance. Two different electrochemically active material compositions have been developed: high porosity and low porosity for starting and deep cycle applications, respectively (depending on the power demand and depth of discharge). Although, the initial performance of the starting version is higher, after a few cycles the active material of the deep cycle version is fully developed, and this achieves the same high rate capability. Both types are capable of supplying the necessary reliability for cranking at the lowest temperature (-40°C). Specific power of over 500 W/kg is achievable at a much lower cost than for nickel-metal hydride systems. Apart from the initial performance, an impressive behaviour of the cycling version has been found in deep cycle applications, due to the highly compressed and high density active material. When submitted to continuous discharge-charge cycles at 75% (IEC 896-2 specification) and 100% (BCI deep cycle) DoD, it has been found that the batteries are still healthy after more than 1000 and 700 cycles, respectively. However, it has been proven that the application of an IUi algorithm (up to 110% of overcharging) with a small constant current charging period at the end of the charge is absolutely necessary to achieve the above results. Without the final boosting period, the cycle life of the battery could be substantially shortened. The high specific power and reliability observed in the tests carried out, would allow ORBITAL™ batteries to comply with the more demanding requirements that are being introduced in conventional and future hybrid electric

  5. Room temperature and thermal decomposition of magnesium hydride/deuteride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Macia, M.D.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Ferrer, I.J.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) can be considered an interesting material to store hydrogen as long as two main drawbacks were solved: (i) its high stability and (ii) slow (de)hydriding kinetics. In that context, magnesium hydride films are an excellent model system to investigate the influence of structure, morphology and dimensionality on kinetic and thermodynamic properties. In the present work, we show that desorption mechanism of Pd-capped MgH{sub 2} at room temperature is controlled by a bidimensional interphase mechanism and a similar rate step limiting mechanism is observed during thermal decomposition of MgH{sub 2}. This mechanism is different to that occurring in bulk MgH{sub 2} (nucleation and growth) and obtained activation energies are lower than those reported in bulk MgH{sub 2}. We also investigated the Pd-capping properties upon H-absorption/desorption by means of RBS and isotope experiments. (orig.)

  6. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; Paraskevoulakos, C; Banos, A; Rennie, S; Jowsey, J; Scott, T B

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed.

  7. An Investigation on the Persistence of Uranium Hydride during Storage of Simulant Nuclear Waste Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, N. J.; Hallam, K. R.; Paraskevoulakos, C.; Banos, A.; Rennie, S.; Jowsey, J.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to study the oxidation of uranium and uranium hydride when encapsulated in grout and stored in de-ionised water for 10 months. Periodic synchrotron X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction have allowed measurement and identification of the arising corrosion products and the rates of corrosion. The oxidation rates of the uranium metal and uranium hydride were slower than empirically derived rates previously reported for each reactant in an anoxic water system, but without encapsulation in grout. This was attributed to the grout acting as a physical barrier limiting the access of oxidising species to the uranium surface. Uranium hydride was observed to persist throughout the 10 month storage period and industrial consequences of this observed persistence are discussed. PMID:26176551

  8. Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bruen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS. In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles of European and North American customer operation. This paper presents a study which defines the effect that the change in electrical properties of vibration aged 18650 NMC cells can have on the control strategy employed by the battery management system (BMS of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It also proposes various cell balancing strategies to manage these changes in electrical properties. Subsequently this study recommends that EV manufacturers conduct vibration testing as part of their cell selection and development activities so that electrical ageing characteristics associated with road induced vibration phenomena are incorporated to ensure effective BMS and RESS performance throughout the life of the vehicle.

  9. Hydride formation on deformation twin in zirconium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Dae [Korea Institute of Material Science (KIMS), 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jonghun, E-mail: yooncsmd@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Hydrides deteriorate the mechanical properties of zirconium (Zr) alloys used in nuclear reactors. Intergranular hydrides that form along grain boundaries have been extensively studied due to their detrimental effects on cracking. However, it has been little concerns on formation of Zr hydrides correlated with deformation twins which is distinctive heterogeneous nucleation site in hexagonal close-packed metals. In this paper, the heterogeneous precipitation of Zr hydrides at the twin boundaries was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. It demonstrates that intragranular hydrides in the twinned region precipitates on the rotated habit plane by the twinning and intergranular hydrides precipitate along the coherent low energy twin boundaries independent of the conventional habit planes. Interestingly, dislocations around the twin boundaries play a substantial role in the nucleation of Zr hydrides by reducing the misfit strain energy.

  10. The electrochemical impedance of metal hydride electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valøen, Lars Ole; Lasia, Andrzej; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical impedance responses for different laboratory type metal hydride electrodes were successfully modeled and fitted to experimental data for AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys as well as one MgNi type electrode. The models fitted the experimental data remarkably well. Several AC equ...

  11. A DFT Study of Multimode Switching in a Combined DHA/VHF-DTE/DHB System for Use in Solar Heat Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Anders Skovbo; Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Broman, Søren Lindbæk

    2017-01-01

    solvents before discussing its suitability for use in solar heat batteries. An energy storage capacity of 0.17 MJ/kg is calculated which corresponds to a specific energy of 46 Wh/kg—slightly larger than that of a common lead–acid car battery (∼40 Wh/kg) but still only one-fourth of lithium-ion batteries...... closed-cycle molecular systems...

  12. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  13. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  14. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  15. Enhanced representations of lithium-ion batteries in power systems models and their effect on the valuation of energy arbitrage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Apurba; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Sepulveda, Nestor; Uckun, Canan; Vergara, Claudio; de Sisternes, Fernando J.; Dees, Dennis W.; Botterud, Audun

    2017-02-01

    We develop three novel enhanced mixed integer-linear representations of the power limit of the battery and its efficiency as a function of the charge and discharge power and the state of charge of the battery, which can be directly implemented in large-scale power systems models and solved with commercial optimization solvers. Using these battery representations, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of the performance of a 10 MWh lithium-ion battery system testing the effect of a 5-min vs. a 60-min price signal on profits using real time prices from a selected node in the MISO electricity market. Results show that models of lithium-ion batteries where the power limits and efficiency are held constant overestimate profits by 10% compared to those obtained from an enhanced representation that more closely matches the real behavior of the battery. When the battery system is exposed to a 5-min price signal, the energy arbitrage profitability improves by 60% compared to that from hourly price exposure. These results indicate that a more accurate representation of li-ion batteries as well as the market rules that govern the frequency of electricity prices can play a major role on the estimation of the value of battery technologies for power grid applications.

  16. EEI`s wafer-cell bipolar battery: Versatile technology for a variety of military systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.T.; Klein, M.G.; Reisner, D.E. [Electro Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A new versatile cell design based on stackable wafer cells is described which forms the unit building block of a new generation of bipolar battery systems for a wide variety of military applications. Current is transported across an outer envelope of conductive plastic film. This innovative bipolar design approach offers improved energy density based on more efficient packaging in prismatic containers as well as elimination of cell hardware. Higher power capability is achieved from the intrinsic low resistance operation in a bipolar mode. These performance improvements are achieved in a low-cost package by virtue of the design simplicity and use of non-graphitic plastic-bonded electrodes. EEI has demonstrated the viability of the wafer cell approach in Ni-MH with sealed cell cycle life in excess of 2,000 cycles. Results are also reported for Ag-MH.

  17. Energy Management System Optimization for Battery-Ultracapacitor Powered Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Koroglu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage and environment pollution in the transportation are major problems of today’s world. Although electric vehicles are promising solutions to these problems, their energy management methods are complicated and need to be improved for the extensive usage. In this work, the heuristic optimization methods; Differential Evolution Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, are used to provide an optimal energy management system for a battery/ultracapacitor powered electric vehicle without prior knowledge of the drive cycle. The proposed scheme has been simulated in Matlab and applied on the ECE driving cycle. The differences between optimization methods are compared with reproducible and measurable error criteria. Results and the comparisons show the effectiveness and the practicality of the applied methods for the energy management problem of the multi-source electric vehicles.

  18. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...... by using a real-time simulation of the model and uploaded it in a digital control platform. The results show the economic benefit of the proposed optimal scheduling approach in two different scenarios....

  19. A Model-Based Virtual Sensor for Condition Monitoring of Li-Ion Batteries in Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model-based virtual sensor for assessing the health of rechargeable batteries for cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs is presented that can exploit coarse data streamed from on-vehicle sensors of current, voltage, and temperature. First-principle-based models are combined with knowledge acquired from data in a semiphysical arrangement. The dynamic behaviour of the battery is embodied in the parametric definition of a set of differential equations, and fuzzy knowledge bases are embedded as nonlinear blocks in these equations, providing a human understandable reading of the State of Health of the CPVS that can be easily integrated in the fleet through-life management.

  20. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  1. Service and monitoring of the coke oven battery at HKM with an integrated process-management-system on IT basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Kanty; Leo Nelles; Heinz-Bernd Beckmann; Willy Pesy [HKS Systemtechnik (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes a tool for monitoring a coke furnace battery. With the help of IT technology important operating parameters in relation to the coke furnace battery monitoring such as compressive force analysis, heating flow temperature, chamber wall temperature and refractory controls are collected and made available to the analysis. By use of modern visualization techniques and a constant actualization of the data the operating conditions are always represented in a current mode. Thus a safe and more efficient operation of the coke furnace battery is possible. The IT expert knowledge and coking plant expert knowledge lead to the development of a practice-oriented tool and reached thereby a high acceptance-in the work force. Expert knowledge is collected by a consistent application of the presented systems and can be made available to all users. Further application possibilities are in preparation. 27 figs.

  2. Battery Energy Storage Systems to Mitigate the Variability of Photovoltaic Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurganus, Heath Alan

    Methods of generating renewable energy such as through solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and wind turbines offer great promise in terms of a reduced carbon footprint and overall impact on the environment. However, these methods also share the attribute of being highly stochastic, meaning they are variable in such a way that is difficult to forecast with sufficient accuracy. While solar power currently constitutes a small amount of generating potential in most regions, the cost of photovoltaics continues to decline and a trend has emerged to build larger PV plants than was once feasible. This has brought the matter of increased variability to the forefront of research in the industry. Energy storage has been proposed as a means of mitigating this increased variability --- and thus reducing the need to utilize traditional spinning reserves --- as well as offering auxiliary grid services such as peak-shifting and frequency control. This thesis addresses the feasibility of using electrochemical storage methods (i.e. batteries) to decrease the ramp rates of PV power plants. By building a simulation of a grid-connected PV array and a typical Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the NetLogo simulation environment, I have created a parameterized tool that can be tailored to describe almost any potential PV setup. This thesis describes the design and function of this model, and makes a case for the accuracy of its measurements by comparing its simulated output to that of well-documented real world sites. Finally, a set of recommendations for the design and operational parameters of such a system are then put forth based on the results of several experiments performed using this model.

  3. Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes; Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Alessandrini, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia Divisione Tecnologie Energetiche Avanzate

    1997-06-01

    In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performances and battery life.

  4. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  5. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  6. Technical and Economic Assessment of a 450 W Autonomous Photovoltaic System with Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carriço

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about an autonomous photovoltaic system making use of the novel Lithium Iron Phosphate as a battery pack for isolated rural houses. More particularly, this paper examines the behavior and efficiency of a low-cost isolated photovoltaic system for typical rural houses near Luena in Angola. The proposed system (solar panel, batteries, controller, and inverter has been projected having in mind the required household daily load of 1,300 Wh and available solar irradiance. The initial batteries charging revealed to be essential to not only ensure a long battery life but using a balanced pack it was possible to achieve more stored energy. On-site, the polycrystalline solar panels used showed a daily average efficiency of 10.8%, with the total system having 75% efficiency. This result was adjusted to the average temperature in Angola. This way, it was made an extrapolation to the monthly irradiation values in Angola. The results achieved showed good energy production during almost all year except January and December, which revealed critical production values of 1,356 Wh and 1,311 Wh, respectively. These values are too close to the daily consumed energy and indicate the addition of a 2nd alternative source of energy (wind generator, diesel generator, etc. to be explored further.

  7. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  8. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Eaves, S.S. [Eaves Devices, Charlestown, RI (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  9. Compact battery-less information terminal (CoBIT) for location-based support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuichi; Itoh, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2002-06-01

    The target of ubiquitous computing environment is to support users to get necessary information and services in a situation-dependent form. Therefore, we propose a location-based information support system by using Compact Battery-less Information Terminal (CoBIT). A CoBIT can communicate with the environmental system and with the user by only the energy supply from the environment. It has a solar cell and get a modulated light from an environmental optical beam transmitter. The current from the solar cell is directly (or through passive circuit) introduced into an earphone, which generates sound for the user. The current is also used to make vibration, LED signal or electrical stimulus on the skin. The sizes of CoBITs are about 2cm in diameter, 3cm in length, which can be hanged on ears conveniently. The cost of it would be only about 1 dollar if produced massively. The CoBIT also has sheet type corner reflector, which reflect optical beam back in the direction of the light source. Therefore the environmental system can easily detect the terminal position and direction as well as some simple signs from the user by multiple cameras with infra-red LEDs. The system identifies the sign by the modulated patterns of the reflected light, which the user makes by occluding the reflector by hand. The environmental system also recognizes other objects using other sensors and displays video information on a nearby monitor in order to realize situated support.

  10. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Louthan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); PNNL, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  11. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  12. Power Control for Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Wind Generator System with Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Chu Xiao; Ying, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a wind generator system (WGS) loss model that addresses the loss of the wind turbine and the generator. It aims to optimize the maximum effective output power and turbine speed. Given that the wind generator system has inertia and is nonlinear, the dynamic model of the wind generator system takes the advantage of the duty of the Buck converter and employs feedback linearization to design the optimized turbine speed tracking controller and the load power controller. According to that, this paper proposes a dual-mode dynamic coordination strategy based on the auxiliary load to reduce the influence of mode conversion on the lifetime of the battery. Optimized speed and power rapid tracking as well as the reduction of redundant power during mode conversion have gone through the test based on a 5 kW wind generator system test platform. The generator output power as the capture target has also been proved to be efficient. PMID:25050405

  13. Power control for direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator system with battery storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Chu Xiao; Ying, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a wind generator system (WGS) loss model that addresses the loss of the wind turbine and the generator. It aims to optimize the maximum effective output power and turbine speed. Given that the wind generator system has inertia and is nonlinear, the dynamic model of the wind generator system takes the advantage of the duty of the Buck converter and employs feedback linearization to design the optimized turbine speed tracking controller and the load power controller. According to that, this paper proposes a dual-mode dynamic coordination strategy based on the auxiliary load to reduce the influence of mode conversion on the lifetime of the battery. Optimized speed and power rapid tracking as well as the reduction of redundant power during mode conversion have gone through the test based on a 5 kW wind generator system test platform. The generator output power as the capture target has also been proved to be efficient.

  14. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  15. Design and synthesis of new electrolyte systems for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amartya

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in consumer electronic products, including laptop computers, cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, and medical devices. They have great potential for application in electric and hybrid electric vehicles by virtue of their high energy and power density. Research and development in this direction have been focused all around the globe. The major challenges include the higher cost, safety issues related to the solvents, and conductivities at lower ambient temperature of the solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems. In this dissertation, three different approaches are presented to achieve an improved electrolyte system for lithium-ion batteries. A plasticizer was synthesized and incorporated into a conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolyte system. The ambient temperature ionic conductivity observed at room temperature was noteworthy, due to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Secondly, a branched polymer was synthesized and used as the base matrix in SPEs. Polymers with a higher order of branching remained undissolved in common organic solvents, thereby limiting the scope of their use for making films for the study. The ones with a lower order of branching exhibited ionic conductivities comparable to regular PEO-based electrolytes. The third and most successful approach involved the strategic design and synthesis of a series of low lattice energy lithium salts and their chemical, thermal and electrochemical characterization. In this methodology, the two-to-three step synthetic strategy involved chlorosulfonation of an activated aromatic ring, reaction of the corresponding sulfonyl chloride with trifluoromethanesulfonamide in the presence of triethylamine as a base, followed by lithiation of the resulting triethylammonium salt to generate monolithium, dilithium and scaffolded polylithium salts. The mono- and dilithium salts were tested in

  16. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  17. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  18. Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpe, Michael; Naumann, Maik; Truong, Nam; Hesse, Holger C.; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Saxon, Aron; Jossen, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzed and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and the photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.

  19. Simulation and Performance Analysis of Lithium Battery Bank Mounted on the Hybrid Power System for Mobile Public Health Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busono, Pratondo; Kartini, Evvy

    2013-07-01

    Mobile medical clinic has been proposed to serve homeless people, people in the disaster area or in the remote area where no health service exist. At that site, a number of essential services such as primary health care, general health screening, medical treatment and emergency/rescue operations are required. Such services usually requires on board electrical equipments such as refrigerators, komputer, power tools and medical equipments. To supply such electrical equipments, it needs extra auxiliary power sources, in addition of standard automotive power supply. The auxiliary power source specifically design to supply non automotive load which may have similar configuration, but usually uses high power alternator rated and larger deep cycle on board battery bank. This study covers the modeling and dynamic simulation of auxiliary power source/battery to supply the medical equipment and other electrical equipments on board. It consists a variable speed diesel generator set, photovoltaic (PV) generator mounted on the roof of the car, a rechargable battery bank. As an initial step in the system design, a simulation study was performed. The simulation is conducted in the system level. Simulation results shows that dynamical behaviour by means of current density, voltage and power plot over a chosen time range, and functional behaviour such as charging and discharging characteristic of the battery bank can be obtained.

  20. A Comparative case study of remote area power supply systems using photovoltaic-battery vs thermoelectric-battery configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Zhang, Bingjie; Singh, Baljit; Ganguly, Sayantan

    The paper presents a comparative study of two types of remote area power supply (RAPS) systems, which are the existing photovoltaic-based (PV) configuration and the proposed thermoelectric-based (TE) configuration. Both RAPS systems are solar-based power generators and sized according to Melbourne