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Sample records for hydraulically settable materials

  1. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankui Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic bulge test (HBT method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT, but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  2. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hankui; Xu, Tong; Shou, Binan

    2016-12-30

    The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs-high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  3. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  4. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  5. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  6. Abrasion test of flexible protective materials on hydraulic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin WANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several kinds of flexible protective materials sprayed with polyurea elastomers (hereinafter referred to as polyurea elastomer protective material were adopted to meet the abrasion resistance requirement of hydraulic structures, and their abrasion resistances against the water flow with suspended load or bed load were studied systematically through tests. Natural basalt stones were adopted as the abrasive for simulation of the abrasion effect of the water flow with bed load, and test results indicate that the basalt stone is suitable for use in the abrasion resistance test of the flexible protective material. The wear process of the polyurea elastomer protective material is stable, and the wear loss is linear with the time of abrasion. If the wear thickness is regarded as the abrasion resistance evaluation factor, the abrasion resistance of the 351 pure polyurea is about twice those of pure polyurea with a high level of hardness and aliphatic polyurea, and over five times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with suspended load. It is also about 50 times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with bed load. Overall, the abrasion resistance of pure polyurea presented a decreasing trend with increasing hardness. Pure polyurea with a Shore hardness of D30 has the best abrasion resistance, which is 60 to 70 times that of high-performance abrasion-resistant concrete under the abrasion of the water flow with bed load, and has been recommended, among the five kinds of pure polyurea materials with different hardness, in anti-abrasion protection of hydraulic structures.

  7. SATURATED - UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBBASE COURSE MATERIAL AND SUBGRADE SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Yuzo

    In order to evaluate the rainwate r storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement by unsaturated seepage analysis or gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis, it is important to know the unsaturated hydraulic properties of materials wh ich constitute the pavement. For this reason, we showed the unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous asphalt material s but we have not clarified the relation between the performance of the permeable pavement and the properties of all constituti on materials. In this paper, we try to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials that greatly affect the rainwater storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement. We show from experiments that water retention characteristic and the un saturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials well match the van Genuchten model and the Irmay model.

  8. Dry and hydraulic extensile fracturing of porous impermeable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Van Mier, J.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Extensile hydraulic fracturing of mortar is investigated and compared to extensile dry fracturing of sandstone. The extensile fracture experiments have been performed in a Hookean cell in deformation control. The cell allows for axial loading and radial fluid pressure loading of cylindrical specimen

  9. Abrasion properties of homogenous and blended fill materials during pressure hydraulic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, S.P.

    1978-03-01

    A description is given of tests conducted to determine the abrasive properties of small and large-grain free-flowing fill materials during hydraulic transport of the materials under pressure. Data are given on the size, density, abrasiveness of various sized varieties of rock, sand, and blends comprising homogenous materials, simple and complex mixtures, and on the physical characteristics of various fill materials in relation to the trafficability and parameters of pipelines. Technical specifications are given for fill steel pipes. The study indicates that the durability of hydraulic fill pipelines largely depends on the abrasiveness of the fill materials. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Probing liquid distribution in partially saturated porous materials with hydraulic admittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P; Fairweather, J F; Schwartz, D T

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of two immiscible fluids in a complex porous material during displacement is often central to understanding its function. Characterization of this distribution is traditionally determined via optically transparent flow cells. However, for opaque or thin porous materials of the order of hundreds of microns, optical visualization proves to be difficult and requires sophisticated imaging techniques that are expensive and difficult to come by. We describe here a bench-top tool that dynamically probes the hydraulic pathways leading to each free-interface within a single capillary and a bundle of seven capillaries at various saturations (i.e., hydraulic path lengths). A small volumetric displacement was applied to each interface such that the interfaces remained pinned at the capillary walls and the resultant oscillatory pressure drop was measured to determine the hydraulic admittance at each applied oscillation frequency. When the magnitude of the hydraulic admittance was plotted vs. applied oscillation frequency, a resonance peak was found for each degenerately filled capillary. The corresponding peaks were represented by a half-loop (100% filled) and full loops (partially filled) in a Nyquist plot. We compared the theoretical and measured admittance curves and found good agreement for both capillary systems at high filled states. The theoretical predictions became worse when the hydraulic path length was comparable to the capillary radius. The analysis for the hydraulic admittance of a bundle of capillaries is developed here and experimentally validated for the first time.

  11. Compacted fly ash with additives: A potential construction material for hydraulic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, H.T.

    1991-05-14

    At Ontario Hydro's three coal-fired generating stations, ca 0.8 million tonnes of fly ash are produced annually, of which ca 25% is used in various engineering applications and in the production of construction materials. As part of research conducted to find further uses for this waste, tests were conducted to measure the hydraulic conductivity of specimens prepared by compacting mixtures of fly ash and selective additives. The main objective was to identify specimens with optimum proportions of fly ash to additive(s), yielding a hydraulic conductivity value of 10[sup [minus]9] m or less, for possible application as a liner material for solid waste landfills. Candidate additives included bentonite, red mud, limestone screenings, lime kiln dust, and southern Ontario clay. Results indicate that fly ash mixed with calcium bentonite and lime dust is the most promising construction material for hydraulic barriers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Investigation on hydraulic properties of compacted GMZ bentonite used as buffer/backfill material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, GMZ bentonite has been widely investigated for its use as buffer/backfill materials in China. Based on a comprehensive review of the former studies, achievements on experimental and theoretic works on the hydraulic aspects of compacted GMZ bentonite with consideration of temperature effects are presented in this paper. Water retention property of compacted GMZ bentonite depends on constraint conditions. Temperature effects on water-retention depend on constraint conditions and suction. The hysteresis behaviour is not obvious. Based on the test results, a revised water retention model was developed for considering the temperature effect. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the densely compacted GMZ bentonite increases as dry density and temperature increases. A revised model, which considers temperature influence on water viscosity and the effective flow cross-sectional area of porous channels, for prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity have been developed and verified. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of confined densely compacted GMZ bentonite samples decreases first and then increases with suction decrease from an initial value of 80 MPa to zero. With consideration of temperature effects and microstructure changes, a revised model for prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted GMZ01 bentonite was proposed.

  13. Evaluation of compressive strength of hydraulic silicate-based root-end filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan M; Woodmansey, Karl F; Glickman, Gerald N; He, Jianing

    2014-07-01

    Hydraulic silicate cements such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have many clinical advantages. Newer hydraulic silicate materials have been developed that improve on the limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate such as the long setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of saline and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the setting and compressive strength of the following hydraulic silicate cements: ProRoot MTA (white WMTA; Dentsply International, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN), EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), MTA Plus (MTAP; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and QuickSet (QS; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL). Samples of root-end filling materials were compacted into polyethylene molds. Samples were exposed to FBS or saline for 7 days. A universal testing machine was used to determine the compressive strengths. QS had significantly lower compressive strength than all other materials (P materials, other than QS, have compressive strength similar to MTA. Within the limits of this study, premixed materials and those mixed with antiwashout gel maintain their compressive strength when exposed to biological fluids. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of High Concentration Solutions on Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of landfill high concentration solutions erosion on geosynthetic clay liner (GCL materials permeability. The permeation tests on the GCL, submerged using different kinds of solutions with different concentrations, were carried out systematically by taking these chemical solutions as permeant liquids. Based on seasonal variations of ion concentrations in Chenjiachong landfill leachate (Wuhan Province, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, and KCl were selected as chemical attack solutions to carry out experimental investigations under three concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 200 mM and soak times (5, 10, and 20 days. The variation law of the GCL hydraulic conductivity under different operating conditions was analyzed. The relationship between GCL hydraulic conductivity, chemical solutions categories, concentrations, and soak times were further discussed. The GCL hydraulic conductivity, when soaked and permeated with high concentration chemical solutions, increases several times or exceeds two orders of magnitude, as compared with the permeation test under normal conditions that used water as the permeant liquid. This reveals that GCL is very susceptible to chemical attack. For four chemical solutions, the chemical attack effect on GCL hydraulic conductivity is CaCl2 > MgCl2 > KCl > NaCl. The impact of soak times on GCL hydraulic conductivity is the cooperative contribution of the liner chemical attack reaction and hydration swelling. A longer soak time results in a more advantageous hydration swelling effect. The chemical attack reaction restrains the hydration swelling of the GCL. Moreover, the GCL hydraulic conductivity exponentially decreases with the increased amplitude of thickness.

  15. A new method to evaluate the hydraulic activity of Al-Si materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HuaJian; SUN HengHu; TIE XuChu; XIAO XueJun

    2008-01-01

    Slag, fly ash, gangue and 500℃ calcined gangue are analyzed by using identical coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and magnetic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Research results show that there is a negative linear relationship between the Si 2p and Al 2p binding energies of Al-Si materials and the compressive strength of aluminosilicate based cementitious materials prepared with these Al-Si materials, i.e. the lower the binding energies, the higher the compressive strength. Indeed, the Si 2p and Al 2p binding energies of Al-Si materials can be used to indicate their hydraulic activity. The binding energies of the four examined materials increase in the order of slag, fly ash, 500℃ calcined gangue and untreated gangue. Moreover, the binding energies of Si 2p, Al 2p and O 1s of every Al-Si material have excellent correlation. By using the Al 2p binding energy and 27AI MAS NMR spectra, the coordination number of aluminum in slag is determined to be four, while that in gangue, is six. Based on the aforementioned discoveries, this paper presents a new effective method to evaluate the hydraulic activity of Al-Si materials by using the surface binding energies of silicon and aluminum of Al-Si materials.

  16. A new method to evaluate the hydraulic activity of Al-Si materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Slag,fly ash,gangue and 500℃ calcined gangue are analyzed by using identical coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP),X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS),infrared spectroscopy (IR) and magnetic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Research results show that there is a negative linear relationship between the Si 2p and Al 2p binding energies of Al-Si materials and the compressive strength of aluminosilicate based cementitious materials prepared with these Al-Si materials,i.e. the lower the binding energies,the higher the compressive strength. Indeed,the Si 2p and Al 2p binding energies of Al-Si materials can be used to indicate their hydraulic activity. The binding energies of the four examined materials increase in the order of slag,fly ash,500℃ calcined gangue and untreated gangue. Moreover,the binding energies of Si 2p,Al 2p and O 1s of every Al-Si material have excellent correlation. By using the Al 2p binding energy and 27Al MAS NMR spectra,the coordination number of aluminum in slag is determined to be four,while that in gangue,is six. Based on the aforementioned discoveries,this paper presents a new effective method to evaluate the hydraulic activity of Al-Si materials by using the surface binding energies of silicon and alu-minum of Al-Si materials.

  17. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  18. Determination of hydraulic conductivities of low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation, Albuquerque basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planert, C.S.

    1995-06-01

    Low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation were sampled and analyzed to determine their hydraulic conductivities using the falling head centrifugation method (fc) as described by Nimmo et al. (1991). The method is similar to the traditional falling head method, only it uses greatly increased centrifugal forces, allowing measurements to make in a relatively short amount of time. Using these measurements, variations in saturated hydraulic conductivities between different sediment types were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Sampling resulted in useable data chiefly from the clay and silt facies of the formation. The range of conductivities determined are representative of brown and red clays, and silts which make up the overbank deposits of this region. Hydraulic conductivities for these overbank fines were found to range from approximately log K = {minus}9 m/s to log K = {minus}7 m/s. The upper measurement limit of the centrifuge apparatus was determined to be approximately 1.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} m/s and the lower limit was approximately 7.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m/s.

  19. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  20. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 1. Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinzadeh, A T; Jongsma, L; de Groot-Kuin, D; Cristescu, R; Neirynck, N; Camilleri, J

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements (HCSCs) constitute a group of materials that have become increasingly popular in endodontics since the introduction of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in the 1990s. MTA is Portland cement to which bismuth oxide has been added to increase its radiopacity. The most important property of MTA is its capacity to set in water or a humid environment. However, MTA also has important limitations, for example, it's difficult to work with and can discolour teeth. Recently, numerous products based on HCSC chemistry, which can be considered as modifications of MTA intended to reduce its limitations, have become available on the market. Despite their potential advantages, all of these materials have their own specific limitations that are currently insufficiently known and investigated.

  1. Study of the performance of four repairing material systems for hydraulic structures of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormann A. C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of repairing materials are studied as function of either a conventional concrete or a reference-concrete (RefC, these are: polymer-modified cement mortar (PMor, steel fiber concrete (SFco, epoxy mortar (EMor and silica fume mortar (SFmo, to be applied in hydraulic structures surfaces subjected to a high velocity water flow. Besides the mechanical requests and wearing resistance of hydraulic concrete dam structures, especially the spillway surfaces, the high solar radiation, the environmental temperature and wet and dry cycles, contribute significantly to the reduction of their lifespan. RefC and the SFco were developed based on a usual concrete mixture used in slabs of spillways. The average RefC mixture used was 1: 1.61: 2.99: 0.376, with Pozzolan-modified Portland cement consumption of 425 kg/m³. EMor and PMor mixtures followed the information given by the manufacturers and lab experience. Tests on concrete samples were carried out in laboratory simulating normally found environmental situations in order to control the mechanical resistance and the aging imposed conditions, such as solar radiation and humidity. Also, physicochemical characterizing tests were made for all used materials. From the analyzed results, two of them presented a higher performance: the EMor and SFmo. SFco presented good adherence to the RefC and good mechanical performance. However, it also presented apparent metal corrosion in humidity tests, being indicated for use, with caution, as an intermediate layer in underwater repairs. In a general classification, considering all tests, including their field applications, the better performance material systems were EMor- SFmo> SFco> PMor.

  2. Alternative blade materials for technical and ecological optimization of a hydraulic pressure machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Olivier; Saenger, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    The Hydraulic Pressure Machine (HPM) is an energy converter to exploit head differences between 0.5 and 2.5 m in small streams and irrigation canals. Previous investigations show that efficiencies above 60% are possible. Several case studies indicate good continuity for aquatic life (e.g. fish) and bed load for the technology. The technology is described as an economically and ecologically viable option for small scale hydropower generation. Primary goal of this research is to improve the HPM blade design regarding its continuity properties by maintaining good efficiency rates. This is done by modifying the blade tip and testing within a large physical model under laboratory condition. Blade tips from steel (conventional - reference case) and a combination of EPDM rubber and steel as sandwich construction (rubber, steel, rubber - adhesive layered) are tested and compared. Both materials reach similar values for hydraulic efficiency (approx. 58%) and mechanical power output (approx. 220 W). The variation of different gap sizes pointed out the importance of small clearance gaps to reach high efficiencies. For assessing the two blade tip materials regarding continuity for aquatic life, fish dummies were led through the wheel. Analysis of slow motion video of dummies hit by the blade show significant advantages for the EPDM blade tip. The EPDM rubber allows to bend and thus reduces the shock and the probability for cuts on the fish dummy. It was shown that blade tips from EPDM have certain advantages regarding continuity compared to standard blade tips from steel. No compromise regarding energy production had to be made. These results from the HPM can be transferred to breast shot water wheel and may be applied for new and retrofitting projects.

  3. Couple mechanics hydraulics and sorption properties of mixtures to evaluate buffer/backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Lin, Jan [Ching Yun Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Taiwan (China); Shih-Chin, Tsaia [Fooyin Univ., Dept. of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Taiwan (China); Yi-Lin, Jan; Chun-Nan, Hsu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Science, Taiwan (China)

    2005-07-01

    The technique of multi-barrier disposal systems of radwaste has been studying among the world. The buffer materials that retard the migration of nuclides and make the canisters stable play a very important role. To couple engineering and sorption properties to evaluate the buffer/backfill materials, synthetic groundwater (GW) and seawater(SW) were used as the liquid phases to simulate possible conditions for a deep geological disposal in an island. The R{sub d} value of Cs, I and Se (10{sup -4} M ) with respect to various composite ratios of bentonite/ laterite/ quartz sand mixtures were measured using batch sorption tests in GW and SW. De-ionic water (DIW) was used as the liquid phase for Atterberg limit tests, triaxial shear test s and hydraulic conductivity tests to acquire the engineering properties of those mixtures mention above. The Atterberg limit tests results showed that 7 samples are concluded inorganic clays of high plasticity and one is inorganic clays of medium plasticity. The samples with 30% quartz sand content indicate the higher shear strength than those with 50% quartz sand content and very low hydraulic conductivity for all samples are in the same order about 1{sup -10} m/s. The sorption of Cs on mixtures reveals that distribution coefficients (R{sub d}s) is higher in GW than those in SW. The Rd s of Cs are inverse proportion to plastic index (PI) in GW and SW as well as the R{sub d}s of Se. The sorption of Se on mixtures is affected significantly by composition of solid phase. However, the major affection for sorption of Se is solid phase and that of Cs is liquid phase. Very low sorption of I on all mixtures in GW and SW. Under these experimental conditions, these results reveal that more effective buffer material composition of 30% quartz sand content which PI are 40 to 60. Laterite is more effective sorbent for Cs and Se than Bentonite. (authors)

  4. Hydraulic Behavior and Chemical Characterization of Lapilli as Material for Natural Filtering of Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Falcón-Cardona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is a low cost solution in terms of finance and energy. The REAGUA project (REuso AGUA, Water reuse in Spanish analyzes the possibility of using “picon” (lapilli as a material for the treatment of liquid manure from ruminants, for later use in subsurface drip irrigation system to produce forage and biofuels, in which the soil acts as a subsequent advanced treatment. A three-phase system, in which the effluent was poured with a vertical subsurface flow in an unsaturated medium, is designed. In order to determine the management conditions that optimize the filter, it was necessary to characterize the hydraulic behavior of lapilli and its ability to remove substances. Using three lapilli-filled columns, unsaturated flux, and a ruminant effluent, the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5 and ammonia, phosphorus and suspension solids (SS obtained was over 80%, 90%, and 95% respectively, assumable values for irrigation.

  5. Water-Air Mixing Jet Produced by Electro-hydraulic Impulse Technology Strengthening the Quality of Surface of Metal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Electro-hydraulic impulse water-air mixing jet by which the quality of metal materials can be improved is described in this paper. The experimental results proved that the hardness and the micro-hardness of the surface layer of metal materials can be improved with this method, for example, the microhardness of CrWMn can be increased by 35.62percent.

  6. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Philip D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  7. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences; Yokohama Kokuritsu Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science pursues to most efficiently produce high-quality products useful for human living and compatible with the environments, based on scientific and technological knowledge man has learned. This department has four professional education courses, materials designs, mechanical processes, hot fluid dynamics, and mechanical systems. An independent subject of hydraulic and pneumatic systems is provided for hydraulics and pneumatics. The lectures on mechatronics include those for digitally-, electronically/hydraulically- and electronically/pneumatically-controlled devices, and their characteristics. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, basic fluid analysis, applied fluid analysis, turbo machines, and automatic control. The postgraduate courses provide hydraulic and pneumatic engineering for, e.g., cavitation and unsteady flow through conduits, hydraulic/pneumatic driving and controlling, modeling and robust control of mechanical systems, and designs of fluid-controlling devices and actuators. The experimental courses include tests of centrifugal pump performance, measurement of pressure distributions on journal bearings, and tests of fluid flow through conduits. (NEDO)

  9. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  10. Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation

    2010-08-01

    In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

  11. Evaluation of wear rate on material vane of hydraulic pump by standard ASTM G 77

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Ballesteros, Nairo Julian

    2015-01-01

    En el desarrollo de la investigación se evaluó la rata de desgaste en los materiales (bronce C93700 y resina fenólica reforzada con fibras de Aramida) de las paletas de una bomba hidráulica de referencia BLACKMER ML, bajo el método estándar ASTM G77- 2010, “Ranking Resistence of Materials to Sliding Wear Using Block-on-Ring Wear Test”. A partir de un análisis experimental del contacto par tribológico probetas “block on ring” bajo cinco niveles de carga (5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 N), s...

  12. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  13. HYDRAULIC AND LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF BELITE CEMENTS PRODUCED WITH ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE STEEL SLAG AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobescu R. I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three belite-rich cements consisting of a clinker made with 0 (BC, 5 (BC5 and 10 wt. % (BC10 electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS as raw material, were studied for their hydraulic and leaching behaviour. Hydration behaviour was studied by FTIR, TG/DTG and SEM analyses. The cements with EAFS resulted in a higher C2S/C3S and C4AF/C3A ratio compared to the reference body. As a result, the rate of hydration was low at early days whereas the structure was porous with scattered AFm and C–S–H crystals. At 28 days, a comparable dense microstructure consisting largely of C–S–H is observed in all mortars. Leaching was studied for V and Cr by means of tank test according to standard NEN 7345. The results showed V release below 2 μg/l. Chromium release calculated per 24 h was 1.4 μg/l in BC5 and 2.4 μg/l in BC10, which is much lower than the parametric value of 50 μg/l specified by the European Directive for drinking water (98/83/EC.

  14. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  15. Thermal - Hydraulic Behavior of Unsaturated Bentonite and Sand-Bentonite Material as Seal for Nuclear Waste Repository: Numerical Simulation of Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, E.; Graupner, B.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    For deep geological repositories of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW), bentonite and sand bentonite mixtures are investigated as buffer materials to form a a sealing layer. This sealing layer surrounds the canisters and experiences an initial drying due to the heat produced by HLRW and a successive re-saturation with fluid from the host rock. These complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes interact and were investigated in laboratory column experiments using MX-80 clay pellets as well as a mixture of 35% sand and 65% bentonite. The aim of this study is to both understand the individual processes taking place in the buffer materials and to identify the key physical parameters that determine the material behavior under heating and hydrating conditions. For this end, detailed and process-oriented numerical modelling was applied to the experiments, simulating heat transport, multiphase flow and mechanical effects from swelling. For both columns, the same set of parameters was assigned to the experimental set-up (i.e. insulation, heater and hydration system), while the parameters of the buffer material were adapted during model calibration. A good fit between model results and data was achieved for temperature, relative humidity, water intake and swelling pressure, thus explaining the material behavior. The key variables identified by the model are the permeability and relative permeability, the water retention curve and the thermal conductivity of the buffer material. The different hydraulic and thermal behavior of the two buffer materials observed in the laboratory observations was well reproduced by the numerical model.

  16. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  17. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  18. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations we...

  19. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  1. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  2. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  3. Development of a New Apparatus for Investigating Acoustic Effects on Hydraulic Properties of Low-Permeability Geo-Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H.; Sawada, A.; Sugita, H.; Takeda, M.; Komai, T.; Zhang, M.

    2006-12-01

    Remediation of polluted soils and groundwater contaminated by heavy metals and non-aqueous phase liquids has been one of the challenging issues in the field of geo-environments. In-situ removal of the contaminants from low permeable soils, such as clay strata, is particularly difficult because of the low mobility, strong adsorption, and/or other various interactions within soils. Thus current remediation techniques, such as pump- and-treat method and even eletrokinetic method, generally suffer from low recovery rates and/or economically unacceptable long remediation periods. A perspective improvement in remediation technology is to couple the electrokinetic method with an application of acoustic waves. This so-called Electro-Acoustic Soil Decontamination (EASD) method has been proposed by Battelle Columbus Labs.(Muralidhara et al. 1990). Simultaneous application of an electric field and an acoustic field may produce a synergistic effect and result in further enhancement of water transport by electro-osmosis in principle, but there is still no fundamental data for the design of EASD method in practical applications. A number of investigations have shown that an application of acoustic waves can increase hydraulic conductivity and mobility of non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Most of the prior and ongoing researches in this area have been focused on increasing production from declining oil and gas reservoirs. During several field tests by the oil and gas industries, increases in oil production rates by 20% or more have been reported. However, underlying physical mechanisms for acoustically enhanced fluid transport are not adequately understood. In addition, majority of the past investigations has dealt with applications of large amplitude of acoustic waves to relatively permeable soils or fractured rocks, and there is little information if acoustic wave effectively enhances flow and contaminant transport for less permeable clayey soils. To evaluate the

  4. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Goryunova, E; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2016-03-05

    Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material.

  5. Devonian micritic limestones used in the historic production of Prague hydraulic lime (‘pasta di Praga’: characterization of the raw material and experimental laboratory burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlovcev, P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian micritic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, which were the primary raw material used for natural hydraulic lime burned in Prague, exhibit a feebly to eminently hydraulic character. Based on a laboratory experimental study, the burned product is composed of dominant free-lime (CaO and/or portlandite (Ca(OH2, larnite-belite (bicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2, and quartz (SiO2 - i.e. phases formed due to the decomposition of carbonate and quartz, present in the original limestones. Proportions of the newly formed phases depend on: the composition of the raw material, maximum burning temperature (the highest amount of larnite-belite appearing at a burning temperature of 1200 °C, and the granulometry of the experimental batches (a coarsely-ground batch exhibited a higher amount of larnite-belite compared to the finely-ground one. The presence of minor phyllosilicates in the raw material contributed to the formation of gehlenite, brownmillerite, wollastonite, calcium aluminate, and/or spurrite.Las calizas micríticas devonianas provenientes de la Cuenca de Praga (área de Barrand, macizo de Bohemia, República checa que fueron la principal materia prima utilizada para la producción de la cal hidráulica natural calcinada en Praga, presentan un carácter hidráulico desde débil hasta alto. El estudio experimental de laboratorio, ha determinado que el producto calcinado está compuesto de cal viva (CaO como componente predominante y/o cal hidratada (Ca(OH2, larnita-belita (silicato bicálcico 2CaO.SiO2 y cuarzo (SiO2 – es decir, fases formadas como resultado de la descomposición de carbonato y cuarzo presentes en las calizas originales. Las proporciones de las nuevas fases formadas dependen de: la composición de la materia prima, temperatura máxima de calcinación (la mayor cantidad de larnita-belita se produce a la temperatura de calcinación de 1200 °C, y la granulometría de las

  6. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmukat, A., E-mail: schmukat@harzwasserwerke.de [Harzwasserwerke GmbH, Zur Granetalsperre 8, 38685 Langelsheim (Germany); Federal Institute of Hydrology, Department of Aquatic Chemistry, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Duester, L. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Department of Aquatic Chemistry, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Goryunova, E. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Department of Aquatic Chemistry, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); KAPP-Chemie GmbH & Co. KG, Industriestr. 2-4, 56357 Miehlen (Germany); Ecker, D.; Heininger, P.; Ternes, T.A. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Department of Aquatic Chemistry, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • DoE supported multi-factorial study on the metal(loid) release from copper slag. • Interactions of four parameters were studied and weighted. • An effective separation method between slag and sediment was established. • The metal(loid) partitioning between sediment, slag and eluent is described. • The knowledge on the potential environmental impact of copper slag is increased. - Abstract: Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material.

  7. 3D thermal hydraulic simulation of the hot channel of a typical material testing reactor under normal operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din; Salama, Amgad [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Reactors Dept.

    2010-09-15

    The hot channel in a typical Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is subjected to 3D simulation. Because of the existence of similarity planes, only a quarter of the hot channel including meat thickness, clad, and coolant channel is considered for CFD analysis using the FLUENT code. For the simulation, steady state normal operation regime at the reactor nominal power is assumed. In order to build confidence in our modeling approach, the results obtained in this work are compared with those obtained from the one-dimensional simulation code, MTRTHA. That is, modified variables were generated in order to match those obtained by MTRTHA and to allow comparisons. Quite good agreement is generally observed, however, the maximum clad surface temperature predicted by the 3D calculations, located at the clad mid-width, is higher than the 1D prediction by about 8 C but still below the onset of subcooled boiling by adequate safety margin. The results show quite interesting 3D patterns in both the flow field and the heat transfer. Temperature profiles, velocity profiles and contours are all presented to highlight the essential 3D features of this system. (orig.)

  8. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  9. High Pressure Hydraulic Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    to 500 0 F. 5 cycles. 5000 F room temperature to 50001F; 45 ______________ Icycles The tesis planned for the distribution system demonstrator were...American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D412 - Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber ASTM D571 - Testing Automotive Hydraulic Brake Hose Society of

  10. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  11. Erosion Control of Scour during Construction. Report 4. Stability of Underlayer Material Placed in Advance of Construction to Prevent Scour; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    CONSTRUCTION TO PREVENT SCOUR Hydraulic Model Investigation by Lyndell Z . Hales, James R. Houston S.Hydraulics Laboratory .’, ! 1- N U.S. Army Engineer...hiVeStI9.e e1(_____________________________ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(ek) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) Lyodlell Z . Hiles James R...us t tO geerate ’ the reIpre-senatativye stonle weight, W it it the itlet-eayt’ tsectiatte. The e-xptressioni tir this- ctiese-rvi v- stabiltity

  12. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  14. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De La Cruz, Eulogio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Lavado Soto, Aurelio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  15. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  16. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  17. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  18. Características construtivas de um carneiro hidraúlico com materiais alternativos Hydraulic ram pump manufacturer features using alternative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis C. Cararo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um carneiro hidráulico construído com conexões roscáveis de PVC roscáveis e metálicas e garrafa de polietileno tereftálico (PET. O estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Hidráulica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG. Testaram-se tamanhos de câmaras de ar (0,6 e 2,5L, diâmetros de furos da tampa da garrafa (5, 15 e 25mm, tipos de garrafa plástica (descartável de guaraná e descartável e retornável de refrigerante de cola, e posições da válvula de escape (vertical e horizontal, a diferentes pressões de recalque (48,39 a 483,92kPa, a cada 48,39 kPa. O desnível do reservatório de alimentação ao carneiro hidráulico foi mantido constante a 4,36m. Os resultados indicaram que a combinação de características construtivas que possibilitam melhor rendimento, maior vazão recalcada, menor vazão de alimentação e menor desperdício, foi o uso de garrafa PET descartável ou retornável com capacidade de 0,6L, válvula de escape na horizontal e tamanho de furo de 25mm na tampa da garrafa.Tests were conducted at the Hydraulics Laboratory of Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, to evaluate a hydraulic ram pump built with PVC and metallic threadable connections, and a bottle made with polyethylene tereftalic, known as PET. The manufacturer features tested were: bottle size (0.6 and 2.5L, hole size of the bottle top (5, 15 and 25mm, bottle models (disposable and returnable and valve positions (horizontal and vertical. The operational hydraulic head was 4.36m and the simulated pump elevation pressures were 48.39 to 483.92kPa and 48.39 to 48.39kPa. The best efficiency, the highest pumped water flow, the lowest operational water flow and the lowest waste water flow were obtained using the 0.6L PET disposable or returnable bottle with horizontal valve position and top size of 25mm.

  19. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  20. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  1. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  2. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Lubrication and tribology in seawater hydraulic piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; LI Zhuang-yun; ZHU Yu-quan

    2003-01-01

    Water hydraulic systems have provoked major interest because of the human friendly and environmental safety aspects. Piston pump is one of the most frequently used hydraulic units in recent engineering technique. In water hydraulic piston pump, poor lubrication is more likely to happen than in oil hydraulic one because of difference in properties between water and oil. So there are some key problems such as corrosive wear and erosion, which are investigated briefly. Many new materials have been developed, which give longer life expectancies with water without corrosion and erosion. A new type of seawater hydraulic piston pumps with better suction characteristics had been developed at HUST. Much of this research has concentrated on new materials, structure and experiments, which are also specially introduced.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  5. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  6. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  7. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  8. Cavitation in hydraulic turbines: the benefits of new processes and materials utilization; Cavitacao em turbinas hidraulicas: os beneficios da utilizacao de novos processos e novos materiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Nelio Cesar de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico

    1995-12-31

    Due to the introduction of new metallurgic technologies, this work proposes the substitution of the existing materials and processes used for the maintenance of electric turbines which present the cavitation effect. the methodology is presented. Considering the so far obtained results, it was concluded that by the utilization of the suggested techniques it is possible to obtain significant maintenance costs and time reduction 8 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  9. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  11. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  12. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  13. Methodology for fabrication of hydraulics mini turbines with composite materials; Metodologia para a fabricacao de mini turbinas hidraulicas com materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, M.T.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEMEC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: mtcdf@uol.com.br; Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (EHR-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@bol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the description of methodological procedure specially developed for manufacturing mini turbines. This procedure is used in the design of a Francis type mini turbine with 12.5 kW. The housing volute and the suction tube of this equipment are manufactured with using composed material based on glass fiber and its distributor system is manufactured with stainless steel and brass. At the end it is presented an estimate cost of design / manufacturing of such equipment and a comparison with other equipment in the market.

  14. Grouting material selection test in hydraulic tunnel gushing%水工隧洞涌水灌浆材料比选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武立强

    2015-01-01

    This paper combine with tunnel construction of Dahuofang Reservoir water conveyance project (phase Ⅱ)in Liaoning Province,carry out water-tight experiment respectively and effect analysis focuses on the features of grouting ma-terial when the tunnel occurs a large water-gushing,such as cement,water glass and other commonly used material,in or-der to provide a reference for similar projects.%结合辽宁省大伙房水库输水(二期)工程隧洞施工,论述了隧洞发生较大涌水现象时,针对水泥、水玻璃、水泥—水玻璃等常用灌浆材料的性能特点,分别进行阻水试验及效果分析,以期为类似工程提供一定参考价值。

  15. 水工环氧防护修补材料应力松弛性能研究%Study of stress relaxation behavior of hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 李敬玮; 鲁一晖

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study is made on the creep and stress relaxation behavior of the hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material developed in laboratory of IWHR. The material initial elastic modulus of 1. 41 Gpa is determined for the material by the testing of DMTA (Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis) and the stress relaxation function of the material is obtained through the Laplace transform based on the Kelvin model along with the double retardation time and standard linear solid model. The result shows that the result from the standard linear solid model is close to that from the Kelvin model of double retardation time under the temperature of -20 t, however, the result from the Kelvin model is even much more close to the physical character of the material within a bigger temperature scope. The test result indicates that this epoxy resin material has a better mechanical relaxation behavior under a lower temperature condition.%对实验室研制的水工环氧防护材料的蠕变和应力松弛行为进行了试验研究.采用DMTA测试确定材料的起始弹性模量为1.41 GPa,结合蠕变实验结果,采用双推迟时间Kelvin模型和标准线性固体模型,通过Laplace变换得到了材料的应力松弛函数.结果表明:在- 20℃条件下,标准线性固体模型得到的结果接近于双推迟时间的Kelvin模型结果,但较宽温度范围内Kelvin模型更接近于材料的实际物理状态.试验结果表明该环氧修补材料在低温情况下具有较好的力学松弛性能.

  16. Preparation and hydraulic conductivity performance analysis of infiltration irrigation materials%渗灌材料制备及导水性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增志; 王晓健; 薛梅

    2014-01-01

    该文旨在确定渗灌渗水涂层成分的配比方案,制备出渗水性能良好的渗灌滴头。通过对所选用的蒙脱土MMT及聚丙烯酰胺PAM材料的结构和性能进行了分析和比较,设计制备工艺,制备渗灌滴头,在实验室内搭建了渗灌材料的实际渗水的试验平台;采用拉伸强度试验对渗灌导水涂层材料与纤维结合性能进行研究,用电子显微镜对不同配比的渗灌导水材料的形貌进行了观察并对其微观结构和组成进行了分析,在不同环境条件下对渗灌材料的渗水自调节性进行分析。结果表明:PAM/MMT悬浮液的配比为0.20 g/50 mL(1∶250)时导水材料的成膜性较,涂层成膜性较好,分布较均匀。对于以1∶250聚丙烯酰胺和蒙脱石制备的的渗水材料,温度一定时,随着环境土壤含水率的逐渐增加,渗水速率逐渐降低,土壤含水率一定时,随着环境温度的增加,渗水速率逐渐下降。该研究为渗灌材料制备提供参考。%Infiltrating irrigation is a kind of effective water-saving irrigation technology because it has many technical advantages including extensive application in agriculture, especially for tree irrigation in arid and semiarid regions. This study aimed to design a kind of infiltrating irrigation material that could realize self-adjusting and non-pressure water-supply under different environmental conditions as well as ensure normal plant growth with better property of saving water and energy. Through theoretical analysis and based on experience, montmorillonite (MMT) and polyacrylamide (PAM) were used to form infiltrating irrigation water-conductivity material. Different mass ratios of MMT and PAM were designed including proportions of PAM and MMT suspension of 1:1000 (0.05 g/50 mL), 1:500 (0.1 g/50 mL), 1:333 (0.15 g/50 mL), 1:250 (0.2 g/50 mL), 1:200 (0.25 g/50 mL), and 1:167 (0.3 g/50 mL). The fiber was used as the supporting material that was

  17. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  18. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  19. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  20. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  1. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  2. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  3. New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, M.; Thibault, D.; Bouffard, D. A.; Lévesque, M.

    2010-08-01

    Traditionally, hydraulic runner mechanical design is based on calculation of static stresses. Today, validation of hydraulic runner design in terms of reliability requires taking into account the fatigue effect of dynamics loads. A damage tolerant approach based on fracture mechanics is the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Québec to study fatigue damage in runners. This requires a careful examination of all factors influencing material fatigue behavior. Such material behavior depends mainly on the chemical composition, microstructure and thermal history of the component, and on the resulting residual stresses. Measurement of fracture mechanics properties of various steels have demonstrated that runner lifetime can be significantly altered by differences in the manufacturing process, although remaining in accordance with agreed practices and standards such as ASTM. Carbon content and heat treatment are suspected to influence fatigue lifetime. This will have to be investigated by continuing the current research.

  4. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Shiongur Bamed

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under...

  5. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  6. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  7. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  8. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  9. Spinning hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  10. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must...

  11. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  12. A New Type of Hydraulic Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitai Drimer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the invention and development of a new fundamental type of hydraulic actuator, aimed at delivering better actuation efficiency. This actuator is a flexible tube, composed of two different materials, which deflects while applying inner pressure. This concept is simple to produce, and allows adaptation of the deflected shape by the design parameters (radius, wall thickness, geometry, etc.. Among other applications, it is mostly suitable for the activation of fins of nature-like marine robots. Theoretical formulation, production of prototypes and actuation experiments are presented, as well as material hysteresis research and an application example.

  13. Mechanization of hydraulic testing of chemical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, M.T.; Fridman, R.N.; Petrovnin, A.I.

    1982-09-01

    The Institute VNIIPTKhimmash has worked out a comprehensive list of equipment for testing for strength and tightness containers and heat exchangers with jackets, with mixers, also of individual parts and subassemblies for this equipment. Points out that in the test stands developed for hydraulic testing of vessels both individual and centralized recirculating water supply can be used. Concludes that a reduction in labor consumption in hydraulic testing and in servicing of all the equipment used, an increase in the mechanization of this kind of chemical equipment, and the solution of the problem of standardization not only with regard to dimensions and parameters, but also with regard to the makes and types of the materials used, will make possible a considerable increase in labor productivity and product quality.

  14. Hydraulic rams; a comparative investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, J.H.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the essential features of hydraulic ram operation is developed in order to clarify the possibilities and limitations of the ram relative to its site and its adjustments. The model distinguishes three different periods in the pumping cycle of the hydraulic ram: acceler

  15. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  16. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  17. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    As wind turbines increase in size, combined with increased lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hereby dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. By utilizing...... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  18. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.

    2003-01-01

    system for agricultural applications and driving for transportation. During tranport phases, the lack of suspension causes the vehicle to bounce and pitch, and makes it difficalt to control. Many systems have been proposed to cope with the oscillatory behavior, and different solutions exist. Common......This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...... for most of the systems are that they operate on the hydrailc actuators generally providing the motive forces for moving the implement and/or attachment, typically a plough. The basic idea and physical working principle are to use the implement, moveable relative to the vehicle, as a damper mass. The paper...

  19. Beneficial impact of polymer treatment of Ca-bentonites on long term hydraulic conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Emidio, Gemmina; De Camillis, Michela; Bezuijen, Adam; Verastegui Flores, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners for the confinement of waste disposal facilities mainly depends on the hydraulic conductivity of the core bentonite clay encased between the two geotextiles. Bentonite clay is the most common material for geosynthetic clay liners. Even thought, sodium bentonite has the lowest hydraulic conductivity to water, calcium bentonite is widely used because of low cost and availability. This research concerns the evaluation of the treatment of cal...

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  1. USE OF GEOSYNTHETIC CASINGS IN HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyavskiy Semen Avraamovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of geosynthetic casings in hydraulic engineering. The authors describe the structure of earth dams that have geosynthetic casings used as the reinforcement of downstream slopes. Results of stability calculations are provided. The authors consider several examples of effective application of advanced geosynthetic materials used in combination with local building materials as structural elements of hydraulic engineering facilities. Their analysis has demonstrated a strong potential and expediency of application of geosynthetic casings in the course of construction and renovation of low-pressure earth dams. The authors have also developed a new structure of an earth dam. The new earth dam has geosynthetic casings used as structural reinforcing elements of the crown and the downstream slope. The dam structure contemplates the overflow of high water. The structural strengths of the proposed solution include a smaller material consumption rate, lower labour intensiveness and cost of the slope reinforcement due to the application of local building materials used to fill the casings, fast and easy depositing of slope reinforcing elements, and high workability of its dismantling for repair purposes. The authors have also completed the analysis of stability of geosynthetic casings of downstream slopes of an earth dam. The analysis has proven high efficiency of a small slope ratio in combination with its anchorage and reinforcement of the downstream toe with the help of high-strength geogrids.

  2. Hydraulic Tomography and High-Resolution Slug Testing to Determine Hydraulic Conductivity Distributions - Year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    the addition into a well of a known volume of water or a physical slug. More recently, pneumatic methods have become popular ( Zemansky and McElwee...and Zemansky , 2000), (Sellwood, 2001) and (Ross, 2004)]. The aquifer material at GEMS exhibits linear and non-linear responses to slug testing...1976; Zurbuchen et al., 2002; and Zemansky and McElwee, 2005). Slug tests have been a common method for obtaining information about the hydraulic

  3. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  4. Hydraulic conductivity of organomodified soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.B.; Grant, J.M.; Voice, T.C.; Rakhshandehroo, G.; Xu, S.; Boyd, S.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The effects of organomodification on soil hydraulic conductivity were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of treated and untreated samples of a sandy loam were measured as a function of effective stress. Batch treatment with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and dry packing produced organomodified samples that were 79% less conducive than untreated samples prior to loading. Treated samples lost less hydraulic conductivity as a result of loading than untreated samples so that treated samples had higher conductivity at high loads. Observed differences in conductivity are explained in terms of the role of the treated and untreated clay in controlling initial effective pore size and its change during consolidation.

  5. HYDRAULICS, ATHENS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDRAULICS, JACKSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDRAULICS, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Hydraulic data was reviewed and approved by FEMA during the initial MT-2 processing. Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management...

  8. HYDRAULICS, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data in this submittal include spatial datasets and model outputs necessary for computation of the 1-percent flooding extent. The minimum requirement for...

  9. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  10. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  12. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  13. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  14. HVOF on the Surface Strengthen Treatment to the flow Parts of Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI You-zhong; LU Jin-yu; TU Yang-wen; LI Cui-lin

    2004-01-01

    China has the most outstanding and serious problem of silt abrasion on hydraulic turbine, especially in the power station on mainstream of Yellow River and the upriver anabranch of Yangtze River. For many years, in order to find the destruction rules of silt to hydraulic turbine, and study how to slow down the destruction speed of sandiness stream to surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine, various kinds of new technology, new material, new craftwork have been verified in lab and on spot. It is proved that using high velocity oxygen fuel to strengthen the surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine can effectively prolong the service life of hydroelectric generating set.

  15. Design of a pictogram of the operator-hydraulic filler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhgol' ts, V.P.; Dinershtein, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    A modern hydraulic filling system is discussed which consists of two lines: the crusher and sorter preparing the filling material, and the hydraulic filling unit, which includes a mixer and a system of pulp conduits. The process chart of the hydraulic filling system without the crusher-sorter is illustrated. When the system is started, water is first flushed through the pulp conduit, gate valves with drives are opened, and the quantity of water discharged is measured by water output sensors. For effective and failure-free operation of the system, remote control and monitoring elements are introduced into the hydraulic filling system.

  16. Technologies and Innovations for Hydraulic Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Positive displacement machines working as hydraulic pumps or hydraulic motors have always been, are and will be an essential part of any hydraulic system. Current trends and future demands on energy efficient systems will not only drastically increase the number of positive displacement machines needed for modern efficient hydraulic circuits but will significantly change the performance requirements of pumps and motors. Throttleless system configurations will change the landscape of hydraulic...

  17. Review and prospect of research on hydraulic pulsation attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang-ji; Zhao, Qi-jun; Dai, Ting-ting; Bian, Yi-duo; Cai, Yan

    2017-09-01

    The pressure pulsation attenuator is able to decrease the fluid fluctuation of the hydraulic pump effectively, so it is widely used in construction machinery. This paper reviews the history and progresses of the research on the pressure pulsation attenuator in China and overseas, summarizes its two types: H-type rigid structure and built-in flexible material, meanwhile, discusses its future research area.

  18. Hydraulically controlled flexible arm can bend in any direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, F. D.

    1966-01-01

    Arm assembly consisting of four flexible tubes controlled by a four-way hydraulic or pneumatic valve can bend in any direction. The flexible arm could be used for probing areas that cannot be reached by ordinary tools, handling hazardous materials, and for graph recording.

  19. 液压机液压系统过滤器的选择与设计%Selection and design of hydraulic filter for hydraulic press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景海

    2012-01-01

    维护油液清洁对液压机液压系统十分重要.介绍了液压机液压系统中常用过滤器的种类及过滤器选型时应考虑的因素.%The cleanliness of the hydraulic oil is very important to the hydraulic system of hydraulic press.There are four common kinds of filter used in hydraulic system of hydraulic press as follows: high pressure filter,low pressure filter,water pressure filter,and air filter.Entry and exit size of filters,nominal pressure,filtering precision,and filter material should have been considered in the selection of the filter.

  20. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite.

  1. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  2. Hydraulic conductivity of natural soils permeated with acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanful, E.K.; Shikatani, K.S.; Quirt, D.H. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Department of Civil Engineering

    1995-08-01

    The results of a laboratory study on the interactions of three natural soils (some under consideration as candidate cover materials) with acid mine drainage (AMD) are presented. Soil hydraulic conductivity measurements were used to assess soil compatibility with AMD. A silty clay from the decommissioned Waite Amulet tailings site in Quebec, glacial tills from the Heath Steele mine site in New Brunswick, and soil from the Faro mine site in the Yukon Territory were examined. Soil mineralogy and chemistry were examined before and after hydraulic conductivity testing to identify any changes. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. The Thermal Hydraulic Test of SFR Irradiation Test Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Park, Sung Jae; Choo, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Irradiation test using a capsule has been performed for fuel or material performance test in the test reactor. Irradiation capsule for the HANARO reactor must satisfy the hydraulic conditions and structural integrity from a out-pile test. Items of a out-pile test are pressure drop, flow-induced vibration test and endurance test. The results of test must show that a test capsule satisfy the HANARO operational requirement with sufficient margin. This paper describes the devices of thermal hydraulic test and the results of SFR test capsule

  4. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canonical equations consists of the equations for concrete strength, absolute volume, concrete mix consistency as well as the equation for optimal concrete saturation with aggregates while minimizing cement content. The joint solution of these four equations related to composition allows determining for the materials the concrete composition of required strength, concrete workability with minimum cement content. The procedure for calculation of hydraulic concrete composition according to the physico-analytical method consists of two parts: 1 physical, which is laboratory testing of concrete mix components in different concrete compositions; 2 analytical, which represents the calculation algorithm for concrete compositions equivalent in concrete strength and workability that comply with the specific conditions of concrete placing. Findings. To solve the problem of designing the concrete composition with the desired properties for railway structures and buildings it was proposed to use the information technology in the form of a developed computer program whose algorithm includes the physico-analytical method for hydraulic concrete composition determination. Originality. The developed concrete composition design method takes into account the basic properties of raw materials, concrete mix and concrete, which are pre-determined. The distinctive feature of physico-analytical method is obtaining of a set of equivalent compositions with a certain concrete mix

  5. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  6. Hydraulic properties of ladle slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vlček

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of examining of hydraulic properties of ladle slags formed during production of steel. The studied ladle slags were subjected to different cooling mode from the molten state. Based on the ability of the slag react with the water was assessed their hydraulic activity. The hydraulic properties are caused by the presence of minerals dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, mayenite, brownmillerite and dicalcium ferite. The emergence of required hydrating phases in the ladle slags is conditioned by a sufficient CaO content and their cooling rate. The contact the slag with water during processing and their ageing has a negative effect. The experiment has shown that the phase transformation of the mineral dicalcium silicate which occurs during cooling of the ladle slags cause their volume instability.

  7. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  8. Concept Design of Movable Beam of Hydraulic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yancong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic press movable beam is one of the key components of the hydraulic press; its design quality impacts the accuracy of the workpiece that the press suppressed. In this paper, first, with maximum deflection and material strength as constraints, mechanical model of the movable beam is established; next, the concept design model of the moveable beam structure is established; the relationship among the force of the side cylinder, the thickness of the inclined plate, outer plate is established also. Taking movable beam of the 100MN type THP10-10000 isothermal forging hydraulic press as an example, the conceptual design result is given. This concept design method mentoned in the paper has general meaning and can apply to other similar product design.

  9. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  10. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  11. Hydraulic and acoustic investigation of sintered glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueven, Ibrahim; Luding, Stefan; Steeb, Holger

    2013-06-01

    In the present contribution, we are focussing on the hydraulical and acoustical charcterization of sintered glass beads. For the experiments sintered mono-and weakly polydisperse glass bead samples were applied. Depending on the particle size, degree of particle dispersion and sample treatment during the sintering process, the produced cylindircal samples exhibit different hydraulic and acoustic properties. The more general focus of our research lies on the physical behaviour of oil-water emulsions in porous media by means of combined electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation. For this purpose, a hydraulic multi-task measuring cell was developed. This cell allows carrying out simple hydraulic permeability and challenging ultrasound experiments in porous materials saturated with Pickering emulsions. In the first phase of our experiments, hydraulical and acoustical measurements of cylindrical sintered glass bead samples were performed in order to determine their intrinsic permeabilities and effective ultrasound velocities. The intrinsic permeability ks, a coupling parameter between the solid matrix and the pore fluid, has a huge influence on wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. For the assessment of permeabilities, particle size distributions and porosities of the investigated glass beads were determined.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF HYDRAULIC CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS ON FOREST ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Çalışkan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, a large part of forest is scattered on the mountainous land. Whole forestry activity and particulary, producing of woody raw material in forest and its transportation to the consumption centres by constructed forest roads regularly and steadily can only be possible thanks to adequately firm forest roads and establishing of hydraulic construction buildings. As a study field, 35 km forest road within the Yesiltepe Forest District boundary was selected. On this forest road, totaly 31 existent hydraulic construction buildings, consisting of 16 pipes, 7 culverts, 3 bridges and 5 hamps were found and its was determined that only 40% of hydraulic construction buildings can fulfil the their functions. Hydraulic construction buildings technique viewpoint, in spite of the fact that dimentions of hydraulic construction buildings were found appropirate they had same problems. It was become apperent that especially constructed concrete pipes and culverts had lack of cement. Furthermore, their maintanances were inadequate and some of them were almost losing their functions.

  13. Changes in Root Hydraulic Conductivity During Wheat Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Xing ZHAO; Xi-Ping DENG; Lun SHAN; Ernst STEUDLE; Sui-Qi ZHANG; Qing YE

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms of water uptake by plant roots should be vital for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). In the present study, we have demonstrated correlations between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics during evolution using six wheat evolution genotypes (solution culture) with different ploidy chromosome sets (Triticum boeoticum Bioss., T. monococcum L.: 2n = 2x = 14; T. dicoccides Koern., T. dicoccon (Schrank) Schuebl.: 2n = 4x = 28;T. vulgare Vill., T. aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan No. 6: 2n = 6x = 42). The experimental results showed that significant correlations were found between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics of the materials with the increase in ploidy chromosomes (2x→6x) during wheat evolution. Hydraulic conductivity of the wheat root system at the whole-plant level was increased with chromosome ploidy during evolution, which was positively correlated with hydraulic conductivity of single roots, whole plant biomass,root average diameter, and root growth (length, area), whereas the root/shoot ratio had an inverse correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of root system with increasing chromosome ploidy during wheat evolution. Therefore, it is concluded that that the water uptake ability of wheat roots was strengthened from wild to modern cultivated species during evolution, which will provide scientific evidence for genetic breeding to improve the WUE of wheat by genetic engineering.

  14. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for sub-module of Chinese HCSB TBM design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhou; FENG Kai-ming; WANG Xiao-yu; YUAN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic calculation and analysis for sub-module of Chinese HCSB TBM were carried out using FE code ANSYS. Results indicate that temperature distribution in materials used in sub-module is reasonable and acceptable.

  15. Integrating hydraulic equivalent sections into a hydraulic geometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanhong; Yi, Yujun; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zheng, Xiangmin

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic geometry (HG) is an important geomorphic concept that has played an indispensable role in hydrological analyses, physical studies of streams, ecosystem and aquatic habitat studies, and sedimentology research. More than 60 years after Leopold and Maddock (1953) first introduced the concept of HG, researchers have still not uncovered the physical principles underlying HG behavior. One impediment is the complexity of the natural river cross section. The current study presents a new way to simplify the cross section, namely, the hydraulic equivalent section, which is generalized from the cross section in the ;gradually varied flow of an alluvial river; (GVFAR) and features hydrodynamic properties and bed-building laws similar to those of the GVFAR. Energy balance was used to derive the stage Z-discharge Q relationship in the GVFAR. The GVFAR in the Songhua River and the Yangtze River were selected as examples. The data, including measured discharge, river width, water stage, water depth, wet area, and cross section, were collected from the hydrological yearbooks of typical hydrological stations on the Songhua River and the Yangtze River from 1955 to 1987. The relationships between stage Z-discharge Q and cross-sectional area A-stage Z at various stations were analyzed, and ;at-a-station hydraulic geometry; (AHG) relationships were obtained in power-law forms. Based on derived results and observational data analysis, the Z-Q and Z-A relationships of AHG were similar to rectangular weir flows, thus the cross section of the GVFAR was generalized as a compound rectangular, hydraulic equivalent cross section. As to bed-building characteristics, the bankfull discharge method and the stage-discharge-relation method were used to calculate the dominant variables of the alluvial river. This hydraulic equivalent section has the same Z-Q relation, Z-A relation, dominant discharge, dominant river width, and dominant water depth as the cross section in the GVFAR. With the

  16. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  17. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  18. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  19. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydraulic fracturing system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezobka, Jordan; Salehi, Iraj

    2017-02-28

    A hydraulic fracturing system and method for enhancing effective permeability of earth formations to increase hydrocarbon production, enhance operation efficiency by reducing fluid entry friction due to tortuosity and perforation, and to open perforations that are either unopened or not effective using traditional techniques, by varying a pump rate and/or a flow rate to a wellbore.

  1. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  2. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  3. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  4. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  5. A new linear type hydraulic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wenhua; Chen, Xinyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the design of liner type hydraulic motor on the base of inner curved radial piston hydraulic motor. The hydraulic cylinders of the new type motor are in the straight line which will improve the utilization of the axial space and different out power can be supplied by changes the number of cylinders. In this paper, the structure and working principle of the liner type hydraulic motor is introduced.

  6. Micromechanical Aspects of Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-torres, S. A.; Behraftar, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.

    2014-12-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process. The model comprises two key components. Firstly, the solid matrix, assumed as a rock mass with pre-fabricated cracks, is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Element Model (DEM)[1]. The interaction is ruled by the spheropolyhedra method, which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to realistically represent many of the features found in fracturing and communition processes. The second component is the fluid, which is modelled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). It was recently coupled with the spheropolyhedra by the authors and validated. An advantage of this coupled LBM-DEM model is the control of many of the parameters of the fracturing fluid, such as its viscosity and the injection rate. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first application of such a coupled scheme for studying hydraulic fracturing[2]. In this first implementation, results are presented for a two-dimensional situation. Fig. 1 shows one snapshot of the LBM-DEM coupled simulation for the hydraulic fracturing where the elements with broken bonds can be identified and the fracture geometry quantified. The simulation involves a variation of the underground stress, particularly the difference between the two principal components of the stress tensor, to explore the effect on the fracture path. A second study focuses on the fluid viscosity to examine the effect of the time scales of different injection plans on the fracture geometry. The developed tool and the presented results have important implications for future studies of the hydraulic fracturing process and technology. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., et al., Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes. Computer Physics Communications, 2012. 183(2): p. 266-277. 2. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the

  7. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  9. Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki

    Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.

  10. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  11. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 5 Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    The present Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step...

  13. Multiphase flow dynamics 5 nuclear thermal hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    This Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step demons...

  14. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    were determined following a minimum 28 day curing period. Additional testing of the three saltstone formulations was conducted following a minimum 90 day curing period. The compressive strength of each saltstone and concrete material was measured at approximately 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. Recommended hydraulic property values for each saltstone grout and the vault concretes are provided. The hydraulic properties provided for each material include the saturated hydraulic conductivity, dry bulk density, particle density, and porosity. In addition, water retention data are presented for each material along with the van Genuchten transport parameters as determined using the RETC code.

  15. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  16. Bio-based Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-17

    currently formulated with vegetable oils (i.e., rapeseed , sun flower, corn, soybean, canola, coconut, etc.) and synthetic ester, such as polyol ester...2008 Vegetable Oil • Excellent lubrication • Nontoxic • Biodegradable • Derived from renewable resources such as rapeseed , sunflower, corn...Mineral Oil 100 SAE 15W-40 G Rapeseed 32 Commercial HF H Polyol ester 22 MIL-PRF-32073 Grade 2 I Canola - Cooking Oil *Hydraulic fluid 3717 April

  17. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and compounds based on new experimental elastomers as well as most commercially available elastomers were screened in seeking seals that were both...for hydraulic component testing. All of the available E6.5 stock was purchased for the screening tests. However, DuPont stated that other homologs of...with the lubricity and anti-wear additive olyvan A (molybdenum oxysulphide dithiocarbamate ) added in the quantity of less than one percent by weight

  18. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  19. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  20. A Catalog of Vadose Zone Hydraulic Properties for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Eugene J.; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Heller, Paula R.

    2002-09-30

    To predict contaminant release to the groundwater, it is necessary to understand the hydraulic properties of the material between the release point and the water table. Measurements of the hydraulic properties of the Hanford unsaturated sediments that buffer the water table are available from many areas of the site; however, the documentation is not well cataloged nor is it easily accessible. The purpose of this report is to identify what data is available for characterization of the unsaturated hydraulic properties at Hanford and Where these data can be found.

  1. Physical-mechanical characterization of hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime based mortars for a French porous limestone

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mukhtar, M

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study presented in this paper is to provide reliable criteria that can be used to estimate the degree of compatibility between the French limestone tuffeau and mortar. It is suggested through this study to use the same parent material (i.e., tuffeau) as mortar. The mortar used in this study is composed of non-hydraulic (hydrated) lime or hydraulic lime and aggregates obtained from fragments and powder of the tuffeau stone. Water transfer properties and mechanical behaviour of the mortars are evaluated and compared with the original stone Tuffeau. Based on these studies, some key guidelines are provided such that a mortar that is compatible with properties of Tuffeau and can be prepared and used as construction material of monuments and maintenance purposes.

  2. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  3. Vibrations of hydraulic pump and their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dobšáková Lenka; Nováková Naděžda; Habán Vladimír; Hudec Martin; Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The vibrations of hydraulic pump and connected pipeline system are very problematic and often hardly soluble. The high pressure pulsations of hydraulic pump with the double suction inlet are investigated. For that reason the static pressure and accelerations are measured. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to correlate computed data with experimental ones and assess the main source of vibrations. Consequently the design optimization of the inner hydraulic part of pump is done ...

  4. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  5. Design and Analysis of Hydraulic Chassis with Obstacle Avoidance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yingjie; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-07-01

    This article mainly expounds the design of hydraulic system for the hydraulic chassis with obstacle avoidance function. Including the selection of hydraulic motor wheels, hydraulic pump, digital hydraulic cylinder and the matching of engine power. And briefly introduces the principle of obstacle avoidance.

  6. Dynamic characterization of partially saturated engineered porous media and gas diffusion layers using hydraulic admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Perry; Fairweather, Joseph D.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2012-09-01

    Simple laboratory methods for determining liquid water distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are needed to engineer better GDL materials. Capillary pressure vs. liquid saturation measurements are attractive, but lack the ability to probe the hydraulic interconnectivity and distribution within the pore structure. Hydraulic admittance measurements of simple capillary bundles have recently been shown to nicely measure characteristics of the free-interfaces and hydraulic path. Here we examine the use of hydraulic admittance with a succession of increasingly complex porous media, starting with a laser-drilled sample with 154 asymmetric pores and progress to the behavior of Toray TGP-H090 carbon papers. The asymmetric laser-drilled sample clearly shows hydraulic admittance measurements are sensitive to sample orientation, especially when examined as a function of saturation state. Finite element modeling of the hydraulic admittance is consistent with experimental measurements. The hydraulic admittance spectra from GDL samples are complex, so we examine trends in the spectra as a function of wet proofing (0% and 40% Teflon loadings) as well as saturation state of the GDL. The presence of clear peaks in the admittance spectra for both GDL samples suggests a few pore types are largely responsible for transporting liquid water.

  7. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  8. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  9. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  10. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTICAL VORTEX AT HYDRAULIC INTAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-liang; WU Chao; YE Mao; JU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    The trace of vertical vortex flow at hydraulic intakes is of the shape of spiral lines, which was observed in the presented experiments with the tracer technique. It represents the fluid particles flow spirally from the water surface to the underwater and rotate around the vortex-axis multi-cycle. This process is similar to the movement of screw. To describe the multi-circle spiral characteristics under the axisymmetric condition, the vertical vortex would change not only in the radial direction but also in the axial direction. The improved formulae for three velocity components for the vertical vortex flow were deduced by using the method of separation of variables in this article. In the improved formulae, the velocity components are the functions of the radial and axial coordinates, so the multi-circle spiral flow of vertical vortex could be simulated. The calculated and measured results for the vertical vortex flow were compared and the causes of errors were analyzed.

  11. Hydraulic resistance of carper of cylindrical shape mineral wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the mineral wool mat are determined by the mode of heat treatment and properties of the products. The main parameter to assess the properties of highly porous fibrous material is its resistance to the air flow, which can be estimated by the value of the hydraulic resistance. This parameter includes both the characteristics of the mineral fiber (diameter, length, density characteristics of the system as a whole (total porosity, average density, the content of fibrous inclusions and gas environment parameters (temperature and speed of its motion through the porous layer. Characteristics of the gaseous medium are technological factors, which influence the material during the heat treatment, and hence optimization of the process parameters. The flow of gas through the perforated wall of the hole determined by characteristics, pressurized inside a rolling pin, and the structural characteristics of the mineral geometrical cylinder and his hydraulic resistance. So, a universal criterion, which measures the mass transfer efficiency and hence the effectiveness of the heat treatment, is a hydraulic resistance cylinder. The study of the processes occurring in the mineral wool carpet, showed that its hydraulic resistance is directly proportional to the surface of fibers per unit bed volume and inversely proportional to the third degree of porosity of the layer. Researches have shown that increasing the degree of perforation increases the uneven distribution. However, if total power increases 1.87 times, because the perforation through the inlet portion perforation of rolling pin was disclosure, substantially uniform distribution was achieved. The investigations led to the following conclusions: the specific surface layer has a linear dependence on its average density; hydraulic resistance of the layer will be greater, when the amount of beads and fibers diameter is smaller. The obtained exact dependence allows calculating the hydraulic

  12. Novel evaporation experiment to determine soil hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel experimental approach to determine soil hydraulic material properties for the dry and very dry range is presented. Evaporation from the surface of a soil column is controlled by a constant flux of preconditioned air and the resulting vapour flux is measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. The data are inverted under the assumptions that (i the simultaneous movement of water in the liquid and vapour is represented by Richards' equation with an effective hydraulic conductivity and that (ii the coupling between the soil and the well-mixed atmosphere can be modelled by a boundary layer with a constant transfer resistance. The optimised model fits the data exceptionally well. Remaining deviations during the initial phase of an experiment are thought to be well-understood and are attributed to the onset of the heat flow through the column which compensates the latent heat of evaporation.

  13. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  14. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  15. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  16. Control arrangement for the actuation of hydraulic consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussel, W.; Dettmers, M.; Weirich, W.

    1988-11-09

    An arrangement for controlling the actuation of hydraulic consumers, by selectively connecting the consumers to hydraulic pressure and return lines; the control arrangement comprising a respective hydraulically operated directional control valve associated with each of the hydraulic consumers, a respective electro-magnetically operated pre-control valve associated with each of the hydraulic directional control valves, and further electro-magnetically operated directional control valve means associated with the pre-control valves, each of the hydraulic consumers being connectible to the hydraulic pressure or return lines via the associated hydraulically operated directional control valve which is actuatable by a hydraulic control line leading from the output of the associated pre-control valve, wherein the inputs of the pre-control valves are connected directly to the hydraulic return line and indirectly, via the further control valve means, to the hydraulic return line or to a hydraulic control pressure line.

  17. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  18. Hydraulic properties of dune sandebentonite mixtures of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.K. Gueddouda; I. Goual; B. Benabed; S. Taibi; N. Aboubekr

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the valorization of local materials such as desert dune sand obtained from Laghouat region in the South Algeria and mine bentonite intended for the realization of liner base layers in the conception of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities. In practice, an economical mixture satisfying the hydraulic requirements is generally concerned. First, in order to get an adequate dune sand ebentonite mixture compacted to the optimum Proctor condition, an investigation on saturated hy-draulic behavior is carried out in this study for different mixtures. Using oedometer test (indirect measurement), the adequate mixture of 85% dune sand and 15% bentonite satisfies the conditions of saturated hydraulic conductivity (k 3 MPa). This technique is conducted based on the exploitation of the water retention curve in order to establish the relationships between hydraulic conductivity, degree of saturation, and suction. It shows that the hydraulic conductivity increases with the degree of saturation and decreases with the suction. However, the hydraulic conductivity has a constant value for suctions larger than 20 MPa. The selected dune sandebentonite mixture satisfies the regulation requirements and hence constitutes a good local and economical material for the conception of barrier base liners.

  19. Hydraulic properties of dune sand–bentonite mixtures of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Gueddouda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the valorization of local materials such as desert dune sand obtained from Laghouat region in the South Algeria and mine bentonite intended for the realization of liner base layers in the conception of insulation barriers for hazardous waste facilities. In practice, an economical mixture satisfying the hydraulic requirements is generally concerned. First, in order to get an adequate dune sand–bentonite mixture compacted to the optimum Proctor condition, an investigation on saturated hydraulic behavior is carried out in this study for different mixtures. Using oedometer test (indirect measurement, the adequate mixture of 85% dune sand and 15% bentonite satisfies the conditions of saturated hydraulic conductivity (k  3 MPa. This technique is conducted based on the exploitation of the water retention curve in order to establish the relationships between hydraulic conductivity, degree of saturation, and suction. It shows that the hydraulic conductivity increases with the degree of saturation and decreases with the suction. However, the hydraulic conductivity has a constant value for suctions larger than 20 MPa. The selected dune sand–bentonite mixture satisfies the regulation requirements and hence constitutes a good local and economical material for the conception of barrier base liners.

  20. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    1999-06-01

    Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe the characteristics of multiporosity media. I investigated the usefulness of scaling to describe the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K(-h)) functions of a macroporous soil in Las Nutrias, New Mexico. Piecewise-continuous hydraulic conductivity functions suitable for macroporous soils in conjunction with a hybrid similar media-functional normalization scaling approach were used. Results showed that gravity-dominated flow and the related hydraulic conductivity (K(minus;h) functions of the macropore region are more readily scalable than capillary-dominated flow properties of the mesopore and micropore regions. A possible reason for this behavior is that gravity-dominated flow in the larger pores is mostly influenced by the pore diameter which remains more uniform as compared to tortuous mesopores and micropores with variable neck and body sizes along the pore length.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of GCLs in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-cheng; YANG Wu-chao; DAN Tang-hui

    2008-01-01

    The state of the art of the study on the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs is presented in terms of the in-fluence of the effective stress, chemical interactions, freeze - thaw cycles and temperature gradients. The chan-ges of void ratio caused by changes of effective stress have a direct linear effect on the hydraulic conductivity, regardless of the cation concentration or the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The hydraulic conductivity is relat-ed to the relative abundance of monovalent and divalent cation(RMD), and RMD has a great effect on the hy-draulic conductivity in weak solution. The long-term susceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is minimal, which has been proved after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. The potential of desiccation cracking increases with the increasing temperature gradient and is related to the ini-tial subsoil water content, the applied overburden stress, etc.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  3. Hydraulic test for evaluation of hydrophone VSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Koide, Kaoru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1997-12-01

    This hydraulic test was carried out at the test site of Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami-shi, Gifu Pref. in order to evaluate the reliability of the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. From March to April 1997, we carried out measurements of pore-water pressure at five depths and permeability tests at seven depths down to G.L.-300m, within a borehole drilled in granitic rock. We compared the results of hydraulic test with hydrophone VSP experiment on condition that a single open fracture existed, and we obtained two notable results. First, for the granitic rock at which a single open fracture was found by BTV and also detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, while for the same granitic rock at which another single open fracture was found by BTV but not detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was less than 6 x 10{sup -10} cm/sec. Second, we converted the hydraulic conductivity of 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec which was obtained in a hydraulic test section of length 2.5 m into an equivalent value for a single open fracture of width 1 mm. The converted value (3.8 x 10{sup -4} cm/sec) was similar to the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. In conclusion, the hydraulic test result shows that hydrophone VSP is useful to estimate an approximate hydraulic conductivity of a single open fracture. (author)

  4. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  5. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    4400 PSIG OUTLET PRESSURE ~’f UM5 S1 l .( FIF ~0RV lR 1 .I. AP (c R (V) IFWM) APPROX C ASE !VPý :iI S ReUN N•;MRF.. r p kN i t, isI A! f IN, I:E • ’l...and 1F.GI pump modelo were assumed from data supplied by CECO. 165 _ -- --- - SECTION V HYDRAULIC MOTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION A fixed...3 70 P.,0 601 ~4 M24.0 3 1p ’, 4 r I 1 1 ISIS 2411 APPENDIX E (CONT.) HSFR TECHNICAL MANUAL (AFAPL-TR-76-43, VOL. IV) 4.15 VANE PU`MP SUBROUTINE 4.15A

  6. Process fluids of aero-hydraulic systems and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers process fluids, which are presently applied to aviation hydraulic systems in domestic and world practice. Aviation practice deals with rather wide list of fluids. Based on the technical specification a designer makes the choice of specific fluid for the specific aircraft. Process fluids have to possess the specified properties presented in the article, namely: lubricating properties; stability of physical and chemical characteristics at operation and storage; lowtemperature properties; acceptable congelation temperature; compatibility with materials of units and components of hydraulic systems; heat conductivity; high rigidity; minimum low coefficient of volume expansion; fire-explosion safety; low density. They should also have good dielectric properties, be good to resist to destruction of molecules, have good anticorrosion and antierosion properties, as well as not create conditions for emerging electro-kinetic erosion of spooltype and other precision devices, and a number of other properties.The article presents materials on the oil-based process fluids with + (200-320 °C boiling temperature, gelled by a polymer of vinyl butyl ether, with aging inhibitor and dye for hydraulic systems of the subsonic and transonic aircraft which are combustible, with a temperature interval of use from — 60oС до +125oС. It also describes materials on process fluids, which are based on the mix of polydialkylsiloxane oligomers with organic diester aging inhibitors, and wear-resistant additive to be applied to the hydraulic systems of supersonic aircrafts using a fluid within the temperature interval from - 6О oС to +175oС for a long duration. The fire-explosion safety process fluids representing a mix of phosphoric esters with additives to improve viscous, anti-oxidizing, anticorrosive and anti-erosive properties are considered as well. They are used within the temperature range from - 60оС to +125оС with overheats up to +150

  7. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) is developing and building a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements, with funding from the Swedish Research Council and Luleå University of Technology. In this project, LTU is collaborating with University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The stress state influences drilling and drillability, as well as rock mass stability and permeability. Therefore, knowledge about the state of in-situ stress (stress magnitudes, and orientations) and its spatial variation with depth is essential for many underground rock engineering projects, for example for underground storage of hazardous material (e.g. nuclear waste, carbon dioxide), deep geothermal exploration, and underground infrastructure (e.g. tunneling, hydropower dams). The system is designed to conduct hydraulic stress testing in slim boreholes. There are three types of test methods: (1) hydraulic fracturing, (2) sleeve fracturing and (3) hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. These are robust methods for determining in situ stresses from boreholes. Integration of the three methods allows determination of the three-dimensional stress tensor and its spatial variation with depth in a scientific unambiguously way. The stress system is composed of a downhole and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions (N=76 mm, H=96 mm, and P=122 mm), (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture; (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. At EGU General Assembly 2017, we would like to

  8. Design and Development of Attachment for Hydraulic Stacker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Gawande

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop an Attachment which will enable the lateral movement of the manufacturing Dies by mounting it on the forks of any Hydraulic Stacker or Fork Lift. The Attachmentmanufactured is unique because it can be attached or mounted on any hydraulic stalker in the One Tonne range. The attachment is a combination of two separate bed of rollers, a lead screw, a gear mechanism and a moving frame which enables the hydraulic stacker to easily load or unload Dies upto the range of one tonne, in and out of Machine Presses and Storage Racks which reduces material handling time and cost, manual effort and increases safety. The developed attachment in this work can also be easily detached and kept aside when not in use, so that the stacker can be used for regular purposes in the logistics department. The detail design, fabrication and testing work is carried out at A.V.M Seating Systems Ltd, Pune-26.

  9. Development of a hydraulic model of the human systemic circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M. K.; Dharmalingham, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical and numeric models of the human circulation are constructed for a number of objectives, including studies and training in physiologic control, interpretation of clinical observations, and testing of prosthetic cardiovascular devices. For many of these purposes it is important to quantitatively validate the dynamic response of the models in terms of the input impedance (Z = oscillatory pressure/oscillatory flow). To address this need, the authors developed an improved physical model. Using a computer study, the authors first identified the configuration of lumped parameter elements in a model of the systemic circulation; the result was a good match with human aortic input impedance with a minimum number of elements. Design, construction, and testing of a hydraulic model analogous to the computer model followed. Numeric results showed that a three element model with two resistors and one compliance produced reasonable matching without undue complication. The subsequent analogous hydraulic model included adjustable resistors incorporating a sliding plate to vary the flow area through a porous material and an adjustable compliance consisting of a variable-volume air chamber. The response of the hydraulic model compared favorably with other circulation models.

  10. Experimental investigation of the dielectric properties of soil under hydraulic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tilman; Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Karlovšek, Jurij; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    An experimental set-up was developed in order to determine the coupled hydraulic, dielectric and mechanical properties of granular media under hydraulic loading. The set-up consisted of a modified column for permeability tests involving a flow meter and pressure transducers along the sample to quantify the hydraulic gradient. A newly developed open-ended coaxial probe allowed the measurement of the frequency dependent dielectric permittivity of the material under test. The shear strength of the sample within the column was measured using a conventional vane shear device. In this paper, the overall set-up is introduced with focus on the open-ended coaxial probe. The design and calibration of the probe are introduced in detail. A numerical study showed that the sensitive cylindrical volume of the probe was approximately 150 mm in diameter with a depth of 65 mm. An investigation with glass beads showed that the set-up allowed the parameterization of the hydraulic, mechanic and dielectric parameters of granular materials under the influence of vertical flow. A satisfactorily good correlation between porosity and the real part of the dielectric permittivity was detected. The critical hydraulic gradient defining the transition of a fixed bed of particles to fluidization was characterized by a sharp peak in the evolution of the hydraulic conductivity and could easily be determined from the measurements. The shear strength of the material under test reduces linearly with increasing hydraulic gradient. Future investigations will be carried out to provide the required parameterizations for experimental and numerical investigations of the internal erosion of granular media.

  11. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  12. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  13. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  14. Research on Discharge Circuit of Electro-Hydraulic Power Impulse Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Gao, Quanjie; Wang, Wei; Liao, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets can convert the shock wave generated in the liquid by discharging into mechanical energy, and it has been widely used in material forming, surface cleaning, pipeline dirt cleaning and ore breaking process. Compared with the traditional high pressure water jets, the energy utilization of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets is up to 80% while the water consumption is reduced by 40-55%. This paper has taken electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets as the research object, employed obtaining the maximum pressure of compression impulse matrix surface as the research goal, studied in depth the equivalent discharge circuit, characteristic equation and the relationship between the electrical parameters of the electro-hydraulic power impulse discharge circuit and built the calculation method of the voltage, the inductance, the capacitance and the electrode spacing parameter of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets discharge circuit. So, it will provide important theoretical basis for further studies of electro-hydraulic power impulse technology and the existing water jets device.

  15. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  16. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  17. Modeling, Optimization, and Detailed Design of a Hydraulic Flywheel-Accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmaier, Kyle Glenn

    Improving mobile energy storage technology is an important means of addressing concerns over fossil fuel scarcity and energy independence. Traditional hydraulic accumulator energy storage, though favorable in power density, durability, cost, and environmental impact, suffers from relatively low energy density and a pressure-dependent state of charge. The hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept utilizes both the hydro-pneumatic and rotating kinetic energy domains by employing a rotating pressure vessel. This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept and an assessment of the advantages it offers over traditional static accumulator energy storage. After specifying a practical architecture for the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator, this thesis addresses the complex fluid phenomena and control implications associated with multi-domain energy storage. To facilitate rapid selection of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator dimensions, computationally inexpensive material stress models are developed for each component. A drive cycle simulation strategy is also developed to assess the dynamic performance of the device. The stress models and performance simulation are combined to form a toolset that facilitates computationally-efficient model-based design. The aforementioned toolset has been embedded into a multi-objective optimization algorithm that aims to minimize the mass of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator system and to minimize the losses it incurs over the course of a drive cycle. Two optimizations have been performed - one with constraints that reflect a vehicle-scale application, and one with constraints that reflect a laboratory application. At both scales, the optimization results suggest that the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator offers at least an order of magnitude improvement over traditional static accumulator energy storage, while operating at efficiencies between 75% and 93%. A particular hydraulic flywheel-accumulator design

  18. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  19. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  20. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. ON THE THEORIES OF HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay P. SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry is of fundamental importance in planning, design, and management of river engineering and training works. Although some concepts of hydraulic geometry were proposed toward the end of the nineteenth century, the real impetus toward formulating a theory of hydraulic geometry was provided by the work of Leopold and Maddock (1953). A number of theories have since been proposed.Some of the theories are interrelated but others are based on quite different principles. All theories,however, assume that the river flow is steady and uniform and the river tends to attain a state of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium. The differences are due to the differences in hydraulic mechanisms that the theories employ to explain the attainment of equilibrium by the river.

  2. Stream restoration hydraulic design course: lecture notes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newbury, R

    2002-01-01

    Steam restoration encompasses a broad range of activities and disciplines. This lecture series is designed for practitioners who must fit habitat improvement works in the hydraulics of degraded channels...

  3. Drawing a pictogram operator - hydraulic stowing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhgol' ts, V.P.; Dinershtein, V.A.

    1984-11-01

    Hydraulic stowing is widely used during the extraction of coal from seams prone to spontaneous ignition or from seams situated under preserved structures. Experience has shown that the presence of a considerable number of controlling and measuring devices on hydraulic stowing assemblies results in erratic operations. The authors, after examining the controls of the hydraulic stowing complexes, recommend that all functions which the operator might perform badly or not at all should be controlled automatically. The operator must, however, have access to manual controls which should be included in the system in order to achieve an effective and trouble free operation. The authors propose a pictogram to explain the relationship between the human operator and the hydraulic complex, based on structural diagrams. The system developed, which was tried out at the Koksovaya mine, increased the efficiency of the complex and reduced the work load of the operator. 3 references.

  4. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  6. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  7. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. Optimization of Heat-Sink Cooling Structure in EAST with Hydraulic Expansion Technique%Optimization of Heat-Sink Cooling Structure in EAST with Hydraulic Expansion Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许铁军; 黄生洪; 谢韩; 宋云涛; 张平; 戢翔; 高大明

    2011-01-01

    Considering utilization of the original chromium-bronze material, two processing techniques including hydraulic expansion and high temperature vacuum welding were proposed for the optimization of heat-sink structure in EAST. The heat transfer performance of heat-sink with or without cooling tube was calculated and different types of connection between tube and heat-sink were compared by conducting a special test. It is shown from numerical analysis that the diameter of heat-sink channel can be reduced from 12 mm to 10 mm. Compared with the original sample, the thermal contact resistance between tube and heat-sink for welding sample can reduce the heat transfer performance by 10%, while by 20% for the hydraulic expansion sample. However, the welding technique is more complicated and expensive than hydraulic expansion technique. Both the processing technique and the heat transfer performance of heat-sink prototype should be further considered for the optimization of heat-sink structure in EAST.

  10. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  11. Design of a laboratory hydraulic device for testing of hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution deals with solves problem of research of testing device to monitor of hydrostatic pumps durability about dynamic loading under laboratory conditions. When carrying out the design of testing device are based on load characteristics of tractor hydraulic circuit, the individual characteristics of hydraulic components and performed calculations. Load characteristics on the tractors CASE IH Magnum 310, JOHN DEERE 8100, ZETOR FORTERRA 114 41 and Fendt 926 Vario were measured. Design of a hydraulic laboratory device is based on the need for testing new types of hydraulic pumps or various types of hydraulic fluids. When creating of hydraulic device we focused on testing hydraulic pumps used in agricultural and forestry tractors. Proportional pressure control valve is an active member of the hydraulic device, which provides change of a continuous control signal into relative pressure of operating fluid. The advantage of a designed hydraulic system is possibility of simulation of dynamic operating loading, which is obtained by measurement under real conditions, and thereby creates laboratory conditions as close to real conditions as possible. The laboratory device is constructed at the Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  12. Characterization of a hydraulically induced bedrock fracture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a controversial practice because of concerns about environmental impacts due to its widespread use in recovering unconventional petroleum and natural gas deposits. However, water-only hydraulic fracturing has been used safely and successfully for many years to increase the permeability of aquifers used for drinking and irrigation water supply. This process extends and widens existing bedrock fractures, allowing groundwater storage to increase. Researchers have studied ...

  13. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  14. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  15. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  16. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-75 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 58.25-75 Section 58.25-75 Shipping COAST... RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-75 Materials. (a) Materials used for the mechanical or hydraulic... part. (b) No materials with low melting-points, including such materials as aluminum and nonmetallic...

  18. Application Study of Elasto-Plastic FEM Using Material Properties Degradation Method in Hydraulic Conductivity and Stress Coupling Analysis%弹塑性有限元强度储备法在渗流应力耦合分析中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 任青文; 李强; 李倩

    2011-01-01

    The existing underground water activates the interaction between the stress field and seepage field. The infiltration hydrostatic pressure contributes to the increseament of maximun value of stress components in the dam as well as the stress concentration in the key points. From the engineering practical point of view, it is of great importance and necessary to study the deep anti-sliding stability with the coupling theory of hydraulic conductivity and stress. Adopting computation convergence and catastrophe of displacement as well as connectivity of plastic zone as the judgments of structure failure, the deep anti-sliding stability of gravity dam was evaluated on the basis of coupling theory of hydraulic conductivity and stress. Combining the material properties degradation method and using the ABAQUS, the gravity dam stability safety factor and the effectiveness of the evaluation method and judgment with different potential sliding path were discussed. The analysis results show that, using the predestined method, the comprehensive judgment combing the catastrophe of displacement and connectivity of plastic zone is on the conservative side of the real situation when determining the limit state. For the different angle of sliding path, the tendency of safety factor of material properties degradation method meets well with K method by using in the codes of gravity dam.%地下水的存在会使渗流场和应力场相互作用、相互影响。由于渗透静水压力的作用,坝体各应力分量最大值增大,也使坝体的各特征点处的应力集中现象加剧,因此从实际工程情况以及渗流对计算的影响考虑,采用流固耦合方法分析重力坝深层抗滑稳定问题很有必要性。借助有限元分析软件ABAQUS,分别以计算收敛性、位移突变和塑性区贯通作为失稳判据,在考虑渗流-应力耦合理论基础上,采用强度储备法对重力坝深层稳定安全度进行评价,探讨不同重力坝

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  20. Improving work load and comfort of operators on modified hydraulic excavators in rail road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Houtman, I.I.D.

    2000-01-01

    In small-scale projects of mechanized maintenance of rail roads special equipped hydraulic excavators (HE) are used in several maintenance tasks. One task concerns the exchange of the old crossbars and ballast under the rails by new materials (MCE-task). This task requires high precision of the HE-o

  1. Hydraulic characterisation of the tailings associated with the abandoned mine at Frongoch, Mid-Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, V.J.; Kirkham, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the material classification and results of field and laboratory hydraulic testing of tailings from the Frongoch Tailings Lagoon, situated immediately to the south of the abandoned Frongoch mine site in mid-Wales. The results are considered in the context of the conceptual site model.

  2. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 17.1-17.13 Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 13 learning modules on hydraulics is 1 of 6 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for millwrights. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check list of…

  3. Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis of hydraulic system by pseudo-bond graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡均平; 李科军

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency and reliability of the thermodynamics analysis of the hydraulic system, the method based on pseudo-bond graph is introduced. According to the working mechanism of hydraulic components, they can be separated into two categories: capacitive components and resistive components. Then, the thermal-hydraulic pseudo-bond graphs of capacitive C element and resistance R element were developed, based on the conservation of mass and energy. Subsequently, the connection rule for the pseudo-bond graph elements and the method to construct the complete thermal-hydraulic system model were proposed. On the basis of heat transfer analysis of a typical hydraulic circuit containing a piston pump, the lumped parameter mathematical model of the system was given. The good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data demonstrates the validity of the modeling method.

  4. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  5. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  6. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  7. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  8. A promising new device to assess key soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic functions measured at the core or plot scale are notoriously variable in natural soils, with properties such as infiltration rate ranging across several orders of magnitude within a typical field. Because the information required to create a continuous map of these properties' variability is unobtainable, plot- and field-scale models of flow processes generally use average or "effective" soil hydraulic properties to represent the processes. This makes it difficult to scale up knowledge from the local to the catchment scale, as soil heterogeneity increases with scale. Overcoming this difficulty requires an instrument that enables rapid and easy assessment of the relevant soil properties and their changes under varying land uses and climatic conditions. For this reason, we devised a new infiltrometer that makes it possible to rapidly and reliably assess soil infiltration capacity in the field. Based on laboratory and field data, we then developed a software (Soil Quality Analyzer) to determine key hydraulic properties such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated water content, total porosity, and the van Genuchten parameters. Our device consists of a Plexiglas tube about 4 cm in diameter mounted on a semisoft, porous tube of the same diameter which easily adapts to surrounding soil, and ending in a conic steel point that facilitates insertion into the soil at different depths. We first calibrated our infiltrometer based on reconstructed soil columns of different textures with no coarse structures (i.e. organic material, macropores). A second series of infiltration experiments was carried out in situ in undisturbed soils under forest and grassland that had the same textures as those in the laboratory experiments. Finally, we analyzed all samples in the laboratory to determine the key hydraulic parameters. Linear relationships between the infiltrated water volume and the corresponding time intervals of infiltration were determined for each sample

  9. A simplified transfer function for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous drainage filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canga, Eriona; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of porous filters used in water treatment technologies is important for optimizing the retention of nutrients and pollutants. This parameter determines the hydraulic capacity, which together with the Chemical properties of the filter media......, bulk density, uniformity coefficient, particle density, and porosity of 46 porous media fractions. The fractions ranged in grain size from 0.5 to 20 mm and were obtained from seven commercial available coarse filter materials. A backward stepwise regression analysis was performed between Ksat and 10...

  10. The effects of hydraulics, geomorphology, and storm events on metabolism rates in an agricultural river

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B. L.; Harvey, J. W.; McPhillips, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Physical factors such as discharge, geomorphology, and sediment transport strongly influence metabolism rates in agricultural rivers with sparse tree canopies where sunlight is not limiting. These physical processes establish a mosaic of sediment habitats of varying particle sizes, permeabilities, and biological communities that control primary production and respiration rates. In this study, we examined the combined factors of hydraulic conditions, sediment texture, and hyporheic exchange on the spatial and temporal variability of metabolism rates in an agricultural river located in central Iowa. Hydraulic conditions were quantified using field velocity measurements and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling. Sediment texture was assessed using a grid-based survey identifying dominant particle size classes, as well as aerial coverage of green algae and fine benthic organic material. Hyporheic exchange potential was quantified using an effective diffusion scaling relationship based on sediment and flow conditions. Patch-scale metabolism rates varied spatially according to patterns in hydraulic and sediment characteristics, but were of the same order of magnitude as reach-scale gross primary productivity and community respiration measurements. Two discharge-related storm perturbation regimes to the reach-scale metabolism rates were identified using diurnal dissolved oxygen data measured at the study reach over three years. Rainfall events of days as a result of increased turbidity, whereas rainfall events of > 3 cm disrupted metabolism rates for several days to weeks due to bed mobilization and the restructuring of the sediment habitats. A combination of hydraulic modeling, habitat mapping, and reach-scale metabolism measurements were used to produce a two-dimensional analysis of a turbidity-related disturbance event that occurred in late fall 2007. Results from this study suggest that physical processes establish, destroy, and restructure hydraulic and sediment

  11. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  12. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  13. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  14. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  15. Soil Structure and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskova, B.; Nagy, V.

    The role of soil structure on saturated hydraulic conductivity changes is studied in plough layers of texturally different soils. Three localities in western part of Slovakia in Zitny ostrov (Corn Island) were under investigation: locality Kalinkovo with light Calcaric Fluvisol (FAO 1970), Macov with medium heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol and Jurova with heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol. Soil structure was determined in dry as well as wet state and in size of macro and micro aggregates. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by the help of double ring method. During the period of ring filling the soil surface was protected against aggregates damage by falling water drops. Spatial and temporal variability of studied parameters was evaluated. Cultivated crops were ensilage maize at medium heavy and heavy soil and colza at light soil. Textural composition of soil and actual water content at the beginning of measurement are one of major factor affecting aggregate stability and consequently also saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Universal asymptotic umbrella for hydraulic fracture modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Aleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents universal asymptotic solution needed for efficient modeling of hydraulic fractures. We show that when neglecting the lag, there is universal asymptotic equation for the near-front opening. It appears that apart from the mechanical properties of fluid and rock, the asymptotic opening depends merely on the local speed of fracture propagation. This implies that, on one hand, the global problem is ill-posed, when trying to solve it as a boundary value problem under a fixed position of the front. On the other hand, when properly used, the universal asymptotics drastically facilitates solving hydraulic fracture problems (both analytically and numerically). We derive simple universal asymptotics and comment on their employment for efficient numerical simulation of hydraulic fractures, in particular, by well-established Level Set and Fast Marching Methods.

  17. Measurement and modeling of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    The unsaturated zone plays an extremely important hydrologic role that influences water quality and quantity, ecosystem function and health, the connection between atmospheric and terrestrial processes, nutrient cycling, soil development, and natural hazards such as flooding and landslides. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the main properties considered to govern flow; however it is very difficult to measure accurately. Knowledge of the highly nonlinear relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) and volumetric water content is required for widely-used models of water flow and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments is costly and time consuming, therefore use of models that estimate this property from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is common. In hydrologic studies, calculations based on property-transfer models informed by hydraulic property databases are often used in lieu of measured data from the site of interest. Reliance on database-informed predicted values with the use of neural networks has become increasingly common. Hydraulic properties predicted using databases may be adequate in some applications, but not others. This chapter will discuss, by way of examples, various techniques used to measure and model hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content, K. The parameters that describe the K curve obtained by different methods are used directly in Richards’ equation-based numerical models, which have some degree of sensitivity to those parameters. This chapter will explore the complications of using laboratory measured or estimated properties for field scale investigations to shed light on how adequately the processes are represented. Additionally, some more recent concepts for representing unsaturated-zone flow processes will be discussed.

  18. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  19. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  1. Large-eddy simulation in hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Complex turbulence phenomena are of great practical importance in hydraulics, including environmental flows, and require advanced methods for their successful computation. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES), in which the larger-scale turbulent motion is directly resolved and only the small-scale motion is modelled, is particularly suited for complex situations with dominant large-scale structures and unsteadiness. Due to the increasing computer power, LES is generally used more and more in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Also in hydraulics, it offers great potential, especially for near-field probl

  2. POSSIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE AND TRANSPORT MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kučera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and transport equipment is ideally suited to use hydraulic oils. After engine oils, hydraulic fluids are the second most important group of lubricants. More than 85 % of these materials are currently mineral oil-based. In view of their high ecotoxicity and low biodegradability, mineral oil-based lubricants constitute a considerable threat to the environment. In contrast, most hydraulic fluids based on plant oils have a low environmental impact and are completely biodegradable. Moreover, lubricants based on plant oils display excellent tribological properties and generally have very high viscosity indices and flash points. For this reason, therefore, particularly soybean, sunflower and rapeseed seem to possess the relevant properties as a potential hydraulic fluid. There are several tribotechnical methods how to assess the current technical state of used lubricants (viscosity, water content, flash point, acidity. One of the modern methods how to detect wear particles is LaserNet Fines, which is a suitable technique for machine condition monitoring. The ageing of test oils is analysed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR; for determining anti-wear properties of hydraulic oils, the standard STN EN ISO 20623:2004 indicates 1 hour under an applied load of 150 N. The objective of the paper is to show the description and examples of modern tribotechnical methods used for determination of the technical state of used biolubricants utilized in agriculture and transport machinery.

  3. Mechatronic Hydraulic Drive with Regulator, Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burennikov, Y.; Kozlov, L.; Pyliavets, V.; Piontkevych, O.

    2017-06-01

    Mechatronic hydraulic drives, based on variable pump, proportional hydraulics and controllers find wide application in technological machines and testing equipment. Mechatronic hydraulic drives provide necessary parameters of actuating elements motion with the possibility of their correction in case of external loads change. This enables to improve the quality of working operations, increase the capacity of machines. The scheme of mechatronic hydraulic drive, based on the pump, hydraulic cylinder, proportional valve with electrohydraulic control and programmable controller is suggested. Algorithm for the control of mechatronic hydraulic drive to provide necessary pressure change law in hydraulic cylinder is developed. For the realization of control algorithm in the controller artificial neural networks are used. Mathematical model of mechatronic hydraulic drive, enabling to create the training base for adjustment of artificial neural networks of the regulator is developed.

  4. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Valencia County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  5. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  6. A tensor approach to the estimation of hydraulic conductivities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The HC values computed from the data measured on the weathered or ... Keywords: hydraulic conductivity tensor, roughness, combined stress, hydraulic aperture, Table Mountain ... the anisotropic nature of studied media.

  7. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  8. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  10. Influence of tray hydraulics on tray column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Azink, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To column control, in contrast to column design, tray hold-up and dependencies of tray hold-up on the operating conditions play an important role. The essence of this article is the development of an improved model of tray hydraulics over a broad operating range and its experimental validation by

  11. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  12. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  13. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  14. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  15. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  16. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  17. Reactive barriers: hydraulic performance and design enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, B D M

    2004-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated ground water is a multibillion-dollar global industry. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are one of the leading technologies being developed in the search for alternatives to the pump-and-treat method. Improving the hydraulic performance of these PRBs is an important part of maximizing their potential to the industry. Optimization of the hydraulic performance of a PRB can be defined in terms of finding the balance between capture, residence time, and PRB longevity that produces a minimum-cost acceptable design. Three-dimensional particle tracking was used to estimate capture zone and residence time distributions. Volumetric flow analysis was used for estimation of flow distribution across a PRB and in the identification of flow regimes that may affect the permeability or reactivity of portions of the PRB over time. Capture zone measurements extended below the base of partially penetrating PRBs and were measured upgradient from the portion of aquifer influenced by PRB emplacement. Hydraulic performance analysis of standard PRB designs confirmed previously presented research that identified the potential for significant variation in residence time and capture zone. These variations can result in the need to oversize the PRB to ensure that downgradient contaminant concentrations do not exceed imposed standards. The most useful PRB design enhancements for controlling residence time and capture variation were found to be customized downgradient gate faces, velocity equalization walls, deeper emplacement of the funnel than the gate, and careful manipulation of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between the gate and the aquifer.

  18. SITMILARITY LAW FOR HYDRAULIC DISTORTED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Newton's general similarity criterion was applied to the distorted model. The results for the similarities of gravity force, drag force and pressure force are identical with those derived from relevant differential equations of fluid flow. And the selected limits of the distorted ratio were studied and the simulation of roughness coefficient of distorted model was conducted by means of hydraulic test.

  19. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe;

    1998-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure appe...

  20. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  1. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed t...

  2. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple mo...

  3. Dentin permeability: determinants of hydraulic conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, O W; Walton, R E; Livingston, M J; Pashley, D H

    1978-02-01

    A technique is described which permits measurements of the ease with which fluid permeates dentin. This value, the hydraulic conductance of dentin, increased as surface area increases and/or as dentin thickness decreases. It increased 32-fold when dentin was acid etched due to removal of surface debris occluding the tubules.

  4. Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot used for the shut-off rod drive mechanism of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Narendra K., E-mail: nksingh_chikki@yahoo.com [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Badodkar, Deepak N. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally. • Temperature compensation is achieved by reducing the clearances in the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature to compensate for the viscosity reduction. • Temperature compensation effects due to difference in thermal expansion of common engineering materials and use of bimetallic strips have been analyzed. • Design of a novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot is presented, which can be used for wide range of temperature variations. - Abstract: Passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally in this paper. Study is focused on reducing the clearances of the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature which intern compensates for the reduction in viscosity of damping oil and the dashpot gives uniform performance for wide range of temperature variation. Temperature compensation effects are mainly due to difference in the thermal expansion of materials. Different combinations of materials are used to reduce the dashpot clearances at elevated temperature. Finite element commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1 has been used for numerical analysis. Fluid-structure analysis has been carried-out to study the thermal expansion and pressure generated in the hydraulic dashpot. Multiphysics study with solid mechanics, laminar flow and moving mesh interfaces has been carried-out. Thermal expansion results of study-1 (solid mechanics) are further extended in to study-2 (laminar flow and moving mesh) and dashpot pressure is estimated. These results show that bimetallic strip improves the dashpot performance at 55 °C but do not fully compensate beyond that and less severe impacts occurs. Specific combinations of design and materials have been presented in this paper for obtaining maximum temperature compensation. A novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot

  5. Modeling of Nearshore-Placed Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    and nourishes the beach. The focus of the present study is to examine the design for nearshore placement of dredged material through laboratory...Army Engineer Research and Development Center,, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,3909 Halls Ferry Road,,Vicksburg,,MS, 39180 8. PERFORMING...Material Ernest R. Smith and Rusty L. Permenter Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls

  6. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulate...

  7. DISCONTINUOUS FLOW OF TURBID DENSITY CURRENTS Ⅱ. INTERNAL HYDRAULIC JUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua FAN

    2005-01-01

    Traveling and stationary internal hydraulic jumps in density currents with positive or negative entrainment coefficients were analyzed based on simple assumptions. An expression of internal hydraulic jumps with entrainment coefficients was derived. Experimental data, published in literature, of stationary internal hydraulic jumps in turbid, thermal and saline density currents including measured values of water entrainment were used to compare with theory. Comparison was also made of traveling internal hydraulic jumps between measured data and theory.

  8. OPTIMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN AND CAD APPLICATIONS OF AXIAL FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE'S RUNNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method of the optimal hydraulic design and CAD application of runner blades of axial-flow hydraulic turbines are discussed on the basis of optimization principle and CAD technique in this paper. Based on the theory of fluid dynamics, the blade′s main geometrical parameter, working parameters and performances index of the blades and the relationship between them are analysed, and the mathematical model of optimal hydraulic design of axial-flow runners has been established. Through nonlinear programming, the problems can be solved. By making use of the calculation geometry and computer graphics, the distribution method of the singular points, and an CAD applied software, an optimal hydraulic design are presented.

  9. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2009-10-01

    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  10. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Lucas

    2004-10-01

    A graduate level course for Thermal Hydraulics (T/H) was taught through Idaho State University in the spring of 2004. A numerical approach was taken for the content of this course since the students were employed at the Idaho National Laboratory and had been users of T/H codes. The majority of the students had expressed an interest in learning about the Courant Limit, mass error, semi-implicit and implicit numerical integration schemes in the context of a computer code. Since no introductory text was found the author developed notes taught from his own research and courses taught for Westinghouse on the subject. The course started with a primer on control volume methods and the construction of a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) (T/H) code. The primer was valuable for giving the students the basics behind such codes and their evolution to more complex codes for Thermal Hydraulics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The course covered additional material including the Finite Element Method and non-equilibrium (T/H). The control volume primer and the construction of a three-equation (mass, momentum and energy) HEM code are the subject of this paper . The Fortran version of the code covered in this paper is elementary compared to its descendants. The steam tables used are less accurate than the available commercial version written in C Coupled to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Fortran version and input files can be downloaded at www.microfusionlab.com.

  11. Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2001-01-01

    Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable...

  13. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.10 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.10 Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Hydraulic...

  15. Comparison of four methods to assess hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gunter, J.A. [Gunter (John A.), Round Rock, TX (United States); Boutwell, G.P. [STE, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Trautwein, S.J. [Trautwein Soil Testing Equipment Co., Houston, TX (United States); Berzanskis, P.H. [Hoechst-Celanese, Inc., Pampa, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A hydraulic conductivity assessment that was conducted on four test pads constructed to the same specifications with soil from the same source by four different contractors is described. The test pads had distinctly different field hydraulic conductivities, even though they were constructed with similar soil, to similar compaction conditions, and with similar machinery. Adequate hydration time was key in achieving low field hydraulic conductivity. More extensive processing was another factor responsible for low field hydraulic conductivity. Four different test methods were used to assess the hydraulic conductivity of each test pad: (1) sealed double-ring infiltrometers (SDRIs); (2) two-stage borehole permeameters; (3) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on large block specimens; and (4) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on small specimens collected in thin-wall sampling tubes. The tests were conducted independently by each of the writers. After the tests were completed, the results were submitted and compared. Analysis of the test results show that the three large-scale test methods generally yield similar hydraulic conductivities. For two of the test pads, however, the hydraulic conductivities of the specimens collected in sampling tubes were significantly lower than the field hydraulic conductivities. Both of these test pads had high field hydraulic conductivity. Thus, there is little value in using small specimens to assess field hydraulic conductivity.

  16. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  17. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  18. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor%水压轴向柱塞马达配流盘的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 杨曙东

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments. According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components, a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward, whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely. The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig. Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied. The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively. It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching pairs and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs. The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  19. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Gale, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Witherspoon, P.A. and Gale, J.E., 1977. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity. Eng. Geol., 11(1): 23-55. The mechanical and hydraulic properties of fractured rocks are considered with regard to the role they play in induced seismicity. In many cases, the mechanical properties of fractures determine the stability of a rock mass. The problems of sampling and testing these rock discontinuities and interpreting their non-linear behavior are reviewed. Stick slip has been proposed as the failure mechanism in earthquake events. Because of the complex interactions that are inherent in the mechanical behavior of fractured rocks, there seems to be no simple way to combine the deformation characteristics of several sets of fractures when there are significant perturbations of existing conditions. Thus, the more important fractures must be treated as individual components in the rock mass. In considering the hydraulic properties, it has been customary to treat a fracture as a parallel-plate conduit and a number of mathematical models of fracture systems have adopted this approach. Non-steady flow in fractured systems has usually been based on a two-porosity model, which assumes the primary (intergranular) porosity contributes only to storage and the secondary (fracture) porosity contributes only to the overall conductivity. Using such a model, it has been found that the time required to achieve quasi-steady state flow in a fractured reservoir is one or two orders of magnitude greater than it is in a homogeneous system. In essentially all of this work, the assumption has generally been made that the fractures are rigid. However, it is clear from a review of the mechanical and hydraulic properties that not only are fractures easily deformed but they constitute the main flow paths in many rock masses. This means that one must consider the interaction of mechanical and hydraulic effects. A considerable amount of laboratory and field data is now

  20. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz < ±0.05 m/d) to ±1.0 m/d, while the vertical hydraulic gradients were within the range of -0.2 to 0.15 m/m. The highest and most variable fluxes occurred adjacent to a debris-dam and bridge pier. This phenomenon is very likely

  1. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

  2. Analytical and numerical simulations of a hydraulic fracturing experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M.Z.; Namiq, M.A.; Zhou, L.; Gou, Y. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-10-23

    Based on simulations of a previously published hydraulic fracturing experiment performed by Casas et al. (2006), this paper presents the performance assessment of the famous analytical fracture 2D-models (PKN and KGD) and a 3D numerical model (FDM program FLAC3D of the ITASCA Inc.). Strain-softening models are used in the FLAC3D to describe the fracture creation and propagation as well as to present the material softening properties (permeability, tensile strength, cohesion, friction and dilation angel) as functions of the plastic strain. The results show that the numerical simulator has a much better performance and produces more reliable results than the analytical fracture models. However, numerical models have limitations and thus potential for further development. (orig.)

  3. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  5. Technology of load-sensitivity used in the hydraulic system of an all-hydraulic core rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN De-zhong; CHEN Song-ling; WANG Qing-feng

    2009-01-01

    The existing hydraulic system always have problems of temperature rise, run-ning stability and anti-interference of the implementation components, reliability of hydrau-lic components, maintenance difficulties, and other issues. With high efficiency, energy saving, reliability, easy operating, stable running, anti-interference ability, and other ad-vantages, the load-sensitive hydraulic system is more suitable for coal mine all-hydraulic core rig. Therefore, for the technical development of the coal mine all-hydraulic core rig, the load-sensitive technology employed by the rig should be of great significance.

  6. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus is on the advantages using...... ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...

  7. The hydraulic fracturing of geothermal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naceur, K. Ben; Economides, M.J.; Schlumberger, Dowell

    1988-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been attempted in geothermal formations as a means to stimulate both production and injection wells. Since most geothermal formations contain fissures and on occasion massive natural fissures, the production behavior of the man-made fractures results in certain characteristic trends. A model is offered that allows the presence of a finite or infinite conductivity fracture intercepting a fissured medium. The method is based on a numerical discretization of the formation allowing transient interporosity flow. Type curves for pressure drawdown and cumulative production are given for infinite acting and closed reservoirs. Since most of the fissured formations exhibit a degree of anisotropy, the effects of the orientation of the hydraulic fracture with respect to the fissure planes, and of the ratio between the directional permeabilities are then discussed. Guidelines are offered as to the size of appropriate stimulation treatments based on the observed fissured behavior of the reservoir.

  8. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...... structure has the additional benefit that structural changes such as the addition or removal of end-users are easily implementable. In this work, the problem of controlling the pressure drop at the end-users to a constant reference value is considered. This is done by the use of pumps located both...... are considered. Some of the work considers control actions which are constrained to non-negative values only. This is due to the fact that the actuators in this type of system typically consist of centrifugal pumps which are only able to deliver non-negative actuation. Other parts of the work consider control...

  9. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw......The yaw system is the subsystem on a wind turbine which ensures that the rotor plane of the turbine always is facing the wind direction. Studies from [1] show that a soft yaw system may be utilized to dampen the loads in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates much like...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  10. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. NEW HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR'S POSITION SERVOCONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Zunrong; ZHU Yuquan; LING Xuan

    2007-01-01

    A new hydraulic actuator-hydraulic muscle (HM) is described, and the actuator's features and applications are analyzed, then a position servocontrol system in which HM is main actuator is set up. The mathematical model of the system is built up and several control strategies are discussed. Based on the mathematical model, simulation research and experimental investigation with subsection PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control adopted respectively are carried out, and the results indicate that compared with PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control don't need controlled system's accurate model and have fast response, high control accuracy and strong robustness, they are very suitable for HM position servo control system.

  12. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...... and improving hydraulic conditions. Unlike most traditional theses which usually focus only on one particular subject of study, this thesis contains four relatively independent studies which cover the following topics: a newly proposed particle settling enhancement plate, the redesign of the inlet zone......, introduction and conclusions as well as the study results. All studies were carried out with a combination of numerical model and measurements. In the first part of the thesis a new concept of using a vortex to increase particle removal from liquid was proposed and the new particle settling enhancement plates...

  13. Thermal Hydraulic Design of PWT Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microwave power losses on the surfaces of accelerating structures will transform to heat which will deform the structures if it is not removed in time. Thermal hydraulic design of the disk and cooling rods of a Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) structure is presented. Experiments to measure the hydraulic (pressure vs flow rate) and cooling (heat removed vs flow rate) properties of the PWT disk are performed, and results compared with simulations using Mathcad models and the COSMOSM code. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the heat deposited on the structure could be removed effectively using specially designed water-cooling circuits and the temperature of the structure could be controlled within the range required.

  14. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusion characterization of GCLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukunoki, T.; Rowe, R.K.; Li, H.M.; Sangam, H.P.; Hurst, P.; Bathurst, R.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)]|[Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Badv, K. [Urmia Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) installed at a site off the southeast coast of Baffin Island, in the Canadian Arctic, following different levels of freeze-thaw exposure and under low temperature conditions. The authors presented a summary of the results obtained for hydraulic conductivity tests on GCLs subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, and specimens permeated with jet fuel (Arctic diesel). They also reported on diffusion tests conducted at 22 Celsius and 5 Celsius, followed by a discussion of the effect of temperature. The results indicate that there is no significant impact on GCL performance due to freeze-thaw cycles, permeation by jet fuel or diffusion at the lower temperatures expected in the north for the short term (up to approximately four years). Additional studies are needed to confirm long term behaviour. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  16. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  17. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  18. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several...coefficient, α, expresses a correction for nonuniformity in the velocity distribution, and in most applications this value is assumed to be 1 or read from...a table (e.g., Chow 1959, p.28). The depth and slope angle terms can be replaced by a vertical expression of the depth, y, because in most rivers

  19. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  20. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  1. Partially decoupled modeling of hydraulic fracturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settari, A.; Puchyr, P.J.; Bachman, R.C. (Simtech Consulting Services, Calgary (CA))

    1990-02-01

    A new method of partial decoupling of the problem of modeling a hydraulic fracture in a reservoir is described. According to the authors this approach has significant advantages over previous methods with fully coupled or completely uncoupled models. Better accuracy can be achieved in modeling the fracture propagation, and the new system is very efficient and versatile. Virtually any reservoir model can be used for predicting postfracture productivity. Examples of single- and multiphase applications for modeling fractured wells are discussed.

  2. Design of a Resistively Heated Thermal Hydraulic Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Reactor Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Wang, Ten-See; Anghaie, Samim

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary design study is presented for a non-nuclear test facility which uses ohmic heating to replicate the thermal hydraulic characteristics of solid core nuclear reactor fuel element passages. The basis for this testing capability is a recently commissioned nuclear thermal rocket environments simulator, which uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects. Initially, the baseline test fixture for this non-nuclear environments simulator was configured for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of small cylindrical material specimens as a low cost means of evaluating material compatibility. It became evident, however, that additional functionality enhancements were needed to permit a critical examination of thermal hydraulic effects in fuel element passages. Thus, a design configuration was conceived whereby a short tubular material specimen, representing a fuel element passage segment, is surrounded by a backside resistive tungsten heater element and mounted within a self-contained module that inserts directly into the baseline test fixture assembly. With this configuration, it becomes possible to create an inward directed radial thermal gradient within the tubular material specimen such that the wall-to-gas heat flux characteristics of a typical fuel element passage are effectively simulated. The results of a preliminary engineering study for this innovative concept are fully summarized, including high-fidelity multi-physics thermal hydraulic simulations and detailed design features.

  3. Flow characteristics of variable hydraulic transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠中; 姜继海

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of hydraulic transformer, called variable hydraulic transformer (VHT), is proposed to control its load flow rate. The hydraulic transformer evolves from a pressure transducer to a power transducer. The flow characteristics of VHT, such as its instantaneous flow rates, average flow rates, and flow pulsations in the ports, are investigated. Matlab software is used to simulate and calculate. There are five controlled angles of the port plate that can help to define the flow characteristics of VHT. The relationships between the flow characteristics and the structure in VHT are shown. Also, the plus−minus change of the average flow rates and the continuity of the instantaneous flow rates in the ports are presented. The results demonstrate the performance laws of VHT when the controlled angles of the port plate and of the swash plate change. The results also reveal that the special principle of the flow pulsation in the ports and the jump points of the instantaneous curves are the two basic causes of its loud noise, and that the control angles of the port plate and the swash plate and the pressures in the ports are the three key factors of the noise.

  4. Measuring Disturbance Impact on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, S.; Mirus, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbances associated with land cover change such as forest clearing and mono-cropping can have a substantial impact on soil-hydraulic properties, which in turn have a cascading impact on surface and near-surface hydrologic response. Although disturbances and vegetation change can alter soil-water retention and conductivity relations, hydrologic models relying on traditional soil-texture based pedotransfer functions would not be able to capture the disturbance impact on infiltration and soil-moisture storage. Therefore, in-situ estimates of characteristic curves of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity relations are needed to understand and predict hydrologic impacts of land cover change. We present a method for in-situ estimates of effective characteristic curves that capture hysteretic soil-water retention properties at the plot scale. We apply this method to two different forest treatments and in urban settings to investigate the impact of land-use disturbances on soil-hydraulic properties. We compare our in-situ estimation method to results for simple pedotransfer functions to illustrate how this approach can improve understanding of disturbance impacts on hydrologic processes and function.

  5. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  6. Determining the Conditions for the Hydraulic Impacts Emergence at Hydraulic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurenko A.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aim is to develop a method for modeling the conditions for the critical hydrau-lic impacts emergence on thermal and nuclear power plants’ pipeline systems pressure pumps depart-ing from the general provisions of the heat and hydrodynamic instability theory. On the developed method basis, the conditions giving rise to the reliability-critical hydraulic impacts emergence on pumps for the thermal and nuclear power plants’ typical pipeline system have been determined. With the flow characteristic minimum allowable (critical sensitivity, the flow velocity fluctuations ampli-tude reaches critical values at which the pumps working elements’ failure occurs. The critical hydrau-lic impacts emergence corresponds to the transition of the vibrational heat-hydrodynamic instability into an aperiodic one. As research revealed, a highly promising approach as to the preventing the criti-cal hydraulic impacts related to the foreground use of pumps having the most sensitive consumption (at supply network performance (while other technical characteristics corresponding to that parame-ter. The research novelty refers to the suggested method elaborated by the authors’ team, which, in contrast to traditional approaches, is efficient in determining the pump hydraulic impact occurrence conditions when the vibrational heat-hydrodynamic instability transition to the aperiodic instability.

  7. Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Sebastià; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Medrano, Hipólito; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    In woody plants, photosynthetic capacity is closely linked to rates at which the plant hydraulic system can supply water to the leaf surface. Drought-induced embolism can cause sharp declines in xylem hydraulic conductivity that coincide with stomatal closure and reduced photosynthesis. Recovery of photosynthetic capacity after drought is dependent on restored xylem function, although few data exist to elucidate this coordination. We examined the dynamics of leaf gas exchange and xylem function in Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings exposed to a cycle of severe water stress and recovery after re-watering. Stomatal closure and leaf turgor loss occurred at water potentials that delayed the extensive spread of embolism through the stem xylem. Stem hydraulic conductance recovered to control levels within 6 h after re-watering despite a severe drought treatment, suggesting an active mechanism embolism repair. However, stomatal conductance did not recover after 10 d of re-watering, effecting tighter control of transpiration post drought. The dynamics of recovery suggest that a combination of hydraulic and non-hydraulic factors influenced stomatal behaviour post drought.

  8. Hydraulic permeability of bentonite-polymer composites for application in landfill technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Hanna; Haase, Hanna; Schanz, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Bentonites are often used as barrier materials in landfill technology to prevent infiltration of leachates to the natural environment. Since decades, geoenvironmental engineering aims at improving the hydro-mechanical performance of landfill liners. Various studies on the permeability performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) show effects of non-standard liquids on behaviour of Na+-bentonite regarding its sealing capacity. With increasing concentration of chemical aggressive solutions the sealing capacity decreases (Shackelford et al. 2000). An opportunity to improve the hydraulic permeability of the bentonites is the addition of polymers. The changes in hydraulic permeability performance of polymer treated and untreated bentonites while adding chemical aggressive solutions were studied by several authors. Results obtained by Scalia et al. (2014) illustrate that an increase in permeability can be prevented by adding polymer to Na+-bentonite. On the other hand, Ashmawy et al. (2002) presented results on the incapability of several commercial bentonite-polymer-products. The objective of this study is to characterize the influence of polymer addition on hydraulic performance of Na+-bentonite systematically. Therefore, the influence of 1% polymer addition of cationic and anionic polyacrylamide on the swelling pressure and hydraulic permeability of MX 80 bentonite was investigated. Preparation of bentonite-polymer composites was conducted (1) in dry conditions and (2) using solution-intercalation method. Experiments on hydraulic permeability were carried out using distilled water as well as CaCl2-solution. References Ashmawy, A. K., El-Hajji, D., Sotelo, N. & Muhammad, N. (2002), `Hydraulic Performance of Untreated and Polymer-treated Bentonite in Inorganic Landfill Leachates', Clays and Clay Minerals 50(5), 546-552. Scalia, J., Benson, C., Bohnhoff, G., Edil, T. & Shackelford, C. (2014), 'Long-Term Hydraulic Conductivity of a Bentonite-Polymer Composite Permeated

  9. On the hydraulic characterizing of the quaternary sedimentary media of Bucharest City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Serpescu, Irina; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Diaconescu, Alin; Priceputu, Adrian; Bica, Ioan; Brusten, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of geological media is a complex property to describe. This property can change many orders of magnitude over short distances as it is even considered to be dependent of the observation scale. Current trends of hydrogeology studies show an increase need of geospatial databases. Such databases usually store, in a coherent and logical structure, different types of information (such as geological hard/soft data, hydraulic properties of the geological facies, stress factors and boundary conditions). An optimal use of the geospatial databases for groundwater flow modeling for example, will require exploring extended possible uses of the stored information. For clastic sedimentary rocks, considering that measured values of the hydraulic properties are not always available simultaneously with lithological data, it will be practical to estimate or to predict a domain of variation of such properties on the basis of the lithological description. Consequently, indirectly estimated values or variation domains of the hydraulic conductivity should be deduced by using the lithological description data. Such values can be used to verify models parameterization obtained by applying inverse calibration techniques or will reduce manual calibration efforts by providing narrow trial and error intervals. The present study gives an approach that can be used to characterize sedimentary media in terms of hydraulic conductivity on the basis of the lithological description. This relies on the results of a statistical analysis of a set of 647 well specific capacity tests conducted in quaternary clastic rocks (southeastern part of Romania) combined with a lithological description adaptation procedure. The analysis of hydraulic tests allowed the determination of statistical parameters of the hydraulic conductivity of basic lithological materials. As for the lithological description adaptation procedure, it transforms a complex lithology description into a set of basic

  10. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    due to changes in geometrical parameters of the design; discrete flow distributor should be installed either close to the pump or be integrated into its design. The developed mathematical model and methodology for determination of parameters for the discrete flow distributor allow to optimize its design. Application of the mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a discrete flow distributor of running equipment drive in multi-functional road construction machinery permits to decrease a number of hydraulic drive pumps, to withdraw from large-sized and material-intensive pump drive gear box.

  11. Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Statistical distributions of soil hydraulic parameters have to be known when synthetic fields of soil hydraulic properties need to be generated in ensemble modeling of soil water dynamics and soil water content data assimilation. Pedotransfer functions that provide statistical distributions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity parameters for textural classes are most often used in the parameter field generation. Presence of strong correlations can substantially influence the parameter generation results. The objective of this work was to review and evaluate available data on correlations between van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model parameters. So far, two different approaches were developed to estimate these correlations. The first approach uses pedotransfer functions to generate VGM parameters for a large number of soil compositions within a textural class, and then computes parameter correlations for each of the textural classes. The second approach computes the VGM parameter correlations directly from parameter values obtained by fitting VGM model to measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for soil samples belonging to a textural class. Carsel and Parish (1988) used the Rawls et al. (1982) pedotransfer functions, and Meyer et al. (1997) used the Rosetta pedotransfer algorithms (Schaap, 2002) to develop correlations according to the first approach. We used the UNSODA database (Nemes et al. 2001), the US Southern Plains database (Timlin et al., 1999), and the Belgian database (Vereecken et al., 1989, 1990) to apply the second approach. A substantial number of considerable (>0.7) correlation coefficients were found. Large differences were encountered between parameter correlations obtained with different approaches and different databases for the same textural classes. The first of the two approaches resulted in generally higher values of correlation coefficients between VGM parameters. However, results of the first approach application depend

  12. A nonlocal model for fluid-structure interaction with applications in hydraulic fracturing

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel Z

    2012-01-01

    Modeling important engineering problems related to flow-induced damage (in the context of hydraulic fracturing among others) depends critically on characterizing the interaction of porous media and interstitial fluid flow. This work presents a new formulation for incorporating the effects of pore pressure in a nonlocal representation of solid mechanics. The result is a framework for modeling fluid-structure interaction problems with the discontinuity capturing advantages of an integral based formulation. A number of numerical examples are used to show that the proposed formulation can be applied to measure the effect of leak-off during hydraulic fracturing as well as modeling consolidation of fluid saturated rock and surface subsidence caused by fluid extraction from a geologic reservoir. The formulation incorporates the effect of pore pressure in the constitutive description of the porous material in a way that is appropriate for nonlinear materials, easily implemented in existing codes, straightforward in i...

  13. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Results show that the small outlet ports are the sources of energy loss in hydraulic cylinders. A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators. The proposed system is a four ports hydraulic cylinder fitted with a novel flow control valve. The proposed four ports cylinder was simulated and parameters such as ports sizes, loads and pressures are varied during the simulation. The hydraulic resisting forces, piston speed and mass flow rates are computed. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well.

  14. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  15. Geostatistical Estimations of Regional Hydraulic Conductivity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarche, D.; Castro, M. C.; Goovaerts, P.

    2004-12-01

    Direct and indirect measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K) are commonly performed, providing information on the magnitude of this parameter at the local scale (tens of centimeters to hundreds of meters) and at shallow depths. By contrast, field information on hydraulic conductivities at regional scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers and at greater depths is relatively scarce. Geostatistical methods allow for sparsely sampled observations of a variable (primary information) to be complemented by a more densely sampled secondary attribute. Geostatistical estimations of the hydraulic conductivity field in the Carrizo aquifer, a major groundwater flow system extending along Texas, are performed using available primary (e.g., transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity) and secondary (specific capacity) information, for depths up to 2.2 km, and over three regional domains of increasing extent: 1) the domain corresponding to a three-dimensional groundwater flow model previously built (model domain); 2) the area corresponding to the ten counties encompassing the model domain (County domain), and; 3) the full extension of the Carrizo aquifer within Texas (Texas domain). Two different approaches are used: 1) an indirect approach are transmissivity (T) is estimated first and (K) is retrieved through division of the T estimate by the screening length of the wells, and; 2) a direct approach where K data are kriged directly. Prediction performances of the tested geostatistical procedures (kriging combined with linear regression, kriging with known local means, kriging of residuals, and cokriging) are evaluated through cross validation for both log-transformed variables and back-transformed ones. For the indirect approach, kriging of log T residuals yields the best estimates for both log-transformed and back-transformed variables in the model domain. For larger regional scales (County and Texas domains), cokriging performs generally better than univariate kriging procedures

  16. Review of Hydraulic Fracturing for Preconditioning in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used in cave mining for preconditioning the orebody following its successful application in the oil and gas industries. In this paper, the state of the art of hydraulic fracturing as a preconditioning method in cave mining is presented. Procedures are provided on how to implement prescribed hydraulic fracturing by which effective preconditioning can be realized in any in situ stress condition. Preconditioning is effective in cave mining when an additional fracture set is introduced into the rock mass. Previous studies on cave mining hydraulic fracturing focused on field applications, hydraulic fracture growth measurement and the interaction between hydraulic fractures and natural fractures. The review in this paper reveals that the orientation of the current cave mining hydraulic fractures is dictated by and is perpendicular to the minimum in situ stress orientation. In some geotechnical conditions, these orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures have limited preconditioning efficiency because they do not necessarily result in reduced fragmentation sizes and a blocky orebody through the introduction of an additional fracture set. This implies that if the minimum in situ stress orientation is vertical and favors the creation of horizontal hydraulic fractures, in a rock mass that is already dominated by horizontal joints, no additional fracture set is added to that rock mass to increase its blockiness to enable it cave. Therefore, two approaches that have the potential to create orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures in cave mining with the potential to introduce additional fracture set as desired are proposed to fill this gap. These approaches take advantage of directional hydraulic fracturing and the stress shadow effect, which can re-orientate the hydraulic fracture propagation trajectory against its theoretical predicted direction. Proppants are suggested to be introduced into the cave mining industry to enhance the

  17. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a hydraulic clarifier through hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic phenomena take place within water treatment plants associated with physical, operational and environmental factors which can affect the water quality. This study evaluated a hydraulic clarifier’s hydrodynamic pattern using sludge recirculation through continuous tracer test leading to determining hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models. The clarifier had dual flow with a predominantly complete mixture during the hours in which higher temperatures were reported for affluent water compared to those reported inside the reactor, causing the formation of density currents promoting mixing in the reactor and increased turbidity in the effluent. The hydraulic indicators and the Wolf-Resnick model had higher sensitivity to the influence of temperature on reactor hydrodynamics.

  18. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    in a project to develop rules and methods for designing and controlling mobile hydraulic systems in the most energy efficient way, when also considering the operational aspects of the system. The paper first describes the thoughts and ideas behind the project and then focus on an automated approach to design......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency......, but even more important is the system topology. However, there are no rules or guidelines for what system topology to choose for a given application, in order to obtain the most energy efficient system, nor for how the energy should be distributed in the system. This paper describes the approach taken...

  19. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Aluminum Alloy Hydraulic Valve Body and Its Antiwear Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order for the working status of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body to be controlled in actual conditions, a new friction and wear design device was designed for the cast iron and aluminum alloyed valve bodies comparison under the same conditions. The results displayed that: (1 The oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body was higher than the corresponding oil leakage of the iron body during the initial running stage. Besides during a later running stage, the oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed body was lower than corresponding oil leakage of the iron body; (2 The actual oil leakage of different materials consisted of two parts: the foundation leakage that was the leakage of the valve without wear and wear leakage that was caused by the worn valve body; (3 The aluminum alloyed valve could rely on the dust filling furrow and melting mechanism that led the body surface to retain dynamic balance, resulting in the valve leakage preservation at a low level. The aluminum alloy modified valve body can meet the requirements of hydraulic leakage under pressure, possibly constituting this alloy suitable for hydraulic valve body manufacturing.

  20. Avoidance of harvesting and sampling artefacts in hydraulic analyses: a protocol tested on Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A prerequisite for reliable hydraulic measurements is an accurate collection of the plant material. Thereby, the native hydraulic state of the sample has to be preserved during harvesting (i.e., cutting the plant or plant parts) and preparation (i.e., excising the target section). This is particularly difficult when harvesting has to be done under transpiring conditions. In this article, we present a harvesting and sampling protocol designed for hydraulic measurements on Malus domestica Borkh. and checked for possible sampling artefacts. To test for artefacts, we analysed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity, maximum specific conductivity and water contents of bark and wood of branches, taking into account conduit length, time of day of harvesting, different shoot ages and seasonal effects. Our results prove that use of appropriate protocols can avoid artefactual embolization or refilling even when the xylem is under tension at harvest. The presented protocol was developed for Malus but may also be applied for other angiosperms with similar anatomy and refilling characteristics.

  1. High precise control method for a new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve system was proposed. And then multilayer piezoelectric actuator based on new piezoelectric ceramic material was used as the electricity-machine converter of the proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve. The proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve has ascendant performance compared with conventional ones. But the system is of high nonlinearity and uncertainty, it cannot achieve favorable control performance by conventional control method. To develop an efficient way to control piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve system, a high-precise fuzzy control method with hysteresis nonlinear model in feedforward loop was proposed. The control method is separated into two parts: a feedforward loop with Preisach hysteresis nonlinear model and a feedback loop with high-precise fuzzy control. Experimental results show that the hysteresis loop and the maximum output hysteresis by the PID control method are 4.22%and 2.11 μm, respectively; the hysteresis loop and the maximum output hysteresis by the proposed control method respectively are 0.74% and 0.37 μm, respectively; the maximum tracking error by the PID control method for sine wave reference signal is about 5.02%, the maximum tracking error by the proposed control method for sine wave reference signal is about 0.85%.

  2. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  3. Physical and hydraulic properties of modern sinter deposits: El Tatio, Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Saez, Carolina; Saltiel, Seth; Manga, Michael; Nguyen, Chinh; Gonnermann, Helge

    2016-10-01

    Sinters are siliceous, sedimentary deposits that form in geothermal areas. Formation occurs in two steps. Hot water circulates in the subsurface and dissolves silica from the host rock, usually rhyolites. Silica then precipitates after hot water is discharged and cools. Extensive sinter formations are linked to up-flow areas of fluids originating from high temperature (> 175 °C) deep reservoirs. Fluid geochemistry, microbial communities, and environmental conditions of deposition determine the texture of sinter and pore framework. Porosity strongly influences physical and hydraulic properties of rocks. To better understand the properties controlling the transport of fluids, and interpret geophysical observations in geothermal systems, we studied 17 samples of modern geyserite sinter deposits (hydraulic, seismic, and electrical), and internal microstructure (using μX-Ray computed tomography). We find that the pore structure, and thus hydraulic and physical properties, is controlled by the distribution of microbial matter. Based on velocity-porosity relationships, permeability-porosity scaling, and image analysis of the 3D pore structure; we find that the physical and hydraulic properties of sinter more closely resemble those of vesicular volcanic rocks and other material formed by precipitation in geothermal settings (i.e., travertine) than clastic sedimentary rocks.

  4. Transport of heavy metals and chemical compatibility of hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand-bentonite mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthanit Charoenthaisong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clayey soils are usually used as barrier material in landfill liners because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high sorption capacity. Bentonite, which consists mainly of montmorillonite, has a high cation exchange capacity resulting in a high retention capacity of heavy metals. Sand is a permeable material but its hydraulic conductivity decreases significantly when mixed with bentonite. However, using a sand-bentonite mixture as landfill liners is questionable, because the hydraulic conductivity of the sand-bentonite mixture may increase when permeated with heavy metal solutions, which are normally found in landfill leachates. In this paper, transport of heavy metals through a compacted sand-bentonite mixture and its chemical compatibility were studied through the batch adsorption test, the column test, and the hydraulic conductivity test.Experimental results indicate that the sorption capacity of the bentonite, ranked in descending order, was Cr3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of the sand-bentonite mixture were in the order of 10-5 cm2/s and the retardation factors were 130, 115, 111, and 90 for Pb2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of thesand-bentonite mixture was only compatible with a chromium solution having a concentration not greater than 0.001 M.

  5. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Zotkin Sergey Petrovich; Khrenov Konstantin Evgen’evich; Dezhina Irina Sergeevna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The ar...

  6. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  7. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  8. Spatial Variability and Geostatistical Prediction of Some Soil Hydraulic Coefficients of a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the other hydraulic properties of soils are essential vital soil attributes that play role in the modeling of hydrological phenomena, designing irrigation-drainage systems, transportation of salts and chemical and biological pollutants within the soil. Measurement of these hydraulic properties needs some special instruments, expert technician, and are time consuming and expensive and due to their high temporal and spatial variability, a large number of measurements are needed. Nowadays, prediction of these attributes using the readily available soil data using pedotransfer functions or using the limited measurement with applying the geostatistical approaches has been receiving high attention. The study aimed to determine the spatial variability and prediction of saturated (Ks and near saturated (Kfs hydraulic conductivity, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of a calcareous soil. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on the soil series of Daneshkadeh located in the Bajgah Agricultural Experimental Station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (1852 m above the mean sea level. This soil series with about 745 ha is a deep yellowish brow calcareous soil with textural classes of loam to clay. In the studied soil series 50 sampling locations with the sampling distances of 16, 8 , and 4 m were selected on the relatively regular sampling design. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, near saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of the aforementioned sampling locations was determined using the Single Ring and Droplet methods. After, initial statistical processing, including a normality test of data, trend and stationary analysis of data, the semivariograms of each studied hydraulic attributes were

  9. Mobile hydraulic power supply. Liquid piston Stirling engine pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ven, James D. van de [100 Institute Road, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Conventional mobile hydraulic power supplies involve numerous kinematic connections and are limited by the efficiency, noise, and emissions of internal combustion engines. The Stirling cycle possesses numerous benefits such as the ability to operate from any heat source, quiet operation, and high theoretical efficiency. The Stirling engine has seen limited success due to poor heat transfer in the working chambers, difficulty sealing low-molecular weight gases at high pressure, and non-ideal piston displacement profiles. As a solution to these limitations, a liquid piston Stirling engine pump is proposed. The liquid pistons conform to irregular volumes, allowing increased heat transfer through geometry features on the interior of the working chambers. Creating near-isothermal operation eliminates the costly external heat exchangers and increases the engine efficiency through decreasing the engine dead space. The liquid pistons provide a positive gas seal and thermal transport to the working chambers. Controlling the flow of the liquid pistons with valves enables matching the ideal Stirling cycle and creates a direct hydraulic power supply. Using liquid hydrogen as a fuel source allows cooling the compression side of the engine before expanded the fuel into a gas and combusting it to heat the expansion side of the engine. Cooling the compression side not only increases the engine power, but also significantly increases the potential thermal efficiency of the engine. A high efficiency Stirling engine makes energy regeneration through reversing the Stirling cycle practical. When used for regeneration, the captured energy can be stored in thermal batteries, such as a molten salt. The liquid piston Stirling engine pump requires further research in numerous areas such as understanding the behavior of the liquid pistons, modeling and optimization of a full engine pump, and careful selection of materials for the extreme operating temperatures. Addressing these obtainable

  10. South Davis Sewer District Pump Station Hydraulic Capacity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, James W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, South Davis Sewer District (SDSD) determined that possible hydraulic problems existed in their various pump stations operating within their treatment plants. A hydraulic analysis was conducted for the pump stations to diagnose the problems and provide possible alternative solutions. This analysis was conducted by using hydraulic minor loss equations to determine the amount of flow that the pumps were capable of producing and then comparing those results to the required demands in the...

  11. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined mo...

  12. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28-09-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED (From...system shakedown and developmental testing. During developmental testing, a hydraulic motor failure occurred. Although not catastrophic, the motor...main hydraulic hybrid system control module to request the TCM to shift the transmission. Clutch Operation with engine- off (hydraulic-only power) or

  13. Research on hydraulic-powered roof supports test problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bo; JIANG Jin-qiu; MA Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The load-bearing characters of hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs were analyzed. With a specific type hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs for research object, the inside load test problems in factories was analyzed, and the correct test methods were given, which can enhance the test efficiency and make the factories away from the error design of hydraulic-powered roof supports and legs.

  14. Hydraulics national laboratory; Laboratoire national d`hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The hydraulics national laboratory is a department of the service of applications of electric power and environment from the direction of studies and researches of Electricite de France. It has to solve the EDF problems concerning the fluids mechanics and hydraulics. Problems in PWR type reactors, fossil fuel power plants, circulating fluidized bed power plants, hydroelectric power plants relative to fluid mechanics and hydraulics studied and solved in 1995 are explained in this report. (N.C.)

  15. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  16. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  17. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  18. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  19. Hydraulics and Stability of Five Texas Inlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217~~r 0.38 .. , q . P . I Pleasure Pier 7 Morgan’s Point 2 South Jetty 8 Railroad Causeway N 1. 3 Teuas City Dike 9 Chocolate Bayou A 4 Manna Reel 10 Son...Range and Level.............15 III HYDRAULICS AND STABILITY OF SPECIFIC INLETS...................... 15 1. Brazos River-Freeport Harbor Entrance...g acceleration of gravity K Keulegan repletion coefficient k wave number L channel length Le effective channel length n Manning’s coefficient P

  20. Hydraulic Robotic Surgical Tool Changing Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique to perform "scarless" abdominal operations. Robotic technology has been exploited to improve NOTES and circumvent its limitations. Lack of a multitasking platform is a major limitation. Manual tool exchange can be time consuming and may lead to complications such as bleeding. Previous multifunctional manipulator designs use electric motors. These designs are bulky, slow, and expensive. This paper presents design, prototyping, and testing of a hydraulic robotic tool changing manipulator. The manipulator is small, fast, low-cost, and capable of carrying four different types of laparoscopic instruments.

  1. Tidal current turbine based on hydraulic transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei LIU; Wei LI; Yong-gang LIN; Shun MA

    2011-01-01

    Tidal current turbines (TCTs) are newly developed electricity generating devices.Aiming at the stabilization of the power output of TCTs,this paper introduces the hydraulic transmission technologies into TCTs.The hydrodynamics of the turbine was analyzed at first and its power output characteristics were predicted.A hydraulic power transmission system and a hydraulic pitch-controlled system were designed.Then related simulations were conducted.Finally,a TCT prototype was manufactured and tested in the workshop.The test results have confirmed the correctness of the current design and availability of installation of the hydraulic system in TCTs.

  2. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... Keywords: Nyl River floodplain, Nylsvlei, Nylsvley Nature Reserve, modelling wetland hydraulics, wetland evapotranspiration ..... A review of suitable methods for estimating evapotranspira- ..... ingum routing. J. Hydrol.

  3. Strategies for Creating Prescribed Hydraulic Fractures in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2017-04-01

    The cave mining method was traditionally applied to massive low-grade, weak orebodies at shallow depths (less than 500 m) that favour cave propagation under gravity. Currently, this method is being applied to stronger orebodies and is taking place at depths of up to 2000 m below the surface. To ensure continuous cave propagation, preconditioning of the orebody is essential in this latter caving environment to improve rock mass caveability and to decrease fragmentation sizes. Hydraulic fracturing was initiated in the oil industry and is now being used in the cave mining industry as a preconditioning method and for stalled caves reactivation. A limitation of conventional hydraulic fracturing in the cave mining industry is that the hydraulic fracture orientation is uncontrollable and is dictated by the minimum in situ stress orientation. The preconditioning effectiveness of orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures is limited in some geotechnical conditions, and the concept of creating orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures, here termed prescribed hydraulic fractures, is proposed to fill this gap. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed approaches to creating prescribed hydraulic fractures is presented based on previous studies and numerical modelling. The numerical modelling code reliability in simulating the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation process was validated by comparing with laboratory results in the reported literature. In addition, the sensitivity of the prescribed hydraulic fracturing to the in situ stress condition and rock mass properties is examined.

  4. VIRTUAL DESIGN OF A NEW TYPE OF HYDRAULIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using virtual reality to design a new type of hydraulic support is discussed. That is how to make use of the virtual design to develop coal mining machine in practice. The advantages of virtual design are studied and the simple virtual reality system is built. The 3D parts and elements of hydraulic support are modeled with parametric design in CAD software, then exported to VR environment, in which the virtual hydraulic support is assembled, operated and tested. With the method, the errors and faults of design can be fined easily, many improvements are made and the new hydraulic support is developed successfully.

  5. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined moving parts can be observed. Additionally, the presence of chlorine and calcium in hydraulic oils demonstrates their function in a highly corrosive environment.

  6. Quantifying the Efficiency Advantages of High Viscosity Index Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian D. Neveu; Michael D. Zink; Alex Tsay

    2006-01-01

    By providing higher in- use viscosity at elevated operating temperatures, hydraulic fluids with high viscosity index improve the efficiency of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment this efficiency can be quantified as an increase in fuel economy. This paper reviews the research that demonstrates these efficiency advantages in gear, vane and piston pumps and presents a method for predicting the overall fuel economy for a fleet of hydraulic equipment in opquipment operator to easily improve the performance of the system and reduce fuel consumption.

  7. Singular perturbation approach for control of hydraulically driven flexible manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang; WU Min

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic flexible manipulator system is divided into two parts: flexible arm dynamics and hydraulic servomechanism, a driving Jacobian is derived to connect these two parts. Taking hydraulic actuator force as virtual input, a singular perturbed composite model is formulated and used to design composite controllers for the flexible link, in which the slow subsystem controller dominates the trajectory tracking, and then a fast controller is designed to damp out the vibration of the flexible structure. Moreover, the backstepping technique is applied to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required force. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources: Update on EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's energy future and the process known as hydraulic fracturing (HF) is one way of accessing that resource. Over the past few years, several key technical, economic, and energy developments have spurred increased use of HF for gas extracti...

  9. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.;

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...

  10. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  11. ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND CONTENT OF FINES FROM EXPERIMENTAL LAWS THAT CORELATE HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRIC PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Peinado-Guevara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is a basic element in the advancement of knowledge of a geological environment in both the flow and transport processes of pollutants for conservation projects, managementand environmental management and also for the development of public policies for protection of ecosystems, among others. The aim of this paper is to obtain the hydraulic conductivity (K and the finescontent (C of saturated granular half using two empirical laws. One correlates the electrical conductivity of saturated granular media σo and water saturated σw which depends on the formation factor(F, cation exchange capacity (CEC and the fines content in the saturated soil. Using data obtained from materials of 18 samples from 6 wells the relationships between F-C and CEC-C were obtained,so the equation reduces to a σo function in terms of σw and C, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.97. A second experimental law is the one that results from the experimental relationship between K and C,being 1.4054 K 0.1804.C with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.96. From both experimental expressions relationships between K and C, a and C,and C are created so from every pair knowing one of them you get to know the other one. Under the scheme outlined electrical conductivity sections for the saturated medium and fines content are obtained,finding that the groundwater in the study area consists of a thin top layer and beneath it there is a predominantly sandy environment.

  12. Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Oberlander; D. McGraw; C. Russell

    2007-10-31

    Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and

  13. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  14. Effect of biocrust: study of mechanical and hydraulic properties and erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Martin; Bruthans, Jiří; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-04-01

    It is well-known that lichens and other organisms forming crust on soil or rock surface play important role in weathering but may also protect underlying material from fast erosion. So far, there have been only few measurements comparing mechanical or hydraulic properties of biocrust with its subsurface on locked sand and friable sandstones, so the overall effect of the biocrust is not well-understood. Objective of our study is to quantify the effect of the biocrust on mechanical and hydraulic properties of friable sandstone and locked sand of Cretaceous age in six different localities with varying aspect and inclination and age of exposure in sandpit Strelec (Czech Rep.). On the artificial exposures, biocrust developed within last 10-30 years. Beside measurements of mechanical and hydraulic properties, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry in crust and subsurface was performed. Drilling resistance technique was found an excellent method to distinguish the biocrust from its subsurface (~3 mm thick biocrust has up to 12 times higher drilling resistance than underlying material). Surface zone with the biocrust has 3 - 25 times higher tensile strength than the subsurface material (1 - 25 kPa). In comparison with the subsurface, the biocrust is considerably less erodible (based on water jet testing). Biocrust saturated hydraulic conductivity is 15 - 240 times lower than the subsurface (6*10 -5 - 1*10 -4 m/s) and its permeability for water vapor is 4 - 9 times lower than subsurface. Presence of the biocrust slows down capillary absorption of water 4 - 25 times. The biocrust is thus forming firm surface which protects underlying material from rain and flowing water erosion and which considerably modifies its hydraulic properties. Material with crust exposed to calcination, leaching by concentrated peroxide and experiments with zymoliase enzyme strongly indicate that major contribution to crust hardening is provided by organic matter. Based on DNA sequencing the crust is

  15. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Baek, W. P.; Chun, S. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The main objectives of the present project are to resolve the current issues of reactor core thermal hydraulics, to develop an advanced measurement and analytical techniques, and to perform reactor core safety verification tests. 6x6 reflood experiments, various heat transfer experiments using Freon, and experiments on the spacer grids effects on the post-dryout are carried out using spacer grids developed in Korea in order to resolve the current issues of the reactor core thermal hydraulics. In order to develop a reflood heat transfer model, the detailed reflood phenomena are visualized and measured using round tube and 2x2 rod bundle. A detailed turbulent mixing phenomenon for subchannels is measured using advanced measurement techniques such as LDV and PIV. MARS and MATRA codes developed in Korea are assessed, verified and improved using the obtained experimental data. Finally, a systematic quality assurance program and experimental data generation system has been constructed in order to increase the reliability of the experimental data.

  17. Laminar circular hydraulic jumps without separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Tomar, Gaurav; Govindarajan, Rama

    2009-11-01

    The traditional inviscid criterion for the occurrence of a planar, standing hydraulic jump is to have the Froude number decrease downstream and go through a value of 1 at some location. Here, upstream propagating, small-amplitude, long, non-dispersive gravity waves are trapped, and non-linear steepening is said to result in a near-discontinuous height profile, but it is not clear how. Such a condition on the Froude number is shown in the present axisymmetric Navier-Stokes computations to hold for a circular jump as well. The relevance of non-linear steepening to a circular jump is therefore a question we wish to answer. In circular jumps, moreover, a region of recirculation is usually observed underneath the jump, underlining the importance of viscosity in this process. This led Tani (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1949) to hypothesise that boundary-layer separation was the cause of the circular jump. This hypothesis has been debated extensively and the possibility of circular jumps without separation hinted at. In our simulations, we are able to obtain circular hydraulic jumps without any flow separation. This, and the necessity or otherwise of viscosity in jump formation will be discussed.

  18. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  19. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Measuring lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Marrosu, Roberto; Pirastru, Mario; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Among the soil hydraulic properties, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, is particularly important since it controls many hydrological processes. Knowledge of this soil property allows estimation of dynamic indicators of the soil's ability to transmit water down to the root zone. Such dynamic indicators are valuable tools to quantify land degradation and developing 'best management' land use practice (Castellini et al., 2016; Iovino et al., 2016). In hillslopes, lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, is a key factor since it controls subsurface flow. However, Ks,l data collected by point-scale measurements, including infiltrations tests, could be unusable for interpreting field hydrological processes and particularly subsurface flow in hillslopes. Therefore, they are generally not representative of subsurface processes at hillslope-scale due mainly to soil heterogeneities and the unknown total extent and connectivity of macropore network in the porous medium. On the other hand, large scale Ks,l measurements, which allow to average soil heterogeneities, are difficult and costly, thus remain rare. Reliable Ks,l values should be measured on a soil volume similar to the representative elementary volume (REV) in order to incorporate the natural heterogeneity of the soil. However, the REV may be considered site-specific since it is expected to increase for soils with macropores (Brooks et al., 2004). In this study, laboratory and in-situ Ks,l values are compared in order to detect the dependency Ks,l from the spatial scale of investigation. The research was carried out at a hillslope located in the Baratz Lake watershed, in northwest Sardinia, Italy, characterized by degraded vegetation (grassland established after fire or clearing of the maquis). The experimental area is about 60 m long, with an extent of approximately 2000 m2, and a mean slope of 30%. The soil depth is about 35 to 45 cm. The parent material is a very dense grayish, altered

  1. Evaluation of the use of surrogate Laminaria digitata in eco-hydraulic laboratory experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL Maike; HENRY Pierre-Yves T

    2014-01-01

    Inert surrogates can avoid husbandry and adaptation problems of live vegetation in laboratories. Surrogates are generally used for experiments on vegetation-hydrodynamics interactions, but it is unclear how well they replicate field conditions. Here, surrogates for the brown macroalgae Laminaria digitata were developed to reproduce its hydraulic roughness. Plant shape, stiffness and buoyancy of L. digitata were evaluated and compared to the properties of inert materials. Different surrogate materials and shapes were exposed to unidirectional flow. It is concluded that buoyancy is an important factor in low flow conditions and a basic shape might be sufficient to model complex shaped plants resulting in the same streamlined shape.

  2. Effects of Loading Paths on Hydrodynamic Deep Drawing with Independent Radial Hydraulic Pressure of Aluminum Alloy Based on Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Yongchao XU; Shijian YUAN

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the forming demands for low plasticity materials and large height-diameter ratio parts, a new process of hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) with independent radial hydraulic pressure is proposed. To investigate the effects of loading paths on the HDD with independent radial hydraulic pressure, the forming process of 5A06 aluminum alloy cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom was studied by numerical simula- tion. By employing the dynamic explicit analytical software ETA/Dynaform based on LS-DYNA3D, the effects of loading paths on the sheet-thickness distribution and surface quality were analyzed. The corresponding relations of the radial hydraulic pressure loading paths and the part's strain status on the forming limit diagram (FLD) were also discussed. The results indicated that a sound match between liquid chamber pressure and independent radial hydraulic pressure could restrain the serious thinning at the hemisphere bottom and that through adjusting radial hydraulic pressure could reduce the radial tensile strain and change the strain paths. Therefore, the drawing limit of the aluminum cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom could be increased significantly.

  3. Straight-flow hydraulic turbine-generator for ultralow-head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushimoto, Masakazu; Ujiie, Ryuichi (Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-10

    This report introduces features and structures of the straight-flow hydraulic turbine-generator considered for ultralow-head hydropower generation. Largest feature of straight flow(S/F) is that the generator rotor is fitted so as to surround the periphery of runner. This fundamental structure is classified to overhang type, downstream stay-column type and others dependent on the arrangement of main bearing which supports the rotor weight. The essential part of the hydraulic turbine is the sealing equipment for the center part of the rotor. Special attention must be paid to the selection of material and structure of this equipment. The maximum point to determine the structure is the countermeasure for the radial and axial rigidity reduction in the S/F hydro-generator. It is also necessary to conduct moisture prevention for the generator and to insulate to prevent axial current. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou CAO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  5. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodey, Isaac T [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of heat from a thermal nuclear fuel plate using the Multi-physics code COMSOL. Simulation outcomes are compared with experimental data from the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop. The computational results for the High Flux Isotope Reactor core system provide a more physically accurate simulation of this system by modeling the turbulent flow field in conjunction with the diffusion of thermal energy within the solid and fluid phases of the model domain. Recommendations are made regarding Nusselt number correlations and material properties for future thermal hydraulic modeling efforts

  6. Hydraulic downhill transport of solid matter of an extremely heterogeneous composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, F.J.; Abel, F.

    1978-06-01

    This is a report of a new type of process for hydraulic mining transport. Starting from theoretical studies of individual physical processes, this could be investigated both in a model and in the BAG Westphalian mine on an operational scale. The special conditions which occur in the individual phases of movement are described. Based on the knowledge of operational experiments, suitable investigations were subsequently carried out on the behaviour during falling of very heterogenous mining materials. There was a comparative calculation of the measured values of laboratory or operational experiments for hydraulic horizontal transport with various well known methods of calculation. The results are satisfactory and justify the decision, based on existing experience, to instal an operational plant in the shaft of a German coalmine.

  7. Biocompatibility and Chemical Reaction Kinetics of Injectable, Settable Polyurethane/Allograft Bone Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-05

    degrade to non-cytotoxic breakdown products in metaphyseal bone defects in rats, rabbits, and sheep [15–17]. In contrast to non-setting pastes, PURs...I, and the extent of cell apoptosis (as assessed by TUNEL staining) was comparable with the empty defect control [13]. Macrophages infiltrated the...toxicity [14,24,58] and support new bone formation in bone defects in rats, rabbits, and sheep [21,32,33,59]. 5. Conclusions In this study we have

  8. Maintaining Optimum Pump Performance with Specially- Formulated Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a battery of tests, and related results, that were performed under normal and severe conditions designed to demonstrate that hydraulic fluids formulated with Lubrizol' s high quality anti - wear hydraulic fluid technology can stand up to today's increasing demands for longer life and provide excellent performance under higher operating temperatures and pressures.

  9. THE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING CIRCULATION VELOCITY OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英林; 侯春生

    1997-01-01

    By rational hypothesis of fluid flow pattern, applied the law of conservation of energy and integrated the laboratory test results, finished the prediction by the theoretical model of circulation velocity of hydraulic brake which is important parameter. Thus provide the theoritical basis for hydraulic brake of belt conveyor whose research has just been started.

  10. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking brake and turn the ignition to start to verify that the brake system failure indicator lamp is... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles...

  11. Design of Transputer Controllers for Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with how transputers can be applied for fast controllers for hydraulic actuator systems. A general transputer-based control systems including a data acquisition transputer subsystem is presented. An application case: development of a mechatronic test facility with a fast hydraulic...

  12. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  13. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  14. Hydraulic analysis of cell-network treatment wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaguo; Jawitz, James W.

    2006-11-01

    SummaryWhen individual cells of a multiple-cell treatment wetland are hydraulically connected, the wetland has a cell-network structure. The hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands is often characterized using tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) measured between the wetland inlet and outlet, such that the wetland is considered as a single hydraulic unit, regardless of the extent of networking between individual internal cells. This work extends the single hydraulic unit approach to enable the specification of moments and RTD parameters for individual cells, or clusters of cells, within the cell-network based on inert tracer tests with injection only at the network inlet. Hydraulic performance is quantified in terms of hydraulic efficiency and travel time dimensionless variance using both the method of moments and RTD modeling. Cell-network analysis was applied to a case study from the Orlando Easterly Wetland (OEW), demonstrating the improvement in hydraulic performance of individual wetland cells following wetland restoration activities. Furthermore, cell-network analysis indicated that the location of water quality sampling station locations within the cell network can significantly affect the accuracy of pollutant removal effectiveness estimation when the individual sample station RTD does not represent the hydraulic unit RTD. At the OEW, it was determined that historical nutrient removal effectiveness estimation may be underestimated for one area and overestimated for another, and recommendations were provided for sample station locations to minimize future performance estimation errors.

  15. Modeling and parameter estimation for hydraulic system of excavator's arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qing-hua; HAO Peng; ZHANG Da-qing

    2008-01-01

    A retrofitted electro-bydraulic proportional system for hydraulic excavator was introduced firstly. According to the principle and characteristic of load independent flow distribution(LUDV)system, taking boom hydraulic system as an example and ignoring the leakage of hydraulic cylinder and the mass of oil in it,a force equilibrium equation and a continuous equation of hydraulic cylinder were set up.Based On the flow equation of electro-hydraulic proportional valve, the pressure passing through the valve and the difference of pressure were tested and analyzed.The results show that the difference of pressure does not change with load, and it approximates to 2.0 MPa. And then, assume the flow across the valve is directly proportional to spool displacement andis not influenced by load, a simplified model of electro-hydraulic system was put forward. At the same time, by analyzing the structure and load-bearing of boom instrument, and combining moment equivalent equation of manipulator with rotating law, the estimation methods and equations for such parameters as equivalent mass and bearing force of hydraulic cylinder were set up. Finally, the step response of flow of boom cylinder was tested when the electro-hydraulic proportional valve was controlled by the stepcurrent. Based on the experiment curve, the flow gain coefficient of valve is identified as 2.825×10-4m3/(s·A)and the model is verified.

  16. Application of Ferrography to Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with research on the successful use of ferrography as a wear measurement method for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of hydraulic systems.The analysis program and progression is discussed, and a case study for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of hydraulic systems by means of ferrography is also reviewed.

  17. Hydraulic drive and control system of the cone collecting robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Qinghua; Liu Jinhao; Lu Huaimin

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structure and design and operation principle of the hydraulic drive and control system with two pumps and two circuits. The manipulator of the cone collecting robot designed is full driven by hydraulic, which has five freedoms. The computer and electrohydraulic proportion velocity regulating valve were installed to realize open loop serve control for reducing cost and easy application.

  18. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  19. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  20. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a technique commonly used to increase the yields of oil wells, could improve the effectiveness of several methods of in situ remediation. This project consisted of laboratory and field tests in which hydraulic fractures were created in soil. Laboratory te...

  1. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43 Section 35.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components....

  2. Efficiency limit factor analysis for the Francis-99 hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, J. P.; Guo, Y. K.; Pan, Q. L.; Qian, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss in hydraulic turbine is the most direct factor that affects the efficiency of the hydraulic turbine. Based on the analysis theory of inner energy loss of hydraulic turbine, combining the measurement data of the Francis-99, this paper calculates characteristic parameters of inner energy loss of the hydraulic turbine, and establishes the calculation model of the hydraulic turbine power. Taken the start-up test conditions given by Francis-99 as case, characteristics of the inner energy of the hydraulic turbine in transient and transformation law are researched. Further, analyzing mechanical friction in hydraulic turbine, we think that main ingredients of mechanical friction loss is the rotation friction loss between rotating runner and water body, and defined as the inner mechanical friction loss. The calculation method of the inner mechanical friction loss is given roughly. Our purpose is that explore and research the method and way increasing transformation efficiency of water flow by means of analysis energy losses in hydraulic turbine.

  3. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  4. Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der;

    1992-01-01

    Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock hav...

  5. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  6. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  7. Microfluidic parallel circuit for measurement of hydraulic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungyoung; Lee, Myung Gwon; Park, Je-Kyun

    2010-08-31

    We present a microfluidic parallel circuit that directly compares the test channel of an unknown hydraulic resistance with the reference channel with a known resistance, thereby measuring the unknown resistance without any measurement setup, such as standard pressure gauges. Many of microfluidic applications require the precise transport of fluid along a channel network with complex patterns. Therefore, it is important to accurately characterize and measure the hydraulic resistance of each channel segment, and determines whether the device principle works well. However, there is no fluidic device that includes features, such as the ability to diagnose microfluidic problems by measuring the hydraulic resistance of a microfluidic component in microscales. To address the above need, we demonstrate a simple strategy to measure an unknown hydraulic resistance, by characterizing the hydraulic resistance of microchannels with different widths and defining an equivalent linear channel of a microchannel with repeated patterns of a sudden contraction and expansion.

  8. A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanshu Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is widely accepted and applied to improve the gas recovery in unconventional reservoirs. Unconventional reservoirs to be addressed here are with very low permeability, complicated geological settings and in-situ stress field etc. All of these make the hydraulic fracturing process a challenging task. In order to effectively and economically recover gas from such reservoirs, the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracturing in the heterogeneous fractured/porous media under such complicated conditions should be mastered. In this paper, some issues related to hydraulic fracturing have been reviewed, including the experimental study, field study and numerical simulation. Finally the existing problems that need to be solved on the subject of hydraulic fracturing have been proposed.

  9. Effect of cavitation bubble collapse on hydraulic oil temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 张健; 孙毅; 张迪嘉; 姜继海

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse has a great influence on the temperature of hydraulic oil. Herein, cone-type throttle valve experiments are carried out to study the thermodynamic processes of cavitation. First, the processes of growth and collapse are analysed, and the relationships between the hydraulic oil temperature and bubble growth and collapse are deduced. The effect of temperature is then considered on the hydraulic oil viscosity and saturated vapour pressure. Additionally, an improved form of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is developed. The effect of cavitation on the hydraulic oil temperature is experimentally studied and the effects of cavitation bubble collapse in the hydraulic system are summarised. Using the cone-type throttle valve as an example, a method to suppress cavitation is proposed.

  10. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye;

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  11. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW RATE FEEDBACK AND CONTROL METHOD IN HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bing; Ma Jien; Lin Jianjie

    2005-01-01

    The computational flow rate feedback and control method, which can be used in proportional valve controlled hydraulic elevators, is discussed and analyzed. In a hydraulic elevator with this method, microprocessor receives pressure information from the pressure transducers and computes the flow rate through the proportional valve based on pressure-flow conversion real time algorithm. This hydraulic elevator is of lower cost and energy consumption than the conventional closed loop control hydraulic elevator whose flow rate is measured by a flow meter. Experiments are carried out on a test rig which could simulate the load of hydraulic elevator. According to the experiment results, the means to modify the pressure-flow conversion algorithm are pointed out.

  13. Issues Related To Troubleshooting Of Avionic Hydraulic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines workflows associated with troubleshooting of avionic hydraulic systems with detailed description of the troubleshooting algorithm and classification of diagnostic signals provided by avionic hydraulic systems and their subassemblies. Attention is paid to measurement sequences for diagnostic signals from hydraulic systems, circuits and units. Detailed description is dedicated to an innovative design of a troubleshooting device intended for direct measurements of internal leaks from avionic hydraulic units. Advantages of the proposed measurement method are summarized with benefits from use of the presented device and compared against the methods that are currently in use. Subsequent phases of the troubleshooting process are described with examples of measurement results that have been acquired from subassemblies of hydraulic systems of SU-22 aircrafts currently in service at Polish Air Forces with consideration given to cases when the permissible threshold of diagnostic signals were exceeded. Finally, all results from investigations are subjected to thorough analysis.

  14. Parameter Designing for Heave Compensation Hydraulic System Installed in Deepwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function diagram of active heave compensation hydraulic system has been given, besides, the mathematics model for the principal hydraulic components of the compensation system has been built, and the input-output relation between components has been made clear. Aimed at compensating work capacity for the system, design and research on parameters as the bearing pressure, the initial state and the maximum flow of hydraulic cylinder, accumulator and other principal components have been made separately, and standardized design has been accomplished in accordance with relevant standards. Furthermore, calculus and verification for the capacity of the hydraulic system in different working stages have been made in order to calculate the pressure lose of the system and provide objective data for the hardware system design of the hydraulic components of the heave compensation system.

  15. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  16. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R. [Textron Defense System, Everett, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Textron Defense Systems (TDS) is developing an electro-hydraulic device that has the potential for faster, safer, and less expensive scabbling of contaminated concrete surfaces. In the device, shock waves and cavitating bubbles are produced in water by the electric pulses, and the direct and reflected shock waves impinging on the concrete surface result in the crushing and cracking of the concrete. Pulse energy, frequency, and traverse speed control the depth of the scabbling action. Performance thus far has demonstrated the capability of a prototype unit to process a swath 24 inches wide, up to 3/4 inch deep at a linear velocity of up to 6 feet per hour, i.e., at a scabbling rate of 12 sq. ft. per hour.

  17. Pressure Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Y.; Yang, H. J.

    2017-02-01

    EPPR(ElectroProportional Pressure Reducing) valve control the MCV(Main Control Valve) built on the mobile heavy machine. The EPPR valve was tested in the experimental setup and the performance of the valve was compared with that of the existing EPPR valve. On thisstudy, electromagnetic properties analysis using AMESim program was performed to optimize the designing of EPPR Valve (Electric Proportional Pressure Reducing Valve) and by applying its results to the hydraulic system analytical model, performance of the valve could be predicted. Also by comparing the results of the actual experiment and the simulation, The results of thisstudy is that the 3 factor(cone angle, tip width, clearance between sleeve and plunger) have much effectiveness than other components in the EPPR valve.

  18. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive sliding mode controller generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD’s). The proposed control scheme requires limited knowledge on system parameters, and employs only piston- and valve spool position feedback....... The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the inherent nonlinear nature of such systems, without requiring extensive knowledge on system parameters nor advanced control theory. In order to accomplish this task, an integral sliding mode controller...... employing parameter adaption through a recursive algorithm is presented. This is based on a reduced order model approximation of a VCD with unmatched valve flow- and cylinder asymmetries. Bounds on parameters are obtained despite lack of parameter knowledge, and the proposed controller demonstrates improved...

  19. Nonlinear regimes on polygonal hydraulic jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    This work extends previous leading and higher order results on the polygonal hydraulic jump in the framework of inertial lubrication theory. The rotation of steady polygonal jumps is observed in the transition from one wavenumber to the next one, induced by a change in height of an external obstacle near the outer edge. In a previous publication, the study of stationary polygons is considered under the assumption that the reference frame rotates with the polygons when the number of corners change, in order to preserve their orientation. In this research work I provide a Hamiltonian approach and the stability analysis of the nonlinear oscillator that describe the polygonal structures at the jump interface, in addition to a perturbation method that enables to explain, for instance, the diversity of patterns found in experiments. GRASP, Institute of Physics, University of Liege, Belgium.

  20. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  1. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2011-01-01

    be effective if sufficient redundancy does not exist in the process. A measure for control reconfigurability which reveals the level of redundancy in connection with feedback control is proposed in this paper for bilinear systems. The proposed control reconfigurability measure is the extension of its gramian......The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot......-based analogous counterpart, which has been previously proposed for the linear processes. The control reconfigurability is calculated for the bilinear models of an electro-hydraulic drive to show its relevance to redundant actuating capabilities in the models....

  2. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  3. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss.

  4. Development of a hydraulic turbine design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a hydraulic turbine parametric design method is presented which is based on the combination of traditional methods and parametric surface modeling techniques. The blade of the turbine runner is described using Bezier surfaces for the definition of the meridional plane as well as the blade angle distribution, and a thickness distribution applied normal to the mean blade surface. In this way, it is possible to define parametrically the whole runner using a relatively small number of design parameters, compared to conventional methods. The above definition is then combined with a commercial CFD software and a stochastic optimization algorithm towards the development of an automated design optimization procedure. The process is demonstrated with the design of a Francis turbine runner.

  5. Hydraulic Lifting Mechanisms for the Erection Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Novozhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In erection equipment of space launch complexes the hydraulic lifting mechanisms (HLM are solely and exclusively used to accomplish changing the space-mission vehicle (SMV position from horizontal to the vertical one. Existing designs of lifting mechanisms are diverse, but all of them basically contain a basic mechanism comprising one hydro-cylinder. With increasing SMV size and weight a task to design the more complicated lifting mechanisms, comprising more kinematic links and using several hydro-cylinders becomes urgent.The article conducts a detailed analysis of the basic HLM schemes and defines the features of their arrangement in erection equipment. Gives basic calculation relationships, allowing us to determine design parameters of mechanisms for stationary and transport units. Via examples of available erection equipment shows the embodiment of lifting mechanisms using basic schemes.The ways for development of HLM schemes to erect a SMV of the large size and weight are shown. Two options of the double-cylinder HLM are described. Both schemes are based on dividing a lift cycle into two parts, in each of which only one of the cylinders is in operation. The first option contains an additional, intermediate boom, with respect to which the main boom is erected. In such a mechanism the cylinders start running sequentially: at first, one of the cylinders erects the intermediate boom, then the other cylinder does the main one. The second HLM embodiment comprises a single carrier boom with the swing arm, which allows to swing the boom at a certain angle of less than 90 ° using one of the cylinders, also sequentially operating. The second cylinder allows the boom to fall into vertical position. Such schemes can reduce a stroke length of used hydraulic cylinders, which are the most expensive devices of the lifting mechanism.The analysis results are of interest to designers of erection equipment for the space launch complexes.

  6. Horizontal roof gap of backfill hydraulic support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张吉雄; 邰阳; 方坤; 殷伟

    2015-01-01

    For the backfill hydraulic support as the key equipment for achieving integration of backfilling and coal mining simultaneously in the practical process, its characteristics will directly influence the backfill body’s compression ratio. Horizontal roof gap, as a key parameter of backfilling characteristics, may impact the backfilling effect from the aspects of control of roof subsidence in advance, support stress, backfilling process and the support design. Firstly, the reason why horizontal roof gap exists was analyzed and its definition, causes and connotation were introduced, then adopting the Pro/E 3D simulation software, three typical 3D entity models of backfill hydraulic supports were built, based on the influence of horizontal roof gap on backfilling effect, and influence rules of four factors, i.e. support height, suspension height, suspension angle and tamping angle, were emphatically analyzed on horizontal roof gap. The results indicate that, the four factors all have significant impacts on horizontal roof gap, but show differences in influence trend and degree, showing negative linear correlation, positive linear correlation, positive semi-parabolic correlation and negative semi-parabolic correlation, respectively. Four legs type is the most adaptive to the four factors, while six legs (II) type has the poorest adaptability, and the horizontal roof gap is small under large support height, small suspension height, small suspension angle and large tamping angle situation. By means of optimizing structure components and their positional relation and suspension height of backfill scrape conveyor in the process of support design and through controlling working face deployment, roof subsidence in advance, mining height and backfilling during engineering application, the horizontal roof gap is optimized. The research results can be served as theoretical basis for support design and guidance for backfill support to have better performance in backfilling.

  7. Rapid shoot‐to‐root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VANDELEUR, REBECCA K; SULLIVAN, WENDY; ATHMAN, ASMINI; JORDANS, CHARLOTTE; GILLIHAM, MATTHEW; KAISER, BRENT N; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between transpiration and root hydraulic conductance Vandeleur et al report that leaf area reduction reduces root hydraulic conductance in grapevine, soybean and maize...

  8. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  9. Hydraulic Bureaucracies and the Hydraulic Mission: Flows of Water, Flows of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Molle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in 19th century scientism and an ideology of the domination of nature, inspired by colonial hydraulic feats, and fuelled by technological improvements in high dam constructions and power generation and transmission, large-scale water resources development has been a defining feature of the 20th century. Whether out of a need to increase food production, raise rural incomes, or strengthen state building and the legitimacy of the state, governments – North and South, East and West – embraced the 'hydraulic mission' and entrusted it to powerful state water bureaucracies (hydrocracies. Engaged in the pursuit of iconic and symbolic projects, the massive damming of river systems, and the expansion of large-scale public irrigation these hydrocracies have long remained out of reach. While they have enormously contributed to actual welfare, including energy and food generation, flood protection and water supply to urban areas, infrastructural development has often become an end in itself, rather than a means to an end, fuelling rent-seeking and symbolising state power. In many places projects have been challenged on the basis of their economic, social or environmental impacts. Water bureaucracies have been challenged internally (within the state bureaucracies or through political changes and externally (by critiques from civil society and academia, or by reduced funding. They have endeavoured to respond to these challenges by reinventing themselves or deflecting reforms. This paper analyses these transformations, from the emergence of the hydraulic mission and associated water bureaucracies to their adjustment and responses to changing conditions.

  10. Hydraulic response and nitrogen retention in bioretention mesocosms with regulated outlets: part I--hydraulic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William C; Greenway, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    In bioretention systems used for stormwater treatment, runoff interception improves with increased infiltration rates. However, nitrogen retention improves with increased retention time or decreasing infiltration rates. These contrasting responses were analyzed in 240-L experimental mesocosms using a variety of media treatments. The mesocosms were vegetated, except for one barren control. Dual-stage outlets were installed to extend retention time and equalize hydraulic responses. One unregulated treatment was free-draining. This part 1 paper presents the media properties and hydraulic responses. The highly aggregated media had saturated hydraulic conductivities ranging from 20.7 to 59.6 cm/h in August 2008 (austral winter), which increased to 42.8 to 110.6 cm/h in March 2009 (austral summer). The outlet regulated mesocosms provided retention over 8 times longer than the free-draining mesocosms, while still being able to capture large events. The outlets provide adaptive management for bioretention design to improve both runoff capture and nitrogen retention.

  11. Improving hydraulic excavator performance through in line hydraulic oil contamination monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Felix; Harding, Jennifer A.; Glass, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    It is common for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of high value products to provide maintenance or service packages to customers to ensure their products are maintained at peak efficiency throughout their life. To quickly and efficiently plan for maintenance requirements, OEMs require accurate information about the use and wear of their products. In recent decades, the aerospace industry in particular has become expert in using real time data for the purpose of product monitoring and maintenance scheduling. Significant quantities of real time usage data from product monitoring are commonly generated and transmitted back to the OEMs, where diagnostic and prognostic analysis will be carried out. More recently, other industries such as construction and automotive, are also starting to develop capabilities in these areas and condition based maintenance (CBM) is increasing in popularity as a means of satisfying customers' demands. CBM requires constant monitoring of real time product data by the OEMs, however the biggest challenge for these industries, in particular construction, is the lack of accurate and real time understanding of how their products are being used possibly because of the complex supply chains which exist in construction projects. This research focuses on current dynamic data acquisition techniques for mobile hydraulic systems, in this case the use of a mobile inline particle contamination sensor; the aim was to assess suitability to achieve both diagnostic and prognostic requirements of Condition Based Maintenance. It concludes that hydraulic oil contamination analysis, namely detection of metallic particulates, offers a reliable way to measure real time wear of hydraulic components.

  12. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Gamir

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.. The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy.

  13. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy.

  14. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  15. Polyacrylamide effect on hydraulic conductivity of hardsetting soils in Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laércio; Almeida, Brivaldo; Melo, Diego; Marques, Karina; Almeida, Ceres

    2013-04-01

    Among soil hydro-physical properties, hydraulic conductivity is more sensitive to changes in soil structure. Hydraulic conductivity describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Hardsetting soils present very low hydraulic conductivity values. When dry, these soils show high penetration resistance and consistency extremely hard, but change to friable when moist. In this condition are poorly structured, slaking when moist, limit agricultural machinery use and it may reduce the growth of the root system. In Brazil, these soils occur throughout of coastal zone in flat areas called "coastal tableland". Chemical ameliorant, such as polymers based on anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), improve hydraulic conductivity of soil in hardsetting soils. The primary functions of polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction and water run-off. PAM effect is attributed to its ability to expand when placed in water, storing it in soil pore space, releasing it gradually to the plants. This process occurs by reducing the water flow through the pores of the soil, due to water molecules can be absorbed by PAM, providing water gradually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that PAM reduces the soil hardsetting character. The area is located in coastal zone in Goiana city, Pernambuco, northeastern of Brazil. This soil is typical hardsetting soil. Intact soil cores were collected from four horizons until 70cm depth. In the laboratory, the soil cores were saturated with different PAM concentrations (0.01, 0.005, 0.00125%) and H2O (control). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was determined using a constant head method, according to Klute and Dirksen (1986). Four replicates were used for each horizon and Tukey test at 5% probability was used by

  16. Toward A 3-D Picture of Hydraulic Conductivity With Multilevel Slug Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, C. D.; McElwee, C. D.; Ross, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    The GEMS (Geohydrologic Experiment and Monitoring Site) field area has been established (in the Kansas River valley near Lawrence, Kansas) for a variety of reasons relating to research and teaching in hydrogeology at the University of Kansas. Over 70 wells have been installed for various purposes. The site overlies an alluvial aquifer with a total thickness of about 70 feet. The water table is typically about 20 feet below the surface, giving a total saturated thickness of about 50 feet. The upper part of the aquifer is finer material consisting of silt and clay. Typically, the lower 35 feet of the aquifer is sand and gravel. A number of wells through out the site are fully screened through the sand and gravel aquifer. Some of these fully screened wells are larger diameters; however, most wells are constructed of 2 inch PVC casing. Slug tests are widely used in hydrogeology to measure hydraulic conductivity. Over the last several years we have been conducting research to improve the slug test method. We have previously reported the detailed structure of hydraulic conductivity that can be seen in a 5 inch well (McElwee and Zemansky, EOS, v. 80, no. 46, p. F397, 1999) at this site, using multilevel slug tests. The existing 2 inch, fully screened wells are spread out over the site and offer the opportunity for developing a 3-D picture of the hydraulic conductivity distribution. However, it is difficult to develop a system that allows multilevel slug tests to be done accurately and efficiently in a 2 inch well. This is especially true in regions of very high hydraulic conductivity, where the water velocity in the casing will be relatively high. The resistance caused by frictional forces in the equipment must be minimized and a model taking account of these forces must be used. We have developed a system (equipment, software, and technique) for performing multilevel slug tests in 2 inch wells. Some equipment configurations work better than others. The data that we have

  17. Primary factors governing hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous stratified porous formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, M.P.

    1978-08-24

    Some primary material, macrostructural and tectonic features of typical geological formations are identified, insofar as they affect the hydraulic fracturing operation whereby suitably treated fluid is pumped into massive crack(s) underground: the retardation or channeling due to strata interfaces, discontinuities and other heterogeneities is roughly characterized, in the context of fully three-dimensional crack shape evolution, and the initiation from oriented boreholes is discussed in detail. A general-purpose numerical scheme is described, efficiently based on a physically transparent distribution of discontinuity multipoles (or dislocations) and the solution of resulting singular integral equations, which permits precise quantification of these effects: in particular, the barriers provided by adjacent stiffer and tougher strata are properly rationalized and the roles of inelastic slippage, blunting, branching, arrest, and re-initiation are placed in more transparent perspective. Stabilization effects due to alterations of pore-fluid pressure (and hence effective decohering stress), or the flux of formation fluid into the open region near to the crack tip, are described as potentially unfavorable for hydrofrac containment. However, the dominant time-dependent mechanism of frac fluid penetration into the narrow crack aperture attracts most attention: this process is very naturally and tractably incorporated in our comprehensive numerical formulation so that realistic simulation of actual field operations should be feasible in the near future.

  18. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Kurt; Lim, Tae Jun; Feyereisen, Gary; Novak, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Different physical and chemical properties of biochar, which is made out of a variety of biomass materials, can impact water movement through amended soil. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support tool predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). Four different kinds of biochar were added to four different textured soils (coarse sand, fine sand, loam, and clay texture) to assess these effects at the rates of 0, 1, 2, and 5 % (w/w). The Ksat of the biochar amended soils were significantly influenced by the rate and type of biochar, as well as the original particle size of soil. The Ksat decreased when biochar was added to coarse and fine sands. Biochar with larger particles sizes (60%; >1 mm) decreased Ksat to a larger degree than the smaller particle size biochar (60%; soils. Increasing tortuosity in the amended sandy soil could explain this behavior. On the other hand, for the clay loam 1% and 2% biochar additions universally increased the Ksat with higher biochar amounts providing no further alterations. The developed model utilizes soil texture pedotransfer functions for predicting agricultural soil Ksat as a function of soil texture. The model accurately predicted the direction of the Ksat influence, even though the exact magnitude still requires further refinement.

  19. Investigation of a hydraulic impact: a technology in rock breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Genet, Martin; Tran-Cong, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    The finite element method and dimensional analysis have been applied in the present paper to study a hydraulic impact, which is utilized in a non-explosive rock breaking technology in mining industry. The impact process of a high speed piston on liquid water, previously introduced in a borehole drilled in rock, is numerically simulated. The research is focused on the influences of all the parameters involved in the technology on the largest principal stress in the rock, which is considered as one of the key factors to break the rock. Our detailed parametric investigation reveals that the variation of the isotropic rock material properties, especially its density, has no significant influence on the largest principal stress. The influences of the depth of the hole and the depth of the water column are also very small. On the other hand, increasing the initial kinetic energy of the piston can dramatically increase the largest principal stress and the best way to increase the initial kinetic energy of the piston...

  20. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J.; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75-100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10-60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1-3 N vs 5-10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction.

  1. Pulsating hydraulic fracturing technology in low permeability coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenchao; Li Xianzhong; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the difficult situation of gas drainage in a single coal bed of high gas content and low perme-ability, we investigate the technology of pulsating hydraulic pressure relief, the process of crank plunger movement and the mechanism of pulsating pressure formation using theoretical research, mathematical modeling and field testing. We analyze the effect of pulsating pressure on the formation and growth of fractures in coal by using the pulsating hydraulic theory in hydraulics. The research results show that the amplitude of fluctuating pressure tends to increase in the case where the exit is blocked, caused by pulsating pressure reflection and frictional resistance superposition, and it contributes to the growth of fractures in coal. The crack initiation pressure of pulsating hydraulic fracturing is 8 MPa, which is half than that of normal hydraulic fracturing;the pulsating hydraulic fracturing influence radius reaches 8 m. The total amount of gas extraction is increased by 3.6 times, and reaches 50 L/min at the highest point. The extraction flow increases greatly, and is 4 times larger than that of drilling without fracturing and 1.2 times larger than that of normal hydraulic fracturing. The technology provides a technical measure for gas drainage of high gas content and low permeability in the single coal bed.

  2. Motion Planning Based Coordinated Control for Hydraulic Excavators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yingjie; JIN Yanchao; ZHANG Qin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator is one type of the most widely applied construction equipment for various applications mainly because of its versatility and mobility. Among the tasks performed by a hydraulic excavator, repeatable level digging or flat surface finishing may take a large percentage. Using automated functions to perform such repeatable and tedious jobs will not only greatly increase the overall productivity but more importantly also improve the operation safety. For the purpose of investigating the technology without loss of generality, this research is conducted to create a coordinate control method for the boom, arm and bucket cylinders on a hydraulic excavator to perform accurate and effective works. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of the excavator linkage system, the tip trajectory of the end-effector can be determined in terms of three hydraulic cylinders coordinated motion with a visualized method. The coordination of those hydraulic cylinders is realized by controlling three electro-hydranlic proportional valves coordinately. Therefore,the complex control algorithm of a hydraulic excavator can be simplified into coordinated motion control of three individual systems.This coordinate control algorithm was validated on a wheeled hydraulic excavator, and the validation results indicated that this developed control method could satisfaetorily accomplish the auto-digging function for level digging or flat surface finishing.

  3. Nonlinear Control of Hydraulic Manipulator for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung-Ho; Lee, Sung-Uk; Kim, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Robot technique is need to decommission nuclear reactor because of high radiation environment. Especially, Manipulator systems are useful for dismantling complex structure in a nuclear facility. In addition, Hydraulic system is applied to handle heavy duty object. Since hydraulic system can demonstrate high power. The manipulator with hydraulic power is already developed. To solve this problem, various nonlinear control method includes acceleration control. But, it is difficult because acceleration value is highly noisy. In this paper, the nonlinear control algorithm without acceleration control is studied. To verify, the hydraulic manipulator model had been developed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out. The nonlinear control without acceleration parameter method is developed for hydraulic manipulator. To verify control algorithm, the manipulator is modeled by MBD and the hydraulic servo system is also derived. In addition, the numerical simulation is also carried out. Especially, PID gain is determined though TDC algorithm. In the result of numerical simulation, tracking performance is good without acceleration control. Thus, the PID though TDC with SMC is good for hydraulic manipulator control.

  4. Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyu Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Movable weirs have been developed to address the weaknesses of conventional fixed weirs. However, the structures for riverbed protection downstream of movable weirs are designed using the criteria of fixed weirs in most cases, and these applications cause problems, such as scour and deformation of structures, due to misunderstanding the difference between different types of structures. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was conducted to examine weir type-specific hydraulic phenomena, compare hydraulic jumps and downstream flow characteristics according to different weir types, and analyze hydraulic characteristics, such as changes in water levels, velocities and energy. Additionally, to control the flow generated by a sluice gate, energy dissipators were examined herein for their effectiveness in relation to different installation locations and heights. As a result, it was found that although sluice gates generated hydraulic jumps similar to those of fixed weirs, their downstream supercritical flow increased to eventually elongate the overall hydraulic jumps. In energy dissipator installation, installation heights were found to be sensitive to energy dissipation. The most effective energy dissipator height was 10% of the downstream free surface water depth in this experiment. Based on these findings, it seems desirable to use energy dissipators to reduce energy, as such dissipators were found to be effective in reducing hydraulic jumps and protecting the riverbed under sluice gates.

  5. Hydraulic elements in reduction of vibrations in mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechanic systems with subsystem reducing vibrations. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechanic system with reducing vibrations understand as design of this type of systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. Elements which reduce vibrations can be constructed with passive, semi-active or active components. These considerations systems have selected active items. A hallmark of active elements it is possible to change the parameters on time of these elements and their power from an external source. The implementation of active elements is very broad. These elements can be implemented through the use of components of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc. The system was consisted from mechanical and hydraulic elements. Hydraulic elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Hydraulic elements can be realized in the form of hydraulic cylinder. In the case of an active vibration reduction in the form of hydraulic cylinder it is very important to find the corresponding values of hydraulic components. The values of these elements affect the frequency of vibrations of this sub-system which is related to the effective vibration reduction [7,11].

  6. Physico-empirical approach for mapping soil hydraulic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Urso

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Pedo-transfer functions are largely used in soil hydraulic characterisation of large areas. The use of physico-empirical approaches for the derivation of soil hydraulic parameters from disturbed samples data can be greatly enhanced if a characterisation performed on undisturbed cores of the same type of soil is available. In this study, an experimental procedure for deriving maps of soil hydraulic behaviour is discussed with reference to its application in an irrigation district (30 km2 in southern Italy. The main steps of the proposed procedure are: i the precise identification of soil hydraulic functions from undisturbed sampling of main horizons in representative profiles for each soil map unit; ii the determination of pore-size distribution curves from larger disturbed sampling data sets within the same soil map unit. iii the calibration of physical-empirical methods for retrieving soil hydraulic parameters from particle-size data and undisturbed soil sample analysis; iv the definition of functional hydraulic properties from water balance output; and v the delimitation of soil hydraulic map units based on functional properties.

  7. Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Laterite Treated with Iron Ore Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Sa’eed Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of iron ore tailings (IOT on hydraulic conductivity of compacted laterite. The IOT conforms to ASTM C 618-15 Type F designations. In the present study, soil was admixed with 0–20% IOT and compacted at moulding water content ranging from 10 to 25% using four types of compactive efforts. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil-IOT mixtures were determined using deionized water and municipal solid waste leachate as the permeant fluids, respectively. Deionized water was the reference permeant fluid. Results of this study showed that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in IOT content as a result of improvement in mechanical properties of the soil. Permeation of the soil-IOT mixtures with leachate caused the hydraulic conductivity to drop to less than 1 × 10−9 m/s especially at higher compactive efforts. Also, bioclogging of the soil pores due to accumulation of biomass from bacteria and yeast present in the leachate tends to significantly reduce the hydraulic conductivity. From an economic point of view, it has been found from the results of this study that soil specimens treated with up to 20% IOT and compacted at the British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort met the maximum regulatory hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10−9 m/s for hydraulic barrier system.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity of a firn aquifer system in southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Olivia L.; Solomon, D. Kip; Miège, Clément; Koenig, Lora S.; Forster, Richard R.; Montgomery, Lynn N.; Schmerr, Nicholas; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Legchenko, Anatoly; Brucker, Ludovic

    2017-05-01

    Some regions of the Greenland ice sheet, where snow accumulation and melt rates are high, currently retain substantial volumes of liquid water within the firn pore space throughout the year. These firn aquifers, found between 10-30 m below the snow surface, may significantly affect sea level rise by storing or draining surface meltwater. The hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic conductivity control flow of meltwater through the firn. Here we describe the hydraulic conductivity of the firn aquifer estimated from slug tests and aquifer tests at six sites located upstream of Helheim Glacier in southeastern Greenland. We conducted slug tests using a novel instrument, a piezometer with a heated tip that melts itself into the ice sheet. Hydraulic conductivity ranges between 2.5x10-5 and 1.1x10-3 m/s. The geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 2.7x10-4 m/s with a geometric standard deviation of 1.4 from both depth specific slug tests (analyzed using the Hvorslev method) and aquifer tests during the recovery period. Hydraulic conductivity is relatively consistent between boreholes and only decreases slightly with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the firn aquifer is crucial for determining flow rates and patterns within the aquifer, which inform hydrologic models of the aquifer, its relation to the broader glacial hydrologic system, and its effect on sea level rise.

  9. Hydraulic Conductivity of a Firn Aquifer in Southeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some regions of the Greenland ice sheet, where snow accumulation and melt rates are high, currently retain substantial volumes of liquid water within the firn pore space throughout the year. These firn aquifers, found between ~10 and 30 m below the snow surface, may significantly affect sea level rise by storing or draining surface meltwater. The hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic conductivity control flow of meltwater through the firn. Here we describe the hydraulic conductivity of the firn aquifer estimated from slug tests and aquifer tests at six sites located upstream of Helheim Glacier in southeastern Greenland. We conducted slug tests using a novel instrument, a piezometer with a heated tip that melts itself into the ice sheet. Hydraulic conductivity ranges between 2.5 × 10−5 and 1.1 × 10−3 m/s. The geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 2.7 × 10−4 m/s with a geometric standard deviation of 1.4 from both depth specific slug tests (analyzed using the Hvorslev method and aquifer tests during the recovery period. Hydraulic conductivity is relatively consistent between boreholes and only decreases slightly with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the firn aquifer is crucial for determining flow rates and patterns within the aquifer, which inform hydrologic models of the aquifer, its relation to the broader glacial hydrologic system, and its effect on sea level rise.

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  11. The Behaviour of Fracture Growth in Sedimentary Rocks: A Numerical Study Based on Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To capture the hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous and layered rocks, a numerical code that can consider the coupled effects of fluid flow, damage, and stress field in rocks is presented. Based on the characteristics of a typical thin and inter-bedded sedimentary reservoir, China, a series of simulations on the hydraulic fracturing are performed. In the simulations, three points, i.e., (1 confining stresses, representing the effect of in situ stresses, (2 strength of the interfaces, and (3 material properties of the layers on either side of the interface, are crucial in fracturing across interfaces between two adjacent rock layers. Numerical results show that the hydrofracture propagation within a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks is controlled by changing in situ stresses, interface properties, and lithologies. The path of the hydraulic fracture is characterized by numerous deflections, branchings, and terminations. Four types of potential interaction, i.e., penetration, arrest, T-shaped branching, and offset, between a hydrofracture and an interface within the layered rocks are formed. Discontinuous composite fracture segments resulting from out-of-plane growth of fractures provide a less permeable path for fluids, gas, and oil than a continuous planar composite fracture, which are one of the sources of the high treating pressures and reduced fracture volume.

  12. An assessment of the CORCON-MOD3 code. Part 1: Thermal-hydraulic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhov, V.; Kanukova, V.; Vinogradova, T.; Askenov, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Safety; Nikulshin, V. [Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.

    1996-09-01

    This report deals with the subject of CORCON-Mod3 code validation (thermal-hydraulic modeling capability only) based on MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) experiments conducted under different programs in the past decade. Thermal-hydraulic calculations (i.e., concrete ablation, melt temperature, melt energy, concrete temperature, and condensible and non-condensible gas generation) were performed with the code, and compared with the data from 15 experiments, conducted at different scales using both simulant (metallic and oxidic) and prototypic melt materials, using different concrete types, and with and without an overlying water pool. Sensitivity studies were performed in a few cases involving, for example, heat transfer from melt to concrete, condensed phase chemistry, etc. Further, special analysis was performed using the ACE L8 experimental data to illustrate the differences between the experimental and the reactor conditions, and to demonstrate that with proper corrections made to the code, the calculated results were in better agreement with the experimental data. Generally, in the case of dry cavity and metallic melts, CORCON-Mod3 thermal-hydraulic calculations were in good agreement with the test data. For oxidic melts in a dry cavity, uncertainties in heat transfer models played an important role for two melt configurations--a stratified geometry with segregated metal and oxide layers, and a heterogeneous mixture. Some discrepancies in the gas release data were noted in a few cases.

  13. Numerical Study of Critical Role of Rock Heterogeneity in Hydraulic Fracture Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhou; H. Huang; M. Deo

    2016-03-01

    Log and seismic data indicate that most shale formations have strong heterogeneity. Conventional analytical and semi-analytical fracture models are not enough to simulate the complex fracture propagation in these highly heterogeneous formation. Without considering the intrinsic heterogeneity, predicted morphology of hydraulic fracture may be biased and misleading in optimizing the completion strategy. In this paper, a fully coupling fluid flow and geomechanics hydraulic fracture simulator based on dual-lattice Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to predict the hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of rock is simulated by assigning different material force constant and critical strain to different particles and is adjusted by conditioning to the measured data and observed geological features. Based on proposed model, the effects of heterogeneity at different scale on micromechanical behavior and induced macroscopic fractures are examined. From the numerical results, the microcrack will be more inclined to form at the grain weaker interface. The conventional simulator with homogeneous assumption is not applicable for highly heterogeneous shale formation.

  14. Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.

  15. Robust control of a hydraulically driven flexible arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang LI; Khajepour AMIR

    2004-01-01

    A new robust controller is proposed to regulate both flexural vibrations and rigid body motion of a hydraulically driven flexible arm. The controller combines backstepping control and sliding mode to arrive at a controller capable of dealing with a nonlinear system with uncertainties. The sliding mode technique is used to achieve an asymptotic joint angle and vibration regulation in the presence of payload uncertainty by providing a virtual torque input at the joint while the backstepping technique is used to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required torque. It is shown that there is no chatter in the hydraulic valve, which results in smoother operation of the system.

  16. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. Such movements and manipulations are frequently accomplished by means of devices driven by liquids (hydraulics) or air (pneumatics), the subject of this book. Hydraulics and Pneumatics is written by a practicing process control engineer as a guide to the successful operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians working with them. Keeping mathematics and theory to a minimum, this practical guide is thorough but accessible to technicians without a

  17. Representing plant hydraulics in a global Earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models need improvement to reproduce observed seasonal and diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Model water stress parameterizations lag behind the plant physiology literature. A plant hydraulics model is developed and deployed in a global Earth system model (NCAR CESM 1.2.2 with CLM 4.5). Assimilation and transpiration are attenuated according to literature cavitation curves. Water stress is evaluated based on plant functional type hydraulic parameters forced by soil moisture and atmospheric conditions. Resolving the plant water status allows for modelling divergent strategies for water stress. The case of isohydric versus anisohydric species is presented, showing that including plant hydraulic traits alter modelled photosynthesis and transpiration.

  18. Problems associated with the use of rapid yielding hydraulic props.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glisson, FJ

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available required to constantly move consumable support elements from surface to the stope face. This latter operation does not cease with the introduction of RYHP’s as pack timber or elongates are still transported. The effect is as such seldom quantified. Each... ton hydraulic props.10 Figure 1.2 Flow chart of the life of a hydraulic prop; from assembly to usage and repair when damaged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 3.1 Performance of 10 hydraulic props that were batch tested prior...

  19. KJRR-FAI Hydraulic Flow Testing Input Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; D.B. Chapman

    2013-12-01

    The INL, in cooperation with the KAERI via Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA), undertook an effort in the latter half of calendar year 2013 to produce a conceptual design for the KJRR-FAI campaign. The outcomes of this effort are documented in further detail elsewhere [5]. The KJRR-FAI was designed to be cooled by the ATR’s Primary Coolant System (PCS) with no provision for in-pile measurement or control of the hydraulic conditions in the irradiation assembly. The irradiation assembly was designed to achieve the target hydraulic conditions via engineered hydraulic losses in a throttling orifice at the outlet of the irradiation vehicle.

  20. Considerations for Stationary Ice Covered Flows in Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Flows in Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH) by Gary L. Brown, Gaurav Savant , Charlie Berger, and David S. Smith Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 at 601-634-3628, e-mail: Gary.L.Brown@usace.army.mil, or Dr. Gaurav Savant , P.E., Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S...L., G. Savant , C.; Berger, and D. S. Smith. 2009. Considerations for stationary ice covered flows in ADaptive Hydraulics (ADH) ERDC TN-SWWRP- 09-4

  1. Aired-time and chamotte hydraulic mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Cortina, M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research project has been to obtain aired-li me based hydraulic mortars with the addition of chamotte or burnt clay powder obtained from the ceramic industry waste. By doing this, hydraulic properties have been included into lime and hydraulic mortars with a great improvement in mechanical properties. In order to achieve this, different types of chamotte obtained from clay burnt at different temperatures have been tested, changing, at the same time, the proportions of lime, sand, chamotte and water. All the tests have been performed preparing a double set of test pieces to be kept at room temperature or to be immersed in water, determining the Shore C hardness and the mechanical compressive and tensile strengths. Further on, X-ray diffraction analysis have been developed to determine the qualitative composition of the crystalline structure, as well as micro structural analysis, using stereomicroscope and electric microscope scanning, with X-ray microanalysis have been used. As a conclusion, several types of mortars have been created with different proportions, which can be used, due to its characteristics, as keying mortars in brickwork, for restoration works as well as for new constructions.

    El objetivo de éste trabajo es el conseguir morteros hidráulicos, a partir de la cal aérea, con adición de chamota o polvo de arcilla cocida, obtenida de los residuos-desechos de la industria cerámica. De este modo se pretende infundir propiedades hidráulicas a la cal y obtener morteros hidráulicos, con una mejora sustancial de sus propiedades mecánicas. Para ello, se ha experimentado con diversos tipos de chamotas, obtenidas a partir de arcillas cocidas a diferentes temperaturas, y con diversas granulometrías, y se han realizado morteros con distintas dosificaciones, variando las proporciones de cal, arena, chamota y agua. En todos los casos se ha preparado una doble serie de probetas, para conservarlas al aire o

  2. An Approach to automatically optimize the Hydraulic performance of Blade System for Hydraulic Machines using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xide; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiang; Lei, Mingchuan

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an approach to automatic hydraulic optimization of hydraulic machine's blade system combining a blade geometric modeller and parametric generator with automatic CFD solution procedure and multi-objective genetic algorithm. In order to evaluate a plurality of design options and quickly estimate the blade system's hydraulic performance, the approximate model which is able to substitute for the original inside optimization loop has been employed in the hydraulic optimization of blade by using function approximation. As the approximate model is constructed through the database samples containing a set of blade geometries and their resulted hydraulic performances, it can ensure to correctly imitate the real blade's performances predicted by the original model. As hydraulic machine designers are accustomed to do design with 2D blade profiles on stream surface that are then stacked to 3D blade geometric model in the form of NURBS surfaces, geometric variables to be optimized were defined by a series profiles on stream surfaces. The approach depends on the cooperation between a genetic algorithm, a database and user defined objective functions and constraints which comprises hydraulic performances, structural and geometric constraint functions. Example covering optimization design of a mixed-flow pump impeller is presented.

  3. Subcritical growth of natural hydraulic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagash, D.

    2014-12-01

    Joints are the most common example of brittle tensile failure in the crust. Their genesis at depth is linked to the natural hydraulic fracturing, which requires pore fluid pressure in excess of the minimum in situ stress [Pollard and Aidyn, JSG1988]. Depending on the geological setting, high pore pressure can result form burial compaction of interbedded strata, diagenesis, or tectonics. Common to these loading scenarios is slow build-up of pore pressure over a geological timescale, until conditions for initiation of crack growth are met on favorably oriented/sized flaws. The flaws can vary in size from grain-size cracks in igneous rocks to a fossil-size flaws in clastic rock, and once activated, are inferred to propagate mostly subcritically [Segall JGR 1984; Olson JGR 1993]. Despite many observational studies of natural hydraulic fractures, the modeling attempts appear to be few [Renshaw and Harvey JGR 1994]. Here, we use boundary integral formulation for the pore fluid inflow from the permeable rock into a propagating joint [Berchenko et al. IJRMMS 1997] coupled with the criteria for subcritical propagation assisted by the environmental effects of pore fluid at the crack tip to solve for the evolution of a penny-shape joint, which, in interbedded rock, may eventually evolve to short-blade geometry (propagation confined to a bed). Initial growth is exceedingly slow, paced by the stress corrosion reaction kinetics at the crack tip. During this stage the crack is fully-drained (i.e. the fluid pressure in the crack is equilibrated with the ambient pore pressure). This "slow" stage is followed by a rapid acceleration, driven by the increase of the mechanical stress intensity factor with the crack length, towards the terminal joint velocity. We provide an analytical expression for the latter as a function of the rock diffusivity, net pressure loading at the initiation (or flaw lengthscale), and parameters describing resistance to fracture growth. Due to a much slower

  4. ITHNA.SYS: An Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem for NUR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazidi, S., E-mail: samirmazidi@gmail.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Meftah, B., E-mail: b_meftah@yahoo.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Belgaid, M., E-mail: belgaidm@yahoo.com [Faculté de Physique, Université Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 31, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Letaim, F., E-mail: fletaim@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université d’El-oued, PO Box 789, El-oued (Algeria); Halilou, A., E-mail: hal_rane@yahoo.fr [Division Réacteur NUR, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop a neutronic and thermal hydraulic MTR reactor analyzer. • The analyzer allows a rapid determination of the reactor core parameters. • Some NUR reactor parameters have been analyzed. - Abstract: This paper introduces the Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem (ITHNA.SYS) that has been developed for the Algerian research reactor NUR. It is used both as an operating aid tool and as a core physics engineering analysis tool. The system embeds three modules of the MTR-PC software package developed by INVAP SE: the cell calculation code WIMSD, the core calculation code CITVAP and the program TERMIC for thermal hydraulic analysis of a material testing reactor (MTR) core in forced convection. ITHNA.SYS operates both in on-line and off-line modes. In the on-line mode, the system is linked, via the computer parallel port, to the data acquisition console of the reactor control room and allows a real time monitoring of major physical and safety parameters of the NUR core. PC-based ITHNA.SYS provides a viable and convenient way of using an accumulated and often complex reactor physics stock of knowledge and frees the user from the intricacy of adequate reactor core modeling. This guaranties an accurate, though rapid, determination of a variety of neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters of importance for the operation and safety analysis of the NUR research reactor. Instead of the several hours usually required, the processing time for the determination of such parameters is now reduced to few seconds. Validation of the system was performed with respect to experimental measurements and to calculations using reference codes. ITHNA.SYS can be easily adapted to accommodate other kinds of MTR reactors.

  5. Thermal Hydraulics of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Richard Schultz; Mike Patterson; Davie Petti

    2009-10-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core will be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during reactor core-accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, perform research and development (R&D) that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: • High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior • High temperature materials qualification • Design methods development and validation • Hydrogen production technologies • Energy conversion. This paper presents current R&D work that addresses fundamental thermal hydraulics issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs.

  6. Material Analysis for a Fire Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander; Nemer, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    This report consolidates technical information on several materials and material classes for a fire assessment. The materials include three polymeric materials, wood, and hydraulic oil. The polymers are polystyrene, polyurethane, and melamine- formaldehyde foams. Samples of two of the specific materials were tested for their behavior in a fire - like environment. Test data and the methods used to test the materials are presented. Much of the remaining data are taken from a literature survey. This report serves as a reference source of properties necessary to predict the behavior of these materials in a fire.

  7. Strategic Need for Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. O' Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; Su-Jong Yoon; Gregory K. Housley

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  8. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su -Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  9. On the possibility of magnetic nano-markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits. The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures. Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing. Examining the properties of nano-materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect. Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano-materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano-materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano-markers in shale gas mining. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the NCBiR under Grant "Electromagnetic method to

  10. Sensors for hydraulic-induced fracturing characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Jose, Jr.; Estrada, Horacio; Ambrosio, Roberto C.

    2011-06-01

    Hydraulic induced fracturing (HIF) in oil wells is used to increase oil productivity by making the subterranean terrain more deep and permeable. In some cases HIF connects multiple oil pockets to the main well. Currently there is a need to understand and control with a high degree of precision the geometry, direction, and the physical properties of fractures. By knowing these characteristics (the specifications of fractures), other drill well locations and set-ups of wells can be designed to increase the probability of connection of the oil pockets to main well(s), thus, increasing productivity. The current state of the art of HIF characterization does not meet the requirements of the oil industry. In Mexico, the SENER-CONACyT funding program recently supported a three party collaborative effort between the Mexican Petroleum Institute, Schlumberger Dowell Mexico, and the Autonomous University of Juarez to develop a sensing scheme to measure physical parameters of a HIF like, but not limited to pressure, temperature, density and viscosity. We present in this paper a review of HIF process, its challenges and the progress of sensing development for down hole measurement parameters of wells for the Chicontepec region of Mexico.

  11. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He-ping; LUO A-ni; XIAO Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel.This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems.A new type of control system's mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles.Since the initial control system's response time could not fulfill the design requirements,a PID controller was added to the control system.System response time was still slower than required,so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element,integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller.After these improvements to the control system,system parameters fulfilled the design requirements.The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can't satisfy a shovel's requirements,so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system,bringing good results.

  12. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  13. Neutron Dosimetry of the HFIR Hydraulic Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, S T

    1995-01-01

    The total, fast, and thermal neutron fluxes at five axial positions in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) hydraulic tube have been measured using bare and/or cadmium-covered activation, fission, and helium accumulation flux monitors. The spectrum-averaged, one-group cross sections over selected energy ranges for the reactions used in the measurements were obtained using cross sections from the ENDF/B-V file, and the target region volume-integrated spectrum was calculated with DORT, a two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. The fluxes obtained from various monitors are in good agreement. The total and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluxes vary from 1.6 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 n/m sup 2 centre dot s and 1.6 x 10 sup 1 sup 8 n/m sup 2 centre dot s, respectively, at the ends (HT-1 and -9) of the facility to 4.0 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 n/m sup 2 centre dot s and 4.6 x 10 sup 1 sup 8 n/m sup 2 centre dot s, respectively, at the center (HT-5) of the facility. The thermal-to-fast (> 1 MeV) flux ratio varies from abou...

  14. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  15. Studies investigate effects of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-11-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, to enhance the retrieval of natural gas from shale has been increasing dramatically—the number of natural gas wells rose about 50% since 2000. Shale gas has been hailed as a relatively low-cost, abundant energy source that is cleaner than coal. However, fracking involves injecting large volumes of water, sand, and chemicals into deep shale gas reservoirs under high pressure to open fractures through which the gas can travel, and the process has generated much controversy. The popular press, advocacy organizations, and the documentary film Gasland by Josh Fox have helped bring this issue to a broad audience. Many have suggested that fracking has resulted in contaminated drinking water supplies, enhanced seismic activity, demands for large quantities of water that compete with other uses, and challenges in managing large volumes of resulting wastewater. As demand for expanded domestic energy production intensifies, there is potential for substantially increased use of fracking together with other recovery techniques for "unconventional gas resources," like extended horizontal drilling.

  16. Internal hydraulic jumps with large upstream shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kelly; Helfrich, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Internal hydraulic jumps in approximately two-layered flows with large upstream shear are investigated using numerical simulations. The simulations allow continuous density and velocity profiles, and a jump is forced to develop by downstream topography, similar to the experiments conducted by Wilkinson and Wood (1971). High shear jumps are found to exhibit significantly more entrainment than low shear jumps. Furthermore, the downstream structure of the flow has an important effect on the jump properties. Jumps with a slow upper (inactive) layer exhibit a velocity minimum downstream of the jump, resulting in a sub-critical downstream state, while flows with the same upstream vertical shear and a larger barotropic velocity remain super-critical downstream of the jump. A two-layer theory is modified to account for the vertical structure of the downstream density and velocity profiles and entrainment is allowed through a modification of the approach of Holland et al. (2002). The resulting theory can be matched reasonably well with the numerical simulations. However, the results are very sensitive to how the downstream vertical profiles of velocity and density are incorporated into the layered model, highlighting the difficulty of the two layer approximation when the shear is large.

  17. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  18. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM IN THE CENTRIFUGE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Longlei; Yan Guirong; Li Ronglin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of the electro-hydraulic servo system in the centrifuge field are analyzed.The hydraulic pressure law in the centrifuge field indicates the existence of the centrifuge hydraulic pressure.The mechanical characteristics of the slide-valve and the dual nozzle flapper valve are studied,and it is found that the centrifuge field can not only increase the driving force or moment of the function units,but also decrease the stability of the components.Finally by applying Gauss minimum constraint principle,the dynamic model of the electro-hydraulic vibrator in the centrifuge field is established,and the mechanical restriction of the system is also presented.The study will be helpful for the realization of the combined vibration and centrifuge test system.

  19. Anti-rebound Cushion Device for Hydraulic Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongqiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of rebound impact and its negative influence on the present hydraulic breaker. To get over its shortcomings, a new anti-rebound cushion device has been designed to prevent the phenomenon of rebound impact. A hydraulic cushion is used to absorb the rebound impact energy, which can be released for the next stroke of the hydraulic breaker. Thus, there is little loss of energy, and the efficiency of the impact system can be increased by 5 %. The absorption effect of the hydraulic anti-rebound cushion increases the service life of breaker components by up to twice as long as in the current breaker. A dynamic model and a motion equation of the anti-rebound cushion device are presented, and the optimum frequency and damping ratio are obtained, providing optimum design parameters for the anti-rebound cushion device.

  20. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SLIT-TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; MA Fei; YAO Li

    2012-01-01

    Slit-Type Energy Dissipater (STED) has been a kind of important devices for energy dissipation.The flow through the STED is longitudinally extended and the velocity is decreased by means of the cross-section increase of the flow,which is closely related to geometric and hydraulic parameters of the STED.Therefore,it is necessary to investigate and control the hydraulic conditions through the STED,including the nappe section form,the conversion condition,and the effect of energy dissipation with the geometric and hydraulic parameters.In the present work,"I-type" and "T-type" nappe forms were experimentally classified,the conversion conditions of the nappe forms were empirically provided,and the effects of geometric parameters of the STED on energy dissipation were roughly analyzed.It is concluded that the contraction angle of the STED is a key factor influencing the hydraulic characteristics of the STED.

  1. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland, Uganda. ... African Journal of Aquatic Science ... compared to ammonium-N which ranged from –66.1% to 33.1% indicating limitations with the nitrification process.

  2. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...... system were constructed and linearized. Controllers are implemented and tested on the manipulator. Pressure feedback was found to greatly improve system stability margins. Passive gain feedforward shows improved tracking performance for small changes in load pressure. For large changes in load pressure......, active gain feedforward shows a slightly improved performance. Computed-Torque Control shows better performance, but requires a well described system for best performance. A novel Adaptive Inverse Dynamics Controller was tested and the performance was found to be similar to that of Computed...

  3. Virtual prototype simulation on underwater hydraulic impingement shovel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He-ping; LUO A-ni; MENG Qing-xin

    2007-01-01

    The virtual prototype technology is applied to the design of the hydraulic impingement shovel,which is to increase the reliability of the design. The work principle of hydraulic impingement shovel is expatiated, and its dynamic equations are established. The 3D model of virtual prototype is built by PRO/E. Then the couple between the mechanical body of prototype and the hydraulic system is completed by virtue of ADAMS. Finally, the simulation is made on the virtual prototype. The simulation results show that the design of underwater hydraulic impingement shovel is rational. The virtual prototype technology could lay sound foundation of successful manufacturing of physical prototype for the first time and offer highly effective and feasible means for the design and production of underwater equipments.

  4. The Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beng Ong

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) is a method of extracting oil and natural gas trapped in deep rock layers underground by pumping water, sand, and other chemicals/additives at high pressures into a well drilled vertically...

  5. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandr Korotkov; Vitaliy Korotkov; Leonid Mametyev; Lidia Korotkova; Tatiana Terjaeva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms...

  6. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  7. Investigation of possible wellbore cement failures during hydraulic fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers used the peer-reviewed TOUGH+ geomechanics computational software and simulation system to investigate the possibility of fractures and shear failure along vertical wells during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  8. HYBRID CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE BASED ON ROBUST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yu; YANG Jian; CHAI Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    A robust control algorithm is proposed to focus on the non-linearity and variables of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve. The proposed robust controller does not need to design stable compensator in advance, which is simple in design and has large scope of uncertainty applications. The feedback gains of the proposed robust controller are small, so it is easily implemented in engineering applications. The theoretical and experimental research on the position and speed control of the hydraulic press machine is carried out. The control requirements of the hydraulic press machine during the working process are met in the position and speed at the same time. Experimental results show that the proposed controller has better robustness subject to load variables and adaptability of parameter variations of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve.

  9. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Ieperen, van W.; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency

  10. Automated Hydraulic System Design and Power Management in Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    a presentation of the used graph theory representation that is developed to represent a hydraulic open-circuit system and which is based on a numerical formulation that uniquely describe the system in terms of five set of design variables that describe respectively the topology, the components and the operating...... are found on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic machinery. Despite the energy saving potentials that these systems posses, compared to the other open-circuit hydraulic system topologies, LS-system may still be subject to very low system efficiencies if not designed correctly. This is typically...... machines if operated in the intended and optimal work area, but due to an inappropriate system layout. Most of the power lost in open circuit hydraulic system systems is in this regard in the transmission part, i.e. hoses and fittings, and the valves used to control the system. A large part of the design...

  11. Reliability modeling of hydraulic system of drum shearer machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYED HADI Hoseinie; MOHAMMAD Ataie; REZA Khalookakaei; UDAY Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The hydraulic system plays an important role in supplying power and its transition to other working parts of a coal shearer machine.In this paper,the reliability of the hydraulic system of a drum shearer was analyzed.A case study was done in the Tabas Coal Mine in Iran for failure data collection.The results of the statistical analysis show that the time between failures (TBF)data of this system followed the 3-parameters Weibull distribution.There is about a 54% chance that the hydraulic system of the drum shearer will not fail for the first 50 h of operation.The developed model shows that the reliability of the hydraulic system reduces to a zero value after approximately 1 650 hours of operation.The failure rate of this system decreases when time increases.Therefore,corrective maintenance(run-to-failure)was selected as the best maintenance strategy for it.

  12. Spontaneous azimuthal breakout and instability at the circular hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Arnab K; Basu, Abhik; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K

    2015-01-01

    We consider a shallow, two-dimensional flow of a liquid in which the radial and the azimuthal dynamics are coupled to each other. The steady and radial background flow of this system creates an axially symmetric circular hydraulic jump. On this background we apply time-dependent perturbations of the matter flow rate and the azimuthal flow velocity, with the latter strongly localized at the hydraulic jump. The perturbed variables depend spatially on both the radial and azimuthal coordinates. Linearization of the perturbations gives a coupled system of wave equations. The characteristic equations extracted from these wave equations show that under a marginally stable condition a spontaneous breaking of axial symmetry occurs at the position of the hydraulic jump. Departure from the marginal stability shows further that a linear instability develops in the azimuthal direction, resulting in an azimuthal transport of liquid at the hydraulic jump. The time for the growth of azimuthal instability is scaled by viscosi...

  13. Spatial variability in streambed hydraulic conductivity of contrasting stream morphologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva; Calvache, Carlos Duque; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard;

    2015-01-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is one of the main factors controlling variability in surface water-groundwater interactions, but only few studies aim at quantifying its spatial and temporal variability in different stream morphologies. Streambed horizontal hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were...... therefore determined from in-stream slug tests, vertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) were calculated with in-stream permeameter tests and hydraulic heads were measured to obtain vertical head gradients at eight transects, each comprising five test locations, in a groundwater-dominated stream. Seasonal...... small-scale measurements were taken in December 2011 and August 2012, both in a straight stream channel with homogeneous elevation and downstream of a channel meander with heterogeneous elevation. All streambed attributes showed large spatial variability. Kh values were the highest at the depositional...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... formulated for use in stationary hydraulic equipment systems that have various mechanical parts, such as cylinders, pumps, valves, pistons, and gears, that are used for the transmission of power (and also...

  15. Hydraulic fracking sustainability assesment : case of study Luena (Cantabria, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ferreras, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The opposition to Hydraulic fracturing in Cantabria, has led the Regional Government to enact a law that prohibits their use in the region, which has been suspended by the Central Government. The objective of this work is to Identify impacts on the environment, and the main economic and social factors (sustainability) in a case of study Luena research permit (with an estimated shale gas reserves of 10.34*109 Nm3), establishing a guide for assessing the activity of hydraulic fracturi...

  16. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  17. Gravity-free hydraulic jumps and metal femtocups

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Rama; Mathur, Manikandan; DasGupta, Ratul; Selvi, N. R.; John, Neena Susan; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic jumps created by gravity are seen every day in the kitchen sink. We show that at small scales a circular hydraulic jump can be created in the absence of gravity, by surface tension. The theory is motivated by our experimental finding of a height discontinuity in spreading submicron molten metal droplets created by pulsed-laser ablation. By careful control of initial conditions, we show that this leads to solid femtolitre cups of gold, silver, copper, niobium and tin.

  18. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic of Hydraulic Jumps in Spillways

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focus on the complex natural phenomena of hydraulic jumps using the numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A hydraulic jump is highly turbulent and associated with turbulent energy dissipation, air entrainment, surface waves and spray and strong dissipative processes. It can be found not only in natural streams and in engineered open channels, but also in your kitchen sink at home. The dissipative features are utilized in hydropower spillways and stilling basins t...

  19. Suspended Decoupler: A New Design of Hydraulic Engine Mount

    OpenAIRE

    J. Christopherson; Mahinfalah, M.; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the density mismatch between the decoupler and surrounding fluid, the decoupler of all hydraulic engine mounts (HEM) might float, sink, or stick to the cage bounds, assuming static conditions. The problem appears in the transient response of a bottomed-up floating decoupler hydraulic engine mount. To overcome the bottomed-up problem, a suspended decoupler design for improved decoupler control is introduced. The new design does not noticeably affect the mechanism's steady-state beha...

  20. Gravity-free hydraulic jumps and metal femtoliter cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; DasGupta, Ratul; Selvi, N R; John, Neena Susan; Kulkarni, G U; Govindarajan, Rama

    2007-04-20

    Hydraulic jumps created by gravity are seen everyday in the kitchen sink. We show that at small scales a circular hydraulic jump can be created in the absence of gravity by surface tension. The theory is motivated by our experimental finding of a height discontinuity in spreading submicron molten metal droplets created by pulsed-laser ablation. By careful control of initial conditions, this leads to solid femtoliter cups of gold, silver, copper, niobium, and tin.

  1. Stability of Hydraulic Systems with Focus on Cavitating Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, C. E.; Braisted, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing use is being made of transmission matrices to characterize unsteady flows in hydraulic system components and to analyze the stability of such systems. This paper presents some general characteristics which should be examined in any experimentally measured transmission matrices and a methodology for the analysis of the stability of transmission matrices in hydraulic systems of order 2. These characteristics are then examined for cavitating pumps and the predicted instabilities (kn...

  2. Prediction of potential failures in hydraulic gear pumps

    OpenAIRE

    E. Lisowski(Cracow Tech. U); J. Fabiś

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic gear pumps are used in many machines and devices. In hydraulic systems of machines gear pumps are main component ofsupply unit or perform auxiliary function. Gear pumps opposite to vane pumps are less complicated. They consists of such components as:housing, gear wheels, bearings, shaft, seal for rotation motion which are not very sensitive for damage and that is why they are using veryoften. However, gear pumps are break down from time to time. Usually damage of pump cause shutting...

  3. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  4. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig D [Clawson, MI; Neal, Timothy L [Ortonville, MI; Swain, Jeff L [Flushing, MI; Raimao, Miguel A [Colorado Springs, CO

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  5. Oscillatory Flow Testing in a Sandbox - Towards Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Lim, D.; Cupola, F.; Cardiff, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of subsurface hydraulic properties is important for predicting groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The spatial variation of hydraulic properties in the shallow subsurface has been extensively studied in the past two decades. A recent approach to characterize subsurface properties is hydraulic tomography, in which pressure data from multiple constant-rate pumping tests is inverted using a numerical model. Many laboratory sandbox studies have explored the performance of hydraulic tomography under different controlled conditions and shown that detailed heterogeneity information can be extracted (Liu et al., 2002, Illman et al., 2007, 2008, 2010a, 2010b, Liu et al., 2007, 2008, Xiang et al., 2009, Yin and Illman, 2009, Liu and Kitanidis, 2011, Berg and Illman, 2011a). Recently, Cardiff et al. (2013) proposed a modified approach of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT) - in which periodic pumping signals of different frequencies are used for aquifer stimulation - to characterize aquifer properties. The potential advantages of OHT over traditional hydraulic tomography include: 1) no net injection or extraction of water; 2) little movement of existing contamination; 3) minimal impact of model boundary conditions; and 4) robust extraction of oscillatory signals from noisy data. To evaluate the premise of OHT, we built a highly-instrumented 2-D laboratory sandbox and record pressure responses to periodic pumping tests. In our setup, the laboratory sandbox is filled with sand of known hydraulic properties, and we measure aquifer responses at a variety of testing frequencies. The signals recorded are processed using Fourier-domain analysis, and compared against expected results under linear (Darcian) theory. The responses are analyzed using analytical and numerical models, which provide key insights as to: 1) how "effective" hydraulic properties estimated using homogeneous models are associated with aquifer heterogeneity; and 2) how OHT is able to

  6. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  7. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF GCL WITH BENTONITE – SILICA FUME MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    M. Andal; Chandrasekhar, M.; G. K. Viswanadh

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of partial replacement of bentonite by silica fume which is used in the manufacture of Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL). Geosynthetic Clay Liners consist bentonite (Sodium Based) sandwiched between two geotextile. Benotinite, having low permeability imparts better hydraulic performance to the GCL to act as liner. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the hydraulic conductivity of GCL with modified Bentonite. The bentonite is partially replaced...

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing: Paving the Way for a Sustainable Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangang Chen; Al-Wadei, Mohammed H.; Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Terry, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. We conclude that proper documentation/reporting systems for wastewater discharge and spills need to be enforced at the federal, state, and indu...

  9. Performance of nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing waterfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Toshihiko; Iio, Shouichiro; Tatsuno, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing waterfalls. A model of an impulse type hydraulic turbine constructed and tested with an indoor type waterfall to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of an installation parameter, namely distance between the rotor and the waterfall on the power performance were studied. The flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions o...

  10. The hydraulic potential of high iron bearing steel slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Denisa Virginia

    The incorporation of additives to the clinker or to the raw materials stream is a common practice in cement manufacture. However, steel slag, unlike its ironmaking parent the blast furnace slag, it is not a conventional admixture for cement. Currently most steel slags are slow cooled rendering stable crystalline compounds with minor hydraulic value. Nevertheless, if steel slags would be quenched and granulated, the resulting glassy product might display increased hydration and strength development potential. The use of steel slag in cement could contribute to important savings for both cement and steelmaking industries and provide a solution for the environmental problems linked to CO2 emissions and costs of transport and disposal. The purpose of this research is to explore the thermodynamics and kinetics of steel slag hydration in an effort to produce a cement additive, or a more promising material of near Portland cement composition. An important criteria used in the assessment of slags as potential cements is the presence of a glassy phase. At present, it is not very clear why glass enhances the hydration process. However, it is known that the free energy of formation for glasses is less than for crystals so that glasses are easier to hydrate compared to crystalline materials. In the particular case of steel slag, the glassy phase would have to contain high amounts of iron. Steel slags are known to display iron levels approximately 10 times higher than Portland cement and commonly used blast furnace slags. However, the effect of high Fe2O3 levels on the setting and strengthening of cement paste is not clearly understood due to the fact that most cement additives do not present this characteristic. The present work looks at the progress made in recycling steel slag as cement additive, the complexity of the hydration process in slags, the possibilities of improving the hydration potential of slags at laboratory and industrial level, and the problems that still

  11. Thermal and Hydraulic Performances of Nanofluids Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Multiple Zigzag Flow Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthongsuk Weerapun

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristic of two types of nanofluids flowing through microchannel heat sink with multiple zigzag flow channel structures (MZMCHS). SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in DI water with concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 vol.% were used as working fluid. MZMCHS made from copper material with dimension of 28 × 33 mm. Hydraulic diameter of MZMCHs is designed at 1 mm, 7 number of flow channels and heat ...

  12. A hydraulic distribution device of a powered support section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, R.P.; Barinov, V.S.; Demidovich, Z.A.; Fedorov, L.I.; Kozhukhov, L.F.; Mosunov, Yu.Ya.

    1981-01-30

    The goal of this invention is to reduce the working time for manual control in the process of bracing a hydraulic prop and complete use of the working pressure of the support's hydraulic system to perform initial bracing of the hydraulic prop. To achieve this goal, the device has a reflux valve with a locking element and a choke, the latter situated between the piston and rod chambers; the floating piston is made with a stop which interacts with the motion limiter, while the rod of the floating piston has a pusher which interacts with the locking element of the reflux valve. Use of the hydraulic device of this design in powered supports during their operation under various mining conditions significantly raises the operating life of hydraulic supports and hydraulic distributors, while lowering the total complex's down time. Automatic positioning of the predetermined amount of initial spacing shortens the time in which the operator handles the support sections. The operator uses the time available to perform succeeding operations (transition to the next control panel, unloading, and transfer).

  13. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing: Paving the Way for a Sustainable Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. We conclude that proper documentation/reporting systems for wastewater discharge and spills need to be enforced at the federal, state, and industrial level. Furthermore, Underground Injection Control (UIC requirements under SDWA should be extended to hydraulic fracturing operations regardless if diesel fuel is used as a fracturing fluid or not. One of the biggest barriers that hinder the advancement of our knowledge on the hydraulic fracturing process is the lack of transparency of chemicals used in the practice. Federal laws mandating hydraulic companies to disclose fracturing fluid composition and concentration not only to federal and state regulatory agencies but also to health care professionals would encourage this practice. The full disclosure of fracturing chemicals will allow future research to fill knowledge gaps for a better understanding of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on human health and the environment.

  15. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  16. Periodic Hydraulic Testing for Discerning Fracture Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Guihéneuf, N.; Cole, M.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models often predict highly variable hydraulic connections between injection and pumping wells used for enhanced oil recovery, geothermal energy extraction, and groundwater remediation. Such connections can be difficult to verify in fractured rock systems because standard pumping or pulse interference tests interrogate too large a volume to pinpoint specific connections. Three field examples are presented in which periodic hydraulic tests were used to obtain information about hydraulic connectivity in fractured bedrock. The first site, a sandstone in New York State, involves only a single fracture at a scale of about 10 m. The second site, a granite in Brittany, France, involves a fracture network at about the same scale. The third site, a granite/schist in the U.S. State of New Hampshire, involves a complex network at scale of 30-60 m. In each case periodic testing provided an enhanced view of hydraulic connectivity over previous constant rate tests. Periodic testing is particularly adept at measuring hydraulic diffusivity, which is a more effective parameter than permeability for identify the complexity of flow pathways between measurement locations. Periodic tests were also conducted at multiple frequencies which provides a range in the radius of hydraulic penetration away from the oscillating well. By varying the radius of penetration, we attempt to interrogate the structure of the fracture network. Periodic tests, therefore, may be uniquely suited for verifying and/or calibrating DFN models.

  17. Variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 黄杰卿; 王文军; 李金柱

    2014-01-01

    In the research field of ground water, hydraulic gradient is studied for decades. In the consolidation field, hydraulic gradient is yet to be investigated as an important hydraulic variable. So, the variation of hydraulic gradient in nonlinear finite strain consolidation was focused on in this work. Based on lab tests, the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of Ningbo soft clay were obtained. Then, a strongly nonlinear governing equation was derived and it was solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the numerical analysis was performed and it was verified with the existing experiment for Hong Kong marine clay. It can be found that the variation of hydraulic gradient is closely related to the magnitude of external load and the depth in soils. It is interesting that the absolute value of hydraulic gradient (AVHG) increases rapidly first and then decreases gradually after reaching the maximum at different depths of soils. Furthermore, the changing curves of AVHG can be roughly divided into five phases. This five-phase model can be employed to study the migration of pore water during consolidation.

  18. Anisotropy of Soil Hydraulic Properties Along Arable Slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yuan-Shu; ZHANG Bin; A.THIMM; H.ZEPP

    2008-01-01

    The spatial variations of the soil hydraulic properties were mainly considered in vertical direction.The objectives of this study were to measure water-retention curves,θ(ψ),and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions,K(ψ),of the soils sampled at different slope positions in three directions,namely,in vertical direction,along the slope and along the contour,and to determine the effects of sampling direction and slope position of two soil catenas.At the upper slope positions,the surface soils (0-10 cm) sampled in the vertical direction had a lower soil water content,θ,at a certain soil water potential (-1500 kPa <ψ<-10 kPa) and had the greatest unsaturated hydraulic conductivity,K,at ψ> -10kPa.At the lower slope positions,K at ψ>-10 kPa was smaller in the vertical direction than in the direction along the slope.The deep soils (100-110 cm) had similar soil hydraulic properties in all the three directions.The anisotropic variations of the hydraulic properties of the surface soils were ascribed to the effects of natural wetting and drying cycles on the structural heterogeneity.These results suggested that the anisotropy of soil hydraulic properties might be significant in influencing soil water movement along the slope and need to be considered in modeling.

  19. Hydraulic fracturing: paving the way for a sustainable future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Al-Wadei, Mohammed H; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Terry, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. We conclude that proper documentation/reporting systems for wastewater discharge and spills need to be enforced at the federal, state, and industrial level. Furthermore, Underground Injection Control (UIC) requirements under SDWA should be extended to hydraulic fracturing operations regardless if diesel fuel is used as a fracturing fluid or not. One of the biggest barriers that hinder the advancement of our knowledge on the hydraulic fracturing process is the lack of transparency of chemicals used in the practice. Federal laws mandating hydraulic companies to disclose fracturing fluid composition and concentration not only to federal and state regulatory agencies but also to health care professionals would encourage this practice. The full disclosure of fracturing chemicals will allow future research to fill knowledge gaps for a better understanding of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on human health and the environment.

  20. Uncertainty analysis and validation of the estimation of effective hydraulic properties at the Darcy scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgouez, A.; Buis, S.; Ruy, S.; Lefeuve-Mesgouez, G.

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soils or porous media remains challenging. In the present study, we focus on determining the effective properties of heterogeneous porous media at the Darcy scale with an analysis of their uncertainties. Preliminary, experimental measurements of the hydraulic properties of each component of the heterogeneous medium are obtained. The properties of the effective medium, representing an equivalent homogeneous material, are determined numerically by simulating a water flow in a three-dimensional representation of the heterogeneous medium, under steady-state scenarios and using its component properties. One of the major aspects of this study is to take into account the uncertainties of these properties in the computation and evaluation of the effective properties. This is done using a bootstrap method. Numerical evaporation experiments are conducted both on the heterogeneous and on the effective homogeneous materials to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. First, the impact of the uncertainties of the component properties on the simulated water matric potential is found to be high for the heterogeneous material configuration. Second, it is shown that the strategy developed herein leads to a reduction of this impact. Finally, the adequacy between the mean of the simulations for the two configurations confirms the suitability of the homogenization approach, even in the case of dynamic scenarios. Although it is applied to green roof substrates, a two-component media composed of bark compost and pozzolan used in the construction of buildings, the methodology proposed in this study is generic.