Four fungal species, F71PJ Acremonium sp., F531 Cylindrocarpon sp., F542, Botrytis sp., and F964 Fusarium culmorum [Wm. G. Sm.] Sacc. were recovered from hydrilla [ Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] shoots or from soil and water surrounding hydrilla growing in ponds and lakes in Florida and shown to be capable of killing hydrilla in a bioassay. The isolates were tested singly and in combination with the leaf-mining fly, Hydrellia pakistanae ...
provided on rearing methods, releases, and associated costs. BACKGROUND: Hydrilla, family Hydrocharitaceae, is an exotic submersed macrophyte that...amount of topped-out, contiguous hydrilla was noted, as was the location within the reservoir (cove, boat lane, etc.). Sites containing large...as Berlese extraction with the same methods previously mentioned to monitor rearing pond numbers. Generally, two or three sites per reservoir were
Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco De Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Hauser, Martin
Hydrellia egeriae sp. nov., a new species of Hydrellia from Campana (34 14' 04 S, 58 52' 32 W) and Hurlingham (3435'14 S, 5838'27 W), Buenos Aires province, Argentina is described. A key to the Argentine Hydrellia species is presented.
Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto
With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil.
1 US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 2 Department of Biology , Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX. Report...2011). Experimental crosses have revealed that female dioecious plants in Florida are potentially fertile and can produce viable seed when pollinated by...Ecology Letters 13:145-153. Harms, N. E., Grodowitz, M. J. 2011. Overwintering biology of Hydrellia pakistanae, a biological control agent of
Mycoletodiscus terrestris), a fungal endophyte , was identified.1 Evidence from previous studies has shown that Mt can become pathogenic and have a...Hydrellia pakistanae and H. balciunasi. Samples of Eurasian watermilfoil also were collected to check for native insect herbivores and fungal pathogens...2001). “Recovery of endophytic fungi from Myriophyllum spicatum,” ERDC TN-APCRP-BC-03, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
Furqan; Awan; Muhammad; Muddassir; Ali; Umair; Iqbal; Irfan; Khattak; Muhammad; Hassan; Mushtaq
Objective:To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of pathogen entry.Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme.Methods:Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers were interviewed.The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary transmission of zoonotic infections:(i) persons who come in close contact with animals and their secretions,(ii) management strategies of farm animals(sheds and environment),(iii) management practices adopted at farms,(iv) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems,(v)milk collection systems.Results:This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission.Certain management practices,precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors.Conclusions:The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.
Furqan Awan; Muhammad Muddassir Ali; Umair Iqbal; Irfan Khattak; Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq
Objective: To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of pathogen entry. Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. Methods:Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers were interviewed. The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary transmission of zoonotic infections: (i) persons who come in close contact with animals and their secretions, (ii) management strategies of farm animals (sheds and environment), (iii) management practices adopted at farms, (iv) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems, (v) milk collection systems. Results:This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission. Certain management practices, precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors. Conclusions:The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.
Jafary, Fahim H; Aslam, Fawad; Mahmud, Hussain; Waheed, Abdul; Shakir, Murtaza; Afzal, Atif; Qayyum, Mohammad A; Akram, Javed; Khan, Iqbal S; Haque, Irshad U
Knowledge about coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors is an important pre-requisite for an individual to implement behavioral changes leading towards CHD prevention. There is scant data on the status of knowledge about CHD in the general population of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of CHD in a broad Pakistani population and identify the factors associated with knowledge. Cross sectional study was carried out at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan using convenience sampling. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 792 patient attendants (persons accompanying patients). Knowledge was computed as a continuous variable based on correct answers to fifteen questions. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with knowledge. The mean age was 38.1 (+/- 13) years. 27.1% had received no formal education. The median knowledge score was 3.0 out of a possible maximum of 15. Only 14% were able to correctly describe CHD as a condition involving limitation in blood flow to the heart. Majority of respondents could identify only up to two risk factors for CHD. Most commonly identified risk factors were stress (43.4%), dietary fat (39.1%), smoking (31.9%) and lack of exercise (17.4%). About 20% were not able to identify even a single risk factor for CHD. Factors significantly associated with knowledge included age (p = 0.023), income (p < 0.001), education level (p < 0.001), residence (p < 0.001), a family history of CHD (p < 0.001) and a past history of diabetes (p = 0.004). Preventive practices were significantly lacking; 35%, 65.3% and 84.6% had never undergone assessment of blood pressure, glucose or cholesterol respectively. Only a minority felt that they would modify their diet, stop smoking or start exercising if a family member was to develop CHD. This is the first study assessing the state of CHD knowledge in a relatively diverse non-patient population in Pakistan. There are striking gaps in knowledge about CHD, its risk factors and symptoms. These translate to inadequate preventive behavior patterns. Educational programs are urgently required to improve the level of understanding of CHD in the Pakistani population.
The past years saw an increased cases of anti-dumping on China mostly from the developed countries,some from developing countries.But Pakistan,a friendly neighbor to China,recently adds up to that list of ranks for an anti-dumping investigation on China.It is the national interests that count most,after all. It gives out a signal that anti-dumping would be a frequent tool to defend or to attack. Evidences show China is a target for this trade remedy,but is also targeting others.
M.K.JAMALI; T.G.KAZI; M.B.ARAIN; H.I.AFRIDI; A.R.MEMON; N.JALBANI; A.SHAH
The use of sewage sludge on agricultural land provides an alternative for its disposal.Therefore,the aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan,as an agricultural fertilizer.The agricultural soil amended with 250 g kg-1 sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for the growth of the common local grain crop,maize (Zea maize).The mobility of the trace and toxic metals in the sludge samples was assessed by applying a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure.The single extraction procedure was comprised of the application of a mild extractant (CaC12) and water,for the estimation of the proportion of easily soluble metal fractions.To check the precision of the analytical results,the concentrations of trace and toxic metals in every step of the sequential extraction procedure were summed up and compared with total metal concentrations.The plant-available metal contents,as indicated by the deionized water and 0.01 tool L-1 CaCl2 solution extraction fractions and the exchangeable fraction of the sequential extraction,decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with lime application because of the reduced metal availability at a higher pH,except in the cases of Cd and Cu,whose mobility was slightly increased.Sludge amendment enhanced the dry weight yield of maize and the increase was more obvious for the soil with lime treatment.Liming the sewage sludge reduced the trace and toxic metal contents in the grain tissues,except Cu and Cd,which were below the permissible limits of these metals.The present experiment demonstrates that liming was an important factor in facilitating the growth of maize in sludge-amended soil.